In today’s world, there is a large scale embrace of social media by both people and organizations. This has changed the way people relate with each other and thus has affected communication techniques in a great way. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have attracted many subscribers from all over the world and many organizations are slowly turning towards the media with a goal to reach as many people as possible (Bernadette 2011).
Organizations that aim at making profits through marketing have been quick to embrace the idea because it provides an opportunity for organizations to access the majority. Social media can, therefore, be said to have had a big impact on the operations in organizations (Kang 2011).
Many researches have been carried out in recent times to assess the impact of social networks on the progress or development of organizations. It is, however, notable that most of these researches have been conducted considering only the profit-making organizations. Very little efforts have been used to asses the impact nonprofit organizations (Sallot
Man, the State and War by Kenneth Waltz Essay (Book Review) scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Examination of the Veracity of the Sources Utilized
Critique of the Text
Summary When reading the book “Man, the State and War” by Kenneth Waltz, the main driving thesis behind the book immediately presents itself in the form of a question which is: “what is war?”. Waltz answers this question by postulating the the origin of war comes from “within man, the inherent structure of separate states and due to the very state system itself” (Waltz, 2001).
He refers to the aforementioned causes of war as “images of international relations” and views them from either a singular or collective perspective from which he ascertains how each “image” interacts with the other which ends up resulting in the occurrence of war.
Waltz claims that it is this interaction between the various “images” which is the main cause of war due to variances in methods of thought, thinking, relations and other variables which create either positive or negative effects. It is at this point that Waltz attempts to analyze whether it is possible to create a world that is devoid of war or if war itself is an inherent aspect of mankind which will never truly go away (Waltz, 2001).
Upon further reading it can be seen that the ideas of Waltz are heavily influenced by the ideas of realism and neo-realism wherein he states that the anarchic international system combined with self interested states (which is one of the claims of realism) actually prevents the creation of a peaceful global environment due to factors related to competition and mutual distrust.
In the end Waltz states that the only method of resolving the current dilemma of war is if a single world government was to be created which addresses the individual concerns of each state. Unfortunately such a situation requires each state to give up their much vaunted “sovereignty” which would be highly unlikely resulting in peace being applicable in theory however being unattainable in practice (Waltz, 2001).
Examination of the Veracity of the Sources Utilized When going through the entirety of the text it can be seen that Waltz synthesized the views of Hobbes, Mills, Rosseau, Kant, Spinoza, Kant, Smith and a variety of other known experts in the field of international relations in order to formulate the arguments present within his book.
The sheer amount of views and in-text lifting from other authors lends the work a certain degree of veracity in terms of the accuracy of the arguments and how they conform to current methods of thinking regarding the current state of conflict within international relations and its origins. As such, in terms of its use of sources I find that there are no problems whatsoever.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critique of the Text The main strength of the work of Walsh comes from its use of prolific body of historical knowledge and thoughts from various experts in international relations tht formed the foundation of his work. Yet, despite this abundance of literature it must be noted that Waltz fails to “think out of the box” so to speak when it comes to examining the causes of war and instead single mindedly focuses on the “images of international relations” that he had brought up at the start of the text as the main causes of war.
There are other factors that he neglected to take into consideration such as religion (which was why the historic crusades were started and one of the contributing factors behind the ongoing conflict between Israel and several Arab states), ethnicities (as seen in the current ethnic conflict between Sunni and Shiite Muslims which has led to various uprisings in the Middle East), economic factors (as seen in the case between the U.S. and Japan when the U.S. cut of supplies of much needed resources to Japan which sparked the bombing of Pearl Harbor and brought the U.S. into the Pacific theater), historic alliances (seen in the case of World War 1 wherein the balance of power system and historic alliances in effect brought numerous nations into the war) (Vassalo, 2003).
Lastly, the fight for resources has been an ongoing theme within human history which Walsh neglected to elaborate on yet has been growing in relevancy due to factors related to growing population rates, global warming and an assortment of other factors which has further exacerbated this growing point of contention (Betts, 1999).
Furthermore it must be noted that Walsh had a habit of framing the motivation of man in relatively “black and white nature” (i.e. good or evil) which is an over implication of how people thinking and act. While the book itself is great basis from which one can learn about the origins and causes of war, it focuses too much on the various arguments of historical thinkers without sufficiently examining other factors which influence the start of wars.
Conclusion Overall, it can be stated that the work of Waltz is a great attempt at explaining the origin of war yet, based on the critique of the text, it can be seen that the concept of war is too broad to be defined within the parameters defined by Walsh and constitute far more factors than what was elaborated on.
Reference List Betts, R. K. 1999. Must War Find a Way?. International Security, 24(2), 166-198.
Vassalo, A. W. 2003. Man, the state and war: A Theoretical Analysis (Book). Military Review, 83(1), 68.
We will write a custom Book Review on Man, the State and War by Kenneth Waltz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Waltz, K. 2001. Man, the state, and war: A theoretical analysis. (pp. 1-284). New York: Columbia Press.
U.S Intelligence History Essay best essay help: best essay help
Introduction National intelligence refers to the act of conducting activities, which are perceived to be essential for the conduct of both national security as well as foreign relations of a given country. In the United States, a cooperative federation consisted of approximately sixteen governmental agencies have been put in place to conduct these activities.
Further, these agencies work separately during the preliminary stage but join hands in the pronounced stages of these activities. Among these intelligence activities includes; collection as well as production of domestic intelligence, military planning in addition to espionage performance (Loch 23).
The cooperative federation put in place is commonly referred to as United States Intelligence Community. In a research conducted by Loch, it was found out that the United States Intelligence history is dominated by certain strategic themes, which relate to the intelligence’s reform catalysts (Loch 23).
Vaart notes that it depends with the perception of an individual in assessing whether the United States’ Intelligence reforms have been reactive in an effort towards dealing with past events or they have been proactive as well as forward-looking with the point of dealing with the future trends in addition to patterns in national security (Vaart 39).
Thesis Statement This article will focus on establishing the recurring themes considering the United States’ Intelligence history, which seem relevant to the significant reform catalysts. In addition to this, the paper will also establish whether these reforms have been reactive in trying to deal with past events or whether the reforms are forward-looking and proactive with the point of dealing with future trends and patterns in national security.
Discussion Recurring Strategic themes in the U.S Intelligence History
In order to understand this, it is necessary that the difference between strategic themes as well as reform themselves be comprehensively understood. Consider the following example; in the early 1880s, the Naval Intelligence office was established by the then President of the United States and this was considered by world wide political analysts as an intelligence reform.
What drove the nation into establishing this reform was the international crisis. As such, it was when the powerful United States captured a flagged ship owned by the British at the time the civil war was cropping up. Another catalyst for this reform was the inability of the United States’ marine force to track ships belonging to Britain during this international crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strategic theme that gave rise to this reform was represented by the expansion of the presence of the United States navy in many international oceans in addition to the increment of the United State’s maritime trade with international trade partners (Vaart 39).
From this perspective, one strategic theme that is majorly recurring in the history of the U.S Intelligence is the need for a director of national intelligence. Indeed, this had been outlined in 1971 by Schlesinger. 20 years after Dulles report was written and presented to the United States Government, James R. Schlesinger, then an official in the office of Management and budget, was asked by the president as well as the National Security Council to make a review of the Intelligence community (Vaart 42).
He found out that, considering the past decade, the intelligence cost had shot up yet the intelligence community had not achieved what he termed as a commensurate improvement with regards to the coverage in addition to the aggregate quantity of the intelligence products.
He advocated for an immediate appointment of a manager to be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products not only within the intelligence community but also within the defense department.
He indicated that there would be a new position established for the manager from a white house coordinator to Director of national Intelligence, who is fully pledged and who would be responsible for control of budgets of the intelligence community.
Another recurring theme in the history of the United States’ intelligence can be traced in 1882. During this time, the Naval Intelligence office was put in place and as such, it was supposed to reform the United States’ intelligence. The global community was experiencing trade hardships. Many industrial analysts described it as an international trade crisis.
This reform occurred immediately after the powerful United States captured a flagged ship belonging to the Great Britain during when civil war had taken effect in addition to the inability of the United States’ marine force to track ships belonging to Britain during this global trade hardships period.
We will write a custom Essay on U.S Intelligence History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The United States government opted to expand the operations of the marine military wing into major internationally shared oceans such as the pacific. In addition to this, the government saw it necessary to increase its maritime trade with international trade partners. This, according to the findings of Vaart is the strategic theme that led to the naval intelligence office (Loch 29).
Thirdly, after the attacks of 11 September 2001, calls for the need to split the Director of National Intelligence duties between the chief of the intelligence community as well as director of the C.I.A were made. This surfaced to be a recurring strategic theme. The catalyst that led to the underlying reforms was the terrorist attack. This attack led to the death of a significant number of people.
As such, three passenger planes were high jacked by terrorists and they crashed the three planes into the Twin Tower buildings causing many deaths. Therefore, calls for implementation of measures to conduct high levels of investigations in addition to far reaching reforms were made.
There were many surveys examined. However, the most influential was the 9/11 commission’s report that advocated for the splitting of the Director of the National Intelligence. The president adopted this report and acted upon it guided by the report’s recommendations.
Nature of the reforms
These reforms can be identified as possessing both reactive or proactive. With regards to being reactive, the reforms are made in a bid to deal with past events. On the other hand, proactive reforms are made to deal with the trends and patterns in national security that is likely to occur going into the future.
The reforms can be perceived as reactive if they are concerned with establishing the weaknesses subject or failures that led to a tantalizing effect and seeking ways to containing this effect. For instance, as James R. Schlesinger indicated, the intelligence cost had shot up yet the intelligence community had not achieved what he termed as a commensurate improvement with regards to the coverage in addition to the aggregate quantity of the intelligence products.
He recommended to the President the appointment of a manager who would be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products, not only within the intelligence community but also within the defence department. Such recommendations were aimed at correcting the past actions of the intelligence community and therefore making improvements so as to ensure that such will not be experienced in the future1.
These reforms can also be described as reactive. Considering what happened after the September 11 terrorism attack; there were calls for implementation of measures to conduct high levels of investigations in addition to far reaching reforms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on U.S Intelligence History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is indeed a reactive reform as the calls necessitate looking into the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, which was a past event, and therefore making investigations. This reform, since it was the majorly recommended by surveys including the 9/11 commission’s report, was adopted by President Bush.
A reform is identified as proactive due to its tendencies in focusing on the future events. The aforementioned reforms can be said to be proactive in addition to holding an element of reactivity. For instance, considering the findings of James R. Schlesinger about the Intelligence Community, he found the performance of the intelligence community lacking.
As such, the cost that had been incurred on intelligence activities had gone up without anything beneficial to show for it. As a result, he made a recommendation that there should be appointed a manager who would be mandated with the responsibility of planning as well as rationalizing the intelligence collection and the evaluation of the intelligence products, not only within the intelligence community but also within the defense department.
While this is seen as a worthwhile recommendation, it is proactive. The essence is the future. As such, James R. Schlesinger puts the future into focus and saw it necessary to make these recommendations in an effort towards preventing such a miss surfacing in the future2.
Another example of a reactive reform is the calls for the split of Director of National Intelligence duties between the chief of the intelligence community as well as director of C.I.A after the September 11 terrorist attacks. These reforms were advocated for since they would ensure that the intelligence community will be better prepared in the future when such an event happens.
Perhaps, the duties of the Director of National Intelligence duties was so much generalized such that some important duties such as chief of the intelligence community as well as director of C.I.A were overlooked and therefore causing a narrow scope of intelligence activities and this led to the inability of the Intelligence community to prevent the terrorist attacks. Therefore, the reform; that is splitting of duties, would guarantee that; in the future, terrorism attacks will be prevented and this evidently clear that such a reform is proactive in nature (Loch 33).
Conclusion It has been found in this analysis that during the history of the United State’s intelligence, there have been major reforms. There are catalysts that have resulted from these reforms being made. In addition to this, there have been strategic themes that have led to the establishment of these reforms.
The analysis found out that reforms and strategic themes can be easily confused with each other. However, a closer consideration establishes that indeed, it is strategic themes that bring about the surfacing of reforms.
It was also found out that reforms can be reactive, that is, focuses on dealing with the past events. Further, they can be proactive with the point of dealing with future trends and patterns in national security. However, it depends with the perception of a person. With regard to the aforementioned reforms, it is evidently clear that some can be singly reactive while others can be perceived as both reactive as well as proactive (Vaart 39).
Works Cited Loch, Johnson. Strategic Intelligence. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2006. Print.
Vaart, Andres. “Studies in Intelligence,” Journal of the American Intelligence 39 (2008): 39–50.
Footnotes 1 Johnson Loch, Strategic Intelligence (Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2006), 53
2 Andres Vaart. “Studies in Intelligence,” Journal of the American Intelligence 39 (2008): 44.
California Medicaid Cuts Essay argumentative essay help
The proposed California medical cuts are initiatives, which the federal government has initiation to minimize the cost of treatment to the people whose income level is relatively low. This plan targets the low income group who depends on agriculture as the source of livelihood, thus might not be able to meet the high cost of hospitalization.
Reports have acknowledged that Healthcare costs have drastically increased and low economic growth has thrown many residents in the area, a situation that necessitates government involvement in the matter. Although the proposed medical cuts have significant affects on the privately owned community hospitals in the state, the facility owners need no panic because the anticipated legislations would not affect their operations completely.
For example, there are some proposed cuts that are likely to be most relevant for the operation of the hospital. Therefore, the hospital owners need to focus on the reductions that will help them achieve remarkable level of development and economic sustainability.
The proposed California medical cuts will reduce the overall state’s expenditure and probably ease the level of taxation of the people. In return, the low income earners might have some money to seek medication at the community facility. The healthcare medical cuts would also result to substantial reduction of Medicacid program that the state government rolls to help the low income earners meet the cost of treatment.1
The reduction in the amount of money spent on the scheme means that there are people who might not get the security of the Medicacid program and would use their own money to finance their medical cost. In this regard, the community health facilities would remain relevant to the people and will continue to offer treatment to the local patients from the low income category.
In helping the low income earners cope with the rising cost of employments, their involvement into the medical scheme would make sure that they obtain this essential service. On the other hand, the increased number of people losing their employment due to job cut that result from economic down turn indicates that the Medicacid program will experience increased enrolment beyond its capacity.2
Since the government might not fund the increasing medical cost of the rising low income earners, it will reduce its contribution to the program. This will for a number of local people with low income to use their limited financial capability to seek medical attention from the community facilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other proposed healthcare medical cut that the government intends to implement that would be relevant to the operation of the hospital is reducing the provider’s payments. This is significant because the amount of money that the medical facility owner will spend could reduce. As a result, he or she would spend more money on developing the facility and be able to provide best treatment to the patients.
Third, the proposed healthcare medical cut that the government intends to implement that would be relevant to the operation of the hospital is promoting the program integrity.3 Here, the government intends to put efforts to improve the honesty with which the treatment services are provided to the people.
Therefore, the patients who visit such facilities would get the best medical attention, thus will not shun the facilities. Therefore, most of the proposed healthcare medical cuts would be relevant to the operation of the hospital and the owners should mainly focus on quality.
Bibliography Kaiser, Henry. California Medicaid Cuts Spark Anger; N.Y. Medicaid Fraud Detection. 2012. New York, NY: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Lambert, Lisa. Fewer Jobs Means more Spending on U.S. Medicacid. (2012). New York, NY: Thomson Reuters.
Vibeck, Elise. “Report: Medicacid Costs Squeezing State Budget.” (2012). The Hill’s Healthwatch Report, pp. 1-2.
Footnotes 1 Henry Kaiser. California Medicaid Cuts Spark Anger; N.Y. Medicaid Fraud Detection (2012) New York, NY: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation 1.
We will write a custom Essay on California Medicaid Cuts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2 Lisa Lambert. Fewer Jobs Means more Spending on U.S. Medicacid (2012) New York, NY: Thomson Reuters 1.
3 Elise Vibeck. “Report: Medicacid Costs Squeezing State Budget” 2012 The Hill’s Healthwatch Report 1.
Australian Advert Banned on UK TV Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The article pertains to a ban imposed by the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) in UK on a tourism advert by Australia because of a use of the sear word “bloody”. It further quotes the response of Director of Tourism Australia, Scott Morrison and indicates an element of ethnocentrism on part of the two nations.
The advert exhibits the use of English language as a cultural dimension that unifies both the countries however; the psychological dimension is what distinguishes the two. The article stipulates a different value system and a difference in beliefs and cultural norms(BBC NEWS 2006).
Hence the article has two aspects; one the one hand it is an amalgamation of cross cultural beliefs and values, it represents a promotion of acculturation whereby Tourism Australia attempts to promote a diffusion of cultural values using and a melting pot approach in promoting tourism in Australia. On the other hand it also elicits a sense of ethnocentrism, a cultural bias towards the belief of superiority of one’s own ethnic group.
In a marketing perspective ethnocentrism can act as a deterrent in consumer purchasing decisions(Puzakova 2010). Where the advert itself represents an ethnocentric approach by Australia to promote its culture, the article represents and ethnocentric bias by UK as well in terms of believing that its language use is more appropriate than that of low-context culture of Australia.
The differences in intercultural communication are evident. Whereby, Australians, based on this article, are more open in their use of language, the British seem more conservative indicating an insensitivity of variations in the international communication that lacks in the Australian advert(Chaney and Martin 2007).
It can also be argued that conservatism, politeness, being reserved and formal in the use of language are perhaps just stereotypical characteristics that plague the British society. Research, according to Scott Morrison, shows an appreciation of the Australian sense of humour in the British population.
Hence it could be in fact just an imposition of traditional values by the BACC to preserve its traditional front stage culture, ignoring the evolution of its backstage culture and a diversity of self concept in one culture. The ethnocentric bias is based on mindsets incorporating cultural and social factors and is developed through socializing agents like schools, families and friends and thus can be altered with a change in socializing agents(Puzakova 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus the article is an example of xenophobia in its most ethereal forms which is persistent even in an era of massive globalization.
Bibliography BBC NEWS. Australian advert banned on UK TV. 2006. Web.
Chaney, Lilian H, and Jeanette S. Martin. Intercultural Business Communication. India: Pearson Education Inc. , 2007.
Lilian, Chanay H. Intercultural Business Communication. India: Pearson Education Inc, 2007.
Mail Online. The world’s biggest family. 2011. Web.
Mamman, Aminu. “Employee intercultural effectiveness in a multicultural workplace.” International Journal of Human Resource Management (Peason), 1995: 528-552.
Puzakova, Marina. “Mitigating consumer ethnocentrism via advertising and media consumption in transitional markets.” 2010: 727-764.
We will write a custom Article on Australian Advert Banned on UK TV specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Savani, Krishna. “ Cultural Conditioning: Understanding Interpersonal Accommodation in India and the United States in Terms of the Modal Characteristics of Interpersonal Influence Situations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011: 84-102.
Is HRM a worthwhile investment for an SME Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Organizations’ management teams are increasingly appreciating the importance of human capital in an effort to improve their organizations’ competitive advantage (Kok 2003). This has led to an increment in the number of studies being conducted with regard to best practices of managing human resources.
There has also been increased recognition of the purpose of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the modern economies. This realization illustrates that, there is a point of convergence between human resource management and small medium enterprises. Human resource management [HRM] deals with management of a firm’s workforce (Kok 2003). It is composed of a set of different but interrelated processes, activities, and functions that are aimed at attracting, developing, and retaining an organization’s workforce.
Some of the activities undertaken in HRM include employee recruitment, selection and formulation of effective appraisal and compensation scheme. Through HRM, organizations can develop and retain talented and energetic workforces that can contribute towards attainment of the formulated organizational strategies, missions, goals and objectives (Transky
Critical factors of executive success: Steve Jobs Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of business performance and executive competence
Performance of Steve Jobs as a senior executive
Introduction The successful of business organisations is often depended on the leaders or executives who drive leadership in these business organisations. Business leaders are the main strategists of business programs that define the success of the firm in the industry and the economy in which it operates. Executive competence is one of the leadership attributes that combines other enabling qualities for business leaders (Henman, 2011).
There are many notable business executives across the world that have helped companies to gain strong positions through innovation. The late Steve Jobs id on of the most commonly known executives for his ability to drive Apple Incorporated to what it is today. It is argues that Jobs was able to develop the company through executive competence that he developed over time. This paper discuses Steve Jobs and his leadership skills that aided him in attaining executive competence that enabled Apple Incorporated to grow to success.
Overview of business performance and executive competence It is important to note that no business company can attain growth without a clear and visionary leadership from the person leading the company. The company’s success is often based on the policies that are developed and how these policies are implemented by the organisation.
Organisational leaders or executives are the overall overseers of policies of companies since they approve the policies and ensure that these policies are implemented to the latter. The kind of policies that are developed and their respective implementation depend on business leadership qualities of the executive. The executive must have a clear picture of where he or she ought to drive the company to (Goleman, 2011).
Goleman (2011) observed that good business leadership skills of organisational executives often result in positive business outcomes for firms. This makes firms more competitive and positions them in the sense that they become more strategic in the market. Business leaders form the first brands of organisation that they are heading.
Steve Jobs is one of the most echoed business executives having taken over leadership in Apple and diving the company to greater heights. Though business leaders are shaped the organisational environment, they should to have more influence to the organisational environment.
They need to take charge of the environment and subdue to favor the practices of the company and bring about achievements. This is what successful business executives like Steve Jobs were able to do. The performance of Steve Jobs as the Chief Executive Officer of Apple incorporated is linked to many factors most of which revolve around the business leadership skills and competence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Performance of Steve Jobs as a senior executive Business executives have to be transformative in nature. Transformation is one of the most desired aspects in organisational or business leadership. Steve Jobs was termed as one of the most transformative oriented executives in the world by believing in change and innovation and making that change happen through innovation.
This is one of the aspects of executive competence that made Steve Jobs leave a legacy by making Apple one of the leading companies in the competitive information and communication technology industry. Transformational leadership is argued to drive innovation which is one of the most desired attributes in organisational positioning.
One of the most important transformative aspects of Steve Jobs is his belief in innovation and the subsequent support and involvement in organisational innovation leading to creativity in the company (Mohr, Sengupta
International trade Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction Nations all over the world strive to achieve stable economies through legislation of various policies. They do so in the attempt to woe investors to participate in activities that will develop and expand their operations. There is no country in the world that can exist without relying on foreign investors and foreign trading activities (Ilmanen, 2011, 33).
This is due to the disparities in nature and amount of endowments in these countries. Exchange rate is an essential financial aspect that determines the level of a country’s participation in international trade. There are several factors that nations undertake which determine their exchange rates as evident in this essay.
Definition Exchange rate is the value at which the currency of a country measures against the currencies of other countries. All countries in the word have exchange rates they use to determine the value of goods from other countries (Sarno and Taylor 2003, 11). This rate enables traders to know the value of their goods in the international market.
How States Influence Exchange Rates
Even though, a nation does not have an absolute right of deciding or fixing the rate at which its currency exchanges with those of other countries, there are some extents to which a state can determine these rates. These are steps a nation takes to ensure the exchange rate favours both local and foreign trading activities. Therefore, importation and exportation of goods and services ensures consumers and traders get a fair deal for their money and investments respectively.
Peace is an indispensable factor that promotes trading activities all over the world. Nations that strive to maintain peace within and outside their boundaries enjoy an influx of investors. This means that not only their investments are secure but also their lives are saved. No one will ever wish to invest in a war prone country regardless of the profits the investor will get.
However, countries that encounter civil strife discourage investors (Weither, 2006, 20). Their goods and services do not attract international demand; as a result, their value depreciates. Therefore, the more a government strives to maintain peace within and outside its territories, the higher the chances of enjoying favourable exchange rates.
Investors are usually looking for countries that offer potentials of economic growth. Nations coming out of prolonged civil conflicts due to poor governance, those that have unexploited resources and those that open their boundaries to foreign trade, attract investors (Jha, 2011, 47). Some African countries are enjoying favourable exchange rates as a result of restructuring their government systems and assuming responsible leadership.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They have demand for modern technology, expertise and investments. This demand makes their currencies fetch high prices in the international market. Therefore, their exchange rates compete effectively with other currencies. The more a country offers investment opportunities to foreign investors, the better its exchange rate ranks.
Balance of Trade
It is not enough for a country to participate in international trade. However, nations should ensure there is a positive relationship between the volume and value of exports and imports (Ilmanen, 2011, 54).
This situation has significant influence on a nation’s exchange rate. The more a country exports, the lower the exchange rate of its currency compared to other nations. Therefore, nations should ensure they export more goods than what they import. This means they participate in productive international trade that raises the value of their currencies.
Even though, most nations can not survive without relying on international bodies like the World Bank, for financial assistance, it is better for them to borrow as little as possible. The higher the amount of debts a nation has from global organisations or other nations, the higher her currency exchanges with those of other countries.
This leads to an unfavourable exchange rate since the country is not economically independent (Schofield and Bowler, 2011, 96). However, countries with fewer debts have a strong command on international trade activities, and thus their currencies have high values. Therefore, to have favourable exchange rates nations must borrow as little as possible from other nations or international organisations.
Investors expect high returns on their investments regardless of the risks involved. Foreign investors look for nations that offer high rates on investments in order to cater for operational costs and gain profits. Nations that offer high interest rates on investments have without doubt attracted many investors.
Competitions among investors become inevitable leading to high value for the limited currency of these nations (Clark, 2011, 33). However, countries that offer peanuts to investors discourage them leading to depreciation of the value of their currencies. Therefore, the higher nations offer returns on investments, the more the values of their currencies are appreciated.
We will write a custom Essay on International trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Most nations find international trade a one sided activity due to high exchange rates that do not favour them. However, from the above discussion it is clear that such nations can influence the value of their currencies in international markets. Nations should strive to achieve conditions that facilitate foreign and local investments to stand high chances of favourable exchange rates.
References Clark, I. (2011). Foreign Exchange Option Pricing: A Practitioners Guide (The Wiley Finance Series). New York: Wiley.
Ilmanen, A. (2011). Expected Returns: An Investor’s Guide to Harvesting Market Rewards (The Wiley Finance Series). New York: Wiley.
Jha, S. (2011). Interest Rate Markets: A Practical Approach to Fixed Income (Wiley Trading). New York: Wiley.
Sarno, L. and Taylor, M. P. (2003). The Economics of Exchange Rates. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schofield, N. and Bowler, T. (2011). Trading the Fixed Income, Inflation and Credit Markets: A Relative Value Guide. New York: Wiley.
Weither, T. (2006). Foreign Exchange: A Practical Guide to the FX Markets (Wiley Finance). New York: Wiley.
Carbon-pricing scheme Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Making the emitters pay
Price inducements work
The challenge of settling on the right price
Introduction In Australia, a carbon-pricing scheme is usually known as the Carbon Tax Scheme (CTS). The scheme was unveiled in July 2012. This scheme calls for businesses producing more than twenty-five thousand tones of carbon dioxide corresponding emissions per annum to acquire emissions permits.
The aim of this report is to discourage emissions of greenhouse gases, “which pose a serious threat due to the cause of man made climatic change” (Adeyemi,
The Telecommunications Company of Brazil Report college admissions essay help
Brazil is the ideal country to acquire a new telecommunications company. Due to military rule, the country has witnessed hyperinflation and its economy is not very liberal. Brazil has undergone major reforms which have ensured that the economy remains somewhat liberal. The country needs to adopt structural reforms so as to ensure a growth in its GDP.
There is a great need to curb inflation and keep the interest rates low. The country has had high public debt and there is no political will to enact conservative spending policies. The revenue system for the country has not been up-to-date and it has a heavy tax burden, although its taxable base still remains narrow.
Individual companies have devoted a lot of resources and manpower in trying to manage their tax affairs. The tax system is still complex, unwieldy, and porous. All these factors necessitate the acquisition of another telecommunications company (USA International Business Publications 50).
Brazil is ideal as a telecommunications hub given that it has a high population, and the market is both large and growing. The country’s economy is diversified and it is witnessing political stability though political effectiveness is not yet up to date.
This coupled with a tax system that is ineffective and a deficient labor market and infrastructure implies that the country is in dire need of another telecommunications company. With the country’s economy moving towards stability, it will be the best spot for such a company.
There is a hope for the country’s sovereign risk to stabilize. The local capital market is deep and this is a solution to the liquidity and solvency problems. There is therefore a stable outlook towards the same. Fiscal consolidation will automatically increase the primary surplus. With the increase in the differential rates, the currency is bound to stabilize.
The country’s banking sector has also been found to be stable. This is due to the fact that it was able to withstand the world economic recession that hit every sector of the economy across the globe. The banks in Brazil have a credit risk management system that is well developed and supportive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The banking system is characterized by strong regulatory and supervisory strategies. With such stability, the telecommunications company is bound to blossom as most of today’s telecommunications companies carry out their activities hand in hand with the banking sector. A good example of this is the electronic money transfer system that has most of its activities linked to the bank.
The economic structure is also very vital in the success of any telecommunication company. With an export base that is diversified and a financial system that is well-regulate, the country will be at the pick in terms of economic growth.
The telecommunications company will be of great importance particularly when it comes to improving the countries revenue collection system. The country’s political leaders must therefore make and implement laws that will provide a fertile ground for the development of the telecommunications company (Polishuk 200-205).
The telecommunications company will revolutionize the country’s economy through the adoption of the e-business that is stable and with very limited risks. There is limited risk for fraud and theft. With the introduction of a paperless economy, there is efficiency and speed in business transactions. The country forms a large section of the market for information technology in Latin America.
The industry produces computers and other telecommunications equipment that are worth billions of dollars. The government policies seem to be in support of the telecommunication advancements. Internet penetration has greatly increased within the last five years. This is vital for the growth of Brazil’s economy.
Services like e-banking, e-learning and other online activities significant to the growth of the economy will be availed to the people and hence boost the economic growth. There is however a need to upgrade these services to reach the international standards. This there necessitates the establishment of another telecommunications company.
The sales accrued from e-commerce have doubled in the last two years and the sales of personal computers and other communication gadgets have been increasing with time. Telecommunication companies are sustainable and frequently pay dividends aimed at boosting cash flow as well as maintaining a share price that is strong.
We will write a custom Report on The Telecommunications Company of Brazil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The companies are not hit as hard as other sectors of the economy in the event of an economic recession. The country is strategically placed and it is closer to the world great economies like the United States and Mexico. There has been a significant trading between New York and Brazil. The telecommunications company is therefore able to tap in the neighboring markets and maximize the profits.
The telecommunications companies are known for high yielding stocks and they are fast growing companies with a greater competitive advantage. The advancement in the telecommunications technology will help the country to shift from over depending on the export earnings and become in information economy.
The telecommunications company will ensure that the country’s wealth resources are equally distributed to all sections of the country (Polishuk 67-80).
Works Cited Polishuk, Paul. “Brazil.” Brazil Monthly Newsletter 10 November 2010: 67-80.
Polishuk, Paul. Brazil Telcom. Salvador: Information Gatekeepers, 2009.
USA International Business Publications. Brazil Telecommunication Industry Business Opportunity Handbook. Washington : Intl Business Pubns USA, 2005. Print.
The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of the Genocide
Introduction The Rwanda genocide that occurred in 1994 led to the loss of about 800,000 lives of the Tutsi community. The assassination of the president Juvenal Habyarimana triggered the genocide where the Hutu militia together with the Rwandan military organized systematic attacks on the Tutsi who were the minority ethnic group in Rwanda.
The Rwandan genocide was quite strange because it was a speedy mass killing, which led to the loss of about 800,000 lives in just 100 days. The United States of America president at that time Bill Clinton during his visit to Rwanda apologized and told the Tutsi that he felt like other people “…who did not fully appreciate the depth and the speed with which you were being engulfed by this unimaginable terror” (Power Para. 7).
The Rwanda genocide becomes the extreme genocide that occurred in the 20th century. This essay explores the history of the genocide, the reasoning of the Hutu government and establishes why the international community did not intervene.
History of the Genocide Hutu and Tutsi are the two tribes of Rwanda who have always been political enemies, fighting for power since independence in 1952. Belgians who colonized Rwanda favored Tutsi while they neglected the Hutu, but after independence, Hutu begun to enjoy the privileges of the government. “…independence ushered in three decades of Hutu rule, under which Tutsi were systematically discriminated against and periodically subjected to waves of killing and ethnic cleansing” (Power Para. 17).
Many Tutsi went to exile in the neighboring countries and formed rebels who constantly attacked the Hutu government. In 1990, Tutsi formed the Rwanda Patriotic Front, which attacked the Hutu government leading to the Rwandan civil war.
The Rwandan civil war led to the signing of the Arusha Accord that compelled the Rwandan government, which Hutu dominated, to form a government of national unity by incorporating marginalized Tutsi and the Hutu who were in opposition. For the realization of peace, the deployment United Nation peacekeepers helped in demilitarization of the civilians for Tutsi and Hutu to live in harmony.
Hutu thought that the Tutsi and the Belgians wanted to enslave them again as during colonization and they vowed never to agree with the terms of the Arusha Accord. By 1993, “Hutu extremists rejected these terms and set out to terrorize Tutsi and those Hutu politicians supportive of the peace process …thousands Rwandans were killed, and some 9,000 were detained while guns, grenades, and machetes began arriving by the planeload” (Power Para. 18).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Subsequent periodic attacks on Tutsi set the stage for the genocide in 1994. Then, there was evident militarization of Hutu in readiness to exterminate the Tutsi and Belgian peacekeepers, who the Hutu perceived as their enemies.
The assassination of the Rwandan president Juvenal Habyarimana triggered systematic mass killings of Tutsi by the Hutu military where they killed about 800,000 Tutsi in about 100 days. Though many diplomats perceived it as civil war, they alter discovered albeit late, that genocide had occurred. Now the genocide is a great scar in the land of Rwanda.
Hutu Government Hutu government emerged after independence in 1952. Prior to the independence, the Tutsi enjoyed much privilege from the colonial government because they cooperated with the Belgians in undermining the Hutu struggles for independence. Therefore, the Hutu government reasoned that Tutsi were their enemies and they fought them both politically and by use of military.
Democracy was difficult to achieve because political parties and Tutsi were defiant to the Hutu government and it perceived them as dissidents. The enmity of the Hutu and the Tutsi became feasible when the Hutu government in three decades consecutively discriminated against the Tutsi tribe leading to their exile.
“In 1990 a group of armed exiles, mainly Tutsi, who had been clustered on the Ugandan border, invaded Rwanda…next several years the rebels, known as the Rwandan Patriotic Front gained ground against Hutu government forces” (Power Para. 16). After the Rwandan civil war, the Hutu government realized that the Tutsi were a great threat to their government and their existence, hence devised ways to exterminate them.
The Hutu government also perceived the signing of the Arusha Accord that led to the formation of government of national unity as a scheme to overthrow them out of government.
The Arusha Accord was just a paper as the then United Nations assistant executive; Beardsley confessed that, “we flew to Rwanda with a Michelin road map, a copy of the Arusha agreement, and that was it … under the impression that the situation was quite straightforward; there was one cohesive government side and one cohesive rebel side” (Power Para. 21).
We will write a custom Essay on The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Hutu extremists in the government rejected the implementation of the Arusha Accord and did not implement it to the letter. Consequently, anyone who was supporting the Arusha Accord became an enemy to the Hutu government.
The Hutu government reasoned that Tutsi, opposition leaders and foreign diplomats wanted to overthrow them from the government, thus organized systematic mass killings as a way of defending their its rule. The assassination of their president was a clear indication of a scheme to overthrow the government.
International Community The international community did not intervene in the Rwanda genocide because of the bureaucracies in their policies. For instance, the United States foreign policy did not provide for Bill Clinton to intervene the occurrence of Rwanda genocide. George Bush in 2000 issued his statement concerning Rwanda that, “I don’t like genocide, but I would not commit our troops … genocide could happen again tomorrow and we wouldn’t respond to any differently” (Power Para. 40).
The foreign policies of the United States are full of bureaucracies and that is why it took long for them to respond but with apologies that could not help. They did not consider Rwanda genocide as a humanitarian crisis, thus, they kept quiet while 8000 lives are lost per day.
There were slow responses from the international community because the situation of Rwanda was a combination of civil war and genocide. Power argues that, “it is true that the precise nature and extent of the slaughter was obscured by the civil war, the withdrawal of U.S. diplomatic sources, some confused press reporting, and the lies of the Rwandan government” (Para. 26).
Other nations relied on the United Nations and the United States of America but they all kept quiet leaving them to rely on confusing news from the Rwandan government and the media. If the international community could have intervened, it could be justified as a humanitarian war because it could have saved many lives
Conclusion The Rwandan genocide is a shocking experience to the world because it depicts how human lives can be lost in such an inhuman way. The situation of Rwanda became much worse as the international community never responded effectively to save the situation.
The international community never imagined that mass killings of that extent would occur as many thought that what was happening was just a normal civil war. Thus, ethnical politics of Rwanda and the international community are responsible for the occurrence and the extent of the genocide.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of the Genocide in the Rwandan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Power, Samantha. “Bystanders to Genocide.” The Atlantic Monthly 288.2 September 2001. Web.
Carbon Footprint Components and a Role of Business Report essay help online free
Introduction Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. As greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere, global warming occurs. The consumption of fossil fuels by the energy infrastructure is one of the greatest sources of greenhouse gases which are responsible for recent global warming and climate change concern.
The Government’s goal is to play an active part in global efforts to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations to avoid reaching dangerous levels and to adapt to the climate change that is now inevitable. However, with the change in global climate facilitated by the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, there is an urgent need to consider the renewable energy sources for sustainable development.
The major advantage of the renewable energy sources is that they can never be depleted since they do not exist in fixed amounts like the non-renewable sources. They are clean and have very little contribution to global warming. Most of these sources are harvested in their natural form and thus requires very little operation costs.
This paper analyses the components of a total footprint for a business, gives reasons why there is need to reduce the carbon footprint and gives an appraisals of some of the energy sources that can be used to reduce the level of carbon emissions.
Carbon Footprint Greenhouse gases are released to the atmosphere through natural process although most of them result from increased human activities; some of these activities are agriculture, deforestation, and industrialization. As forests are converted into farmland and cities, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
This is because all living things contain a given amount of carbon dioxide and when they die, carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere. If forests and grasslands are cleared large amounts of carbon dioxide stored in them is released into the atmosphere increasing the volume of the greenhouse gases (Cramton
Mitigation of disaster Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
How the article aid DEM professionals in providing competent and ethical assistance to the citizens affected by disasters Digital Elevation Models are essential tools used by the geological departments in a nation to help reveal various aspects of earth’s structure. Generally, a combination of various factors is known to cause disasters; these include political factors, cultural/social factors, economic factors, and physical/geographical factors in a given area (Rovins, p.3).
The above-mentioned article examines possible consequences that can be seen if proper response to a disaster is not followed by a recovery from the disaster. It reminds different professionals about their collective responsibility in managing disasters should they occur.
In fact, it emphasizes the fact that there is need to predict and prepare for such incidences. DEM professionals can thus use the model to help in predicting disasters, for instance, the possible occurrence of a volcanic eruption of faulting along some lien of weakness on the surface of the earth.
The concept of physical vulnerability is described in the paper. The way the infrastructure of a country is designed in relation to the geographical location has been portrayed as one of the factors leading to disasters. It is also observed that even though attempts have been made to plan for hazards that results into disasters, implementation of such plans often fails. The DEM professionals should consider it a responsibility on their side, to be involved in the planning process.
Perhaps, it is lack of enough information that could lead to poor implementation of the plans, thus these DEM professionals should be involved during the planning of infrastructure. In addition, surface terrain should be considered when designing infrastructure such as roads and railways, while houses that happen to have been erected on lines of weaknesses should be brought down following recommendations from the professionals.
How the information can be used to create democratic public policies and programs that assist the community in mitigating, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the disasters In managing disasters, much focus has been given to mitigation planning. This paper reveals that the implementation of plans has been thwarted especially by the fact that the causative agents may not follow a predictable or regular pattern. Policies that allow for flexibility in the operations of the government could thus be enacted based on such a principle. Moreover, a special program department in a government could be created that deals with such issues.
Besides, it has been stressed that planning for disasters should not be isolated from all the other planning in a community or country. Thus, a democratic system of government would be one that advocates for the incorporation of such plans in the national budget and obtaining views from the public concerning such steps. This has been supported by the paper as reducing losses that are experienced in the response to and recovery from a disaster.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, arguments have been put forward that the cost of mitigation planning can be very high. However, it is still acknowledged that such costs cannot be higher than the unpredictable damages that can follow a disaster. Therefore, policies to be adopted should be those that would prefer reducing benefits rather than completely losing such benefits.
Evacuation of victims of disasters from the struck areas has been used in some areas in order to reduce casualties. However, the findings in the paper reveal that it is not a good solution, as it is just a temporary solution that would soon wither away with a short time.
Instead, physical planning should be done to ensure that the population is settled on safer locations. The authority can then find appropriate activities suitable for such areas. This can be easily used in the management of flood disasters
Reference Rovins, J. (2009). Effective Hazard Mitigation: Are Local Mitigation Strategies Getting the Job Done? American Military University. Retrieved from https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/highpapers.aspx
International Law is not really law Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
International law entails principles and rules that govern relations among countries, individuals, and organisations. It also has public international law that deals specifically with rights among different states and various citizens of different states. On the other hand, private international law looks at disputes among private individuals, natural or juridical, which occur among parties of different nations. In some cases, the line between public and private international laws has become unclear.
Australia operates under the federal system of laws. This makes its relation to international law a complex affair. Enforcement of international law in Australia has met challenges. However, we must understand that enforcement alone does not determine the extent of what the term law means. This is because, in some cases, domestic laws may also be unenforceable.
In the recent case of Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470 (11 November 2008), the Supreme Court of Victoria offered an essential observation of how the uses Foreign Judgement Act 1991 may affect enforcement of international law.1 The Judge turned down an application from a foreign country (Singapore). He observed that Australian courts are reluctant to invoke public policy as an avenue for refusing enforcement or recognition of foreign judgement.
Australian courts have not recognised or enforced foreign judgement on this basis. The main reason is the “interest of comity’ to maintain” (mutual respect among sovereign states) (Foreign Judgment Act 1991). This happens when courts observe the Foreign Judgment Act. In this regard, enforcement and registration are only relevant on the grounds that are ‘significant reciprocity of treatment’ of Australian judgement in a foreign country.
The courts also observe this because of public policy volatility. In this sense, a repugnant law may exist or repugnant applications of such laws may occur; thus, offending public policy. However, such cases only occur in crucial cases where there are offenses of laws of Australia public policy.
Despite such challenges, Australia wants to enhance enforcement of international law. This is an attempt to understand various laws from different nations, legal procedures, and institutions in areas of international laws. Australia planned to enhance this approach through establishing institutions, training, and legal exchanges.
In the international front, Australia has signed several treaties relating to international law on areas of social security, trade, shipping, security, non-proliferation, and defence among others. These treaties form the basis of international law. However, the country experiences challenges in enforcing such laws due to its federal system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The federal system provides an opportunity for opposing parties to opt for arbitral laws instead of relying on Model Law based on the International Commercial Arbitration of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). This is a significant source of challenge to application of international law in Australia where various laws of different nations interact.
Another source of a challenge lies in the appeal or review powers of different states with regard to Commercial Arbitration Acts. Recent trends also indicate the process is litigious and reflect those of court processes. These technical issues make application of international law in Australia difficult.
In 2009, the federal government of Australia has realised such technical, legal challenges and consequently introduced a bill so as to change the relevance of international law in the country.2 This bill seeks to repeal section 21 of the International Arbitration Act 1974 (Cth). The section has allowed parties to disregard application of Model Law.
The bill also seeks to repeal loophole that allow parties to “nominate an alternative arbitral tribunal” under the International Commercial Arbitration in Australia. This implies that State and Territory laws shall only operate in the domestic cases.
This bill shall transform the relevance of international law in Australia as it seeks to eliminate legal challenges that arise from the federal system. The process has also not been so efficient in Australia such as in the area of confidentiality.
International law requires states to comply with certain conditions in enforcement with regard to individuals. Thus, it is an offence for a nation to treat a foreigner in a way that violates provisions of the international law. The challenge lies in lack of a relevant agreement that a foreigner can use to complain before the international tribunal. However, a country can raise such issues.
Nations are not under any obligation to enforce such rights. This implies a nation can choose to enforce or not to enforce such law. Such observations lead scholars to conclude that international law is never a law. This is because countries which formulate such international law, through treaties and conventions, do not recognise or treat international law as law in their countries.
We will write a custom Essay on International Law is not really law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite such challenges to international law, we must recognise that the law is applicable and works in all states. Nations must recognise it, and adhere to set benchmarks. In this regard, Australia has recognised its relevancy in areas of peace, development, human rights, and democracy. Australia must comply with such international law so as to safe its self-interest and on the ground of reciprocity.
We can argue “that the Commonwealth only enters into an international obligation because doing so is relevant, therefore, important to the advancement of the interests of Australia”.3 This is so because Australia needs to address matters of international cooperation and of common concerns.
In case Australia fails to fulfil needs of international law, it becomes an issue of international interest and disapproval. In this context, most states observe international law even if such observations are mundane in nature, and have less impact relative to national law. This also explains why Australian lawyers practice international law before domestic courts.4
We cannot ignore functions of courts in enforcement of laws. Australian courts are important in facilitating enactment and enforcement of international law. Thus, Australian courts should not be hostile in enforcement of international law through facilitation, interpretation, and implementation, but should harmonise its law with those of other countries. Other jurisdictions may have high regards of judgements of Australian courts; thus, enhancing enforcement of international law.
The sources and evidence of international law Decisions of the United Nations Human Rights Committee (HRC) in cases brought by individuals against Argentina, France and Gabon involving Article 17 issues
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation (UN HCR 1988).
Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks (UN HCR 1988).
The UN Human Rights Committee (HRC) has Counter-Terrorism Strategy that the General Assembly has recognised in the resolution of 64/297. According to the UN, states terrorist acts can destroy human rights, democracy, and freedom. In addition, such measure may violate or prejudice the rule of law and human rights.
Thus, observing human rights can address factors responsible for the spread of terrorism. Still, effective counter-terrorism acts and human rights protection are necessary for combating terrorism. As a result, the HRC has “ten best practices” for combating terrorism. According to HCR, ‘best practices’ reflect legal and institutional provisions that enhance promotion and protection of human rights and the law in all various cases of counter-terrorism.
Best practices also cover benchmarks of the international law, human rights, and all aspects of a country’s legally binding conditions. Best practices can be existing, emerging, required, and recommended among international bodies and domestic courts. Such practices must also relate and promote effective fight against terrorism. Best practices must also comply with human rights, enhance the enjoyment of human rights, and fundamental freedom.5
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Law is not really law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A UN General Assembly resolution on the right to privacy
A UN General Assembly resolution on the right to privacy indicated that International human rights law condoned invasion of privacy where it was mandatory for legal reasons, and performed with agreeable dignity.
For instance, in the US (United States v United States District Court, 1972), the Supreme Court ruled that it was illegal to carry out surveillance of a US citizen without a warrant even if the operation benefits a nation’s national security. However, in reference to ICCPR Article 17, invading individual’s privacy without a warrant is tantamount to interference with an individual’s privacy the law does not allow; thus, such actions are unlawful.
A general comment by the UN HRC on Article 17
A general comment by the UN HRC on Article 17 is in General Comment No. 16 (04/08/1988). It has provisions on the right to “respect of privacy, family, home and correspondence, and protection of honour and reputation” (UN HCR 1988).
It protects people against unauthorised or arbitrary interference with individual privacy from the state or other bodies. In this context, every country should uphold the UN HRC provision whether such interferences originate from the state, lawyers, or natural persons. Therefore, countries should enact laws that guard against such interferences so as to protect individual rights.
A decision of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which upheld the compatibility of their law with international human rights standards
A decision of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which upheld the compatibility of their laws with international human rights standards rely on the provision of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. New Zealand observes that such laws have same provisions as those of the Australia law of statutory interpretation.
This also applies to Section III of the British Act that needs the court to interpret the law in a way that is compatible with Convention rights. There may be ambiguity in interpretation, but the jurisprudence in New Zealand can provide guidance, in the use of the common legislation in Australia.
An article written by Professor George Williams, a leading expert on anti-terror laws
Professor George Williams, a leading expert on anti-terror laws, observed that Australia passed several anti-terror laws after the 9/11 attacks. The country passed at least one anti-terrorism law after every seven weeks. The Professor observed ”It would be unthinkable, if not constitutionally impossible, in nations such as the United States and Canada to restrict freedom of speech in the manner achieved by Australia’s 2005 sedition laws”.6
At the same time, Australia also empowered ASIO to detain and interrogate “non-suspect citizens” for a period of one week. He notes that such approach to anti-terrorism was unique among Australia comparable legal systems. In addition, the country’s Federal Parliamentary committee on intelligence and security also embarked on a mission of reviewing over 40 proposals that seek to increase the country’s intelligence-gathering power. On his view, such tough anti-terrorism laws were unnecessary and draconian.
A report published by Human Rights Watch examining New Zealand’s anti-terrorism laws and their compliance with international human rights standards
A report published by Human Rights Watch examining New Zealand’s anti-terrorism laws and their compliance with international human rights standards (2010) showed that national security (counterterrorism) measures impacted on the enjoyment of human rights. For instance, in 2007, the police used heavy-handed tactics to arrest suspected terrorists (Maori Terrorism suspects).
In this regard, New Zealand has recognised that it has a different constitution from the rest of the world, but was working to enhance provisions of human rights both nationally and internationally. These rights are in the Human Rights Act 1993, and New Zealand Bill of Rights Act of 1990. In 2009, the country noted that provision of human rights was mandatory so as to enhance the country’s credibility and promotes its international reputation.
The US had criticised New Zealand for weak counter-terrorism law. In this regard, the country decided to toughen its anti-terrorism law. The Terrorism Suppression Act 2002, according to New Zealand’s Solicitor General was incomprehensible. This means the Court could not prefer terrorism charges against the accused. This is a clear violation of human rights. However, the state still maintained some charges related possession of illegal firearms and grouping among others.
In 2010, the state had “Urewera 18” in custody awaiting trials. This is after three years since the court charged them. In this case, the Appeal Court of New Zealand ruled that the “Urewera 18” were to face trial without a jury. No one knows the reasons behind such decisions. The police faced criticism for such arrests, but it tries to maintain its dignity through insisting that such suspects must face trial related to organised crimes.
Bibliography International Arbitration Amendment Bill 2009 (Cth).
Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470.
Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen  HCA 27 .
Law Society of New South Wales (Young Lawyers), The Practitioner’s Guide to International Law (New South Wales Young Lawyers International Law Committee, 2010).
United Nations Human Rights Council, A/HRC/16/51, [22 December 2010].
Williams, George, ‘A Decade of Australian Anti-Terror Laws’ (2011) 35 Melbourne University Law Review 1137-1175.
Footnotes 1 Jenton Overseas Investment Pte Ltd v Townsing  VSC 470.
2 International Arbitration Amendment Bill 2009 (Cth).
3 Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen  HCA 27 .
4 Law Society of New South Wales (Young Lawyers), The Practitioner’s Guide to International Law (New South Wales Young Lawyers International Law Committee, 2010).
5 United Nations Human Rights Council, A/HRC/16/51, 
6 George Williams, ‘A Decade of Australian Anti-Terror Laws’ (2011) 35 Melbourne University Law Review 1137-1175
Curriculum design and development Essay essay help online
Introduction Curriculum development is a concept that has attracted a lot of discussion in respect to the way it can be appropriately defined. According UNESCO and IIEP (2006), there is no single definition of curriculum development. Most definitions focus on the syllabi and learning materials. The broader definitions consider that curriculum is concepts that include other factors within and outside the school systems.
Traditionally, curriculum was referred to as a group of courses that formed part of the school’s education program. This refers to the approved courses that have to be accomplished so that a student can be promoted to the next educational level.
As the world continues to modernize its education systems, various definitions have been developed to explain the concept of curriculum development. Therefore, curriculum can be defined as the organization of sequences of learning outcomes. The sequences are entrenched in the education system of a country, and are aimed at achieving quality education (UNESCO and IIEP, 2006).
Schools and colleges have designed curriculums to develop the skills of students. This is aimed at achieving various professional requirements in the changing modern world. Therefore, the need for superior skills has contributed to the need for curriculum development in education systems worldwide.Curriculum development has been described as the process of planning aspects that are taught within an educational institution.
Curriculum development is done to match the school courses and programs to the skills of students (Hedden, 2012). The aim is to develop a curriculum that provides educational sustainability in the long run; thereby achieving the goals of national development.
Curriculum development focuses on major and minor topics and courses that contribute to the students’ career development. Curriculum development refers to a wide range of discussions by different professions and organizations that make decisions concerning learning experiences. Such decisions need to be integrated in a national, regional, or local education system to ensure sustainable development (Braslavsky, n.d.).
Curriculum development varies from country to country. The process can be controlled from a national level by the ministry of education or individual states as the case in some federal countries (Braslavsky, n.d.). Centralized countries usually apply a top-down approach in the development of curriculum. In this regard, the curriculum is presented to teachers who, once they adopt it, should teach the learners. Eventually, the curriculum is evaluated by all the parties concerned.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Braslavsky (n.d.), the society can control the process of drive curriculum development. This is referred to as the bottom-up curriculum development. The responses collected by teachers and other education officials are evaluated, and standards are set to develop the curriculum further. This system is mostly used by decentralized governments.
Professional organizations that influence curriculum decisions
The curriculum being developed should address the issues of relevance, sequence, and integration in a given community’s set up (Stabback, 2007). Therefore, the process can be influenced by various professional organizations that ensure that the curriculum meets the diverse, fundamental, national, economic, social, communal and personal objectives without any form discrimination.
The organizations are usually composed of individuals from a common profession or specialization. Over the years, these organizations have actively participated in curriculum development to ensure sustainability of education institutions. This is done with the aim of expanding knowledge and skills to students (Hedden, 2012). Some organizations that influence curriculum development include: Accountants Association, Professional Engineering organizations, and the National Councils of Teachers.
Name Links Purpose American Accounting Association-AAA http://commons.aaahq.org/files/0b14318188/Pathways_Commission_Final_Report_Complete.pdf The article aimed at integrating professionally oriented faculty into significant aspects of accounting education, programs, and research.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics https://www.nap.edu/read/5844/chapter/5 This article aimed at providing guidelines related to the teaching and learning of mathematics among students. This was meant to ensure that all students attain equal Standards-based mathematics education. Also, the teachers were assured of the growth opportunities in respect to their profession.
Curriculum design and development
The process of curriculum development involves the design and development of integrated plans for learning, how to implement and evaluate the plans, and checking the outcome. Designing the curriculum involves critical analysis of the teaching and learning framework.
The purpose of the design stage is to elucidate certain action plans for achieving the curriculum objectives. The process is done professionally and technically to avoid any overlap between the topics and the course. This results to the development of syllabuses that focus on certain areas or subjects.
We will write a custom Essay on Curriculum design and development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The ultimate result of the process is usually a coherent flow of topics regarding the courses offered in education institutions. Curriculum development ensures that students receive integrated and coherent learning experience that contributes towards personal, academic, and professional learning experience (Stabback, 2007).
Various steps are involved in the process of designing and developing curriculum. These steps are majorly followed when a new curriculum is required, or when curriculum reforms are indispensable. Curriculum development involves step-by-step contextual scan and research of relevant best practices.
Consultations with various stakeholders followed by development of a curriculum framework are conducted before syllabuses are accepted. The accepted plans are then implemented, and proper monitoring is established to check whether everything concerning the curriculum is accurate. The review and amendment of the contents is necessary for the whole process to succeed.
The process is systematic and has a clear focus on sub-systems to avoid disastrous outcomes and waste of resources. Having a systematic process in the development of the curriculum enables the elimination of any potential loop holes. At the same time, this articulates the international standards benchmarks (Stabback, 2007).
The role of technology in curriculum development
Technology plays a great role in curriculum development around the world. Over the years, technology has played a significant role in the world education curriculums. This has been viewed as the greatest improvement that curriculum development has ever witnessed. Computers have become a means of information delivery where web curricula and online modules are the common technologies that have positively transformed curriculum development (Ali, 2008; Scholl, 2001).
Technology has supplemented the delivery of learning resources due to the growing number of publication and technological breakthroughs in research. Today, technological advancement offers standardized instructions and learning environment that is familiar and can be accessed from any destination (Ali, 2008).
This has resulted in greater satisfaction amongst learners since they can share and access common resources. Technology has also reduced the time spent for curriculum development in a considerable manner as compared to the previous ways of curriculum development. Efficiency has also been achieved in the development of the curriculum as compared to traditional methods that required a lot of time (Scholl, 2001).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Curriculum design and development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More School-wide Curriculum development initiative
The Ministry of Education is charged with the responsibility of undertaking extensive curriculum research. This is aimed at collecting relevant responses about what should be changed, introduced, or done away with to improve the curriculum.
This involves consultation from parents, teachers, education officials, administrators, and professional bodies among other stakeholders. The findings are then submitted to the special curriculum review committee that analyzes the process before agreeing on the areas and subjects that need to be addressed.
Proper measures are established to ensure that the plans are implemented. In addition, proper checks are instituted to evaluate the progress of the plans (Braslavsky, n.d.). The close monitoring of the process facilitates further amendments to the curriculum.
The major challenges experienced during curriculum development can be classified into three categories. This includes internal, social, and external challenges. With regard to internal challenges, the curriculum development experiences the challenge to conform with the requirements by the ministry.
These requirements are important to the schools. The culture usually impacts the process, demanding for changes that recognize its values and norms. External forces may also prevail in curriculum development to ensure that the proposed curriculum addresses issues of international concern such as health, science, and human rights (Stabback, 2007).
Conclusion Curriculum development is a complex process that requires commitment of the organization responsible and the various stakeholders. The process should be conducted with transparency and systematically so that the outcomes of the whole process become credible.
The curriculum developed should embrace modern developments in technology. It should also adhere to the internationally accepted standard of an efficient curriculum. This ensures proper integration of the education system of the country.
References Ali, I.I. (2008). Role technology
Nursing Code of Ethics Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Goals of the nursing code of ethics
Introduction Nursing practice is guided by a set of code of ethics which constitutes an essential part of the profession. For a long time now, nursing practice has integrated the concern for the welfare of patients and the vulnerable population as well as for social justice. From a functional perspective, nurses work towards the normalization of those elements that detract from health. Not only are the nursing career prospects obliged to abide by the moral and ethical standard of nursing profession, but also to embrace them as a critical aspect of the health care profession.
Goals of the nursing code of ethics To serves as concise reminder of the ethical duties and commitment of all the persons who choose the nursing career.
To outline the nursing profession’s invariable ethical standards.
To highlight the professional’s own awareness of its obligation to the community.
Ethical principles In the code of ethics, the term practice has been used to signify the various functions of the nurse in whatever position he or she assumes, such as immediate patient care provider, policy developer, researcher, administrator, educator among other. Therefore, the principles and commitment outlined in this code of ethics fits all the nursing positions and context (Lubkin
Significance of Organizational Behavior Report college essay help
Organizational behavior has routinely been studied since its discovery in the hawthorn study. Research indicates an inextricable relationship between organizational behavior and a firm’s performance. Understanding organizational behavior enables managers to discover synergies for employee performance.
Therefore, the study of organizational development has led to the creation of positive organizational behavior as advanced by positivist psychologists1. Organizational learning process is critical to organizations because it helps management teams and low-end employees to adapt to the workplace environment, and to grow their competitive advantage2.
The process of learning behavior at the workplace, such as seeking new information, apportioning time to improve workflow procedures, and testing the validity of work assumptions offers employees to reflect on their actions. This allows them to acquire knowledge and helps in sharing information3.
The extent to which members of an organization interact to understand individual characteristics helps employees to develop a common base for a mutual collaboration. Studies have indicated that mutual coexistence among employees and their immediate seniors enhances knowledge and information sharing, which promotes and concretizes their ability to understand and execute their respective duties.
The nature of relationships illustrates that while people may have different personal dispositions and different personal attributes, learning and interaction can generate greater mutuality4. Therefore, if organizations fail to implement facilitate employee learning programs, they run a risk of impeding successful behavior learning, which may hamper improved performance.
A review of the literature indicates that people naturally know little about their fellows, and they would need reinforcement to develop learning competencies. Though many researchers have devoted a lot of their time in investigating the significance of behavior learning at work environment, most researchers have confined their studies on notions of negative behavior5.
The role of positive behavior in building positive interpersonal relationships helps organizational members to share their variable information, which remain essential to creating new approaches to completing work processes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The extent and the quality of learning behavior of individuals and groups in an organization makes people feel highly appreciated and valued and helps to neutralize the uncertainties and tensions. Capacity and objective and subjective experiences of employees with their colleagues and supervisors contribute to better subordinate-superior relationships.
Researchers argue that while negative organizational behavior may have a devastating impact on an organization’s capacity to progress, understanding variations in behavior can be used to nurture mutually coordinated relationships. This is because the process of learning organizational behavior facilitates connectivity of relationships, and captures openness to differences. This scenario helps members to free themselves and clear doubts and negative perceptions about their counterparts.
Studies indicate that connectivity among employees through behavior learning enhances the development of non-defensive reactions, and facilitates sharing of knowledge about new challenges6. Therefore, using organizational behavior, organizations are able to generate impetus for future successes.
References Carmeli, A., D.Brueller,
Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry Essay essay help online
Introduction The healthcare industry is the most important in the economy since it deals directly with the lives of the citizens. This means that the elements of ethical considerations and moral obligations are very important in the industry. The success of the industry depends on the ability of the various stakeholders to ensure that ethical considerations and moral obligations are given priority in the industry.
This objective can only be achieved if the firms in the healthcare industry are able to recruit and retain talented and creative employees. Thus human capital management has become a fundamental function in most healthcare organizations especially in the US market that is characterized by clients who are more concerned with quality and value for their money.
Human capital relates to the assessment of the human resources that are at the disposal of an organization. Human capital management considers the skills, experiences, motivation and aspiration of the employees as the most important assets in an organization. Thus organizations must be in a position to invest in the development of these assets and ensure that their workforce use them for the benefit of the organization.
This paper will focus on the value of human capital management. The meaning of human capital, the strategies that firms are using to develop their human capital and the drivers of human capital will be illuminated in light of the US healthcare industry.
Strategies for Developing Human Capital in Order to be Competitive Having realized the value that employees add to the competitiveness of businesses, healthcare organizations are currently focusing on strategies that can help them to retain the best talent in the industry. Consequently, a variety of strategies and policies have been formulated and implemented by various organizations. These strategies include the following.
Development Strategies Development strategies relates to the efforts that are made by an organization to improve the competence of its employees. Improving the competence of the employees is mainly done through continuous training and education. Even though most organizations focus on introducing the training programs, the methods that they use vary from one organization to the other.
Some firms have implemented a comprehensive development program that also caters for the training costs. Such organizations use their own facilities to train their employees instead of contracting third party organizations to offer the training services. The comprehensive programs have been the most successful in the development of human capital due to two reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, all employees have the opportunity to access the training services since the financial constrain have been eliminated. Second, it leads to the desired outcomes due to the fact that the training is done in accordance to the technical needs of the organization. Some organizations have adopted partial development programs due to their limited financial capabilities.
In this case, the employees are given incentives such as study loans and study leaves in order to pursue various courses that are related to their roles. This strategy has not been very successful since the employees always go for training that fulfill their needs instead of the technical needs of the organizations. The human development programs have helped to improve the competence of the employees.
Job Satisfaction in the Workforce and the Role of Stress Audits Job satisfaction relates to employees attitudes towards their work. The level of job satisfaction has a direct impact on the performance of the employees and the organization has a whole. The performance of the employees will be high if they are satisfied with their jobs. Thus healthcare organizations are using incentives to motivate their employees.
Besides, they are investing in acceptable work environment in order to retain their employees. Stress audits relates to the process of monitoring the stress levels among the employees. Such audits enable the organizations to formulate strategies that can be used to help the employees to manage work related stress. High levels of job satisfaction among employees lead to better performance in the organization.
Employee Retention Programs Employee retention programs are concerned with the ability of firms to reduce employee turnover by offering the most competitive and acceptable work environment. These are incentive-based programs that are used by employers to reward top performance in their workforce. Employees tend to be more committed to their work if they believe that their efforts are recognized and rewarded accordingly by their employer.
This has prompted organizations to adopt acceptable performance appraisal systems in order to eliminate bias in the process of evaluating the performance of employees. Effective retention programs enable employers to avoid losing their valuable employees to their competitors.
Safety and Management of Behavioral Risks Safety and behavioral risks influence the quality of human capital in two ways. First, the safety of the employees influences their performance. The employee will be more productive if they are not exposed to health related risks such as contracting diseases that are prevalent at the workplace.
We will write a custom Essay on Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Second, the behavior of employees such as substance abuse affects their health. In the healthcare industry, the employees have to be healthy in order to avoid infecting their patients. Thus the performance of the workforce will only be high if safety measures have been put in place. The performance will also improve if behavior change programs succeed in promoting the physical wellness of the employees.
The Meaning of Human Capital Management in the Industry The firms in the industry believe that effective management of their human capital is the key to success. Thus human capital management in the US healthcare industry is considered to be the combination of all those process that involve the acquisition and retention of talent. Even though there are other factors that contribute to the competitiveness of healthcare organizations, human capital has been distinguished as the most influential on the performance of the firms.
Human capital is the most important success factor in the industry since the knowledge, attitude and skills of the workforce determines the patient outcomes and hence the quality of services. This means that it is the ideas and the contributions that employees make in their organizations that determine the overall performance.
It is not the amount of financial capital or health equipment that really improves the competitiveness of the healthcare organizations. Thus “strategic talent acquisitions” have become the main trend in the industry. This means that healthcare organizations are investing a high percentage of their resources in recruiting and retaining talented employees.
Human capital management has thus become the major tool for creating competitive advantages in the industry. This explains the value of the human capital in the healthcare industry.
The Human Capital Drivers in the Industry Innovation
Innovation refers to the process through which new ideas or techniques are introduced in health care organizations in order to improve their competitiveness. Health care organizations will be able to facilitate innovation by employing talented individuals. The process of innovation can focus on the products or the processes of producing the products.
Product innovation aims at introducing new product that satisfies the specific needs of the clients. Thus it enables the firms to increase their revenues. Process innovation on the other hand aims at improving the efficiency of the firms in regard to the provision of their services. This means that it facilitates cost reduction and improvement of the quality of services. Innovation can be disruptive or non-disruptive.
Disruptive innovation usually replaces the existing system and creates more value to the owners of the health care organizations. Non-disruptive innovation on the other hand focuses on improving the existing system with the aim of solving a particular problem. Thus organizations that embark on appropriate innovation will be able to improve their competitive advantages in the industry.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Capital Management in the US’s Healthcare Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research and Development
Research and development relates to the process through which health care organizations conduct various studies on their products, processes and the industry in order to improve their competitiveness. In the context of human capital management, it focuses on the skills and knowledge of the employees. It is the driving force behind innovation because its findings inform the development of new products and strategies for offering services.
Health care organizations will be able to formulate effective marketing plans if they conduct research on their markets and industry. They will also be able to develop the right products by researching on the needs of the clients. For example, they can be able to develop more effective and cheap treatment methods through research and development. Therefore research and development has a positive impact on the competitiveness of health care firms.
Patient outcomes refer to the result of the treatment process. It helps in evaluating the success or the effectiveness of the treatment services that are offered by health care organizations. Patient outcomes can be indicated by the readmission rates and the physical wellness of the patients after being discharged.
It determines the sales of health care organizations since the clients will only be loyal if they are able to realize positive outcomes. Consequently, the organizations are focusing on improving the competence of their physicians through training in order to ensure positive patient outcomes.
Response time relates to the time devoted to service delivery and how fast the clients are able to access the services. The clients usually prefer an efficient organization that is capable of responding to their needs immediately. Consequently, most firms have invested in communication technologies that enable the physicians to share information with their colleagues and the clients efficiently.
This enables the nurses to have more time to care for the patients in order to realize the expected patient outcomes. Thus health care organizations will be able to improve their competitiveness by focusing on rapid response time.
Quality of Customer Services
The quality of customer services determines the level of the clients’ satisfaction especially in the health care industry. Customers are usually concerned with the quality of services and will only visit a hospital if the value for their money is guaranteed. They also prefer health organizations that are able to respond effectively to their enquiries.
Thus health care organizations are investing on training programs in order to equip their employees with the best skills for offering customer services. The competitiveness of the firm will improve as the quality of customer services improve.
Evidence in Support of the Value of Human Capital Management The value of human capital management can be explained by the following trends. First, due to the increasing demand for talent in the industry, healthcare organizations are becoming more innovative in recruiting their employees. Unlike in the past when physicians used to search for potential employers, healthcare organizations are currently sending their employees to teach in universities with the aim of identifying and recruiting talented students.
Second, the supply of talented physicians has not been able to match the demand in the industry in the last ten years. Consequently, healthcare firms have only survived due to the implementation of effective human capital management strategies. Third, the market value of most healthcare firms is measured in terms of intangible assets such as relationships, partnerships and creativity.
The development of these assets depends on the availability of talent. This means that healthcare organizations can not acquire the above mentioned assets if they do not focus on effective human capital management principles. Finally, the quality of services is the main success factor in the healthcare industry.
The quality of services on the other hand depends on the competence of the employees. The competence of the employees can only be improved if human capital management strategies that focus on skills, education and knowledge have been put in place.
Conclusion Human capital management focuses on the development human resources in terms of the employees’ skills, knowledge, experience and education. Thus human capital management is used by organizations to create competitive advantages in the market by maximizing the potentials of their employees.
In order to achieve this objective, firms have implemented training programs, incentive programs and diversity programs. The main drivers of human capital in the healthcare industry include employee retention programs, development strategies and job satisfaction. Human capital management is the most important management function in healthcare organizations due to the evidences that have been discussed above.
References Hart, K. (2006). Human capital management: implications for healthcare leaders. Nursing Economics, vol. 21 (2) , 94-115.
Jeffrey, G. (2010). Executive leadership development in US healthcare management. Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 23 (1) , 102-161.
Kabene, S., Orchard, C.,
Virtual Education Schools Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents History
Categories of online programs
Synchronous versus asynchronous programs
Models for state-based virtual programs
History Virtual schooling was initially conceived in 1996 in two regions of the United States following the invention of the Virtual High School and the Florida Virtual School. Five years down the line, between 40,000 and 50,000 learners enrolled in virtual classes (Clark, 2001, as cited in Barbour, 2006).
Approximately a decade later since the initiation of a virtual school, Setzer and Lewis (2005, as cited in Barbour, 2006) postulated that there was about 328,000 public schools recruitment in video-based or online learning. This academic projection excludes home school and charter school students who are additionally admitted in cyber as well as in virtual schools.
Virtual learning is rapidly increasing allover the united states concurrent with the expanding number of teachers and policymakers who appreciate education that is unrestricted by proximity and time. By September 2006, 38 states had implemented online learning curriculum, important rules controlling virtual schooling or both.
In the previous year, many states have adopted new state-led curriculums or set up online learning policies, including Nebraska, South Dakota South Carolina, and Missouri.
Expansion in the amount of students in various obtainable curriculums has been continued, as reflected by the 18% growth of Louisiana Virtual School, 22% of joint Ohio’s eCommunity Schools, more than 50% of Idaho Digital Learning academy and Florida Virtual School, and 24% of Virtual High School (Watson
A Discussion of the Benefits and Limitations of Second Life Essay college admissions essay help
Benefits of Using Second Life as an Instructional Tool The introduction of technology to the field of education has occasioned many beneficial outcomes for both students and educators. Second Life, in particular, has afforded teachers a whole new range of possibilities in offering instruction via virtual platforms. One of the benefits of Second Life is that teachers can be able to offer instruction to a global audience that is not limited by physical boundaries or geographical locations.
Another benefit that is closely related to the above is that students who use virtual classrooms for educational purposes can now learn from their safe environments instead of having to attend physical classrooms. Such an arrangement saves time and critical resources for both educators and students.
Third, the sense of immersion that Second Life generates makes it an excellent tool for role-play, content reinforcement and re-enactment. These attributes are critical to any form of educational instruction, and Second Life offers the much-needed platform for educators to reinforce the necessary content to students.
Forth, it is a well-known fact that instructing learners by showing them how to do things as opposed to traditional techniques of instruction brings highly positive results. Fifth, the interactive nature of Second Life not only affords students and teachers an interesting, faster and more effective learning experience, but it also foster an environment where students are able to interact with others for collaborative development.
Sixth, the simulation possibilities inherent in Second Life can provide students with a critical comprehension of what it is like for other people in the real physical world. This attribute prepares the students’ mental and intellectual capacities for future challenges.
Lastly, Second Life affords educators the possibility to prepare immersive self-paced tutorials and assessments, administer them via the virtual space and feed results into an online database for students to view their performances.
Benefits of using Second Life for Professional Development
Impacts, Justification and Legitimacy of the U.S Invasion of Iraq Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Abstract The United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 came at a time when the war on terrorism was at its peak. After the events of the September 11, 2001, the Bush Administration vowed to combat all acts of terror within and outside U.S borders.
While this initiative was highly applauded by the international community and especially the member countries which had suffered huge humanitarian losses in the hands of terror suspects, the plan to ouster Saddam Hussein from power as part of curbing the spread of terrorism was not received kindly from some quarters.
The historical account of the authoritarian rule of Saddam Hussein in the run up to the 2003 attack by United States has been discussed in this essay. Furthermore, the real impacts of the war as occasioned by U.S foreign policy on Iraq have been deliberated in detail.
The unipolar nature of the 2003 attack on Iraq has also been used as the springboard in dissecting the role played by United Nations Security Council before and during the attack.
While the outcome of the war was visibly felt far and wide, the essay attempts to critically evaluate how Americans and the people of Iraq were negatively impacted by the unstable relations between the two countries. Finally, the justification of the war as well as its legitimacy has been incorporated in this theoretical research study.
Background and synopsis of poor rule in Iraq Iraq has faced challenges like the long history of authoritarian rule and the crushing of democracy, the rivalry between Sunni and Shia, separatist claims of the Kurds and the demands of the Turkmen coupled with foreign interference like in the case of 2003 invasion by United States and its allies. The contemporary history of Iraq commenced immediately after the breakup of the old Ottoman Empire.
In the campaigns against the Central powers the British military invaded Iraq and was initially defeated by Turkey. Thereafter, the British troupes regrouped and later captured Baghdad. Later, an agreement was signed by the British and French that led to the carving out of Iraq from Ottoman Empire.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The agreement became conclusive in May 1916. In 1920, the carved out territory came under the control of the British with the name “State of Iraq” (Wollack, 2010, p.22).
When the British established the Hashemite monarchy in the new territory it did not take into consideration the politics of different religious as well as ethnic groups. This offered a chance for the Kurds and the Shiites to begin fighting for independence. Meanwhile, the United Kingdom initially established two regions which were Basra region and Baghdad region, but later the two were merged.
In 1932, Britain granted Iraq independence; however, the British still hung on to the armed forces bases and also the privileges of transfer for the British military powers. There were subsequent wars and conflicts in Iraq, even after independence had been granted.
The 1941 coup d’état saw the ousting from power of Abd al-llah who was the president at that time. The military wing soon took over the custody of the country. The Hashemite monarchy which was brought back thereafter operated up and until 1958. Another coup took place and the monarchy was sent packing by the Iraqi troops (Wollack, 2010, p.23). A series of forceful power take over followed later that is in 1966 and 1968.
During these undemocratic power changes, the military was the decider of which political party was the next head of government. Therefore, bloody conflicts between political parties were the most visible type of conflicts in the Iraqi political arena (Stimson, 2010, pp.63-64).
Since the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq at the beginning of the twentieth century, successive governments played the role of authoritarian suppressor rather than as mediator of governance in a multi-ethnic and religious country.
The use of assassinations and executions were the usual tools rather than negotiations in Iraq’s politics (Rex, 2011, p.97). Such politics became rather a political culture where Iraq could only be ruled through a strong central government with very limited rights to minorities.
We will write a custom Essay on Impacts, Justification and Legitimacy of the U.S Invasion of Iraq specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was the case until April 2003, when the United States leading the “Coalition of the willing” invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam’s Baath regime. The United Sates promised the Iraqi people and the whole region of Middle East of new democratic era (Wollack, 2010, p.24).
The Ba’ath Party had been ruling Iraq for a considerable length of time before the decline of Saddam Hussein in 2003. Nevertheless, in the post-Saddam era, the state of Iraq went into a political transition, struggling with the collective challenges of instituting structures of governance and allocating power within the institutions of the country.
Such tasks proved to be difficult since the majority of the state institutions were not functioning due to thirty years of iron fist rule of the Ba’ath party. It is more than seven years since the US assault on the state of Iraq, and vigorous debates about the future of Iraq continue in every level of society (Wilbanks
Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents The Market Situation amidst Globalisation
Privatisation and Liberalisation in Turkey
Market Structure in Turkey
The “New Ottomans”
Turkeys Accession to the European Union
Economic Implications of Turkey’s Accession
The Market Situation amidst Globalisation The Zorlu Group operates in an international environment. It is much affected by the rising tide of intense globalisation. The success of this group of companies is its adherence to the philosophy of successful international human resource management, which has become an international emerging phenomenon in business.
Globalisation is one of the key drivers to this trend. The term globalisation has a wider meaning; it involves many fields of knowledge to include economy, business, science, medicine, and many more. Globalisation is the advancement in technology, for instance the Internet and, subsequently, Information Revolution. We can now connect and conduct business with the rest of the world so easily.
Globalisation is characterised by mergers and acquisitions of industrial, commercial and financial companies, leading to an increase in the global role of large, multinational companies and to a lessening of the role of nation-states. (Bairoch, 2000, p. 197)
This is what has happened to the Zorlu Group. It started as a family-owned business in Turkey. The owner Mehmet Zorlu maintained a steady growth in the company which started as a textile company, and incorporated in it a culture of quality, integrity and perseverance.
Globalisation has widened the business arena or the playing field for the Zorlu Group. Connell (2007, p. 12) says that “Contemporary business ideology pictures globalisation as a galloping homogenization of the world in which all now participate on equal terms”.
Globalisation is also seen as a “little more than an expression of capitalist ideology” (Ferguson, 1992, cited in Bartelson, 2000, p. 181). Capitalists play a major role in a free trade with minimal intervention from governments of nations. The governments of these nation-states are part of the global world itself.
Economists define globalisation as the “international economic integration that can be pursued through policies of ‘openness’, the liberalization of trade, investment and finance, leading to an ‘open economy’” (Van Der Bly, 2005, p. 875).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The theoretician Giddens (1990, p. 64, cited in Raab et al, 2008, p. 597) defines globalisation as “the intensification of world-wide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.” This is stating the existence of the global world which can be interpreted as the virtual world.
The ‘old world’ is now dominated by information and communication structures brought about by technology and the internet. The ‘world of objectives’ is gradually replaced by ‘a world of signs’ (Bartelson, 2000, p. 189). This is the age of the digitisation of the world. In globalisation, nation states have lesser roles or in the words of Bairoch (2000), “the diminution of the role of states”.
The phrase term global village has become synonymous with the world we live in. Many authors and scholars would like to express it as saying that the world is now living in a global village, narrowed down or has been made small (but limitless) by the interconnectedness of things because of computers, the internet or the World Wide Web.
Communication and the conduct of business can now be made possible to anyone anywhere for as long as he/she has a computer.
Some of the internal factors that influence decision making in an organisation operating internationally are the senior managers’ psychological make-up, the organizational strategy, resources, organisational history, policies and systems, and organisational culture, among others.
There are other environmental factors that include labor markets, the national, regional, and world economies, financial markets, ethical and religious systems, factors in the green environment, and other industry interests.
A study by Hofstede (1980, cited in Franke et al, 2002, p. 5) revealed that some aspects of national culture are associated with economic growth.
We will write a custom Essay on Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Privatisation and Liberalisation in Turkey Privatisation means the sale of government-owned enterprises such as oil refineries, telephone companies, airlines, and utilities. It refers to providing public services or even goods.
Governments usually act on privatisation on certain public service areas, purposely to acquire and raise funds and improve the services of these public services. Other services that can be opened for sale by the government include fire protection, jails, schools, waste collection and disposal. (Shanoff, 2001, p. 20)
Privatisation advocates in Turkey believe that government services could be delivered at lower cost and with quality by private firms which are more responsive to the demands of the industry and the consuming public.
Shanoff (2001) says that the “public sector, which allegedly is sheltered from the ‘cleansing’ effect of the competitive market, is presumed to be awash in inefficiency.’
This means the public sector cannot really deliver the quality service the people or the community so urgently needs. By contrast, the private sector tends to minimise cost and provide quality service because of intense competition.
Privatisation accompanies liberalisation. It is also defined as “the process of transferring the production of goods or provision of services from the public sector of an economy to private ownership and operation” (Lewis, 1999).
Privatisation also includes:
The sale of state-owned operations to a privately owned company;
The offer of shares in a state-owned operation on a capital market;
The distribution through some voucher scheme of shares in a state-owned operation.
The government often controls the energy sector within the country; this is true with Turkey. Successful privatisation goes through various barriers and hurdles. But privatisation is a crucial element in the liberalisation process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Strategy and the Economic Environment of Business Zorlu Group by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turkey is one of those countries which have undergone the slow process of liberalisation, and has adopted some of the market-based competition in its industries. Liberalisation is also well underway in the East European countries, the United Kingdom, South America and the United States.
There are benefits and defects in the privatisation of the energy sector, according to a World Energy Council paper presented by Gerhard Ott, Chairman of the Committee on Benefits
Application of Research Approaches in Business Situations Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Performance
Theory is usually tested in practice to prove its validity and applicability; a business research is a theoretical framework that enables researchers to outline the basic aspects of the practical implementation of methods to reach expected outcomes. In this respect, a theoretical approach should be used in a business situation to maximize the effect of the overall strategy.
For instance, when a human resource manager wants to improve the employee commitment as one of the social responsibility characteristics, he/she may use one of the strategies reviewed in literature and apply it to the corporation. Assessment of results with regard to their effectiveness or ineffectiveness would demonstrate if the appropriate strategy have been chosen and applied to practice.
Performance One of the research approaches usually explored in the process of business research is performance. As a rule, performance may concern the overall performance of an organization, performance of individuals, performance of groups with regard to the skills of group members, and the ways the performance is measured.
In other words, an organizational performance can be measured with the help of the employee satisfaction when the organization is considered as a workplace and its performance can be reflected in a survey held to find out whether the conditions are appropriate as well as salaries, system of bonuses, training, overall satisfaction.
For instance, in their study Clarke and Estes (2008) suggest to “use human performance analysis process constantly so that [to detect] …performance gaps as business conditions change” (p. 178). This means that performance is the reflection of the situation in the company and response of it and all its elements to internal and external changes.
Performance can be easily applied to business situations when it is necessary to keep abreast of the latest changes that take place in the market and within the organization. One of the ways of applying performance as a research approach is demonstrated in the study by Herbst and Coldwell (2004) where performance-monitoring research is claimed to be an integral part of the quality management policy.
As such, “South African Airways (SAA) may select sample flights and administer questionnaires to passengers on these flights about …in-flight service, food quality, aircraft clean lines…” (Herbst
Negotiations Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Pergy Fischer is the current chair of Mid-Western contemporary Art. Fischer took over the management of the museum at a time when it had a number of problems; most of them were financial. The museum was in need of premises and thus the management decided on building new premises. The new building was to ease congestion in the operation of the day-to-day activities at the museum.
Moreover, the new premise was to help the museum stock a variety of more artifacts from various parts of the world. Initially, the construction of the building was seen as a simple venture that would not raise any problems. To raise funds for the same, many people had pledged to donate towards the project. However, a challenge arose because the greatest pledge came from the former Chair of the museum, Mr. Peter Smith.
Relying on pledges to fund the new project proved very unreliable. Overtime, it became apparent that most donors would not honor their pledges. Many donors and stakeholders had pledged enough money towards the project. However, the donor would end up paying only a part of the pledge citing economic hardships as the challenge.
Other donors would just change the priority of giving and therefore to some extent heavily vary the amount pledged. Since the introduction of the FASB accounting rule, it became mandatory that all the nonprofit organizations record all the pledges as income during the time of the pledge.
The new requirements and rules made the number of lawsuits in the US law courts, relating to donor pledges, to rise sharply. These lawsuits were made in order to seek the court redress in claiming the unfulfilled pledges.
A former chairperson had made a huge pledge towards the project but also failed to honor it. Consequently, Fischer sought the board’s advice on the case that involved the Smith’s unfulfilled pledge.
Due to not fulfilling the pledge, lack of funds was seriously affecting the museum and the construction project was seriously stalling. During the meeting, the board members argued about the idea and finally settled that the lawsuit was not the best idea then.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the court approach was not the best solution, Fischer was contemplating the next alternative approach to collect the unfulfilled pledge. According to Born (2009), if one does not wish to bring a lawsuit against another, arbitration is the best alternative remedial process. Arbitration serves the aggrieved party but it does not involve any court process.
Born (2009), further observes that arbitration helps parties to avoid costly and lengthy litigations. Noting Smith’s current situation as discussed in the meeting, arbitration will simply be the smartest idea. Instituting a lawsuit against smith would simply leave him weaker and in the process jeopardize his life.
It is, therefore, advisable that, considering his current situation, the museum institutes an arbitration process in order to encourage him to honor his pledge. Such a process will help both parties to easily reach a consensus. Moreover, consensus will be arrived at in a less costly way and save time as opposed to lengthy court cases.
Should Fischer involve the board or formulate a recommendation on her own for the board’s next meeting?
Following the first meeting with the board, Fischer received quite a number of ideas in terms of alternatives to lawsuits. The ideas gathered from board members aimed at ensuring the organization does not have to proceed with any legal suit against Smiths.
Most of the argument were based on the situation that smith is in, while others argued with the image of the organization in mind. In a way, it will be noble for Fischer to involve the board in further discussion leading to any action against Smith.
This will highly reflect the element of transparency and accountability in her leadership. Further, involvement of the board in determining next agenda enhances democracy and participation.
Nonetheless, basing on the first board meeting, it may seem like wasting time to involve the board in setting the next agenda. It would appear like waste of time because the board seems to have already agreed unanimously on the decision to follow. This means that involvement of the board will not change much on what is already agreed. Formulating a recommendation on her own for the board’s next meeting will have many implications.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Negotiations Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though Fischer is the Chair of Mid -West contemporary art, the position does not give her absolute powers to do as she wishes. By formulating a recommendation on her own for the board next meeting, it means that she has undermined the decision reached earlier by the board, and that she no longer values the output of the board as she can equally do better without the board.
Similarly, her decision means she has started dictating to the company on what to do, without necessarily consulting in order to get the perspectives of the rest.
Making the organizations’ decision on her own, it would mean that, she no longer upholds the virtue of practicing democracy and that she now prefer authoritarian things to the rest of the board members. According to Gasper (2005), leadership should be learned rather than being inherited.
Gasper (2005) simply means that a leader should develop his leadership skills through interaction with the rest rather than doing things depending on what he think is acceptable and favorable. Gasper further notes that the best style of leadership is the one that combines the elements of democracy and directive. With democracy, the author notes that the leader should practice the issue of giving power to be self-directing.
Should the museum sue Smith or not?
There are many factors, which should inform the decision on whether the museum should sue Smith or not. First, Smith has a moral responsibility to pay the pledge he made to the museum. Regardless of Mr. Smith’s current Situation of suffering from cancer, his written pledge still stands.
When the museum received the following pledges it had a lot in mind, and by all standards, the pledge came in to relieve them. Unfortunately, even after the museum had started implementing some of its plans with the pledge in mind, like coming up with a bigger and modern structure, the pledge was not fulfilled.
As of now, the Smith’s are elderly and sick. Consequently, the chances of recovering the pledge from them get slim with the passing days. The smith pledge issue is compounded by the fact that the board is almost unanimous that the museum is not supposed to sue the Smiths. The reason the board is adamant on not suing the Smiths’ is that the Smiths’ have been long members of the museum.
Particularly, Mr. Smith was a long serving chairman of the museum. There have equally been worries of the reputation of the organization and the Smiths’ if the lawsuit were to go through; considering that, particularly at this time, Mr. Smith is tremendously ill with cancer. The reputation of the museum has to be safeguarded if it is to viewed favorably by the public and other donors in general.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Negotiations Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The board is avoiding a negative image; where it will be seen as greedy by engaging in a court battle whenever issues come up. Similarly, the board is afraid that suing Mr. Smith will anger him so much, such that he will never again try to lend or even give any part of his money to the museum. The board is also afraid that by suing, Mr. Smith and other donors will be forced to think twice before they offer the museum any money.
Largely, I think the museum should not have hesitated in suing Mr. Smith because legally Mr. Smith had committed a crime by pledging to offer an amount worth $5millions to the museum, a pledge he never satisfied.
According to Keown (2003), a financial pledge has lot of significance in any business or organization, because a part from being recorded as income in account receivable, the organization is also valued with the amount of money pledged in consideration.
This pledge made the museum to experience intense financial stress. Were it not for the pledge, the museum would not have commenced constructing the new structure that had actually cost the museum a lot of money.
Reference list Born, G. (2009). International Commercial Arbitration. Kluwer law international: Amsterdam
Gasper, E. J. (2005). Introduction to Business. Cengage Learning: Boston.
Keown, J. (2003). Foundations of Finance: The Logic and Practice of Financial Management. Pearson Education Inc: London.
Agenda-setting theory Essay argumentative essay help
Nowadays it is possible to find a few people who do not think that mass media affect, to some extent, public opinion. Admittedly, people find out about numerous events and phenomena from mass media. This is because many citizens do not attend political rallies and therefore rely on television, radio, newspapers and magazines for information. This assumption can be regarded as a basis for the agenda-setting theory.
The theory’s major point is that mass media decide what is the most important news and what event (or person) “deserves” less attention. It is necessary to point out that the basic points of the agenda-setting theory are plausible, and the strength of the theory lies in the fact that media do shape public opinion to certain extent, but the weakness of the theory is that mass media’s impact is somewhat over-estimated.
McCombs and Shaw have written about studies done on the coverage of election campaigns by the media in the 80s, and the percentage of what was actually aired. From the studies, it was found out that the percentage of what was aired was different from what was addressed during the political rally on the ground.
In other words, what was actually emphasized during the rally was different from what was emphasized in the news (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 70). Later, when the public was asked to comment on what they thought about a certain politician, majority of the answers reflected what was aired on television (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 75).
For example, a politician may allocate a huge percentage of his rally time on law and order agenda and give little attention on civil rights. A media house may reverse these priorities and concentrate on civil rights more than law and order. As a result, the public would think that this particular politician does not care about law and order (security), but cares more about civil rights.
The writers have also emphasized on the salience of effect created by the media. Most of the upcoming politicians are usually unknown since they are simply not in the news. It was found that, new politicians are usually first mentioned in the newspapers and magazines, and then on television (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 82).
McCombs and Shaw claim that people “learn not only about a given issue, but also how much importance to attach to that issue from the amount of information”, in this way media are setting the “agenda” (1972, 176).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Admittedly, this basic assumption of their theory is plausible since mass media do “sort” news and attach different levels of importance to each event and person. Thus, many people follow the set “agenda” and pay more attention to most important and less attention to least important. Besides, this principle works in the same way when it deals with political campaigns.
One of the greatest strengths of the agenda-setting theory is that it presents “a vast wealth of research on the impact of mass media content on the public agenda” (McCombs and Ghanem 2003, 68). The theory reveals the major processes which influence public opinion.
It is especially relevant when considering political campaigns since at present the “information in the mass media becomes the only contact many have with politics” (McCombs and Shaw 1972, 176). Thus, politicians’ pledges are perceived through the vision of mass media. Apparently, when mass media highlight the campaign of a politician and there is nothing said about others, people can forget about the existence of “others”.
The other strength of this agenda is the level of accessibility people have on media. Today, virtually all the homes in America have a television set and even some channels have dedicated their channel to news and consumer advice. Television sets are also found in the waiting room of many offices, cafeterias and bars. Written materials are also easily available on the streets.
News stands display their material clearly for the public to see and entice them to buy. Other politicians have put up billboards during the camping to ensure almost everybody knows that they are running for a seat. Since the agenda setting theory is based on the people accessing the media material, it is apparent that what is on the media affects people’s opinion on a large scale.
The other strength of this theory is based on the fact that most people are usually undecided on who to vote for during the campaigns. Moreover, the undecided voters do not to attend political rallies simply because they do not care or are not concerned. Other voters simply do not believe that these candidates will deliver their promises. Despite of the lack of concern, they have to vote in the end.
When some people were asked on why they voted for some candidates, they mentioned that they liked the way they dressed, talked or even smiled. Therefore, politicians have capitalized a lot on their image in trying to win the election. Over the years, it has been seen that the image politicians present to the public through the media, has many times enabled them to win elections (McCombs and Shaw 1972, 180).
We will write a custom Essay on Agenda-setting theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, apart from the strengths, the agenda-setting theory has quite significant weaknesses. Crespi states that the theory “does not accept the discredited image of all-powerful mass media”, but “does ascribe a major role to them [mass media] in the public opinion process” (1997, 40).
Nevertheless, even the major role of mass media is quite a disputable issue. McCombs and Ghanem claim that the plausibility of the agenda-setting theory is supported by the fact that voters do not have “alternative means of observing the day-to-day changes in the political arena” (2003, 185). However, it is not taken into account that voters are usually exposed to different types of mass media.
Admittedly, various newspapers and magazines set different agendas. Some people prefer reading this or that, newspaper or magazine because it highlights campaigns and activities of a certain politician.
In this case, the voter sets his own agenda by choosing this or that source of information. These cases are not rare; on the contrary they are rather common. Thus, this is the most evident weakness of the theory which assumes that mass media play the primary role.
The other weakness is that this theory ignores the effect the public has on itself. When people are in a social event, they are bound to talk (positively and negatively) on the agendas advocated by the politicians.
It has been found that, an opinion from a friend, or from someone of the same social class, goes a long way in affecting the opinion of the subject (Crespi 1997, 58). Some politicians and companies have realized this effect and have started the door to door campaigns in an effort to influence the public’s opinion (Crespi 1997, 60).
Another weakness is that people are more sentimental to people and products that hail from their hometown. People are usually less influenced by the media regarding a politician hailing from their area. For example, it was seen that the media would have done little to persuade the people from Illinois to vote for another candidate other than Obama.
People are more likely to vote for a person whom they have ever met, know their relatives or live in their neighborhood. This has been attributed to the pride or a sense of belonging which people hold regarding a product or a person who hails from their area (Crespi 1997, 58).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agenda-setting theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, it is possible to point out that the agenda-setting theory is very important in terms of the study of mass media impact on public opinion. The major strength of the theory is that, there have been studies done and proven it correct. Also, the availability of the media to almost anyone strengthens the theory. In addition, the presence of undecided voters who vote simply because of appearance favor this theory very much.
However, the major weakness of the theory is that it regards mass media as primary source of public agenda shaping. Also, the theory ignores the effect friends and relatives have on each other. In addition, the theory ignores the effect of the pride which people have regarding politicians who hail from their area. However, more studies should be done regarding this theory especially on the psychology field.
It is apparent that people attach an emotional feeling towards the people they vote for or the products they buy. Politician nowadays have become more of actors in their campaign adverts. Also, the incorporation of music and camera effects on campaign adverts has been known to emotionally affect the public’s view on certain politicians. This is all done to try to make an emotional connection with the public.
Bibliography Crespi, Irving. The Public Opinion Process: How the People Speak. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1997.
McCombs, Maxwell and Salma I. Ghanem. “The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing.” In Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, edited by Oscar H. Gandy, August E. Grant, Stephen D. Reese, 67-83. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2003.
McCombs, Maxwell E. and Donald L. Shaw “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” Public Opinion Quarterly 36, no. 2 (1972): 176-187.
Internationalization of small and medium enterprises: effects on operations and performance Essay custom essay help
Abstract Globalization operations are the current trends in which businesses pursue in a bid to be competitively advantaged. Small and medium enterprises have as a result embarked on opening their branches and operation of their businesses in overseas markets.
This is what has made the researcher to do a research by taking a sample of 20 SMEs in the UK and gather data from the employees and top management. It would be observed in the research that the performance and operational efficiency of SMEs is enhanced by foreign operations. There will thus be a swell on the financial reports presented by these businesses.
Introduction A large number of multinational firms are small and medium enterprises. The contribution of the SMEs on the economic development and their impacts on the international arena has made it a major area for research.
The lion’s part of the economies of underdeveloped and developing economies is controlled by small and medium enterprises (Athavale, 2006). A considerable proportion of the size of the economies of developed nations is also determined by the SMEs.
The need to go global has led to the internalization of the operations of small and medium firms. The attention on the operations of the SMEs is epitomized by the quantity of research undertaken on the contributions of SMEs on the economic performance of various economies (Kirby
Asian Studies: Suharto’s Fall Essay essay help: essay help
Abstract Since 1998, Indonesia which is the country with the highest majority of Muslims in the world has transformed from an authoritarian state to a democratic state. Indonesia has developed various features of a democratic state and which is indicated by such aspects as the economic prosperity, enhancement of women rights among others. This remarkable change is as a result of Suharto’s fall from power in 1998.
Suharto was the Indonesian president for more than three decades before he fell from power in 1998.Duiring Suharto’s regime, women’s rights were greatly violated.The rate of violence against women was high. The new regime has put up measures aimed at protecting the rights of women (May, 2009, 7).
Introduction Statement of the Problem
Since the poor economic growth and subsequent fall from power of Suharto in 1998, the political system of Indonesia has experienced a dramatic change. The most intense impact is the process of decentralization and democratization that was initiated between the period 1998 and 2000.Democratic reforms in Indonesia have taken into pieces the past authoritarian system.
Decentralization has also stripped Suharto from power. The new system has eroded the authoritarian institutions that were created during President Suharto’s long-term rule. The aim of this paper is to explore the impact of Suharto’s fall form power and the subsequent protection of women rights in Indonesia.
This paper is important as it demonstrates how women were restricted during President Suharto’s regime and also the reforms that were undertaken to improve the status of women. Though several studies have assessed the impact of Suharto’s fall from power, little effort has been put into studying the subsequent democratization and its effect for the women’s rights in Indonesia.
This essay will examine the impact of Suharto’s fall from power and the subsequent fall of authoritarianism, corruption, and political persecution in Indonesia, and examine the subsequent protection of women’s rights on Indonesian women.
Prior to independence, women’s’ organizations in Indonesia focused on such aspects as women’s education, the evils that are associated with forced marriages, the importance of self-worth among others. After the Dutch colonialists left in 1945, the situation changed as leaders focused their attention to matters of national interest, and as a result, women’s issues were disregarded.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The situation worsened when President Suharto assumed power in 1966 (Nashat,
Advocacy Plan Essay essay help online free
Target Audience For students studying in small communities of Ashland, in Mississippi, library is an indispensable tool for education. It is important for students to have instant access to library resources for conducting scientific researches. Therefore, students should be assured that they will get the books and services needed in time.
The library has a perfect match for its services and timely operations towards the students and plays a pivotal role in school. It is preferable for students to have an access library services on a 24 hour basis. In such pursuit, urgent need for implementing an online service that allows an all the time access to library books, and log in at any time for research and various studies is of high importance.
Due to the fact that the main mission of the school is sustaining and increasing collaboration between teachers, students, and parents, meeting students’ needs should be a priority for the administrative stuff.
Advocacy Plan Goals Goal 1: The program on improving academic standards will be based on encouraging student learning through higher order thinking
With regard to the situation in library, one of the methods to meet the academic standards is to introduce students to media applications promoting better utilization of the material.
According to Prasher (1997), that main aspect of library school program should be based on “extending the existing body of factual knowledge concerning the values and procedures of libraries in their many aspects, and including the development of methods of investigation whereby significant data are obtained, tested and applied” (p. 190).
In this regard, students should be ensured that all plans are directed at improving the quality of library service through increasing the academic standards.
Goal 2 Directing the library resources on developing academic, career, and social skills in students to enhance their abilities to participate in class activities and learn defined outcomes
Librarians should constantly provide care and support to students. Greater responsiveness and active participation in students’ research will greatly contribute to their better understanding of some academic problems.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Goal 3: Technology is an inherent part of library media program of Ashland Middle School
Such goal can be achieved through the implementation of online access to libraries. Students who have computers in their rooms would be able to access books online.
Stock of books at a time is readily known, as the staff is able to identify borrowed books and submission of the books back the library. In order to simplify the search of books in library, it is possible to create online archives fostering the process of searching.
Activities for Advocacy Activity 1:
In Friedman (1987), to achieve the goal of having an online library service in the University, several activities should be put in place. The department of ICT and Computing would consult, organize themselves, and design an online library system.
The project would run for duration and when it is finished, it will be tried on several occasions. Library staff, administration, and students should fully participate in the implementation of the system.
Libraries in higher learning institutions are extremely beneficial to the entire school staff. There are superb collections of all sorts of books that help achieve academic excellence. In this regard, it is necessary to work out specific activities stimulating and increasing librarians’ participation in students’ academic process.
In particular, it is purposeful to establish certain academic criteria and requirements for librarians, such as ethical code of conduct and ethical standards. In addition, cross-cultural aspects should also be involved.
There exists continued technological advancement in library services. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce specific training courses that would contribute to students’ quick adjustment to the ongoing changes. It is necessary to introduce specific rule disclosing the main stages of successful search for books via the online library catalogue.
We will write a custom Essay on Advocacy Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketing Ideas for the Activities In-house marketing
The technology introduction will be supported by the installation of necessary hardware and software as well as explanation of the basic functions this equipment entails.
The training programs for the library stuff will contribute to students’ better adjustment to using the resources of library. During orientation, new students should be trained as well to have a full comprehension of all technological introductions. Therefore, the marketing needs should also involve training courses (Miller, Pride, and Fisher 2006).
The media specialists will provide students with library e-mail that will serve to accept any students’ requests concerning suggestions for improving services and staff qualification.
In order to engage the service providers, it is necessary to connect with Internet providers who can ensure students with good online access to library catalogue. Besides, some protection measures should be introduced to enhance safety and security as well as the protection of the intellectual property of the school. For this measure it is necessary to address the School Board to provide financial support.
In order to promote specific training courses, it is also necessary to conduct a marketing survey to reconcile students’ needs with the financial resources possessed by the School Board.
Reference List Friedman, J. (1987). Planning in the public domain: from knowledge to action. London: Princeton University Press.
Miller, G., Pride, M
Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Rationale behind Differentiating Instruction
How to Differentiate Instruction
Usage of Technology in a Diversified Population of Students
Introduction Educators conduct investigations thus discovering several ways of instilling knowledge upon learners. It is vital to assert that the discovery of differentiated instruction has achieved scores of goals in the academic ambience.
Differentiated instruction (DI) encompasses crafting numerous pathways so that students of diverse aptitudes, concerns, or learning requirements experience uniformly suitable ways to understand, employ, and exude conceptions as a component of the daily education practices (O’Meara, 2010).
It permits students to acquire superior liability and possession for their personal learning, and grants chances for peer coaching and mutual learning. DI, also multilevel training, requires scheduling so that the trainer teaches the complete lesson whilst meeting the personage desires of the children.
Although this is cumbersome process, it is apposite to train with reference to every child’s potency, as well as appropriate point on the scale. It is thus necessary to employ differentiated instruction in the edification institutions for learners to apprehend their potentials, as well as appropriately apply the acquired knowledge.
Prior experiences in the classrooms have shown that no two students are similar. Moreover, it is impractical for two kids to learn in a matching way. It is also imperative to declare that an enhanced setting for one child or student is not automatically apt for another. All these postulations lead to the point of differentiated education where instructors endeavor at instructing children to reflect for themselves.
Differentiated instruction; therefore, goes along to address these parameters, but upholding the fact that an indispensable curriculum is appropriate for everyone. Instructors who employ this technique use varied methodologies to furnish the individual wishes of students.
Rationale behind Differentiating Instruction Instructors, as well as other educators, have always differentiated instructions in the course of their works. The rationale behind differentiated instruction revolves around theories, edifying common sense, and benefits of the technique. This technique tends to achieve the needs of the assorted learners through utilization of varied education styles. This is factual since DI employs styles like visual, solo and social among others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This ensures that the children feel contented within the learning environment. DI usually welcomes students with varied education and other types of disabilities. Such disabilities are neurologically correlated thus bordering the student’s capacity to learn a subject (Benjamin, 2003). The technique; therefore, prompts the instructors to dispense knowledge in accordance with the child’s acumen level.
It is crucial to affirm that educators utilize differentiated learning to mind learners from diverse cultures, especially those whose initial tongue is not English. Since the technique employs bilingualism in the instruction centers, learners from other cultures may study English as they continue with the basic topics in indigenous words.
Teachers tend to differentiate instructions for entire inclusion of children in the learning progression. The technique usually uses a participatory mode of teaching thus involving students to contribute for their own gain. Teachers have previously utilized the method of direct and rote memorization in their works; however, this has not proved viable enough to instill proper subject information.
However, DI excites creativity, besides helping students comprehend ideas at advanced echelons of thinking than the aforementioned techniques. Another reason why instructors differentiate instruction is due to its efficacy in reaching learners of dissimilar potencies and weaknesses in a learning setting. Its stance is that one dimension does not fit every one, so it is an instruction with learner’s variance in mentality (Benjamin, 2003).
How to Differentiate Instruction Differentiating instruction needs a methodical understanding of the concepts of this technique. In a bid to differentiate instruction, the teacher should analyze the divergences in willingness, interests, as well as learning manners of learners, using an assortment of performance gauges. Since there are four means of differentiating instruction, starting instructors may commence differentiation by fluctuating the content, procedure, or reaction for every group.
As the educator gets expertise in technique, differentiation can happen at all three ranks of the course for various students. Differentiating content obliges a teacher to pre-analyze students who do not need express instruction. Content entails knowledge, talents, as well as feelings. Students signifying elevated understanding on the topic may pass over the lessons, but maintain on applying the conceptions to the assignment solving (O’Meara, 2010).
Teachers can also achieve this by differentiating process through changing the learning stratagems or activities to offer suitable methods for learners to discover the concepts. This offers the students substitute itineraries of maneuvering the ideas entrenched in the conception. For instance, students can utilize graphic controllers, atlas, illustrations, or chats to exhibit their understanding of the concepts learnt.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another way is differentiating the result, where the teacher varies the intricacy of the product produced by the students to express the mastery of the ideas. This implies that a teacher would expect a further composite and sophisticated thinking from an above-rank learner, as opposed to students operating underneath the grade rank.
Finally, educators can differentiate instruction by stage-managing the environment, as well as accepting personage-studying styles. Individual students have varied learning modes; therefore, allowing them to exude such styles helps in mastery and application of the subjects.
Usage of Technology in a Diversified Population of Students The use of technology is imperative in instilling knowledge, in a diversified population of students. However, the modes of application of such technologies greatly contribute to their success (Pitler, et al., 2007). There are plentiful ways that teachers can use a technology in a dissimilar population of students. One can use participatory smart boards in place of chalkboards in class teachings.
It is a flat monitor, which has a link with the teacher’s CPU, as well as school Internet. This allows students to participate in the disciplines like spelling, mathematics, among others. Additionally, the use of touch screen expertise proves viable since students can use remote clickers when responding to the query. It is noteworthy to combine technology with the traditional mode of teaching to make learning all-inclusive, engaging, and pleasurable.
A teacher should understand the formula for victory, which engages the student, content, as well as the surroundings in which he or she is applying the technology. Owing to the prevailing online books and other interactive actions, teachers can permit children to go online to complete the tasks. Consequently, one can provide the publisher’s website so that learners can complete the tasks at home.
Instructors can, as well offer options to the students on the best and familiar mode of technology to boost their learning. This implies that a diversified class may comprise a group, which is conversant with a technology, as opposed to another. There is a need to use a combination of technologies like computer games, videos, virtual museums, and interactive websites (Pitler, et al., 2007).
Conclusion Although differentiated instruction is not a novel mode of teaching, it is gaining popularity due to its success. Educators should have a substantial idea in DI to implement it effectively in the classrooms. There is assorted basis for differentiating instructions, and these are based on investigation, common sense, and advantages. One can differentiate instruction by changing content, procedure, setting, and result.
Educators can always implement these slowly as they gain momentum in this technique. The use of technology to ensure excellent learning in a diverse populace of students requires a thorough understanding of the technology, as well as combining it with the traditional instructional methods.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Differentiated Instruction, Its Sense and Advantages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Benjamin, A. (2003). Differentiated instruction: a guide for elementary school teachers. New York, NY: Eye on Education.
O’Meara, J. (2010). Beyond Differentiated Instruction. California, CA: Corwin Press.
Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. Kuhn, M.
Capital Asset pricing Model Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
Executive Summary Used by investors to establish relationship between expected return on investment in asset or security and the risk. It assumes that taxes do not exist in the market and transaction costs are not incurred. CAPM also assumes that investors borrow at risk free rate and uses the beta coefficient to measure volatility of the security. CAPM has several applications including capital budgeting, portfolio analysis and decision making in strategic planning.
The technique is based on risk which can either be diversifiable or non-diversifiable risk. Several criticisms have been laid out with reference to the assumptions made.
The most important factor is that CAPM considers systematic risk, which reflects the general position of investors who have diversified portfolios. This paper outlines the types of risk and assumptions of the capital asset pricing model as well as demonstrating an application of the CAPM equation using a simple example.
Introduction The capital asset pricing model, commonly referred to as CAPM, is a tool used by organizations and investors to analyze returns based on risks taken in certain investments within the market. It provides the rate of return on assets which an investor has interest in. The rate of return represent the value that the organization or investor expects to achieve based on the risk undertaken.
It basically seeks to establish the value of an asset based on risk and returns. The capital asset pricing model is based on several assumptions and equally has many applications with regards to a company or organizations investment options.
Risk and CAPM Investment in any financial asset usually presents some level of risk. This risk is classified as either diversifiable or non-diversifiable risk. Diversification is aimed at reducing risks that an investment or asset is likely to experience. This is undertaken by adding more stocks or investment portfolios that have minimal correlation to avoid being affected equally by the same type of risk.
For investors, this tool is particularly important as it is used to calculate the returns on risky investment portfolios. What an investor eventually earns is dependent on the level of systematic risk that they undergo.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diversifiable Risk Diversifiable risk is often referred to as controllable risk as they are company specific risks which are unique to the company. Random occurrences within the firm lead to diversifiable risks. These range from strikes by employees, lawsuits and poor managerial practices.
This implies that the risk that the investor is willing to encounter can be eliminated through diversification as this risk can be easily mitigated due to the fact that it is within the firms’ control. This is attributed to the uniqueness of the risk as opposed to the economy wide or market wide effects. Diversification ensures that the firm develops a portfolio of many assets to eliminate unsystematic risk (Brigham
Performance management scheme Report argumentative essay help
Introduction Human resources are precious, they need to be managed effectively; when developing a personnel’s management strategy; an organization needs to have an effective performance appraisal and rewarding system. When an effective performance management is implemented, it boosts employees’ confidence and motivates them.
Performance management is defined as a continuous process that involves assessment of an employee in all dimensions with the aim of rewarding and establishing areas that can be improved for better performance. Leader have the role of overseeing the success of the strategy; when managing performance, leaders are seen as performance coaches, trainers, confronters, mentors, and counselors.
An effective performance process helps an organization to learn and understand its staffs strengths, weaknesses, talents and capabilities.
When the above attributes of employees are known, then a company can devise appropriate motivational, rewarding, training and mentoring programs to enhance performance within the organization (Anthony, Kalmar and Perrewé, 2002). This paper discusses major steps involved in a performance management process.
Major phases involved Although performance management is a continuous process, which differs from annual appraisals (annual appraisals are periodical performance appraisal that involves assessing the general performance of an employee with the main aim of rewarding or salary adjustments), they follow a certain procedure that need to be well understood by managers. The procedure follows the following pathway:
Identifying and describing essential job functions
One of the major roles of human resources department is to establish the tasks that employees are supposed to take within an organization.
When recruiting, human resources look for a certain attribute, qualification and talent with employees; the attribute will be used to fill a certain vacuum within the organization, after deploying the employee to the needed position, the next move that the human resources should take is to appraise and boosts the employee’s knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When placing an employee within an organization, there are features that need to be looked into, they include the capability, attitude, moral, experience, education qualification and the general perception that the employing has towards the role likely to be undertaken. The main aim of role definition and description of job functions is to promote continuous employee and organizational growth and development.
It has the aim of ensuring that the right employee is given the right job. On the other hand, when making orchestrate teams, managers have some functions that they need to undertake; they need to appraise and realize the capability of the people to a team so that they can make winning teams.
When managing an organization, every department has some roles it is made to attain; the roles are defined in the corporate goals and objectives, they play a role in the general attainment of corporate mission and vision. When assigning tasks, manager should define the major functions and expectations that they have towards their employees, they should ensure that the there is clear definition of role and separation of power.
An old management saying states that it does not need supermen managers to provide extra ordinary results but it only requires proper duty allocation and enhancing their attainment so that ordinary people can deliver extraordinary results consistently.
Leaders and department heads have the task of allocating duties and overseeing that the right placement has been done; periodically depending with the role that a team has to play, there should be performance contracts that staffs sign and guarantee the management that they will attain that.
When dealing with short-term projects, the team operating the project should guarantee that, they could deliver the expected results with and within time and resources allocated.
Although the expectations are set at the start of a period, managers should be realistic and review the performances if they are needed to, they should also offer appropriate mentorship and physical resources to assist in the attainment of the set functions (Bandt and Haines, 2002).
We will write a custom Report on Performance management scheme specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Developing appropriate performance standards
Corporate goals, objectives, mission statements and vision statements of an organization define the expectations that stakeholders have from an organization; on the other hand, they represent the promise that managers, who acts as agents of shareholders have made to their stakeholders.
With the overall expected and promised goals, human resources should get their position; every employee is seen to be performing a certain duty to fulfill the goals directly or indirectly.
Human resource departments should develop the performance standard that they want from every employee, having attained; they are the same standards that are used in performance appraisal. A balanced score card assist human resources to look into qualitative and qualitative performance of an employee.
When developing standards, human resources department looks into two main aspects: qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative standards are the deliverables that an employee is expected to produce when offered maximum support and mentorship from the management and the organization as a whole.
The tangible outcome that can be attributed to a certain employee when supported by other members of the team should be the vocal point in quantitative performance standard setting.
There are different ways of coming up with the target that every individual is likely to get; the most common method is a top down approach where the top managers define the corporate goals and general target, then divide it among the departments that produce quantitative results.
When doing this the division take as many stages as the fragmentation of an organization, for example for a three staged organization, the top manager divides the target among departments considering the potential of the department, then the department divide the set targets among the section they have.
When dividing targets among sections in an organization it is the most risky and the part that requires maximum corporation and considerations, departmental heads, section heads and top management should be available. In current team goal oriented teams, targets can only be given to a team with individual players; the general team performance will form the basis of appraising an employee as well as performance management.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Performance management scheme by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next performance standard that an organization should set is qualitative performance; the performance is more concerned on the general attitude and conduct of employees within the organization. To attain the desired results, an organization needs to have an organizational behavior that supports the fulfillment of the goals.
The quantitative standards that are set in an organization are mostly the human resources policies that an organization should uphold; they include ethical conduct, the general accepted organizational behavior and the corporate principles. For example, Toyota Motor Corporation operates a five-principle policy where it expects that employees should follow the principle to be considered to have been well integrated in the organization.
The internal qualitative performance standard by Toyota are Kaizen (continuo’s improvement), Teamwork (developing orchestrate winning team), Respect (respect is towards employees, other team members and customers), and Genchi Genbutsu (go and see).
When doing the continuous appraisals, managers should be keen on the rate at which an employee fulfils quantitative and qualitative performance expectation of the organization. There should be no point that the organization should ignore either of the sides in their appraisal. In most cases, organizations can only improve the qualitative standards but they cannot cut them down (Samson, 2009).
Performance management and rewards
An employment contract calls for the employer to pay some remuneration to the employee on the job that the employee has dome. Rewards take different forms; they are pegged on different parameters that include education, experience and the demand and supply forces of labor.
Other than being a motivational strategy, an effective reward system acts as a tool of attracting, motivating, and retaining employees within the organization. To enhance good performance and to show employees the value they have within the organization, the reward system should be effective and responsive to their needs.
Rewards should be pegged to the performance of an employees and the rate that they grow with should be god enough to show how valued an employee is to an organization. Rewards have a psychological effect on human beings, human resources tend to believe that if they are paid well, then they are valued by their organization; they get motivated and willing to work further.
An effective reward system has three main approaches they are base pay, incentive systems, indirect compensation, perquisites and awards; base pay are mostly defined in the initial employment contract and gives the amount of reward that an employee should expect from the employer; in most formalized organizations.
Base pay is made as a matter of policy where a certain carder of employees is given the minimum and the maximum wage limit they can have when in that position.
The incentive reward systems are the extra benefits other than monetary reward that an employee is entitled to by virtue of working for a certain organization. They are seen as benefits that accrue to employees, they include medical schemes, insurance schemes, and pension and co-curriculum activities. They are benefits that are likely to attract the attention of employees and facilities the attractiveness of an organization.
Indirect compensation, are compensations that accrue to third parties defined by a policy; they include education for one children to a certain level, health cover for a family among others.
When developing performance management strategy, the reward system should be well made and structure to attract and retain high valued employees; reward is both motivational and attracting tool. Management should ensure that the structure is well moderated and reflects current market situation (Kleiman, 2000).
Monitoring and assessing performance
With time, management should be able to monitor, control and assess the general performance of teams and employees, depending with the nature of an organization as well as the tasks undertaken, the duration for monitoring vary.
The deliverables and success parameters vary thus management should ensure they understand the trend and the expected duration for an evaluation. At this stage, a number of approaches that can be used to gauge the level of operational success, they include the use of Gannt charts, and flow chart diagrams or critical success factors parameters.
When using either method, management should be comparing the expected results and the actual results of a certain process; the variance as a result may be favorable (the employee has surpassed the set target) or it can be negative. When favorable, the reasons behind the high performance should be established, they include that the targets were too lenient or the employee worked extra hard to fulfill the organizations goals and objectives.
If the targets were seen to have been easy to attain, then management should adjust them accordingly, on the other hand, if the extra ordinary performance is attributable to employees individual or team effort, then managements should chip in and reward them accordingly.
Alternatively, when there is extra ordinary performance, management should seek to realize if there is any invention or innovation that the team has had, that could be used across the organization. Appropriate structures to pass the invention and innovation to other departments should be put in place.
According to expectancy theory of motivations, in the paradigm of Rewards-personal goals relationship, human resources has the sole aim of ensuring that employee’s effort and personal attributes are rewarded using an appropriate system. It aims at rewarding ones talent, expertise or professionalism that adds value to an organization.
If rewarded it encourages creativity, innovation and exploitations of one’s talent as one anticipates high reward. Employees expect to be compensated for their efforts within the organization; they have some personal goals they need to fulfill with the works of their hands.
When they know that if they work hand they will be paid for performance, they are motivated to work harder and attain their expected personal financial benefits (Henderson, 2003).
Giving and receiving feedback about performance
After having an elaborate monitoring and assessment procedure, human resources should interpolate the results to assist them come up with the best strategies to improve and boost performance within the organization.
Feedbacks can be documented or given by immediate supervisor of an employee, they have insight knowledge on the general performance of an employee and probably they can advice on areas that need to be improved.
In scientific appraisal system, also called balanced score card system, when appraising an employee, manager or his immediate supervisor sits with the employee and they discuss the performance of the employee, the generate a single document that they both agree it is true and fair. This document is used as the appraisal feedback with some recommendations that needs to be implemented in an organization.
Feedback is crucial is performance system; it is the result that are used to develop and forge the way forward as well as realize the strong points in an organization. Manager have the role of interpolating the feedback effectively and coming up with a coaching, learning, monitoring and training strategy.
The mentoring strategy developed should aim at addressing the issue within the organization and probably offer some insight information that can assist in the future not to have such similar issues (Harold and Michael, 1994).
Planning education and development opportunities for staff to improve work performance Education and development programs are crucial for the attainment of corporate goals as well as knowledge improvement within an organization. They are also focused on certain areas that need improvement. Human resources managements should understand professionalism can be developed and managed with continuous training and development of employees.
Employees have limited set of skills that require continual upgrading in the phase of changing market demands and technology. Only by updating these skills using well-developed education and development programs, that development of knowledge can be attained within an organization.
Human resources management should ensure that employees are well motivated to take the education and development programs positively, highly motivated employees are more productive.
The training areas are determined through the appraisals and performance monitoring and assessments conducted in course of business; employee must be appraised appropriately to enable the human resources department to establish the areas that need to be improved.
In modern contemporary business environment, there is a growing demand for diversity training; companies sharpen the skill of their team through various training programs; diversity programs are aimed at shaping developing a better cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, to have a double effect where the company benefit and employees are expected to benefits from such moves.
When a company has a pool of expertise, it increases the level of efficiency in production. Diversity training offers a chance to an organization to plan its training program to facilitate the development of a team. It goes further than normal training where it involves cultural diversity training, consideration of minority groups, gender factors and training on rights of employees.
It aims at increasing respect for civil rights and inclusion of minority in a team. International human rights, discourages any discrimination in a working place when diversity training is adopted in a company, the management and junior appreciated the cultural diversity of different people and thus would not discriminate them. On the other hand, the training leads to understanding of human resources rights and freedom.
When an effective and goal oriented training is conducted in an organization, then employees get a chance to improve their skills and grow their career. Knowledge management programs are supported by the strength of information that employees have so there is need to have continuous training programs in an organization all along; it will enhance performance and job satisfaction (Smith and Mazin, 2004).
Generate solutions to performance management issues
When managing performance, a number of issues are likely to face an organization; the issues are likely to vary with organizations however, the most common ones are on structure of the system and to implement it.
Communication is one of the most effective ways that can determine the success or failure of performance management programs, when an organization has an effective communication structure, and then chances are on the higher side that performance management will not be a problem.
An effective communication system should thus be implemented in organizations as it bleaches the gap between management and employees. An effective communication system takes the form of a two-way system where an employee listens to the management and management gives employees the chance to express what they feel or think about a certain issue.
With appropriate communication system the next policies that an organization should implement is coaching, mentoring and counseling programs.
Coaching is relatively short term and involves a certain established issue that management wants to address in their company. Supervisors and team leaders are the coaches and should target the areas that they feel their team need improvement.
When coaching managers should offer required support and ensure there is good communication among the team members and the head. Sometime the help of a professional in a certain area is crucial to offer insight information about the challenge that is affecting the team.
Mentoring is a form of training where the mentor is more concerned with the ongoing and day-to-day guidance given to employees, they need to be shown the way forward and be prepared to take leadership posts within the organization.
Leaders of different section are the mentors; this offers a good environment where a leader can learn the strengths and weaknesses of an employee for proper growth within the organization or to offer the required training.
Counseling is another approach that managers should incorporate in performance appraisal; counseling is more on private issues of an employee, where management aims at improving the social and personal feelings of an employee.
There are times that employees performance is low because they may be undergoing difficult time in their personal life, management should involve the services of an expert to solve such issues, although its expensive, it is likely to offer good results in the long run (Renckly and Renckly, 2003)
Conclusion An organization requires physical and human resources for its operations; human resources performance need to be appraised occasionally and appropriate measures taken to improve their performance, The human resource department is given the mandate of ensuring that adequate employees are available at all times.
It has the mandate of planning, deploying, employing, training, retaining, dismissal of employees, and development of an effective performance management scheme. An effective performance management scheme looks issues in the interest of workers and the organization.
References Anthony, W. P., Kalmar, K. M. and Perrewé, P. L. ,2002. Human Resource Management, A Strategic Approach. South-Western:Thomson Learning.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract Many authorities have considered the occurrences of the 2008 financial crisis a historic occurrence that brought many challenges to the entire economic world and changed how the world does business. To date, the effects of this crisis still resonate in different parts of world’s economy.
The number of people that lost their jobs, the number of companies that ran into bankruptcy and dwindled in self-destruction through foreclosures and closures, the amount of money that was pumped into the economy by governments as stimuli to guard investors and businesses and the amount of cuts that was done to most national budgets to cater for the crisis are elements of the crunch that make it one of the most outstanding in modern history.
The US and Canada equally had its share of the challenge and it actually it is surmised now that the crunch was triggered by developments in the US market in the real estate and banking industries (Camiciottoli, 2009).
The central focus of the paper will be discovering public discourse that are related to the 2008 financial crisis where it will determine the contents of these articles and analyze and consider them regarding the way they have been written and the theoretical concepts the authors employed in conveyance of the information contained therein.
Introduction Public discourse under the financial crisis in the U.S and Canada
The global financial crisis triggered by bankruptcy of the investment bank-Lehman Brothers – since September 2008 has been likened to a tsunami – or so commonly called the ‘financial tsunami’.
The analogy is appropriate because just as a tsunami, the economic depression has a geographical origin (in the suburban housing market in the US) but spreading geographically over vast regions of the world. In doing so, the crisis has impacted significantly on global economies all over the world albeit it to a varying degree of intensity (Camiciottoli, 2009).
Background of the study
Financial crisis is a situation that is characterized by high levels of unemployment, a drop in prices of commodities and having low trade and investment opportunities. In 2008 the world suffered a financial crisis which was thought to have originated from the United States of America.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It began in late 2007 and headed on to 2008 affecting the economy of the entire universe. It is said to have been caused by the unfavorable lending ways in the United States of America and the rising trend of acquiring real estate loans. Rising food and oil crisis is also cited as a factor that led to this phenomenon.
Loans lost their value as assets prices slammed thus making large financial institutions such as the banks to have huge losses that amounted to them needing financial assistance which in turn led to the rescue packages from the governments. Its effects are felt to date and the world’s economy has not yet fully recovered with many pundits suggesting that the United States economy will take until late 2011 for it to fully recover.
In recent times, there has been a number of research and study on the global financial crisis. The available discourse has specifically addressed the question of its cause and its economic effects to other countries. As much as there has been some study on the financial crisis, there has been little or no research on public discourse of the financial crisis of 2008.
This paper will view the public discourse in regard to the 2008 global financial crisis as well as the genre involved in relation to the financial crisis. It is determined that studies that have been done on this topic in the last four years have mostly used single genre which means that they have obtained their information from a single main source like the newspapers (McCloskey, 2002).
In addition to this, the paper sets out to analyze the financial column beginning with single genre where it will evaluate financial columns articles finding out there rhetoric analysis and stating their ideologies.
The paper will attempt to prove that financial columnists’ writings (which is constitutes of articles that are published in newspapers) are a single genre and this will be done by applying the genre theory. The paper will then analyze the rhetoric devices and finally connect rhetoric devices used by each columnist with their political ideology.
There have been a number of studies on the discourse of economics but currently there is little or no research that is published on the discourse in the financial arena especially regarding the global crunch of 2008.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard therefore, the research gap for this paper will only be restricted to the discourse and genre analysis that is directly or indirectly connected to the 2008 global financial crisis whose effects and influence on world economies are still felt even now. Based on previous researches, the financial column articles will first be defined as a single genre.
Then, rhetoric analysis on financial column articles will be conducted particularly connecting with the financial crisis (McCloskey, 2002). Finally, from looking at the financial columnists’ writing, their ideologies and perceptions about the research question will be studied as well.
This research in order to realize its objectives, it will set out to answer a number of questions. These questions are all steered towards answering the research objectives and the appropriateness and success of the paper will be determined by the level of satisfaction to which these questions are answered. They are:
What effects does the recent financial crisis have on the public discourse in the U.S. and Canada?
Do the financial columnists constitute a single genre? If yes, why?
What are the rhetoric devices used by the financial columnists when talking about the financial crisis? What new phrases or terms are created by financial columnists due to financial crisis? And what phrase and terms have changes in frequency or meaning in relating with the financial crisis?
What kinds of rhetoric devices are frequently used by the financial columnists when talking about financial crisis, for example, metaphor or figurative language?
How do financial columnists use the rhetoric devices to persuade newspapers readers to agree with their opinion about the financial crisis?
In what ways is the ideology of financial columnists reflected in their use of rhetoric devices?
Chapter Two: Literature Review
The concept of genre theory, rhetoric analysis and ideology inspire the design of research questions of this study. Some concepts that are considered traditional are at times intrinsically problematic. They are usually defined by using similarities they have in different respects such as: in strategies and approaches used in the discourse, the audience intended and in the mode of thinking opted for (Miller, 1984).
The incomplete and sometimes conflict opinions prevent a coherent and integrated comprehension of genres. Comparing with traditional genre concepts, the contemporary genre theories has been a matter of considerable discussion in research communities throughout the world. The Sydney School analysts such as Bazerman (1993) and Swales (1990) have used the concept to complement the Hallidayan notion of register.
In America the seminal work of Miller (1984), Swales (1990), Bazerman (1993) have contributed to a wider understanding of the concept of genre by defining the concept, introducing models suitable for performing genre analyses, and not least capturing the complexities of genre systems and genre development.
The theorists of American school “tend to describe genres in terms of family resemblances among texts” (Swales, 1990, p.49). Some of texts used in a specific genre are at times compared and illustrated by the theorist involved when the approach of family resemblance if used.
From this perspective, if the researcher finds similarities among the financial column articles, it is able to define the financial columnists’ articles as a single genre. However, such approach has been criticized on the basis that “no choice of a text for illustrative purposes is innocent and such theories can make any text seem to resemble any other one” (Swales, 1990, pp.50-51).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Discourse under the Financial Crisis in the U.S and Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern genre theory is situated in several streams of thoughts that recognize the social nature of a text, including the social constructivism that is shaping contemporary academic thought in social sciences and humanities, as well as sociologists’ contribution (Freedman
Impact Digitization and Convergence on Internet Essay college admission essay help
Introduction The internet is the most recent fundamental media in the contemporary society, which entirely relies on web browsers. The establishment of the web in the year 1989 was a triggered by the massive development of social sciences, as a result of increased urge to share accumulated knowledge among scholars and researchers.
According to Baym (2007), the internet has massively revolutionized the contemporary information dynamics with regard to the converging diverse global cultures. Considering the power of visual images on behavioral changes, the television has largely played a very significant role in the currently experienced modernization as a result of globalization.
As noted by Lester (2002), the ability of the media to allegorically amalgamate diverse lifestyles is facilitated by the level of motivation towards its use. As television out-fashioned the radio, the internet as the most personalized digital media has the potential to render the television less relevant. This paper will discuss the impacts of digitization and convergence on the internet in the currently globalized society.
As noted by Geer