The portable concept in this case is the illustration of the different attitude given to women in the society, which leads to them being treated differently. In Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You Fall Down, one can see the different treatment shown to girls even at an early age.
A placenta, which the Hmong people believed to be the jacket, holds an important cultural meaning. “They believe that even after death, one’s soul must travel back retracing its life geography until it reaches its beginning, which is the placentas burial place” (Fadiman 5). In this community a girl’s placenta is buried under the parent’s bed.
However, if it was a boy it would be buried at a place with high honour, near the base of the houses central wooden pillar where a guardian made his home. In this paper, we will discuss how this treatment of girls and boys continues in their lives and how this is reflected in the article by Deborah Tannen, “There Is No Unmarked Woman.”
The same different attitude women got is explained by Tannen in the Unmarked Woman. She describes a scenario of three women who were dressed differently, because the society expected them to be dressed like that. However, the most interesting fact is a simple illustration when a woman fills in forms in which she gives stories about herself as expected by the society.
She explains her first initial to the world that will judge her, in most cases a woman can either be a Mrs., Miss, or Ms. with each being a form of labelling. While filling the form, if a woman is a Ms. the equivalent of a male Mr., it shows a woman who is liberated or is a rebellious person depending on the attitude of the observer (Tannen 1). While in the case of the male gender, a simple Mr. in the form warrants no further explanation or judgment.
However, though Tannen closely shows the concept of a woman treated differently. Even in the case of Fadiman’s The Spirit Catches You Fall down, it fails to explain why after the birth of Lia the family tried and saved a little money from the welfare cheques and was able to hold a celebratory party. “Everyone was happy and had come to celebrate their good fortune; they being favoured with a healthy and beautiful daughter warrant a misfit” (Fadiman 1).
Portray of gender inequality is evident in the beginning. In Fadiman’s (1), the first paragraph explains the chores that the mother Foua did. They included sweeping the house, cleaning, cooking, and going to the river with no help whatsoever from the husband or the sons, their work being to guard and protect the family (Fadiman 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, a Hmong woman had a list of expectations given to her by the society especially if pregnant. “The woman was to ensure that her baby was healthy by paying close attention to the food cravings and being careful to where she went to avoid the dab, which might injure her” (Fadiman 2).
Failure of this, the society would blame her for either the death of her baby or any other deformity that would arise. At a state of labour, she was expected to give birth on her own whereby the husband only assisted when he entered to give her a cup of hot water or cut the baby’s placenta. Even then, he was to avert his eyes from her. The same expectations are in this century whereby a woman has to dress in a certain way in order to be sexy they transcend from such the times of the Hmong women.
This discrimination is explained in Tannens (2) where she decided to speak about the different observations she had made concerning the female and male in the society. As one man explained, she was male bashing, since she was talking about men when she was a woman. However, a perfect example is when the author Ralph Fasolds explains such a powerful analysis of the human behaviour no particular person seems to put a label on him simply because he is a man (Tannen 5).
This concept is further portrayed even when the Hmong moved to America, because of their culture and what was expected of them they found it difficult to adapt to the new medication system. As an example, we see a woman giving birth even at the parking lot because of their norm to wait until the baby is almost born (Fadiman 10). In Tannen’s she explained how in a bid not to conform to the norm, she usually uses the name Dr. (Tannen 4).
This concept, however, varies in Fadiman (2), unlike in Tannen’s where the woman is required to take the husband’s surname and in this case the woman maintains the clan’s name as her last name. It also varies in that after birth, the father of Lia is proud to have his daughter and calls her a good fortune, therefore, the attitude shown in this stance is that of honour.
The fact that they also were able to sacrifice their welfare money in order to host a party in her name depicts a progressive culture where they are able to celebrate having a girl; this could also be a sign of honour shown towards Lia. A comparison to this concept in (Tannen 6) is when in the last paragraph she talks of a journalist wanting to question her about the published book, this shows that the male realized her potential and was ready to listen to her point of view instead of judging from far; that shows a progressed society.
In conclusion, the concept of women treated with different attitudes and expected to uphold to a certain higher standard than the male gender is clearly shown by both writers. In each stance, the woman is viewed with different standards by Tannen, she explains it as being marked (Tannen 3). While in Fadiman, it is simply seen to be a culture that is trying to evolve following their move to America. It seems to be a difficult change for them (Fadiman 6)
We will write a custom Essay on Applying a Source as a Lens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, as the society evolves, there is seen to be a change in the community especially male, who are now willing to listen to the woman’s views and honour them for being born. This is an important change for the society as a whole, even the medics seem to embrace this new culture as a way of thinking, like in the case of Dr. Fife when he ‘did not cut’ as the Hmong people explained (Fadiman 8).
Works Cited Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures Paperback. New York: Farrar Straus
The Role of Compassion Essay cheap essay help
In her book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman explores the experience of a Hmong family struggling through the healthcare system of California. This book can throw light on the challenges faced by these people who have to confront a different socio-cultural environment. This source can be better analyzed with the help of the essay Mother Tongue written by Amy Tan.
This author also discusses the interactions between people who have different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is possible to apply such a concept as compassion in order to examine the themes which Anne Fadiman explores in her work. This notion can be defined as the ability of an individual to understand and fill pity for the suffering of another person. To a great extent, this ability is critical for interactions between people who can have different cultural or linguistic backgrounds.
While Anne Fadiman’s this book seems to be primarily related to the impact of linguistic and cultural barriers on the experiences of immigrants, Amy Tan’s essay suggests that their difficulties can be explained primarily by lack of compassion which is essential for the emotional well-being of individuals. This is the main thesis that should be elaborated more closely.
Anne Fadiman’s book is a valuable source that can illustrate the problems which emerge when immigrants have to interact with healthcare professionals. It should be kept in mind that the representatives of foreign cultures often question “the efficiency of Western medical techniques” (Fadiman 23). As a rule, these people “require more time and attention” since the services of an interpreter are needed (Fadiman 25). These are some of the details that should be considered.
This text’s text can be analyzed with help of Ami Tan’s essay Mother Tongue, and this reading indicates that language barriers can significantly impair the experiences of immigrants. This source demonstrates that a person may find it extremely difficult to express his/her thoughts very clearly.
It is usually argued that they speak in “broken or fractured English” (Tan 48). Moreover, it is often assumed that these people think in a primitive way. The author speaks about her mother who also struggled with the language barrier. Many people assumed that “her English reflected the quality of what she had to say” (Tan 48). Thus, one can speak the discrimination against these individuals.
Admittedly, Anne Fadiman also provides numerous examples indicating that linguistic and cultural differences can prevent people from integrating into the society. For instance, the author mentions that medical professionals often have to communicate with teenaged children of patients and discuss such issues as surgery or resuscitation of “a dying family member” (Fadiman 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, such experiences are extremely stressful for family members. Moreover, Anne Fadiman’s book shows that physicians often had “no way of taking a patient’s medical history”; as a result, their choices of treatment could often be questioned (Fadiman 25). Therefore, the emphasis on linguistic barriers is quite justified.
Nevertheless, it is important to remember that this problem is not the only reason why many immigrants can face significant difficulties. In many cases, their hardships can be explained by the inability or unwillingness of many individuals to feel compassion for the problems of others.
In order to illustrate this argument, one should look at the situation described by Amy Tan. In particular, this author mentions that her mother was suspected to have a benign brain tumor (Tan 48). The physicians lost her CAT scan and did not apologize for this mistake.
These people did not consider that she had been very “anxious to know the exact diagnosis” (Tan 49). Nevertheless, they only said that “she had come for nothing” (Tan 49). As a rule, individuals, who are treated in this way, often feel helpless or even desperate. This is why lack of compassion is one of the factors that profoundly affect the experiences of immigrants who are often left to their own devices. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.
It is possible to examine Anne Fadiman’s work from this specific perspective. For instance, when Lia was brought to the hospital, she was immediately diagnosed with “early bronchiopneumonia” (Fadiman 26). Yet, the physician did not consider the possibility that her symptoms could be explained by epilepsy (Fadiman 26).
A single conversation with parents could have helped him make the correct diagnosis. However, he did not try to do it. Later, Lia’s parents were asked by to give her certain drugs, and she was almost immediately discharged from hospital (Fadiman 26). Lia’s father was asked to sign the following statement, “I hereby acknowledge receipt of the instructions indicated above” (Fadiman 26).
The physician did not even make sure that parents could fully understand his instructions. This medical worker did not want to make extra effort. So, his indifference is one of the aspects that should be considered. Later, Lia was hospitalized once again, and the physicians made the same misdiagnosis. This is one of the most striking examples that should be considered. Provided that physicians had some compassion for this family, they would have used the services of an interpreter who could speak the Hmong language.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Compassion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this way, they could have eliminated the risk of misdiagnosis. Moreover, they might have considered that Lia’s parents felt virtually helpless when they had to deal with healthcare professionals. The main issue is that the physicians were not willing to discuss Lia’s condition with her parents. This is why this child did not receive appropriate medical assistance on time. This is the main problem should not be overlooked by the readers. Admittedly, there were some people who were genuinely willing to help Lia’s parents.
For example, one can mention Dan Murphy who immediately realized how frightened these people had been because they did not know how to help their daughter. Due to his effort, Lia’s parents received at least some support. This example is important for showing how the attitudes of physicians could differ from one another.
To a great extent, these examples suggest that immigrants may face a great number of challenges while trying to integrate into a new community. Certainly, their limited knowledge of English can be the cause of their hardships. However, more attention should be paid to the lack of compassion since this attitude makes their hardships virtually unbearable.
Admittedly, the role of cultural barriers should not be disregarded, but their impact can be mitigated provided that people try to put themselves in the position of one another. One can say that Anne Fadiman is useful for understanding the peculiarities of cross-cultural interactions. In turn, Amy Tan’s essay can throw a new light on the ideas that Anne Fadiman tries to express. These are the main details that should be taken into consideration.
Works Cited Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012. Print.
Tan, Amy. “Mother Tongue”. Across Cultures: A Reader for Writers. Ed. Sheena Gillespie and Robert Becker. New York: Longman, 2010. 46-52. Print.
Harold Washington with Civil Rights Movement Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Harold Washington was a Black American born in 1922 in Chicago State, where he lived and schooled. During his lifetime, Harold served as a lawyer fighting for the rights of the Blacks, and in many political positions, including the mayoral position.
During his tenure in the political arena, Harold championed for the rights of blacks in aspects like employment, gender discrimination, and fairness. Hence, this study examines the main achievements of Harold Washington in the fields of employment, racism, equality in provision of social amenities, gender equality, freedom of expression, and the creation of the ethics commission in the United States.
Main Achievements of Harold Washington Employment opportunities
During his time in office, Harold advocated for equal employment opportunities for all citizens in the United States. Harold supported the implementation of the United States Fair Employment Practices Act and the civil rights act, which promised to enhance employment opportunities for Black Americans.
According to Newman (2004), Harold Washington was very instrumental in the fight for equal employment opportunities for all United States citizens. Harold’s fight for increased employment was not only restricted to the white-collar employment, but was also inclusive of job opportunities in the military. In addition, Harold was on the forefront in the implementation and practice of the provisions outlined by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned racial discrimination.
Another main objective that Harold fought for was racial discrimination against Black Americans, Latin Americans, and Asians termed as minorities by the Native Americans. During the time of Harold’s political reign, racial discrimination was very prevalent to the extent that some schools, hospitals, and even churches performed their operations in accordance to specific races.
While working in the Illinois senate, Harold used this opportunity to enact and promote the Human Rights Act. The provisions in the Human Rights Act promoted fair and equal treatment of all people living in the United States, regardless of color, nationality, or place of origin (Newman, 2004). The Act was very important as it enabled the Black Americans to receive fair treatment and respect from the Native Americans, who initially discriminated them in terms of race and place of origin.
Equality in Provisions of Social Amenities
During his political reign, Harold witnessed various challenges that were faced by the Blacks and other minorities. The state focused on Native Americans, who were the majority, in the provision of basic services like education, treatment, and accommodation. Harold used his political position to champion for equality in the provision of basic services and ensured that the Blacks and other minorities received fair treatment from state authorities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Newman (2004) explains that the Human Rights Act promoted increased access to public facilities especially by the Blacks. Additionally, another Act, which campaigned for equality in service provision from the state, was the Civil Rights Act, which campaigned for better housing and accommodation for the Black Americans. Thus, equality in service provision from the state is Harold’s main achievement that greatly benefited the Blacks.
Harold’s fight against gender discrimination became apparent when he worked on the Human Rights Act that promoted equal treatment of all individuals, irrespective of their race, sexual orientation or religious beliefs. Harold argues that all humans are equal and can perform similar tasks if given the opportunity to perform them.
At the time of Harold’s reign, women in the United States were experiencing pronounced discrimination because of their gender. Access to employment, treatment, education, and other services was limited since people viewed women as lesser beings (Newman, 2004). Harold promoted various rights for women such as voting rights, right to use credit cards, employment, and equality.
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of expression was another main achievement attributed to Harold Washington. Through the Human Rights bill, Harold ensured that all individuals in the United States enjoyed freedom of expression on matters regarding marriage, religion, and social issues affecting them.
Newman (2004) states that the Human Rights and Civil Rights Acts were very objective in advocating for freedom of expression in the United States. Remarkably, the beneficiaries of freedom of expression that Harold fought for comprised of both the majority and minority groups living in the United States.
Creation of the Ethics Commission
Harold also promoted the creation of a commission that deals with aspects governing ethics in the United States. The ethics commission advocates for equal treatment and promotion of good relationships among all people regardless of their gender or race (Newman, 2004). The drive to initiate the ethics commission had its basis on good relationship and fair treatment of all citizens.
Harold held frequent gatherings and meetings in the state of Chicago and addressed diverse races and ethnicities in the United States. The meetings were very practical in enhancing the move to implement good ethics among individuals. Therefore, the Black Americans and other minority groups underscore the essence of the ethics commission and the role played by Harold in its creation as part of their long struggle against discrimination.
We will write a custom Case Study on Harold Washington with Civil Rights Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The role of Harold Washington in the civil rights movement is important in the history of the United States. Minority groups such as Black Americans will always remember Harold for the numerous Acts that he advocated for during his time in politics. Some of the main points that the minorities remember include his fight for equal employment opportunities, racial non-discrimination, equal provision of social services, gender equality, freedom of expression, and creation of the ethics commission.
Reference Newman, M. (2004). The Civil Rights Movement. New York: Edinburgh University Press.
Total Ownership Cost Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Life-Cycle Costing Approach
Design-to-cost (DTC) Changes
Role of Cost
Problematic Elements of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts
Introduction Cost estimating relationship (CER) is a common term in business. As the name suggests, the concept uses an established independent variable to estimate prices or costs of items. The other general term is the life cycle cost (LCC), which is the cost of a product, asset, or part of the two as it is undergoing its cycle life while still serving the desired functions.
Total ownership cost is a concept used in management accounting and manufacturing industries. This assay uses an example of a large business with strong capabilities to take an idea from the concept phase to its full production within a very short window due to the use of robotics in the machinery department. The business is ready to expand by competing for government contracts for unique products.
The essay uses the organization to analyze the differences between the Cost Estimating Relationship (CER) method and the Engineered Cost Estimate method in the effort to determine, which approach to Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) approach will be the best for the business. It also evaluates the design-to-cost (DTC) changes while analyzing the role of cost as a key independent variable in the production of unique products. The aspects of cost-refund treaties that create the largest predicament for particular businesses are also analyzed.
Life-Cycle Costing Approach Engineering cost estimate is one of the ways of estimating the cost of a project. It is very crucial to have an approximate budget of the resources that the project will need in the effort to curb any unnecessary inconveniences such as delays because of lack of money, equipment, or workforce. This cost is calculated through the estimation of all the activity costs, adding all of them, and including the overheads to produce detailed cost estimation.
The method is also frequently referred to as the bottom-up cost estimation method (Hofmann, 2007). Although this method is detailed and useful in the engineering industry, there are disadvantages that exist to make it unreliable in cost estimation. The use of this method has been described as useful where the design of a project has reached technical maturity (Ramachandra, 2006).
Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) and parametric cost estimation methods that exist between the bottom-up and the top-down methods are useful in cost estimation (Ramachandra, 2006). The method uses mathematical formulae and expressions to calculate the cost and variables in a production process.
According to Hofmann (2007), CER links price as a dependent element to the price-running elements that are selected based on their autonomy. The vulnerability of costs in a project to past forces is assumed to be the same for the future costs, and hence the use of the method to evaluate the relevant total cost of a project (Ramachandra, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two methods of cost estimation are relevant in the described project. Both have advantages for the application. A bottom-up approach may lead to the overestimation of costs in the project. It would thus make it difficult to acquire government contracts because the organizations’ costs will be higher than for the other bidders. The CER method is the best suited for the organization. The result will be a competitive pricing to enable contract wins.
Design-to-cost (DTC) Changes Design to Cost (DTC) management technique is one of the techniques used by organizations and their interactions with the government (Chris, 1987). In this technique, the cost is controlled using a specific goal in the design in hardware development (Ramachandra, 2006).
The elements of a design-to-cost approach include the understanding of the costumers’ ability to afford the products and the pricing required by the key participants. The allocation target costs must also be established to a level where the costs can be effectively managed in the process.
The main changes in the government DTC policies include the pricing of the different commodities and services that are required. The government has put a minimum price for the various commodities and the tendering process that should be followed. Therefore, the business is required to demonstrate the ability to cover the costs of the whole project before it can undertake the production of the required hardware for the government.
The changes in the DTC in government approach will affect the business in a number of ways. The business will be required to have the exact amount to cover the costs of any project that it intends to carry out for the government. The other effect is that the company will be required to improve in terms of competence by ensuring that it is able to produce the required machinery at a lower cost than most of the other organizations that are in direct competition with the company.
The DTC change also affects the duration of contracts, with the government introducing segmentation of contracts at different stages to ensure competition in the process. This strategy will affect the company since there will be a constant need to update the production process to ensure consistent efficiency.
Role of Cost Cost is a significant part of any project in an organization. It determines the exact competitiveness of any organizational processes. This section analyses the role of cost as a key independent variable in the production of unique products. Cost can be described as a unique factor in the production process. It can be an independent and dependent factor in the process (Ramachandra, 2006). However, cost is an independent factor in most production process because it influences many of the other factors.
We will write a custom Essay on Total Ownership Cost specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The costs incurred in the production process determine the values of the final product. In the production of new and unique products, the costs of production are usually dynamic (Hofmann, 2007). Production of unique products allows organizations to stay ahead of the competition.
However, the whole process of designing the production line, making the unique product, and marketing it usually consumes financial resources from the organization. The cost in the design process is mainly in the hiring of designers and setting up the automated processes of production for the mechanized production companies such as the one in focus. The design costs are also consumed by the acquisition of the appropriate tools for the production process (Hofmann, 2007).
In the marketing of the new unique products, the costs are also consumed in bulk by the large marketing input. The finance that is available in the production of the unique products determines the level of marketing to be undertaken, with the result being the final cost of the complete products.
The unique products that companies develop are harder to market because they are new to customers (Hofmann, 2007). Therefore, the costs are greater compared to the ones incurred in marketing other products. There are often difficulties associated with the setting up of the costs of the unique products. This means that companies can underestimate the costs or overestimate them based on the initial cost assumptions.
For the company under focus, the intention is to act as a formidable organization that can win contracts from the government and begin the production of any unique products as spelt out in the contract terms. Cost is a major independent factor in this process. It affects all other factors within this organization if it is to engage in the contract.
The cost that the organization is likely to incur includes setting up of the appropriate mechanical production line, the acquisition of the robotics, setting up of a team to oversee the production process, and the acquisition of space for the production line. The costs of all these factors will be crucial in establishing the required production costs.
The cost in this company will be independent in that it will influence all other production processes and the eventual product cost. This means that the efficient use of cost estimation methods ensures that the company can control the costs incurred throughout the production process. The company can reduce the eventual costs of the unique products that it intends to produce through the introduction of efficiency in its production process.
Problematic Elements of Cost-Reimbursement Contracts Cost repayment agreements are types of treaties where suppliers are given all the permissible operating expenses of the agreement to a certain acceptable maximum, including imbursement of additional overheads to allow the supplier to make an income (Ramachandra, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Total Ownership Cost by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the problematic elements of this type of contract is the estimation of the final cost of the project and the contract that may be difficult to establish. In this type of contract, the contractor is allowed a cost that is predicted by the government by using the prevailing economic conditions and costs of the appliances at that point in time.
Despite the government allowing for the provision of extra funds towards the projects being undertaken by the contractor, the final costs may surpass these costs (Hofmann, 2007). If these are not considered and/or more funds are availed, the contractor may end up making little if any profit in the contract. The government may also have to increase the funds available for the project.
The problem of cost estimation in cost-reimbursement contract also has an effect on the overall quality of the contract and the output of the company (Chris, 1987).
The measures that can be taken to reduce the effects of the changes in the duration of the contract to prevent large disparities between the stated cost and the final cost include the thorough estimation of the production costs. Companies can achieve this goal through the contracting of economic experts who can quantify the various inputs to be used and the likely changes in their value.
Another problematic element of a cost-reimbursement contract is the additional oversight that is required to design incentive of award fees (Chris, 1987). The extra oversight or administration required to oversee the design of the incentive fees is often a liability for the two sides involved in the contract (Chris, 1987).
The contractor has the responsibility of ensuring that he or she adequately controls the overhead costs of the production process and that the payments he or she receives are only for the permissible costs of the contract (Hofmann, 2007). On the government side of the contract, the administration has to ensure that the right company with the appropriate market cost is considered for the contract. It also has to exercise oversight over the contractor to ensure that it does not add extra costs in the contract.
It is the role of the government to protect the contractor from the unforeseen costs of the contract (Hofmann, 2007). However, in some instances, the contractor may engage in covering the extra costs incurred in the contract because of poor statement of the costs of the contract.
The result of this act is that the company may incur losses occasioned by the inability to cover the unforeseen costs. For the company on focus, the right procedures should be followed to ensure that any contract that it undertakes with the government has all the costs being accurately calculated, with an overestimation made for some of the most dynamic costs.
As opposed to fixed-price contracts, a cost-reimbursement presents little incentive to the contractor to be efficient in the production process because of the assurances in costs that they have. Efficiency in this type of contract may be increased through the introduction of a strict oversight in the respective organs and/or the introduction of an oversight authority for the side that awards the contract (Hofmann, 2007).
The other way that the problem may be solved is through the setting of limits for contractors in various projects. A contract should be shared by several contractors, with each of the parties being compared against the other. This strategy will lead to direct competition within the contracts since the companies seek to win future contracts or get contract renewals.
Reference List Chris, K. (1987). An Empirical Validation of Software Cost Estimation Models. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 30(5), 416-429.
Hofmann, P. (2007). Psychology of decision making in economics, business and finance. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Ramachandra, K. (2006). Business economics. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers.
The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Essay best essay help: best essay help
The Congress largely known as the European Concert was the initial sequence of the worldwide conference to be held for the diplomatic European power balance. The 1945 United Nations alongside the 1919 League of Nations are some of the mockup groups that later resulted from the Vienna Congress.
In fact, as emphasized by Schroeder Paul, the congress shunned the ancient methods of power application that seemed destructive and threatening. The congress embraced formulas which produced an equilibrium that was very compassionate and steady.
The Vienna Congress came in the year 1814 (May) immediately after the downfall and admission of defeat by Bonaparte. The unremitting war had lasted for approximately 25 years by the time this conference was inaugurated (King 334). Ironically, the theatrical resumption of French control as well as the resurfacing from exile by Napoleon activated the outburst of that warfare. Nevertheless, the conferences carried on for a hundred days in the year 1815 (between March and July).
A number of historians proclaim that the Congress at Vienna never resembled an appropriate Congress. It never met the threshold of a Congress owing to the lack of or restricted contribution by the existing representatives. Similarly, the Congress sittings included the great powers namely Prussia, Russia, France, Britain, and Austria while the meeting dialogues accrued informally and personal rather than on a plenary session.
The Congress was the first one ever in history (Schroeder 683). With regard to the inter-capital dispatch riders, the nationwide and intercontinental delegates assembled in a forum to formulate concords. Hence, while in anticipation of World War 1 in the year 1914, the Vienna Congress designed a background for the European intercontinental political affairs notwithstanding the advanced modifications.
The Congress approved the 1814 Chaumont Treaty that contained various re-affirmed verdicts. The decisions contained in the treaty comprised of the expansion of Netherlands and it took account of what later developed into the contemporary Belgium in the year 1830.
The treaty also included the decisions to restore Spanish monarchs (Bourbons), the splitting of Italy into sovereign states, and the institution of a united Germany. Indeed, the power balance that lasted for years resulted from the Chaumont Treaty which also designed the Alliances in European countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, matters concerning Scandinavia and other additional operations had earlier been included in the Kiel and Paris treaties amid the 6th Coalition and France. Besides, before the preceding inauguration of the Congress in the year 1814, the Paris treaty had previously fixed that Vienna could host the general congress. Thus, the Paris treaty had in the same way organized for an invitation of all the betrothed powers in the warfare (Zawadzki 20).
The Vienna Congress participants The Vienna Congress had four great powers that had earlier made up the Sixth Coalition members. The great powers had delineated their collective stand in regard to the Chaumont treaty just before the downfall of Bonaparte. In the year 1814 (March), which was the duration for re-establishment, the alliance had deliberated on the 1814 Paris treaty together with the Bourbons (King 334).
The French Bourbon and other supremacies
The key accomplices in the Vienna Congress incorporated the French speakers, Prussian, Russians, British, and Australians. France as one of the powerful nations was represented by Duke of Dahlberg and Talleyrand. The two French delegates were the Plenipotentiary and Foreign ministers respectively.
The Foreign minister (Talleyrand) on behalf of Louis XVIII, who was the King of French territory, had previously discussed the year 1814 Paris treaty. Yet, King Louis XVIII of France held secret negotiations with Metternich given the suspicion he had on Talleyrand (Zamoyski 297).
Prussian nation was also regarded among the great powers. Its presentation at the Vienna Congress was done by Wilhelm who was both a scholar and ambassador. Other delegates who presented Prussia included Chancellor and August Karl who was a Prince. Interestingly, the Prussian King (William Frederick III) was engaged in the recreation of some significant issues. The King carried on with this duty in public places though he was present in Vienna (Zawadzki 24).
The European nation rulers pursued the same ground and timepiece to the year 1789 in order to re-establish the ancient administration. In Russia, King Alexander I was one of the influential and greatest sovereign rulers in Europe. Alexander I who was the Russian King during the Congress organized a delegation in Russia following the footsteps of Robert Karl who had earlier headed such an entrustment as a foreign minister.
The King had merely two outstanding goal lines in the delegation he led. Initially, Alexander I wished to encourage and endorse a nonviolent cohabitation among inhabitants living in the continent. The King wanted to embrace the powers to have control over Poland. However, in the year 1815 he thrived and started the Holy Alliance which was established based on love for Christianity. The Holy Alliance could fight whichever intimidation or jeopardy from antimonarchism and rebellion (Schroeder 687).
We will write a custom Essay on The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other great power among the four was Great Britain. Castlereagh Viscount who was the Foreign Secretary became the principal envoy to represent Britain in the Congress held at Vienna. Subsequently, the departure of Viscount back to Britain in early 1815 paved way for Wellington to represent Britain at the conference.
The Congress produced a limelight for the restoration of peace and stability in Europe. In the period of Hundred Days (March-July 1815), Wellington who was the leader of the Congress retreated to meet Bonaparte. Thus, Duke of Wellington endorsed Earl to lead the conference during the final days of the Congress (Zamoyski 297).
On the other hand, Austria as a state got representation through the Foreign Minister besides his assistants Metternich Prince and Johann Baro. Back in Austria, Francis the Emperor was fed with the information on the subject and the whereabouts of the conferences taking place at the Vienna Congress.
The other signatories to the Paris Treaty (1814) included Genoa Republic, the States of Papal, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway-Sweden, Algarve, Spain, and the Kingdom of Portugal. In general, almost all the European nations were presented in the Congress with a delegation and agents of special factions, sacred groups, firms, and metropolises (Zawadzki 28).
The Role of Talleyrand and Polish-Saxon crisis
The delegates from the influential powers never wanted an inclusion of Talleyrand into the intense intercession at the Congress. However, in the initial stages of negotiation Talleyrand managed to get into the innermost spheres of the Congress. Talleyrand used that opportunity to be part of the core and control negotiations after clinching into the minor authorities like Portugal and Spain working group.
After deserting his associates upon leaving the Committee, Talleyrand was present at the preliminary conference on protocol by the major Allies. Equally, the Polish-Saxon crisis proved to be the hazardous and greatest matter that took center-stage during the Congress. While Russia coveted a good part of Poland, Prussia preferred all of Saxony whose ruler was associated to Bonaparte (Zamoyski 297).
In this regard, Poland would have a King as their ruler. This forced Britain to back Austria with the hope that Russia would develop into a more powerful nation. Talleyrand anticipated that France would be divulged into the innermost circle in order to back Britain and Austria. The 1815 clandestine accord by Austria, Britain, and France campaigned against the execution of the Russo-Prussian idea by fighting against Prussia and Russia (King 334).
The Ultimate Bylaw
Prior to the Waterloo struggle, the Ultimate Bylaw that exemplified all other distinct pacts was signed by various mediators. They included the British, Norwegians, Swedish, Russians, Prussians, Portuguese, French speakers, and Australians. This Bylaw became sanctioned in the fiscal nineteen-seventeen by Spain who hardly appeared to be a stakeholder. The signing of the Final Act terminated the conference at Vienna with a renovated Europe having a plan for properly balanced power (Zamoyski 297).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The results of Vienna Congress
The Congress saw the espousal of rational policy with little penalties and plunders besides providing a stable European re-settlement. The Congress ensured no experience of any major conflict until the commencement of the Crimean and First World Wars. The conference provided for humanity in the whitewashed French nation with the aim of eradicating sentiments that would present vengeance.
Besides, the Vienna Congress assumed a strategy to revive and restore peace, stability, and earlier conditions prior to the war in Europe (Schroeder 684). The European kingdoms’ restoration as well as the avoidance of superior nationalism and equality transpired from the Congress. However, ignoring the demands for greater nationalism and democracy later gave rise to conflicts that occurred in the 19th Century. Finally, nationalist campaigners yearning for democracy distressed the reinstated territories.
The criticism of Vienna Congress
The Vienna Congress often faced denunciation by historians of the 19th Century. In the contemporary days, historians however disregard the liberal and nationwide instincts for striking the close continental rejoinder. Nevertheless, historians in the Twentieth and Twenty First Century appreciate the statesmen who ascended to the Vienna Congress. These historians embrace the work of the Congress that prohibited further prevalence of conflicts for almost 100 years (1815 onwards) in Europe (King 334).
Bibliography King, David. Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War, and Peace at the Congress of Vienna, New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group, 2008. Print.
The book is a page-turner containing many life aspects including sex, intelligence, comedy and explorations. It is an important read for me as it is a well-researched political intrigue that illuminates how Napoleon and his clique changed the course of European continental history and modern politics.
Schroeder, Paul. “Did the Vienna Settlement Rest on a Balance of Power?” American Historical Journal, 97.3 (1992): 683-706. Print.
This article articulates how the players in Vienna Congress were sensitive to balancing the power that was distributed after the downfall of Napoleon. It is an essential article as it addresses Vienna settlement and the 19th century implication on international system.
Zamoyski, Adam. Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, New York City, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007. Print.
The book contains the European history of Napoleon defeat plus details of the Congress of Vienna that succeeded the downfall. The book reveals how politics was played in ensuring the curtailing of the French influence and the actors who sought piece of the action and how the same may recur in the contemporary world.
Zawadzki, Herbert. “Russia and the Re-Opening of the Polish Question, 1801-1814.” International History Review, 7.1 (1985): 19-44. Print.
This article addresses the politics that played in establishing a detached Polish kingdom in 1815 in collaboration with Russia. The essay reveals the acrimony and disruptive negotiations at the Congress of Vienna.
Industrial Revolution in Big Industries Across the US Report essay help online free: essay help online free
The drastic change in the industrial sector across the United States led to the spanning of mechanization, specialization, and division of labor between 1820 and 1870 (Backer, n.d.). With the shift from manual operations to use of machines, the Americans turned their objectives to mass production and reduction of work to simple labor; this made them undisputed leader in global manufacturing.
Factories and machines replaced home and hand production. Industrial Revolution went on to change the Americans’ views from small craft workers and independent farmers to workers in factories (Effects of the Industrial Revolution, n.d.). They were able to work successfully in big industries across the US.
Expansions in the manufacturing process made the Americans to view themselves as having the ability to be autonomous in production. There emerged the middle class from the large factories that absorbed many Americans. The industries absorbed accountants, insurance agents, teachers, lawyers, and doctors (Brinkley, 2012). These categories of workers were entitled to monthly salaries, and not hourly wages. From this dimension, Americans changed their earlier views on living as working class.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most Americans had their places of work within or close to their homes. Most women started working outside their homes. Those who could not send their children to schools due to inadequate funds rose to high earning levels, and, as a result, were able to do so. In addition, Industrial Revolution altered the tasks of families, as had been common in pre-industrial society.
According to Brinkley (2012), the entire aspect made Americans to change the family economy since women could also secure light jobs in the industries. With the onset of mechanization, specialization, and division of labor, Americans viewed themselves as capable people who can drive their economy independently. The paid labor as opposed to family or home employment made families view themselves as independent units, which can take care of themselves.
The Industrial Revolution led to the development of infrastructure; this opened the once inaccessible regions in America. Americans began to move beyond their boundaries to look for market and raw materials for use in their factories. Other inventions during this period include automobile, telephone, and light bulb.
These inventions coupled with assembly line made manufacturing more efficient, thus modernizing the industrialized nation. Americans believed in themselves and their capability to make life easier than before. The need for specific skills in factories made Americans to recognize the role of women at the workplaces, with gender roles becoming increasingly defined (Hillstrom, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having understood well the effects of Industrial Revolution from England, Americans instituted necessary measures to avert negative perceptions. Industrial Revolution, from this aspect, changed Americans’ views and perceptions on the role of women in the society. In expanding the transportation systems and enhancing the motor assembling processes, Americans believed that they could control other activities in the whole world.
Industrial Revolution drove Americans to the brink of controlling the entire globe, as the progress led to invention of key machines for increasing production (Effects of the Industrial Revolution, n.d.). The Americans had remained self-centered on their way of life, and engaged in home activities to manage their families. However, Industrial Revolution altered their perceptions on the possibility to develop their territory, engage in productive activities, and develop the nation in order to be the leading producer of all products.
References Backer, P. R. (n.d.). Industrialization of American Society. Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering San JosÃ© State University. Web.
Brinkley, A. (2012). American history: connecting with the past (14th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Effects of the Industrial Revolution. (n.d.). Modern World History. Web.
Hillstrom, K. (2007). Industrial revolution in America. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO.
Excessive force by the police Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Police use of force in the US
Cases to support police brutality against minorities
Police brutality in other countries
Introduction Police are charged with the responsibility of safeguarding citizens and dealing with crime. In performing these duties, they are authorized to use the acceptable force within certain limits. The amount of force that a police officer is entitled to use depends on the situation and it varies greatly from one situation another.
However, law enforcers have abused this privilege due to lack of clear laws on the amount of force that an officer is entitled to use in a given situation.
Some officers have resorted to using excessive force even under unnecessary circumstances. Excessive force may take the form of physical assault, sexual assault, verbal abuse, or use of lethal force when dealing with suspects or the public at large. Police brutality is a contemporary worldwide issue as cases of savagery continue to arise despite the numerous laws governing the conduct of police officers.
Police use of force in the US The laws governing the conduct of police officers in the United States are very clear. They give a police officer the right to use reasonable force when dealing with law aggressors, but at the same time they set limits in which such right is applicable. However, police officers tend to abuse this privilege by assaulting innocent citizens in the pretext of maintaining law and order.
A police officer who violates the rights of a citizen in any way is liable to pay for damages and injuries suffered. The local media in the US reports on many cases of public assault; however, most of these cases do not reach the international media and the perpetrators go unpunished (Ritchie
The Life Span Perspective of Development Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents The Aspects of the Life Span Perspective of Development
Freud and Erickson’s Theories of Life Span Development
Interaction of the Heredity and Environment
During the life, people change significantly with references to their physical appearance and characteristics and with references to their mental and emotional progress. The life span perspective of the human development is based on the idea that a person moves through several stages of development during the whole life (Berger, 2011, p. 7).
Thus, certain changes are typical for the definite stages of life, but it is also important to pay attention to the individual character of experienced changes because all the people are different. From this point, the life span perspective aims to explain the human development with the focus on separate phases completed during the whole life; and all the stages of the human development are taken into consideration in spite of the fact that the followers of this perspective are inclined to determine phases according to different criteria.
The Aspects of the Life Span Perspective of Development The life span perspective of the human development is characterized by the complex approach to analyzing all the aspects of the people’s changes observed during different life stages. As a result, it is possible to speak about the multidimensional character of the approach because all the aspects are discussed in their connection.
According to Berger, the human development presented as the life span is multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic (Berger, 2011, p. 10-18). This statement means that it is irrelevant to discuss the human development as started at one point and moving to another one; or as dependent only on one context, including only the family or social status; or as dependent only on one culture.
The people’s development is the complex process because a person is influenced by a lot of environments, cultures, and situations during the life span. This person interacts with many people belonging to different cultures and ethnic groups and develops the specific personal traits during the whole life (Berger, 2011, p. 10). Each detail associated with the person’s life, such as the family, socioeconomic status, and character, matters to explain the aspects of the person’s life span development.
Freud and Erickson’s Theories of Life Span Development There are many theories of the life span development which differ in criteria according to which psychologists determine different stages of the people’s life. Freud and Erickson’s theories are similar in focusing on the age-related steps, but they are different in criteria to state the fundaments for the stages’ progress. Thus, Freud’s theory depends on a range of psychosexual phases because the theorist is inclined to associate the man’s sexual nature with the psychological development.
Freud concentrates on the childhood as the period when a child experiences some crises which determine the oral, anal, phallic phases, and the period of latency. These periods lead to the genital stage lasting during the adolescence and adulthood. According to Freud, the stages depend on the centers of pleasures important during different stages (Berger, 2011, p. 43-47). As a result, the human sexual nature is chosen as the criterion to propose the life span stages.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Erickson’s theory is based on the social aspect. If Freud’s theory depends on psychological crises associated with the sexual development, Erickson’s theory depends on psychological crises associated with the people’s social interactions. Erickson states that people move through a range of stages during which they are impacted by the peculiarities of the environments and interactions with people.
People’s activities and behaviors during different stages are explained with references to their attitude to their society and personal interactions. As a result, at different stages, people are influenced by the conflicts between their identity or independent life and society which can be represented as the family, relatives, friends, and other people (Berger, 2011, p. 51).
Interaction of the Heredity and Environment A person can be discussed as an individual only with references to the unique combination of the heredity and environment’s impact on his or her development. Today, scientists cannot provide the single opinion on the role of nature and nurture in the person’s development because it is impossible to state what factors affect the personal development drastically. Heredity makes people different in their appearance and physical qualities when nurture makes people different in their vision of the world, education, and lifestyle.
It is important to note that nature and nurture are in ongoing interaction to affect the person’s individual development. The unique complex of the genetic material and environment produces a unique person who should be discussed only with references to combination of heredity and environment (Berger, 2011, p. 9). Inherited qualities should be combined with the environment’s impact to influence the individual’s development.
Conclusion The life span perspective of the human development depends on the idea that people move through many stages during their life, but this movement should be discussed as the multidimensional process rather than as the linear movement. Such aspects as the interaction of nurture and nature can influence the person’s development significantly because various inherited qualities or life situations can affect the people’s life differently.
Reference Berger, K. S. (2011). The developing person through the life span. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Security dilemma in the Middle East Essay essay help online
Introduction Since 2008, Arab nations in the Middle East have been facing a dilemma of how to resolve and prevent insecurity within their borders and across the entire region. The possibility of uprisings in the region remains high, but mitigation measures are few.
One of the major concerns for the region is the Muslim Brotherhood’s capability of igniting violent protests, thus resulting in insecurity, especially after the Egyptian uprising in 2008 and 2012. This paper explores some of the pertinent issues surrounding the matter, like the reluctance of some governments to change their model of governance coupled with some of the options available to the governments, including acquisition of foreign aid and quashing the Muslim Brotherhood.
Systems of government The form of governance that a country’s leadership adopts has serious implications on the state of its security. Many responsibilities rest on the leaders’ ability to prioritize and make objective decisions on behalf of their citizens. In most cases, people prefer to choose their leaders through elections.
However, sometimes people feel content with alternative forms of leadership choices. Most Arab nations, especially those bordering the Persian Gulf, which form the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC), have been under absolute monarchies since the abolition of colonization. This paper reveals some of the benefits that the country has experienced from this type of leadership.
One of the most influential and memorable leaders that Saudi Arabia has had to date is Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. His father, Sheikh Sultan bin Khalifa Al Nahyan, was the ruler of Abu Dhabi when Sheikh Zayed was born. However, Abu Dhabi did not have much in terms of development at the time. There were no schools and most of the inhabitants survived on subsistence fishing and farming despite the region’s wealth in oil.
The state of the economy was poor owing to lack of formal education and healthcare facilities. However, this scenario changed thanks to Sheikh Zayed’s revolutionary leadership. The Sheikh came out as a selfless leader by putting the needs of his people before his own (Killgore 2005). Some of the significant changes that he made in the region include harnessing the benefits of oil and applying the revenue to the development of hospitals and schools.
Others include advocating for female empowerment through the provision of equal rights in the labor market and fostering unity between Abu Dhabi and other members of the United Arab Emirates. The leadership council reappointed him for the position three more times in 1981, 1986, and 1991. He was also famous for his insistence on preservation of Islamic values as evidenced in his move to make Islam the national religion for the UAE (Killgore 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Qatar and Saudi Arabia experienced some land disputes during Sheikh Zayed’s reign due to disagreements based on the Treaty of Jeddah, he ensured that the two states kept the matter civil and carried out trade with each other peacefully. Issues on the dispute did not arise until a year after his death in 2004.
During his reign, Sheikh Zayed formulated policies that allowed the entry of expatriates into Abu Dhabi as a solution to the labor force problem. This aspect created goodwill between the state and Western nations, thus increasing trade opportunities for the entire region in addition to expansion of oil markets for the UAE into the United States, Russia, and other western nations. This case is an example of how contentment in the leadership style that leaders adopt can generate lasting peace.
A lot has changed since Sheikh Zayed’s leadership, with citizens of Arab states accusing leaders of using their positions to commit social and political injustices such as human rights violations and unequal distribution of wealth. Other accusations against governments in Arab states include the denial of leadership opportunities to citizens with great potential despite calls of dissatisfaction on current leadership.
Such views have created concerns over potential uprisings and security issues for governments all over the Middle East. For instance, there is a possibility of a security crisis in Iraq if the government fails to make radical changes to policies regarding its Sunni minority. The Sunni community has been retaliating to ill treatment by the Iraqi government comprising human rights violations such as mass arrests, lengthy detention periods, and absence of procedures present in most fair trials.
Such retaliation has been worsening since 2008, resulting in approximately five thousand deaths to date (“Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”” 2013). The situation has created a dilemma on how to improve the security situation in the county without attracting an uprising from the minority Sunni community resulting in a sectarian war.
According to “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”” (2013), experts and human rights groups blame the Iraqi prime minister, Nuria al-Maliki, for not reaching out to the minority groups and not starting work on anti-terror laws on time. The state also lacks rules barring members of Sadam Hussein’s political party from participating in public politics.
Although the government has made some changes in policy concerning the issue, analysts describe them as minor fixes that fail to address the severity of the situation. The matter remains pertinent as the nation prepares for parliamentary elections scheduled for April 30, 2014. The major concern for the government is that the minority group may seek aid from the Muslim Brotherhood, which is a supposedly terror group and political activism faction with links in most Arab countries.
We will write a custom Essay on Security dilemma in the Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The group’s influence and ability to attract attention through political activism makes it a potential option through which the Sunni minority can destabilize the government. The group played a huge role in the ousting of former Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak (Rutherford 2008). The group’s application of violence in furtherance of its agenda in the past is a threat to the Iraqi national security measures.
The Muslim Brotherhood
The organization, which most Arab nations consider as a terrorist group, is an Islamic political activist group and social movement founded in Egypt in 1928 by Scholar Hassan al-Banna during the persistence of the Second World War. It mainly comprises Sunni Muslims who feature a minority population in most Islamic nations.
The group’s original main objectives included conducting charity work in addition to political activism while instilling values from the Quran and Sunna to the Muslim community. In the initial stages of its development, the group received massive support from Arab countries of the Middle East, which was understandable considering that most nations were undergoing colonization from Western nations.
Some of the activities that the group conducted during the early years of its inception included teaching illiterate members of the community, preaching Islam, and establishing health care centers among others. Fisk (2007, p.67) notes that in 1936, ‘after substantial growth in its influence, the group started to oppose the British rule in Egypt and substantially contributed in the country’s struggle for independence’.
However, Lia (2006, p.101) posits that the Islamic community in Egypt ‘credits a series of violent killings during this period to the movement and the Egyptian government banned the group in 1952 after rumors of its plans to assassinate the president after the Egyptian Revolution’.
Over the years, the group has attracted many members from different countries around the world, most of which are Arab-speaking nations. It receives financial backing as a requirement from all its members often obliging them to give a part of their financial gains to the movement regularly.
Some of its members originate from oil-rich Arab countries, thus creating concern over its activities in countries such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Iran. The violent history of the group and current significant political influence have caused great concern from Middle Eastern nations as fear of the group’s activities in the Arab Spring looms. A key example is the election of Mohamed Morsi – a member of the group, as the president of Egypt in 2012 after the ousting of the former president, Hosni Mubarak, and his oppressive regime.
The election was an important milestone for the group and a cause of concern for other Arab nations considering that the group was only one year-old after its legalization in Egypt in 2011. Morsi was a product of a democratic election, which proves the view that the group has been dormant for several years and its social influence persists in the country and possibly in other countries within the Arab Peninsula.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Security dilemma in the Middle East by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to the “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group” (2013), the military overthrew of ‘’Morsi’s government in July 2013 and the interim government declared it a terrorist group in December of the same year after members of the group attacked a police station in Mansoura’’ (par. 13).
One of the goals that the group has made clear over the years is that it strives to liberate Arab nations from Western rule as part of the unification process that it hopes to implement for all Arab nations.
Although the move sounds noble, it creates a problem for most governments in Arab nations due to the view that the countries see Western nations as valuable trade partners and lucrative markets for their products. For instance, Saudi Arabia and Iran produce 12% and 5.2% of the world’s oil respectively and they consider the United States and Russia as their main markets.
Any activities by the group that interfere with the trade relations between western nations and Arab nations in the Middle East threaten the economic stability of these countries (Rabi 2006). The most obvious reaction to such a threat would be to curtail the group’s activities. However, the view that most members of the group originate from these very countries creates a security dilemma for governments in the Middle East, as the resultant effect would most likely be an uprising or protests.
Such an occurrence will subsequently create an environment that hinders overall trade activities with Western, as well as Eastern trade partners. In addition, governments’ efforts to quell such uprisings would most likely result in political instability, as citizens question the actions of their governments leading to full- blown civil unrests, thus leading to a social, political, and economic disasters.
The Arab Spring According to “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group” (2013), the term “Arab Spring” describes ‘a series of political demonstrations that have taken place in most Arab nations, mostly in Africa and the Middle East, since December 2010’ (par. 8). Some of the countries affected so far include Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Yemen, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia.
One of the main causes for such political protests is the authoritarian manner in which governments in these countries run their affairs. Citizens in these nations desire changes that these governments were not willing to incorporate in their style of governance, thus resulting in backlash from the civilian populations. Human rights violations is the second reason for such protests while others include unfair distribution of resources, corruption, unemployment, and in some nations, opposition against Western influences.
During the initial stages of this wave of protests, the intensity of its impact was unforeseeable for most nations. For instance, the occurrence of a major uprising on the grounds of bad governance in Tunisia in 2008 contributed to the intensity of the uprising in Egypt to oust President Hosni Mubarak’s dictatorial leadership and replace it with a democratic system (Rutherford 2008).
Analysts consider the success of the Egyptian uprising as a major contributor to the Libyan uprising in 2011 that resulted in the ousting and death of a dictatorial leader Muammar al-Gaddafi in October of the same year. Other causes for the Libyan demonstrations were accusations of the government of human rights violations, poor distribution of the country’s resources, including earnings from oil reserves and lack of democratic rights to choose leaders that best serve the interests of people.
Between 1800s and the 1900s, the focus of such protests was colonial rule and the attainment of self-governance. In recent years, such focus has changed to concerns over internal problems the Arab community is facing, especially with regard to governance.
For instance, most people express their dissatisfaction with the anarchist mode of leadership that Arab countries, especially those along the Persian Gulf, practice whereby power is hereditary, which limits the chances that other citizens in these countries can take leadership positions (Rabi 2006).
Analysts point out the use of media as one of the main catalysts to the unrest and eventual uprising in most Middle Eastern countries. For instance, they mention the fact that technology savvy youth in universities and colleges with access to information on current events from other countries played a great role in influencing protests, particularly those in Egypt, which resulting in the intense nature of protests.
Initially, protests in Egypt were about rights of workers, but gradually escalated to protests against the entire political administration, as it was word spread in social media sites.
Another catalyst that analysts highlight is globalization. Globalization has made concepts such as international trade and communication prominent in the development of these countries, thus resulting in intercultural interactions whereby citizens in Arab nations learn about the benefits of other forms of governance and rights that other countries grant their citizens. Such interactions foster a form of enlightenment and sense of empowerment that leads to revolutionary action in cases where governments take a hard stance to change.
The outcome of such uprisings has resulted in security concerns in countries where governments opt for their traditional forms of rule without sparking violence from their indigenous populations.
For instance, the Saudi Arabian government experienced pressure from its population following the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001. Some Saudi Arabian citizens and those from the UAE considered trade and policy relations with the American government as traitorous and demanded the government to cut ties with the West (Dilanian 2011).
Although the governments have made slight policy changes regarding the freedoms that citizens from western countries enjoy on their territories, most oil rich Arab nations along the Persian Gulf continue to conduct trade with the west. However, the possibility of looming public uprising in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Oman, Lebanon, and Kuwait is still a nightmare for governments with regard to a peaceful resolution and prevention.
Mitigation of the security dilemma The Cooperative Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) measures
The Cooperative Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, which also goes by its original name, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), is a union comprised of nations along the Persian Gulf that deal with the political, social, and economic development in the region.
The council presently comprises states of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE with its headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, there have been talks about including Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen since Saudi Arabia proposed the formation of a confederation in December 2011.
Since the council’s formation in 1981 in Abu Dhabi, the region has experienced great economic integration and political stability. Some of the measures that the council leaders have put in place to ensure continued prosperity include formulation of similar regulations regarding finance, trade, practice of religion and legislation, establishment of scientific research centers, cultural integration, and encouragement of cooperation of private sector institutions (Deutsch Federal Foreign Office 2012).
The council has also proposed the creation of a monetary union and the project is under careful consideration by the nations. The fact that the economies in question are some of the fastest growing in the world due to the presence of oil and natural gas reserves and adequate development plans proves a testament to the success of the council.
The occurrence of the Arab Spring in 2008 created security concerns for the GCC in addition to raising questions on the extent of involvement that the council should exercise in solving security problems of its members. Although the council has a unitary military force, the Peninsula Shield Force, member nations have to deploy service men to operate as part of the force when the need arises.
For instance, the Bahrain Uprising that has been persistent since 2011 saw Saudi Arabia and the UAE sent ground troops to ensure maintenance of peace. Although Kuwait did not send ground troops, it sent a naval unit. On the other hand, Oman chose not to get involved in the matter in terms of military actions.
The differences in agreement on the type of aid to offer member states during security situations created a dilemma for the members as they formulated policies to mitigate the effects that the looming uprisings might cause. The GCC troops involved in the current security situation in Syria began going back to their nations through Kuwait due to injuries and threats from the resident government over illegal involvement in internal relations (“Kuwait set to receive GCC fighters back from Syria” 2014).
During the 52nd UN’s social development committee, Kuwait gave a briefing of the GCC’s plan for social development (“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN” 2014). The plan includes programs such as provision of justice to the minority and majority groups in member states, enlarging the job market, providing social security and technological developments for the government to mitigate issues leading to uprisings adequately.
The plan is compliant with the UN’s Millennium Development goals for 2015. According to the Diplomatic Attache Aliya Al-Mzaini, social justice and development form the core concepts surrounding strategies that the GCC hopes to adopt (“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN” 2014).
The American government is one of the few governments in the West that have openly declared non-tolerance for terrorist activities, regardless of the origin of such groups. The United States’ anti-terror campaign began in 2001 after the 9/11 twin bombings in New York and Washington by Al Qaeda, which left dozens of people dead, scores injured, and properties worth millions of dollars destroyed.
Apart from following up on the perpetrators of the attacks, the government developed a preemptive strategy that resulted in its declaration of a global war against terror (Wright 2007).
During its investigations into the Al Qaeda terror group, the American government founds links between the group and the Muslim Brotherhood, and thus it considers the latter as a terrorist sect in its own right. The resolution that the Muslim Brotherhood is a terror institution in Egypt following the political atmosphere in 2011 after a coup that ousted President Mohamed Morsi from power further strengthened the American government’s resolve to quash the faction.
The group has had links with the Saudi Arabian government in the past owing to similarities in principles regarding the application of Islam in governance. However, the Saudi Arabian government has recently indicated concerns of the possibility of the group sparking chaos in the country. The government explains one of the reasons behind such fear as the group’s preference for a democratic style of governance in place of the present monarchial system.
The government also expresses concerns over the lack of satisfaction that its minority population has shown, thus leading to fears that the said population may reach out to the group for help (Lewis 2002). The most likely result in this case would be an uprising similar to that experienced in Egypt in 2008 that culminated in the election of former President Morsi -an influential member of the group.
Although Saudi Arabia has its own military force, it relies largely on alliances to ensure that such force is sufficient for adequate protection. A common interest between the United States government and the government of Saudi Arabia makes it easier for the Saudi Arabian government to reach out for help from the US.
However, the American government is largely infamous to most citizens in Arab nations due to history with executions of Islamic personalities including Sadam Hussein, Osama bin Laden and involvement in events leading to the death of Muammar Gaddafi.
The situation creates a dilemma for the Arabian government for fear of backlash from its citizens likely to resort in protests leading to insecurity. Middle Eastern nations thus need to develop strategies that appeal to both the resident populations and the interests of the government without resorting to violent situations likely to achieve insecurity in the region.
Conclusion Although the governments in the Middle Eastern region have various choices open to them in the resolution of the insecurity issue, most options carry the likelihood of backlash from resident populations. Therefore, it is up to the involved governments to formulate lasting solutions regionally in order to prevent future dilemmas of a similar nature.
Reference List “Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood declared “terrorist group”, BBC NEWS. Web.
“Kuwait highlights GCC social development plan at UN”, The Peninsula. Web.
“Kuwait set to receive GCC fighters back from Syria 2014”, Arab Times. Web.
Deutsch Federal Foreign Office: Gulf Cooperation Council 2012. Web.
Dilanian, K 2011, ‘’CIA led U.S Special Forces mission against Osama bin Laden‘’, Los Angeles Times. Web.
Fisk, R 2007, The Great War of Civilization: The conquest of the Middle East, Vintage Books, New York.
Killgore, A 2005, ‘Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan AL Nahyan (1918-2004)’, The Washington Report, vol. 24 no. 2, p.41.
Lewis, B 2002, What Went Wrong: Western impact and Middle Eastern Response, Oxford University Press, New York.
Lia, B 2006, The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942, Ithaca Press, New York.
Rabi, U 2006, ‘Oil Politics and Tribal Rulers in Eastern Arabia: The Reign of Shakhbut (1928-1966)’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 33 no.1, pp.37-50.
Rutherford, B 2008, Egypt after Mubarak, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Wright, L 2007, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, Vintage Books, New York.
“Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life Essay (Movie Review) writing essay help
Introduction Confucianism is a philosophical attribute used in China and which is based on the ethical values upheld by the Chinese community. The philosophy originated from the teachings of the K’ungu-fu-tzu also known as Confucius, a philosopher who has influenced the ethical system in Chinese society. It was first designed and centered on sociopolitical teachings but since then, it has shifted and it is now based on humanism (Sinaiko 12).
The concept which is a humanistic approach recognizes that human values are not stagnant and can be changed from one form to another. Three aspects are borne form this belief that people are teachable, improvable and perfectible as well. The ideology is focused on preserving the humane aspect of members of the society by employing different teachings based on different foundations.
There are three foundations that govern the act of Confucianism in the Chinese republic. These are ren, yi and li (Sinaiko 15). The three foundations touch on different aspects of the Chinese culture. For instance, the ren is the act of being humane to other people in the community and it is collectively known as altruism. (Xinzhong 24)
Yi on the other hand is the act of behaving in a morally upright manner. In this case, people are expected to do good things. The last aspect which is li requires that one be humble for the sake of the other person. In Chinese society, one opts to give up his or her life either passively or actively for ren and yi to be effectively achieved in the community (Xinzhong 25).
From this philosophical context, it is obvious why the movie “Eat Drink Man and Woman” was created in such a manner. The idea was to point out the ethical context of the Chinese people specifically those in Taiwan. This paper is a philosophical review of this movie. In the review, the author provides their reflections on the main ideas of the movie as well as on Confucian ethics in traditional Chinese family life. The connection between Confucian ideas on one hand and Chinese family life on the other hand in the movie will be addressed.
“Eat Drink Man and Woman” Movie Review: Plot Summary The movie was released in 1994 by the Taiwan Film Records under the directorship of Ang Lee. He puts into context Confucianism by dramatizing the manners of the Taiwan community based on facts about life, love, and modernity. He uses food to explain the ideology of modern people in the community (Vick 3).
Synopsis There are three daughters in the family who are not married. They live with their father who is a widower. It is noted that food is the main aspect in the film whereby the father cooks traditional foods and none of the daughter likes his dishes. They perceive it as too outdated but their father loves them so much such that he encourages them to eat the food. During Sunday dinners, he prepares for them traditional food and the relationship in the family seems to grow deeper and deeper (Vick 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The daughters are always afraid of him but in the film, the father can tell stories in different circumstances and this makes the daughters to have the urge to eat and have a deeper relationship with the father. Secretly, the middle sister loves the traditional food and aspires to be a cook in future even though the women are not encouraged to cook in the community (Vick 7).
“Eat Drink Man and Woman” reveals the sexual and love scenarios in the society as the unattached daughters try to get engaged to other men in the surroundings who come to upset the calm at home. The middle daughter, Jia Chien, works with the airline services and gets a boyfriend from the office where she works. This changes the family relationship especially with the father (Vick 5).
The first born daughter, Jia Jen, falls in love with a volleyball player and coach and she hunts for the man hysterically after realizing that she can be in love again on the basis of human desires. Initially, the older sister was so cynical about men. The youngest daughter, Jia Ning, is always in a constant sexual relationship and she eventually becomes pregnant while in college (Vick 9).
The director of the movie introduces different characters in the film to highlight the family relationship. He especially highlights the characters of those men who are attracted to the ladies. For example, Li Kai in the office is attracted to the second born daughter. The climax of the film is when Mr. Chu begins dating Jia –Ning. The gentleman tells her that he wants to end his addiction to love. He confesses that he is too weak to do so as he does not know how to approach the act of love (Vick 9).
The different characters change the family especially in the way they relate to one another. The family had a happy ending as each member clings to what they feel suits them better. The father marries a beautiful wife as all his daughters also get married elsewhere (Vick 13).
Philosophical Context of the Movie and Confucianism Ethical Issues
The movie is a reflection of Chinese ethical values. For example, the generation gap is a vital reflection in this movie as portrayed by the three daughters refusing to eat the traditional food. But the second born daughter secretly likes the traditionally made food from his father’s house and aspires to be a chef even though the Chinese society does not allow women to be chefs (Xinzhong 8). From a philosophical perspective, it is the opinion of this author that this is a very backward trend in the society as portrayed in the movie.
Food takes center stage in this movie as portrayed by the effects it has on the relationship between the father and his daughters. Love follows second as reflected in the other characters that become an obstacle in the normal family relationship. From the three foundations discussed by the writer earlier in this paper, these two themes clearly reflect modernity as far as generation gap is concerned. This is in regard to how people from different generations relate to one another.
We will write a custom Essay on “Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Traditions seem to frighten the daughters away but the father seems to understand it. He convinces the daughters and succeeds in making one of them like the traditional meals (Vick 23). Confucianism is reflected here as the father shows humanity and patience when dealing with the daughters.
The three foundations the writer explained earlier and which includes li demands that each individual sacrifice his or her life to accommodate other individuals. This is clearly seen in the second born daughter who secretly loves the traditional food. Here, loyalty is paramount to adhere to the cultural values which lack in the other daughters.
As far as Confucian philosophy is concerned, the movie also reflects the kind of relationships that revolves around Chinese families. Relationship mounts to different levels which finally crescendos to the unexpected ending in the film.
The Chinese culture provides that relationship is the centre of the Confucius ideology. In this case, it requires duties to be carried out in certain manners by certain individuals. This includes different relationships from different individuals. For instance, the relationship between parents and children as well as relationship among the children, juniors, and seniors as well (Xinzhong 24).
The relationship in the film is reflected in the three daughters and the father. Some of the daughters are not aware of the place they occupy in the social order. This is clearly seen as the last born daughter behaves contrary to the Chinese norms. The Confucius requires young people to love their parents, when married to love the partner and so forth. All these are seen to recede in the background as modernism has taken root in the Chinese culture with fathers becoming cooks and daughters aspiring to become cooks too (Sinaiko 31).
Women in Confucian Thought
The film is revolves around the three daughters of a father who is widowed. The Confucian philosophy requires women to adhere to moral integrity. According to the philosophy, women are supposed to posses three qualities as far as a virtuous woman is concerned. First, they should be subordinate to the father before they get a husband. The woman is also supposed to be subordinate to the man she gets married to. Finally, the Chinese culture requires that the woman be subordinate to the son after the husband passes on. All these makes up the Chinese woman as far as chastity is concerned (Xinzhong 26).
Men on the other hand are supposed to remarry whenever they want and this is clearly evident in the movie as all of the daughters get married and the father also gets himself a beautiful wife hence the happy ending. However, the generation gap denies the characters in the film the opportunity to be virtuous women. This is seen as two of the daughters disregard the idea of the traditional food and start engaging in promiscuity (Xinzhong 29).
Promiscuity is seen in the younger daughter who gets pregnant while in college. The first born daughter has also tested love which led to a painful experience for her and that is why she is cynical about men. But at the end of it all she resolves to get engaged to a coach (Vick 19).
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Eat Drink Man Woman”: Confucian Ethics and Traditional Chinese Family Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Parting Shot
The movie has portrays different cultural aspects of the Chinese society specifically in Taiwan. The director’s idea in the movie was to point out the moral loss in the current Chinese cultural practices. The traditional foods seem ridiculous to the current generation but it is the only way to make sure that the traditional norms are passed from one generation to the other by a father. Love and life norms are also some of the director’s view in the film where Confucianism clearly illustrates the importance of adhering to the cultural values.
Works Cited Sinaiko, Herman. Reclaiming the Canon: Essays on Philosophy, Poetry, and History. New York: Yale University Press, 2010. Print.
Vick, Tom. Asian Cinema: A Field Guide. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008. Print.
Xinzhong, Yao. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
The Difference between a Leader and a Manager Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Executive Summary
The Role of Managers in Corporate Organizations
Leadership and Its Growing Demand
Leaders and Managers: Their Differences and Similarities
Building Your Leadership Skills
Executive Summary The management within corporate organizations has very critical roles. The managers remain central in enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness within most corporations. Business management principles identify the management roles to be very vital. Particularly, this applies to the present global competitiveness.
There are notable disparities between leadership and management. However, a critical examination into the roles indicates that these two categories are complementary. Having the appropriate management skills and forming a component of the team that propagate operations are common elements within leadership and management. The different leadership and management roles must be defined. It is also critical to analyze the concept of leadership in relation to increasingly transforming global organizational demands.
The Role of Managers in Corporate Organizations The term manager draws its basic definition from the kind or nature of the roles that the specific person undertakes. Generally, a manager may be termed as an individual charged with the obligation of planning, organizing as well motivating and controlling. Most managers usually assume the superior within distinct teams and have the authority to exercise certain definite powers.
Within corporate settings, the managers have the obligation to enhance the apprehension of the basic management process. In undertaking such roles, the corporate managers formulate plans and decisions. Apart from these, these managers bear the obligation of supervising, controlling and organizing various factors within the corporate organization. Some of these f actors may include human resource or other personnel, finances as well as the critical information resources.
The managers within corporate organizations have to design the formulae and art of attaining the objective organizational goals. It is imperative to note that such a role may only be attained under specified conditions. The conditions that these managers must fulfill to attain their goals are diverse.
Some of these include proper engagement of the available resources, such as the personnel and finances. Therefore, it can be deduced that corporate managers without appropriate and strategic resource management skills are likely to fail. The managers execute their roles within the corporate organization’s administrative position. The managers are specialists. They help in finding out solutions during intricate conjunctures. They have the capacity to take critical risks on behalf of the corporate organization.
Imperatively, they also operate to draw and outline the basic visions and mission for their organizations. They have the obligation to initiate and conduct basic research to innovate the basic methodologies to keep the organization competitive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, these managers are responsible for implementing and supervising the various strategic approaches to the running of the organization. They have a crucial role in the development and formulation of the appropriate strategy for the corporate organizations. Additionally, they also stimulate and stir transformations within the organizations.
Supervisory roles are inherent within any management position. The managers within corporate organizations also have the obligation to motivate their followers. The managers motivate and encourage most workers to excel in their duties. Ensuring proper work distribution is a key management role within the corporate organizations. Managers are usually the heads of various departments and exercise defined responsibility over their subordinates.
Managers within corporate organizations have the responsibility to stir, initiate, and support innovation as well as novelty amongst the employees or other subordinate staff. The top management has the obligation to plan for the organization’s strategic goals or decisions. The middle-level management includes those who head various departments. They support the operating resolutions, supervise the first level managers and control the execution of critical decisions.
The first-line management has very significant roles. They also have a direct control of the corporate organization’s implementation procedures that basically occurs within the low levels. There are also functional managers that bear the responsibility for overseeing basic processes including production, marketing as well as finance. Indeed, it can be recognized that the managers within the corporate organizations have critical roles in enhancing efficiency and effectiveness within such organizations.
Leadership and Its Growing Demand Leadership has increasingly become a pertinent concern within the general business and organizational management. The increasing competitiveness and growing demands for more globalized management approaches have motivated the advanced demands for leadership. Particular kinds and theories for or generational leadership have been widely discussed by most scholars.
However, the basic fact remains in the application of strategic leadership approaches that have the capacity to enable firms develop competitively. Due to the highly flexible leadership demands, most organizations have emphasized on the need to engage more qualified and competent human resource. The leadership aspect has considerably been recognized during recruitment process. This enables most organizations to nurture critical leadership competencies and personalities.
Organizations globally seem to be possessed by a fresh motivation and passion for innovation, novelty as well as growth. This trend has particularly been noted following the duration of massive retrenchment as well as downsizings within such organizations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Difference between a Leader and a Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rapidly growing technology, high rates of global expansion and flexible business models have resulted in the demand for more strategic and focused leadership approaches within organizations. The notable mergers as well as takeovers within most multinationals and domestic corporations are indicated to have significant impacts on the types of leadership required within various organizations.
Evidently, the present corporate leaders are seemingly confronted by a severe requirement for novel types of talent as well as leadership approaches. Various types of leadership approaches and theoretical models have been indicated to have significant and varied effects on the present organizational performance or efficiency. For instance, the capacity of transformational leadership approach to stir and motivate change and innovation amongst diverse groups has been noted.
As the leadership demands grow, many organizations and their managements are gradually realizing the need to integrate participatory approaches within the management. Employees are presently identified as the first and important stakeholders within most organizations. Therefore, the need to integrate them and apply a comprehensive leadership approach that includes all the stakeholders is eminent within most organizations.
The human resource departments within various organizations have had the challenge of recruiting personnel with promising and vibrant leadership competencies. Moreover, they have the challenge to assist such personnel with budding leadership skills to fully realize ad exercise their notable competencies. Due to flexible and ever-transforming business demands and competitive environments, there must be a clear methodology of defining the future leadership requirements within organizations.
Participatory leadership includes one of the most preferred and practiced leadership approaches within most organizations. Its continued application is premised on the fact that it allows room for collective bargaining and indulgence of all relevant personalities. It may also be applied in taking care of the employees’ demands and general welfare.
Generally, it can be noted that an appropriate leadership approach leads to high levels of efficiency as well as effectiveness within present organizations. Present leadership approaches within organizations must focus on a diversity of strategic issues. For instance, the leadership must be concerned on how the organization must quickly be prepared for transformation within the entire organization. Critical leadership skills needed for the future must be taken into consideration.
Technological, emotional as well as intellectual aspects of effective leadership have distinct influences on the organizations’ performance. Much demand is increasing for leaders who can foster development and growth. They must be highly innovative and intuitive in order to comprehensively deal with complexities within the highly competitive global business and organizational arena.
Leadership skills that enhance a person’s capacity to excel in a multicultural global environment are appropriate for efficiency to be realized within organizations. Leaders with in profit making organizations must also think like their clientele. Complete leadership competencies are also pertinent in enhancing success and effective organizational performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Difference between a Leader and a Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Interpersonal associations, character, individuality and critical attributes are some of the vital elements required of effective leadership within present organizations. There is also a growing demand for those leaders with the capacity to work within the outlined processes. Generally, it is evident that present organizations need more strategic leadership approaches in order to remain more competitive and successful.
Leaders and Managers: Their Differences and Similarities Generally, a leader refers to an individual present or occupying the topmost designation or cadre within any institution or organization. The leader occupies this top most position in the organization with a basic defined objective. Basically, leaders endeavor to motivate or inspire certain personalities or followers to endeavor and attain distinct and outlined collective goals as well as objectives.
Leadership is basically the process of inculcating values and principles into the lives of individuals or followers. Effective leadership within any team or organization may be realized by ensuring the presence of maneuverability. This should evidently prevail even in the instances of adversity. An appropriate leadership approach should thus focus on providing outstanding quality client service, conquering novel grounds or avenues and collecting the needed resources.
Evidently, management and leadership are critical undertakings that usually go hand in hand and complement each other. Leadership in practice involves inculcating multiplicity, injecting motivation, enthusiasm as well as commitment and optimism. By initiating hard work, dedication and desire to succeed, leaders become role models.
They prepare others for the tiring road to success. Leaders conduct organizational reorientation, and systems downsizing. They also help in goals and deadlines accomplishment. The ability to influence others requires leaders to have full inherent energy. Weak leadership leads to poor organizational performance and inefficiencies. Leaders apply their power to influence the character of other people. Leaders are also endowed with the skill as well as information power.
Management generally refers to the art that involves planning, organizing as well as controlling any business process. In other terms, management has been seen to vary from leadership.
This is because it involves the exercise of executive, administrative or supervisory roles upon a specific group by a manager within an organization. Unlike leadership, management involves the supervision of the homogeneous and heterogeneous teams within an organization. Management assumes a substandard position of authority and remains obligated to a leader.
Through the observation of collective convictions, traditions, principles and cultures, the management roles ensure work processes are complete. Unlike leadership, management requires familiarity with individual traits such as the mastering of theoretical skills, practical skills, as well as human skills. The capacity to articulate ideas as well as other concepts allows the management to conquer barriers that obstruct concentrating on the wider picture.
With a superior comprehension of practical skills, management remains better-off rectifying practical and mechanical faulty systems. Unlike leadership, vital management paraphernalia is a person’s experience. The similarities between management and leadership are obvious. For instance, they both involve working with teams and diverse individuals. In order for both roles to be effective, there must be people skills.
Through working with different people, both the leader and manager must be alert and attentive. This is because both roles entail the addressing of worker’s needs as well as opinions. The followers’ welfare must, therefore, be considered in both leadership and management roles. Although there are significant disparities between leadership and management, there exist other shared core values that predominate as similarities between the two concepts.
Building Your Leadership Skills The art of leadership may not be easily mastered and practiced. Good and appropriate leadership is developed with the preferred character as well as relationship practices.
The skills also form a consequent rating scale for good leadership. Effectively performing leaders are widely respected. This is due to their integrity, constructive attitude, wisdom and their dedication or determination to success. Good managers are able to develop their leadership competencies. Due to this, they are able to become leaders with outstanding management skills.
Effective management calls for more than simply delegating roles to the team members. There is an evident need for the leader with the capacity to motivate group members in order to attain their maximum potential. In building leadership, one has to discover whatever individuals think about their management approaches. Such initiatives might be applied to enable a potential leader to make positive transformations.
An open-minded approach is critical in enhancing a person’s leadership competencies. Listening hard enables one to build their leadership skills. This is because through listening, one is able to offer appropriate problem solution approaches. This enhances an individual’s problem solution capabilities.
Practicing effective communication and feedback mechanism is important in developing a person’s leadership skills. This is because communication refers to an important leadership role that must be practiced. The capacity to respect the followers’ capabilities and lead through example also includes some of the important observations that are necessary for developing leadership skills.
Sharing tasks and other leadership responsibilities enables several individuals to enhance their leadership capacities. Furthermore, evaluation and monitoring of the team and individual success is a periodical undertaking that helps to note the weak and potential areas within leadership path. These are some of the important considerations for individual enhancement of leadership skills.
Conclusion As observed, leadership as well as well management form powerful structures. They exert remarkable manipulation within different workplaces or organizations.
Whilst management is obligated with creating order and stability, leadership is essentially meant for introducing transformation and movement. A leader enjoys diverse responsibilities, has several qualities and exercises upon many individuals for the purpose of the urge of achievement. Leaders appear to be more personal. On the other hand, managers are impersonal concerning goals.
Product Innovation and Pricing Report a level english language essay help
The product that will be introduced in the market is mobile money transfer. This is an intangible product, which involves the process of sending and receiving money via the mobile phone. There will be partnerships with the top eight wireless telecommunication service providers in the United States such as Verizon wireless, AT
Children Development Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Short Description of the Stages
Comparative and Contrast Analysis
Introduction Children development is a very complicated process. Trying to unite different ages in groups with he purpose to give some particular characteristics, scientists used the range of ages as children development may differ and some children at 4 years may possess skills and knowledge which others will acquire only at 6. There are particular norms which deviate in the issues of children development. Speaking, listening and comprehension, reading and writing are the main aspects according to which children development is accessed.
Early childhood (2-6) and middle childhood (6-10) are two age groups which stand close, however, children development at each of these stages is absolutely different. Giving the general characteristics of each of the stages mentioned above (early childhood and middle childhood) this paper aims to consider the differences in language development, reading and writing. Comparative and contrast analysis is going to help in the future choice of reading and writing tasks for children of different age groups.
Short Description of the Stages Early childhood stage (2-6 years) leads children through many physical, cognitive and social changes. Children at this age form stable reasoning aspects which help them develop their cognitive and mental thinking processes. Children at this age develop intuitive reasoning, their reason and consequence connections become more logical.
At middle childhood stage (6-10 years) children are able to complete more complicated thinking processes. The reasoning becomes more refined and detailed. Here is a detailed comparative and contrast analysis of the language skills, reading and writing development of children at two different stages, early childhood and middle childhood.
Comparative and Contrast Analysis Early childhood (2-6) Middle childhood (6-10) Language skills Children of this age rapidly increase and advance their vocabulary
Lack of understanding of some simple words and desire to know their meaning
Understanding of the “good listening”
Difficulty in pronunciation
Temporal words and comparatives become more understandable
Lack of knowledge of the irregular words
Literal understanding of information
Interpretation of the heard information
Ability to dwell upon a specific topic
The ability to create a story with the cause-and-effect reasoning
Reading Reading while playing
Children of this age are able to relate sounds to letters
Identification of some words in the context which is familiar for children
Use of the distinctive features of the world
The ability to hear phonemes is separately taken words
Word decoding skills are improved
Learning the skills of silent reading
Drawing inferences out of the read information
Writing Muscular control is increased in drawing
Writing of the elements of the letters and the abilities to connect them
Writing of the personal name and the simplest words, e. g. mom, dad, etc.
Writing of all the letters in the alphabet (after 4)
Smoothness of handwriting is increased
Size of the letters is decreased
Writing of the sentences and stories is dominating over the writing of the simple words
Appearance of the difficulties connected with identifying problems in personal wiring (problems connected with clarity are the most common ones
Table 1. Comparative and contrast characteristics of the age groups, early childhood and middle childhood (McDevitt,
Why is recess being eliminated from some of our public schools? Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help
Most states are currently in the process of eliminating recess from their normal school programs. Different educational boards have cited a number of reasons for this action. These range from the fact that recess exposes children to unregulated play to the lack of enough time to learn.
There are also issues pertaining to the freedom of children during recess, which gives them the opportunity to bully each other and engage in negative social activities such as teasing. Some of the stakeholders have identified that children have to be molded through learning where a teacher provides structured guidance in all aspects of their lives (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 367).
This means that the freedom to participate in their own play activities freely may be discouraging a child’s wholesome growth. The fact that teachers are aware of what is best for each child under their care means that they are in an elaborate position to provide helpful guidance during play. There have also been a number of legal liabilities that have seen school boards incurring huge losses as a result of legal suits where parents sue the school for injuries sustained during play.
This debate seems to have overshadowed the benefits of free play as they are identified in the personal development of the child. Children are in a position to establish their own perceptions in as far as their environment and the people around them are concerned (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 383). This should be subject to some level of guidance to eliminate negative influences, but at the same time, it should not be dominated by adult preferences.
The fact that recesses as well as other activities that a child engages in while at school are supposed to prepare him or her for the eventual adult life means that normal social settings should be encouraged. The elimination of recess defeats the purpose of a random learning environment as the guidance provided to children remains unpractical in their adult life because of the random challenges they face (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 378).
Recess helps build an adaptive character where a child is able to cognitively perceive positive aspects out of every scenario without having to be forced by the teacher or guardian. The child has to learn to engage his or her creative abilities without having to rely on the teacher or guardian. The fact that children are at the top of the developmental ladder means that they are more likely to achieve mental, emotional and physical growth in the process of play.
There are a number of aspects of growth especially in as far as physical and emotional growth is concerned, which occur naturally. The solving of social dilemmas is often advised by inherent knowledge developed through voluntary growth. This is often encouraged through the engagement in free play where there is no adult influence that imparts regenerated solutions, which can be easily forgotten.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The elimination of recess can be greatly attributed to the changing social structure as well as the changing perceptions among parents. The fact that parents perceive their children as being in a position to avoid all the negative influences that they had to deal with as children such as injuries and bullies means that they are the main proponents of guided play (Johnson, Christie and Wardle 385).
Teachers are also more concerned over the opinions of parents rather than the general well-being of the children that entrusted unto them.
Works Cited Johnson, James, Christie James, and Wardle Francis. Play, Development, and Early Education. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005. Print.
The Feelgud Company and Its Philosophy of Human Health Essay online essay help
Feelgud, a Maryland based company, is withdrawing all of its Headache Gone products following the reported cases of illnesses in Illinois and other parts. This follows the company’s philosophy as regards to human health.
In a statement, the company CEO reiterated the organization was determined to safeguard its image by putting the interests of the public first. Consequently, the organization is going to work with American Center for Disease Control to destroy the product.
The company decided to withdraw the product from the market following the reported cases of serious illnesses such as voting, diarrhea and general body weakness. It should be made clear to the public that the product underwent extensive testing and scientific research before being allowed to enter the market.
Furthermore, the product was allowed to trade in the American market after receiving approval from the governmental agency in charge of drug licensing. This is why the agency is willing to help the company monitor the withdrawal of the product from the market. Customer interests always guide the company meaning that the health of the public is a valued issue in the company.
Even though serious cases have not yet been reported, the company decided to pull back the product to investigate the possible problem. It is possible that the quality of the product could have been compromised either at the production site in Bangladesh or at the departmental stores within the country. The company urges the public to destroy any product that might have been purchased already before this announcement.
It is in the country’s health records that the product was effective before its quality was compromised. This information is supported by the fact that over 95% of citizens, approximated at 170,000 used the product successfully meaning that their needs were met. Due to developments in technology and the issue of globalization, many companies cannot trace the movement of their products.
Some fraudsters could have acquired the technology used in producing the drug. Furthermore, the contents of the product could have been tempered with hence, we urge the company to remain patient as the company, together with law enforcers, embark on a serious investigation. The findings of the investigations will be made public.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company wishes to notify the public to be cautious of any new changes in the product, including its effects, labeling, packaging, and distribution channels. Before using a product, ensure that the label is that of the company registered legally to distribute or to trade in a certain product.
Moreover, the public should be aware of any new adjustments as regards to packaging. Finally, ensure that the product meets the intended purpose. Should any customer experience any effect, either negative or positive, ensure that you report to the relevant authorities. Nonetheless, never hold back your suggestions. Try as much as possible to contact the manufacture. For any clarifications, the public is urged to contact 1 800 555-2233 for further clarifications.
The company wishes to assure the public that the product will be back in the market but after thorough investigations. Any inconvenience caused to the public is highly regretted. We urge the public to check continuously the press for further information regarding the product. We know that the product has been satisfying your need but your health is of great importance. You can as well check the company’s website to acquaint yourself with relevant information.
Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity are of much importance to sociologists and non-sociologists in similar methods, however, the past geographical perspective for the play out of economic development has long been of concern to sociological researchers.
Though, Vancouver B.C. has developed as the typical or quintessential example of the social process through which cities develop. It is an extended social group of a unique cultural and economic organisation in urban North America. Presently, through the progression of locally developed strategies, Vancouver has, with broad awareness presented itself as a form of modern city-making.
Like the most realistic of dreams, the city is creating itself as a district beyond and different from the usual expected transformation of a modern society. Perhaps, constant phenomenal is in accordance with the current social theories of globalisation, immigration, as well as ethnic and gender development in the city.
Vancouver B.C has propagated a number of myths about itself. These well established myths are accepted in the public mind. Nevertheless, it is a city of paradoxes.
Critical analysis beyond the understandable and the reasons for Vancouver’s success seem more often to do with historical occurrence that might have been arranged even though it was an unplanned formulated realism.
Contrary to plan and expectation, Vancouver’s precise state of separation in addition to the relative deficiency in political and economic authority has meant that it was avoided by the worst of North America urban renewal. However, freeways system of transportation using trains to move passengers or freight and underground pedestrian systems, large shopping centers, big-box retail, and super curved dead-end boulevards represent the traditional street network.
Certainly, metropolitan Vancouver does have many of the symptoms of modern North American town planning, predominantly in its remote suburbs and bedroom communities where, in fact, the majority of its inhabitants live. On the other hand, there is a virtuous chain of sanitary around the large and densely populated urban area of Vancouver itself: almost no freeways break the rules of its municipal boundaries or violate the regular street grid and a sum of just two main shopping centers besmirches its environs (Millar 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a convinced irony in America cities looking upon Canada to consider what the United States taught the public about city building. In the case of Vancouver, both Shaughnessy Heights and the British Properties were urbanised through the giants of American town planning. Vancouver has been what newcomers want it to be, the perennial immigrants’ city of the migration. Yet it is the dream city that has seduced the imagination of emigrants and visitors alike.
Objectives This research paper will discuss the role of one aspect of the phenomenon (Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity) in Vancouver, B. C. The paper will further explain the impact of geographical-regional inequality in addition to class polarisation, and function of the metropolitan city of Vancouver B.C. in the new global society.
Lastly, this research paper will assess how globalising forces impacts migration and social identities in Vancouver B.C.
Research question What are the sociological theories that best explains the local case of globalisation in Vancouver B.C?
What are the fundamental characteristics of the world-system view of globalisation?
What is Vancouver’s elemental DNA?
Methodology This research paper attempts to capture the fundamental nature of globalisation in the development and transformation of Vancouver as well as the sociological theory that best explains the local case. On the other hand, this research paper is not a clearly defined or formulated detailed and documented treatise of Vancouver’s urban geography and history of settlement (migration of people). Nor is it a wide-ranging review of the architectural tradition of the city.
Such theoretical accounts have already been well provided. The most important investigation of this paper is on an effort to understand the unique setting and urban forms that have shaped this young city and continue to influence its emerging development through globalisation. It is the selective focus on those evidences and characteristics that contribute towards deciphering the aspect of the phenomenon (Globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity) that is present-day Vancouver.
Statistics of Vancouver B.C Some vital statistics (Census Community Profiles 2006) to keep in mind in the beginning of this research are:
Vancouver B.C has two million residents (Census Community Profiles 2006).
Greater Vancouver is made up of twenty-one separate municipalities, and one electoral district, which together form the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD).
The city of Vancouver B.C has around six hundred thousand inhabitants-approximately 30 percent of the total city populace.
The land base of Greater Vancouver is 6571 km2 (2,537 square miles).
The size of land fit for urban development is much less, only about 1441 km2 (556 square miles) because of protected ridge of land that splits two adjacent river systems; local, regional, provincial and national parks; agricultural land; forests and land that is too steep to develop.
History and Background of the City of Vancouver B.C Vancouver is little more than a century old. Until about 1885, the only intimations of the future city were a factory, a church and some wooden houses in a clearing of the southern shore of an otherwise largely limited Burrard Inlet existed, though parts of the forest around the inlet had already been cut down.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though, the traditional and historical chronology approach seems ill-natured, if not absolute irrelevant to understanding the forces that have developed and continue to develop it. This timely urbanism, is match up to almost any other city in the urbanised world. Vancouver is also inseparable from its natural surroundings, and the chronicle of its urban form is about its setting and context as well as about the built content.
Elemental City of Vancouver There is something truly elemental about Vancouver, a defining characteristic of place that only a few cities have and the principal geology from which Vancouver establishes its elemental essence can be put in this formula:
Latitude coastal longitude mountains = precipitation
To put it another way:
Temperature prevailing ocean winds vertical barrier = Pacific Northwest rain forest.
Almost everything about Vancouver springs from this detailed theory of environmental information: the freshness of the air, the flavor of the water, the light, the smells, the colors of the landscape, the food it cultivates and eats, the pure atmosphere and consequential lifestyle. This is Vancouver’s distinctive atmosphere, and, the city’s urban form is responding to these elements.
Vancouver as a terminus city There is an edge quality that has described the development in Vancouver from its beginnings. In a statistically significant process, apart from the early maritime voyagers who alerted Europe to these shores, Vancouver was not colonised from the ocean but through the solid part of the earth’s surface, unlike superficially similar places such as Sydney. It is the last stop, not the beginning, of the current Canadian story.
Its birth as a city was as the western terminus of the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway. It is the final continental stop on a route beginning, metaphorically, in the British Isles, and, geographically, in the southern Patagonia, where the Pan-American Highway starts a route that finally runs out of maritime contact at Vancouver. Vancouver has always been the metropolis at the last part of the line terminal city.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalisation, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in Vancouver by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ethno-cultural portrait of Canada This paper presents the ethno-cultural analysis representing the extent to which Canada at the beginning of the 21st Century presents a nation that has become progressively more multiethnic and multicultural. This description is diverse and differs from territory to territory, city to city, and community to community.
The movements of people to Canada over the precedent 100 years have formed Canada, with each new movement of immigrants adding to the nation’s ethnic and cultural composition. Half a century ago, most migrates came from Europe. Now most recent arrivals are from Asia.
As a result, the number of noticeable minorities in Canada is increasing. Moreover, Canadians registered more than 200 ethnic groups in puzzling out the 2001 Census question on ethnic lineage, reflecting a diverse, rich cultural pattern as the nation began the new millennium.
Globalisation in Vancouver Social action these days are increasingly impervious to geographical national borders. As a result of this globalisation is not any one thing but is comprised of several interrelated economic, political, social, and cultural processes (Sklair 100).
By the same indication, globalisation processes are not driven by any universal or predetermined way. Further, as its name underscores, globalisation involves processes that span the whole world, the globe, and as such it is qualitatively different to the international relationships, migration patterns, and political communication that have long existed between countries.
Globalisation, as a result, necessitates a shift in sociological side from the tendency to think of society as simultaneous with, or happening within and between, definite geographical national territories. Even though, there is no sociological theory of globalisation in Vancouver B.C., different theoretical filaments help us to make analytical sense of what globalisation means for social change and societal processes in Vancouver.
Globalisation as the procedure of incorporating nations and people-politically, economically, and culturally- into better communities have shaped Vancouver B.C and this procedure are one which is not linear or incremental but “dynamic, transformational, and synergistic”.
Consequently just as Durkheim emphasised that society is greater than the sum of the individuals who are in it, globalisation should be perceived as being more than the cumulative sum of the Vancouver B.C. and the inhabitants comprising the city. It has its own certainty, and as such builds social processes and moral forces that cannot be reduced to the economic, political, or cultural actions in Vancouver B.C.
In Durkheimian terminology, globalisation represents an objective social fact with its own external and limiting force in society (though, evidently, this should translate globalisation as an independent of society or motivated by some unseen, non-societal force; rather it is formed by society and impacts other processes in society). As well as, further globalisation extends and impacts both macro and micro processes (Robertson 84).
What might be said to be synergistically new about globalisation in Vancouver B.C is the concurrent circulation and flow of people (migration); gender equality; and of information about all sorts of people.
Globalisation in Vancouver B.C. has changed the dynamics of social life across all societal globes. As briefly defined by Leslie Sklair, globalisation is “a system of organising social life across open state borders,” and as such gives rise to characteristically global practices and global cultural practices (8).
Immigration, race and ethnicity in Vancouver Vancouver has been the scene of a different class of settlement by an ever-extending range of inhabitants and cultures, particularly Asians, because of its position on the Pacific Rim. It is a city of migrants. With respect to its inherent nature, it is becoming the social development of Canada, contributing to a new cultural anxiety, one that is much less focused on Europe and the Europeans.
Evidence of this cultural change is easy to discover in the metropolis’s pan-Asian union landscape and Asian festivals, in its contributing place as an area for the teaching of English as a second language and in its attractive ethnic marginal political strategy of taking undeviating action to achieve a political or social goal (Frary 2009).
The union of these two advance states, the physical and the cultural, offers the first evidence to clarify Vancouver’s developing urban structure.
Immigration and the Changing Culture of Vancouver Throughout narrative description of past events, cities have been the dynamic midpoint of political, economic, and social transformation. Globalisation processes and the changes they create once again draws interest on the position of the city in society.
The “sharing of knowledge” via migration of people from a different culture is one of the major causes of cultural globalisation (Giddens 76). One way of thinking about the effect of the global sharing of race and ethnicity and of the culture it displaces, is the theory of global unification, introduced by Roland Robertson (1992).
He offered reasons and arguments: “Globalisation has to do with the act of changing location from one place to another as a whole in the direction of unification- meaning unity of the world as a single social and cultural place” (348).
In line with this, the region that would in due course become Vancouver was formerly populated by local people. These occupants were replaced by immigrants. The immense number of early colonial migrants came from Britain and Europe, but the Gold Rush of the middle of the nineteenth century and the building of the transcontinental railways in the 1860s and 1870s drew migrants from other parts of the globe, together with those from Indian and, most remarkably, Chinese ancestry.
The 1901 periodic count of the population announced that about 10 percent of Vancouver’s inhabitants were from Asia. The possibility, as a result of a favorable amalgamation of circumstances for immigration to Canada from Asian countries, was strictly reduced in the end of the nineteenth century and the mid-twentieth century. In the 1880s, an individual tax was forced on migrants from China, and the cost was gradually increased to decrease immigration.
This first effort to limit the ethnicity of migrants was succeeded by decrees that made it impossible to migrate from India to Vancouver B.C, and restrained the number of migrants from Japan.
In the 1920s, the Chinese individual tax was withdrawn in support of an absolute ban on this form of migration. However, the impact of this plan of action in Vancouver B.C. is worth mentioning. Early Chinese, Indian, and Japanese people of the same race and ethnicity began to increase in the years signifying the primary function that follows the main developmental change of the century in the city of Vancouver B.C.
Though, this natural disposition was limited by a new plan of action. At the same time as, the decrees restricting the capacity or freedom of action, as well as the ban of Asian migration were taking place, the federal government implemented strategies to draw migrants from Europe. As a result, the proportion of Asian group of people who differ ethnically or politically from the bigger populace to the Vancouver population dropped, plummeting from approximately 10 percent in 1901 to below 3 percent in 1941 (Hiebert 1999).
Undersized Chinese and Japanese enclosed territory that is culturally different from the unfamiliar territory that surrounds it continued to exist close to the city center, but the number of immigrants has drastically reduced in number, especially in considering the fast expanding European populace.
All through most of the twentieth century, Vancouver’s unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes the development of globalisation, immigration, race and ethnicity were directly linked with the resource of British Columbia. Furthermore, the city’s cultural masterpiece was distinctly European, Controlled or ruled by a British receptivity.
The changing context of the core-periphery world A fairly large distinguishing quality of the worlds’ system perception is that it distinguishes and, in reality, requires transformation within a system. Although the world system is an autonomous and consistent system (Wallerstein 347), it also has its own internally created pressures and challenges.
The passing of time, population change of location and demographic movements, and (following Marx) the ever-present challenge that belongs in capitalist production diversely result in recurring shifts as to which internal structures and groups have more power than others (347).
The structure of the capitalist world system, therefore, Wallerstein argues, is not set once and for all time by some watershed events in history. Geographical boundaries can develop such that areas external to the system can be included into it, typically into new outside edge or semi-periphery areas (mostly, historically, as a result of colonisation of peripheral areas).
By the same token, some regions may change their role in the system. Wallerstein Immanuel stated that such core territories can become semi-peripheral and semi-peripheral ones marginal (Wallerstein 350).
Although core states have an advantage over others, their status is not assured across a long period, and they necessarily encounter challenges.
In conclusion, it will be observed that this is a process which is neither seamless nor apolitical, and which is characterised by considerable economic disparities between and within countries and regions. Sociologists underscore that economic globalisation proceeds in tandem with the expansion of the power of transnational corporations and create new forms of class stratification, characterised by substantial inter-class social and economic inequalities.
Clearly, globalisation is of much substantive interest to sociologist, because on the surface, at least, globalisation is transforming the process of change in the society and the assumption made about the changes.
Works Cited Census 2006 Community Profiles. Vancouver, City and CMA”. Government of Canada. 2006. Print.
Frary, Mark. “Liveable Vancouver”. The Economist. 2009. Print.
Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990. Print.
Hiebert, Dorothy. “Immigration and the Changing Social Geography of Greater Vancouver.” BC Studies 121 1999: 35-82.
Millar, Royce. “No freeways puts Vancouver on top”. The Age Melbourne. 2006. Print.
Robertson, Roland. Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 1992. Print.
Sklair, Leslie. Globalization: capitalism and its alternatives. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002. Print.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, With a New Prologue. London, England: University of California Press, 2011. Print.
Health Care Reform Report a level english language essay help
Introduction Health care reform has remained to be an issue in the United States for the first time since 1994, when President Clinton proposed major reforms, there is provable consideration in reforming health care in America.
Research reported some constant challenges where unions of all influences are providing their own positions on the issue. Political activists and leaders are presenting concerns and solutions about these issues surrounding health care system. Some states have implemented different health care reforms and other states are on their way doing the same.
Interest in health care reforms is determined by three major issues, such as medical cover, cost, spending, and quality of health care services. With reference to coverage, it is estimated that above 50 million people were uninsured in 2007 and this makes up above one-seventh of the total population (Garber