Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction There are many motivation premises that have affected the manner in which companies manage workers in achieving an inspired work force. Such theories focus on explaining why individuals behave the way they do and provide information on aspects and policies which when adopted can get the best out of people as far as their dedication to work is concerned.
Due to the complexity of the concerns worth looking into when motivating individuals, it is always a difficult undertaking when it comes to companies encouraging employees for efficient outcome. Amoako (2011) argues that the issue of what encourages employees to work efficiently is a difficult one to address. In fact, a motivation is something, which propels an individual to perform, an explanation for behaviour.
Frederick Herzberg in an attempt to comprehend this issue and the aspect of work force satisfaction and encouragement in the 1970s embarked on determining the impact of mind-set on motivation through requesting individuals to tell circumstances where they felt very encouraged and very discouraged regarding their day to day duties (George
A Call to Legalize Abortion Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Unsafe abortion is a worldwide phenomenon that has existed throughout recorded history, but only a few governments have instituted policy frameworks to address this problem which is seen as a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity at a global level (Puri et al., 2012).
However, despite the sustained absence of abortion in serious policy discussion in many countries, it continues to be a highly charged, contentious concern, elevating excessive passions among lay people, as well as politicians, church ministers, and health and rights campaigners (Shah and Ahman, 2009).
Unsafe abortion is characteristically stigmatized and potentially life-threatening both for women seeking the service and for those providing it, but this information is yet to filter through to the 19 million women who undertake unsafe abortions out of the 46 million who perform it annually (Warriner, 2006). Such statistics embolden our belief that abortion should be legalized to safeguard the health, reputation and status of women in need of abortion services.
There exists a multiplicity of reasons as to why governments across the world should consider legislating policy towards the legalization of abortion so that it is practiced in a healthy environment and by qualified health personnel. Some of these reasons are detailed in the ensuing sections.
Consequences of Criminalizing Abortion Extant literature demonstrates that the act of criminalizing abortion has only led to unsafe abortion practices, which are increasingly becoming a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality (Puri et al., 2012). Perhaps this line of thought can be illuminated more by borrowing the World Health Organization’s definition of unsafe abortion “…as a procedure for terminating an unwanted pregnancy either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking the minimal medical standards, or both” (Banerjee
Butadiene Market Analysis Report scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
North East Asia
Introduction Marketing analysis and forecasting plays an imperative role in planning the operations and growth of any company. The size of the market is greatly influenced by the prevailing economic conditions, demographic factors, competition, culture, religious factors, government legislation, technological changes, social trends, fashion and, ability of customers to purchase products.
In this paper, a detailed analysis of the butadiene company was carried out. Butadiene is used to manufacture tires. The analysis was carried out in seven regions, Central Europe, Middle East, North America, South America, North East Asia, West Europe and South East Asia. The total supply, demand, capacity and the operating rates for the different regions were analyzed.
Central Europe It is expected that the total demand in this region to increase steeply between the years 2012 to 2016 and then stagnate at this level for the next six years. This means that more of their products will be demanded in this region. The average demand of butadiene is 266000 metric tons (2007 to 2012 average).
The total capacity has been increasing with a small margin of about 1% though there was some decline in the year 2010 owing to the demand for more cars and hence the demand for tires increase. It is forecasted that the total capacity will remain constant (at 278000 metric tons) up to 2014 and then increase to 346000 in 2015 followed by a further increase of about 2 % to reach 413000 metric tons. This capacity is expected to stagnate at this level. The total capacity influences the total supply and this same curve will be expected for this region.
Middle East In the Middle East region, the average total demand has been 254000 metric tons in 2007. By the year 2012, the demand had risen to 333000 tons due to increase in purchased cars. The total demand is expected to fall within the forecasting period. It is expected that the total capacity to remain at 382000 tons up to year 2017 and increase steadily to 615000 tons in the same year.
The operating rate has been declining and this trend is expected to continue for the forecasting period due to a reduction in cars purchased. The market will stagnate and this is because the tire manufacture depends on vehicles bought.
North America The total demand for the butadiene in this region reduced from 2432000 to 2432000 metric tons during the 2007 to 2011 period. During 2012, the total demand rose slightly. It is forecasted that the demand will reduce continuously up to year 2016 and then increase rapidly this follows the demand for cars in this region.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to the total demand, the total capacity of the plant will remain stagnant up to 2019 and increase slightly for the remaining period. The operating rate is expected to rise from 63.3% to 84.1% from the year 2013 to 2022. This is in response to the total demand fluctuations for this region. The total supply is also expected to rise from 1953000 metric tons in 2013 to 2740000 in the year 2022.
North East Asia In this region, butadiene has large demand due to the number of cars purchased. The total demand increased from 426000 to 5046000 metric tons from the year 2007 to 2012. It is expected that the demand in this region will increase steadily for the forecasting period. To cater for this supply, the total capacity must be increased. The operating rate and the supply are also expected to rise owing to the increased demand.
South America In this region, butadiene is not in high demand as there are cars. From the year 2007, the total demand increased 352000 to 379000 metric tons. It is forecasted that the demand will rise slightly from 379000 tons in 2012 to 530000 metric tons by the year 2022 owing to the increased market share in this region. The total supply is also expected to increase as the demand rises. The plant operating rate will increase to 81% by the year 2022.
Southeast Asia In this region, the products are not in high demand as compared to other regions as seen from the total demand. It is forecasted that the total demand will rise from 563000 tons in the year 2013 to 964000 metric tons by the year 2022 as it gains more customers. The total capacity is expected to increase from 2013 to 2018 and then stagnate at 1065000 metric tons.
The total supply is also expected to rise with increased demand. The operating rate reduced from 98.5% in the year 2007 to 81.7% in the year 2012 and this trend will continue up to 2017 and then rise with a small margin.
Western Europe There is great demand for its product in this region due to the demand for cars. The company expects that the market will increase slightly from 2101000 metric tons to 2243000 metric tons by the year 2022. The total capacity has been constant from the year 2007 to 2012. The company expects that this trend will continue up to 2013 and increase slightly so as to cater for increased demand and supply.
American history: A bill of rights and an amendment Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Bill of rights
The disparities between the two concepts
Bill of rights A bill of rights refers to a legal document that stipulates the rights of a given people. It gives strict guidelines on the privileges that citizens possess in a given country. The document aims at ensuring that the rights and privileges of the citizens are fully respected and accorded due attention.
In the United States, rights, demands and privileges of citizens are outlined with the aim of ensuring that equity, fairness and healthy living of the citizens are upheld. The act focuses on ensuring that the rights and privileges of the citizens are not violated (Vile 106-153).
The law can be written or presumed. In most countries, like the United States, a written law can never be repealed or modified to suit other interests that are not in line with the interests of the citizens. A presumed law becomes a normal statute in any given country and can therefore be changed.
According to Schweikart and Allen (2004: 34-135) the act entails a statement or statements of fundamental human rights and privileges that are crucial for the effective existence and wellbeing of people in a country. Legal amendments of a national or federal state are undertaken in a statutory framework.
An amendment refers to a change of the constitution to address new demands or requirements based on the interests of the state or demands of the citizens. An amendment of a constitution can be undertaken in two major ways. One of the ways is through the use of parliamentary initiatives.
Under this provision, an amendment that is proposed must pass through a senate, national assembly or any legal institution. The law upholds that at least two thirds of the members of the mentioned legal frameworks should approve the change.
An amendment may also be undertaken through a popular initiative. In this instance, the change can be done by ensuring that registered voters in the state or country either vote for or against the amendment through a process that is referred to as a referendum. Before a referendum is undertaken to effect an amendment, it must be drafted into a bill after which it is submitted to the electoral body in charge of elections.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A constitutional amendment aims at positively changing the manner in which the citizens are governed, resources managed and the rights of citizens protected. The amendment is important as it addresses relevant and current legal needs.Schweikart and Allen (387-403) postulate that an amendment is not the whole process of “making of a constitution” but rather, a minor formal addition, change or rectification of a legal provision in a constitutional document that does not alter the legal powers of the new signed document.
The disparities between the two concepts A bill of rights cannot be altered while an amendment can. An amendment is the actual process of facilitating change or changes in the existing constitution. A bill of rights outlines the rights and privileges of the citizens while an amendment aims at making changes to the existing legal provisions that govern a state or country.
According to Vile (19-53), a bill of rights upholds the justice of all citizens. An amendment does not state the integrity of the citizens. It is worth noting that the bill of rights and amendments operate on a complementary basis.
Works Cited Schweikart, Larry, and Allen, Michael. A Patriot’s History of the United States: From Columbus’s Great Discovery to the War on Terror, USA: Penguin Group, 2004. Print.
Vile, John. Encyclopedia of Constitutional Amendments: Proposed Amendments, and Amending Issues, 1789-2002, USA: Library of Congress, 2003. Print.
Minimal State Liberals college essay help online
Both welfare and neo-classical liberals share some similarities arising from the fact they were born from the same set of ideals, but they also have their differing viewpoints that to a large extent stem from their divergent reactions to the social effects of the Industrial Revolution.
In similarities, it is clear both welfare and neo-classical liberals believe in the value and promotion of individual liberty and a desire for a more open and tolerant society, not mentioning that they are guided by the twin elements of individual rational self interest and competition in their attempts to promote self interest (Dolbeare
Götz and Meyer, written by David Albahari Research Paper a level english language essay help
Fictions on holocaust are often shocking because they depict murders by the Nazi prosecutions and cold-blooded massacre of Jews. Such stories are full of unsparing depiction of human sufferings and genocide to such an effect that, one fails to see perpetrators as humans, who used to be viewed as faceless entities that were programmed to commit murders.
The book Götz and Meyer, written by David Albahari, tries to prove the fact that the perpetrators have a human face. It is emphasized that the protagonists in the novel, who are two Nazi drivers of the gas trucks, are not mere murder machines. The author humanizes the characters in order to present a different way of perceiving the nature of evil. Through the humor and empathy implemented in the novel, the characters that embody two Nazi soldiers are given human faces instead of the sole image of a murderer.
A nameless teacher from Belgrade narrates the story about the destruction of the Serbian Jews during the war. He was obsessed with reconstructing his family tree, therefore, he toiled endlessly in the archives to gather information, but failed miserably for he could find only a few members of his family while there were sixty of them killed.
The narrator says, “For me to truly understand real people like my relatives, I had first to understand real people like Götz and Meyer.” . The novel is about these two characters, who were Nazi soldiers, being unknown to the narrator though.
When the narrator begins his narration, he knows nothing about William Götz and Erwin Meyer except for their names: “Götz and Meyer. Having never seen them, I can only imagine them.” Initially he describes them as unknown people or characters as described in a tale. They were German soldiers, they were SS commissioned, who were assigned the duty of driving a large truck for a “special purpose”. Their duty was to drive the truck every day to and from the fairground in Belgrade. The narrator constantly repeats the following line, “Having never seen them, I can only imagine them” (1) in order to imprint their images in the mind of the listeners, as well as in his own mind. One might say the narrator plays a dangerous game by trying to understand the characters at the risk of becoming them.
At this point, one must note the importance of memory in the novel. Robert Eaglestone in the book The Holocaust and the Postmodern highlights the fact that “memory” helps to “evoke nearly everything there is to a person and to a society.” (74) Eaglestone also believes that the way “we remember the past” helps in framing our identity.
Like most of the Holocaust fictions, the narrator too is nostalgic of his destroyed past and tells the story from memory. However, unlike most Holocaust fictions, Albahari does not depict an ugly picture of the time. His stories deal with death, killing, mass murders in gas chamber, but they do not describe all the sufferings in detail to haunt the reader’s imagination of the Nazi carnage. Rather, the “memory narration” of the novel builds a humane figure for the two people who were Nazis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Albahari describes the two protagonists, playing with children on the ground before they go back to work. He further underlines that both of them are married and worry about the children at home. One of them, maybe Meyer (again the narrator is unsure which one of them) is fond of children and like presenting them chocolates.
Now these children could easily be Jewish youngsters at Belgrade Fairground whom he had to transport in his truck. Such a scene shows that these two men were the victims. They were there to perform their duty, in reality, they were not monsters with evil eyes and poisonous fangs.
The narrator talks of the ambitions and desires of the protagonists. One of them, (again the narrator is unsure which one), wanted to be a pilot, and the other one has other dreams in his mind.
The narrator is often unsure how to differentiate between them, and often forgets to stress out who was doing some particular things in this or that scene, but these characters are not presented to the readers as caricature of evil villains. Rather, they are presented as individuals committed towards one task. The narrator describes the truck that the protagonists drive:
The truck was a Saurer, a five-tonner with a boxlike body, 1.7 meters high and 5.8 meters long … A full hundred people could stand in the back … During these trips, the souls became real souls, no longer human in form. Götz and Meyer most certainly knew what was happening in the back of the truck…After all, the people they were driving had no souls, that, at least, was a commonly known fact! Jews were nothing more than milder on the face of the world! And so, day in and day out, they would repeat their practiced routine.
This paragraph shows two protagonists in a bad light to the readers, showing that they were carriers of death to men, women, and children they carried in their truck and believed that they were soulless and faceless creatures. The routine involved the protagonists in the destruction of the Serbian Jews.
The novel shows a host of killings that were conducted by SS squads; they shot hundreds of people face to face. However, such mass killings made the German soldiers weary and took a toll on their morale. Therefore, a less personal means of massacre was employed through these mobile gas vans. For the first time, the readers view Götz and Meyer as murderers who helped in asphyxiation of many women and children in their truck.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Götz and Meyer, written by David Albahari specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The narration of the killings makes the narrator more involved, he describes how the protagonists would drive the truck into the distance, and one of them would put the exhaust pipe into the truck. After that, they were never involved in killing. Then, the dead bodies were driven to the Serbian prison where the bodies were dumped. While this gruesome process is being put into effect, the narrator imagines Gotz and Meyer “chatting with their commander”, again enabling the readers to look at these two bearers of death as humans.
The memory of the narrator plays a major role in the description of the biographical or historical fiction, especially that of the Holocaust . This piece of fiction is also drawn from the memory, but the narrator is truthful enough to say that he has not met the characters Goth and Meyer, and therefore, he is obliged to draw from his imagination, which of course has been discoursed with stereotypes.
Individual memory exists in a collective form, adhering to the social norms and framework . For example, in the story, the memory of the narrator was reconstructed by events and incidents that had been externally infused in his mind by those groups that influenced his memory.
Consequently, it is obvious that he will embitter feelings towards the two German soldiers he describes. His imagination is bound to have the stereotypes, and Jewish constructs influence his description of the story as well as the characters. This has helped in humanizing the characters as well.
The novel can be called humorous due to the deadpan tone of the narrator, presenting the story to the readers in a satirical tone. This gives the novel an uncanny comical feature. Once the readers pick a book on holocaust, the prevalent stereotypes play in their mind and eventually they expect a horror story of human atrocities and sufferings.
The element of empathy and humor present in the story is evident in the way the narrator describes the two Nazi protagonists. In a non-committal voice, as if he was narrating the story of any other man, he described how Götz and Meyer were performing their work and duties. He tried to imagine these men, having with their personal lives, full of concerns and problems. The implementation of humor in describing an act of atrocity makes it more tragic .
Humor in holocaust fiction does not imply that the whole story becomes a “carnival”; what is strives to portray is a different perspective of life at the time when it seems it can only be filled with death . Presence of puns and double meaning in dialogues is the essence of Holocaust fiction that is reiterated in Götz and Meyer.
The episode when the narrator describes his untimely desire to itch in the classroom and the episode where he subsequently visits a dermatologist is full of dark humor. After school, the narrator visits a doctor to get the problem of his itching examined. The doctor inquires of any past complaint of skin disease in the narrator’s family. To this query, the narrator sarcastically answers, “Most of them died of poisoning” .
Not sure if you can write a paper on Götz and Meyer, written by David Albahari by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another instance where the narrator presents a case of dark, double edged humor was when he asked his students to imagine a journey to the camp and when he tells one of his students that she will not be allowed take her pet to the camp. She then contemptuously says “Why, this is inhuman” . Even the protagonists Götz and Meyer are subjected to dark humor as the narrator, making them human as well as inhuman at the same time.
The story uses various tropes to show Götz and Meyer as humans. One of them is when the narrator directly questions the readers:
What kind of man would … consent to do a job that meant putting five or six thousand souls to death? I find it hard to give a student a bad grade at the end of the semester, let alone at the end of the year, but that is nothing compared to the way Götz and Meyer must have felt.
The narrator at once makes the protagonists human and the very next moment brings out the ugly side of their work. By comparing his work as a teacher and their job as killers, the narrator puts two juxtaposing professions to bring out the satire in it. Thus, through interplay of human and inhuman characters to demonstrate the protagonists, Albahari has actually made Götz and Meyer two ordinary men rather than Nazi soldiers.
Bibliography Albahari, David. Gotz
Conflict Resolution Field’s Stages of Development Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Stages of development of conflict resolution field Stage one
Failure to control the eruption of the First World War led to people coming up with ways to avert reemergence of wars in the future. The first stage of development of conflict resolution modalities started in 1918 and went on until 1945. Idealistic views characterized this phase and individual states played a critical role in conflict resolution. One feature that makes this phase noteworthy is the attempt by the countries to resolve conflicts using a non-violent approach. Moreover, the phase marked the establishment of international relations.
The second stage is also referred to as the second generation, which lasted between 1945 and 1965. Introduction of nuclear weapons led to the need for urgent conflict resolution management. Conflict resolution approaches used in this stage were state centered and every state strived to stem out the cause of the conflict. The feature that makes this stage noteworthy is the society’s endeavor to come up with conflict resolution methods using numerous institutions.
The third stage of development of conflict resolution field started in 1965 and lasted until 1985. The cold war marked this period. Civil society sought to manage conflicts through mediation. They endeavored to nurture expertise in the community, promote labor intercession, and advocate for family conciliation. This phase is essential as it marked the establishment of an empirical interpretation of destructive conflict from interstate level aimed at attaining win-win accords between the superpowers.
The fourth stage began after the end of the cold war in 1985 and lasted until 2005. In this phase, there was a need to introduce ‘new world order’ of conflict resolution. Individuals adopted the virtue of ‘complementarity’ and ‘contingency’ to help in conflict management. Dialogue took the centre stage of conflict resolution with a belief that soft forms of conflict resolution would help to restore trust between conflicting parties. This phase is crucial since it saw the involvement of non-governmental organizations in conflict resolution programs.
The fifth stage of development of conflict resolution field started in 2005 and it is currently evolving. The struggle by countries to curb terrorism characterizes this stage. Countries strive to establish a peaceful regime by respecting cultures and advocating for democracy.
Besides, they encourage inter-country trade as one of the approaches of establishing peaceful coexistence between countries. This phase is noteworthy since it led to international cooperation between countries. Moreover, it led to many countries attaining their sovereignty as developed countries sought to promote democracy.
Definition of culture
One of the hardest concepts to elucidate is culture. Every day, people talk about culture. Nevertheless, when asked to describe what culture is all about, they become dumb.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on LeBaron, Avruch and Ramsbotham’s perceptions of culture, one may define culture as the collective deposit of beliefs, knowledge, meanings, hierarchies, spatial relations, experience, and religion that people borrow from contemporaries or their ancestors. In most cases, people accept these practices without questioning. Culture is figurative, and symbols are passed from one generation to another.
There are clear similarities and differences in LeBaron, Avruch, and Ramsbotham’s explanation of how culture contributes to conflict and conflict resolution. LeBaron alleges that culture plays a significant role in conflict and conflict resolution. He asserts that culture determines how individuals interpret things.
Besides, it tells people what they need to do. LeBaron accepts that culture is a key contributor to conflicts, especially in areas that entail development of personal values and identity.
Ramsbotham refutes claims that culture contributes to conflict. He claims that cultural variation does not contribute to conflicts, and they should not be factored in when coming up with conflict resolution policies. On the other hand, Avruch warns against application of “inadequate ideas” when dealing with conflict. Avruch claims that culture is possibly genetically rooted and locally changed.
Ramsbotham claims that culture plays a significant role in conflict resolution. He gives the example of religion, as one of the cultural factors that people ought to consider when developing conflict resolution mechanisms. LeBaron alleges that culture seeps into conflict despite the situation.
Consequently, to come up with viable conflict resolution mechanisms, it is imperative to understand the shared and unspoken beliefs of the conflicting parties. Ramsbotham and LeBaron believe that individuals contain inherent cultural aspects, which make them exhibit either positive or negative behaviors.
LeBaron, Avruch, and Ramsbotham share similar views with respect to culture and behavior. They all agree that culture influences the behavior of every society. Hence, they posit that it is rational to analyze the behaviors of the conflicting parties in line with their cultures prior to solving the conflict.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict Resolution Field’s Stages of Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Dove Campaign Against Photo-enhanced Advertisements Case Study scholarship essay help
Introduction and overall evaluation It was reasonable for Dove to do campaign against photo-enhanced advertisements
Beauty and cosmetic producers often use photo-enhanced advertisements for their products. Photo-enhanced images deceive vulnerable potential customers who end up purchasing those products, some of whom are of low quality and standards.
Firms use photo-enhanced advertisements due to stiff competition in the industry, thus an effort to gain competitive advantage over other the competitors. Therefore, Dove intervened with the promotion trend in order to sensitise consumers on the tricks applied by producers when persuading customers to buy their products.
Dove carried out an initiative to promote all types of natural body images of women
The main objective of the campaign was to promote self-esteem in vulnerable females, easily deceived by photo-enhanced advertisements. Women care about their body images, and thus many players in the cosmetic industry use attractive images in promoting their products to women. Dove campaigns bar firms from using fake images on their product promotions as a moral obligation to protect the society from unethical businesspersons.
However, Dove is also a player in the cosmetic industry and cannot avoid using women imagery in product promotion campaigns. Most of its products are skin-firming cellulites that enhance women’s self-esteem. In order to drive the point home effectively, Dove used natural images of women in campaigns for its products. It is not possible to make consumer products and fail to exploit women because Dove exploited women in an effort to promote their self-esteem.
I would recommend Dove to continue with the campaign against abuse of women imageries in advertising. However, I would recommend Dove to change its moral approach by applying images that are pleasing to the public. Furthermore, I tend to believe that Dove prepared for criticisms that would arise against their campaigns from the beginning. Therefore, they should continue with the campaign and ignore the criticisms, but consider changing the images.
Campaign Critique Dove used unimpressive materials in the campaign efforts. Natural images are not impressive because they disclose the physique that women try to eliminate from their bodies. In addition, the majority of women hate fat bodies and due to that element, firms opted to use thin women in their advertisements to impress the targeted consumers. However, Dove should stick to their advertising material for they are the best for carrying out the sensitisation to the women.
Strengths and weaknesses of the Dove campaigns
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths of the Campaign
Promotes ethics in the business – Photo-enhanced images are deceiving and thus unethical for a vendor to use them in an effort to attract customers. Dove’s campaign is ethical and beneficial to customers who often fall into traps of unethical vendors in the beauty and cosmetic industry.
It is sensitising the women whose rights are violated: The campaign is sensitising women about violation of their rights by vendors and firms that produce beauty products for economic reasons. Hence, women acquire knowledge about the types of advertisements that they should believe in before purchasing the products.
Promotes self-esteem:- Dove campaigns are for promoting the self-esteem of women who dislike their natural physique, and thus end up falling into the traps of deceiving vendors; In addition, it targets young females and encourages them to acknowledge their physical as they age.
Fights against sub-standard products: Firms producing sub-standard products take advantage of photo-enhanced advertisements in acquiring market share. Dove campaigns bar firms from taking advantage of unethical advertising methods, but rather concentrating on producing high quality products.
Promotes natural looks- By using natural images, women are inspired to appreciate their natural looks coupled with appreciating the physical appearance of their colleagues. Photo-enhanced images deter women from appreciating natural looks of their colleagues.
Weaknesses of the Campaign
Use of unimpressive images: Dove used natural images that were vulnerable to criticisms in its effort of promoting self-esteem to women. Natural images are unpleasant to the public arena although there was no alternative to bring the intended message home.
Economic impact: Effort to persuade women to acknowledge their natural physique had a negative economic impact. Players in the beauty and cosmetic industry started to count on losses after many women reduced their purchasing power on their products.
Failed to promote skin-firming products- Dove’s campaigns turned against its products as the public viewed it as a hypocrite player trying to gain market advantage over other players. There were criticisms that its campaigns were more of advertisements aimed at eliminating competitors from the market. Hence, the targeted consumers received Dove’s skin firming products with a bad attitude.
Rating of direct marketing is not an easy task, but done with regard to its effectiveness
The increase in the product’s sales volume is the ultimate measure of effectiveness of direct marketing. Percentage increase in sales volume is divided by 10 in order to obtain 1 to10 rating system, whereby 1 refers to absolute awful performance and 10 refers to great performance.
Dove needed to strengthen its campaign by two major factors into consideration
Those factors included ethics and its interests in the industry. It is unethical to display natural images that are disturbing to the public. For instance, there have been many criticisms on images of fat women displayed in the campaigns advertisements. It would be prudent for the company to consider using images that are pleasant, but natural.
In addition, Dove had economic interests in the industry, which put it under public criticisms. In order to strengthen its campaign, it should have pulled out of business and concentrated on the campaigns. Pulling out of business is a good move in the public arena and hence public would give attention to the campaigns.
Campaign Creation Dove is a new entrant in this business of sensitising public against fake products’ advertisements. Therefore, it has no competitors in the market, but the business focuses on the promotion of ethics adherence by other businesses. Even if a firm has no competitors in the market, that is, it enjoys monopoly in the market; it has to adhere to some rules and regulations as set by the authorities in a given location.
There are four main process of the campaign creation. The first step involves identification of the problem. Dove observes that businesses persons are using photo-enhanced advertisements that deceive customers, and end up frustrating clients after failing to meet their ends.
The second step for campaign creation is the development of the solution to the problem. In this case, solution to the problem is campaign against photo-enhanced advertisements for cosmetic and beauty products. In addition, dove considers some factors before carrying out the campaign.
These factors are business ethics and the effects of the campaign. To begin with, business ethics demand that businesspersons should uphold the value of the products and honesty to their clients, which they had failed to comply with thus opting to use photo-enhanced advertisements. Therefore, dove found itself in a good position to carryout the campaign.
We will write a custom Case Study on Dove Campaign Against Photo-enhanced Advertisements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, dove needed to consider the effects the campaign would have to the public. The theme of the campaign was to create awareness to the public that cosmetic and beauty products do not bring the desired changes in the human skin as their advertisements dictate. Therefore, public should not rely on advertisements for information about them.
The third step is the development of the campaign. In this step, dove needed to consider the best method for the execution of the campaign depending on the nature of the target genre. In this case, the most affected clients were youthful and middle aged women and therefore decided to use natural images that would strike them hard.
In addition, it noted that photo-enhanced images were of skinny sized women and decided to incorporate fat women. In addition, dove identified the best method of campaign as advertisements in the televisions and billboards along the major highways and city streets.
The fourth step is execution of the campaign and evaluation of effects on the public. Initially, the public cannot welcome this new form of advertising because natural images are disgusting to the eyes of the public. However, dove prepared for criticisms from both the public and the businesspersons after which the public would react depending on how it responded to the criticisms.
Writer’s Choice Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Write a three-to-four-page paper, typed (12-point font), one-inch margins, no cover sheet, and double-spaced. When outlining your paper, find a particular interpreta¬tive standpoint from which to approach the topic, be focused and precise in your analysis, and provide a clear and well-defined thesis. Give particular examples from the play to support or test your thesis. Provide a clear argument throughout. Once you have chosen your examples stick to them! Avoid sweeping statements, broad historical characterizations (i.e. the Restoration, “in those times”), subjective adjectives (brilliant, great, ironic, beauti¬ful), and platitudes. Use a dictionary (for spelling, correct usage, and preci¬sion), double-check the spelling of charac¬ters and places, italicize the title of the play, and PROOF¬READ.
Do not use secondary literature or information found on the web or in the library. This paper should be just you, your ideas, and the given topic.
In Marriage a la Mode many characters use double-entendres. Before you start, define the term using The Oxford English Dictionary. List five occasions in which they are used and analyze them. Use the questions below as a guide or basis for your analysis. Once you have worked through them all, construct a solid argument and develop a reading of the function these double-entendres serve in the play. Give several examples for each of your answers and give page references, act, scene, and line numbers for each of the examples you have chosen. You may write your paper in sections or paragraphs following the questions below or you may present your analysis in an essay format. Regardless of the format you choose for your paper, you must write complete and grammatical sentences. Finally, keep in mind while answering the questions below that this is a play and that it was mainly meant to be acted, performed, and seen, rather than read.
1. Do the characters in the heroic, or high, plot use double-entendres, and if they do, where, when and with whom do they use them?
2. Do the characters in the comic, or low, plot use double-entendres, and if they do, where, when and with whom do they use them?
3. Contrast and compare this usage in the high and low plots.
4. What does your comparison yield?
5. If they are only used in one of the plots, give a hypothesis as to why this is the case.
6. Which specific characters use double-entendres most frequently?
7. What are they used for?
8. Are they always used to discuss the same subject? Or are they used to discuss different subjects? What do double-entendres allow the characters to discuss?
9. Break down the principal images, or metaphors that are employed in these double-entendres and explain them.
10. What do you think Dryden wants his audience to understand from this usage?
‘The Open Boat’ and ‘To Build a Fire’ Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How the two narratives exemplify naturalism
Introduction Naturalism was an offshoot of determinism and Darwinism. These schools of thought held that man had minimal control over his fate because the environment shaped his life. ‘The Open Boat’ and ‘To Build a Fire’ epitomize this literary movement. Not only do the writers use practical and succinct language that is typical of this school, but they also place greater emphasis on processes over people. This approach was in keeping with their reverence for neutrality.
How the two narratives exemplify naturalism Naturalists often make conservative use of language in their narrations and these two books are no exception. These authors detached themselves from their characters as well as the human situations. ‘The Open Boat’ describes the four men’s adventures with a great degree of temperance. The author had opportunities to exaggerate their accomplishments as well as their failures, but he did not.
The desperate nature of the characters is consistent with their dreary settings, so every stylistic choice matches developments in the story. One should also note that only one of the characters in the story has a name –Billie. This level of detachment testifies to the realism that naturalists liked. Similarly, the writing in ‘To Build a Fire’ was objective and concise. London stays away from the emotions and insecurities of his protagonist.
Nothing sets him apart as a special individual. In fact, the hard language in the narration and the twists and turns of the story make the man seem like a sideshow. The author’s language is objective and factual. For instance, he talks about the number of matches that the man used and why ice froze on his beard (London 36).
This stylistic choice was in tandem with his naturalist thought. He wanted to furnish the audience with objective information such that they can competently assess the environment. Naturalism also explains why London did not name his central character. Doing so would have detracted readers from the subject matter.
As the name implies, naturalism was a school of thought that focused on nature. It dwelt on ‘what is’ rather than ‘what should be’. Therefore, when pioneers of the intellectual school wrote about something, they gave precedence to the environment rather than the people in them.
For instance in ‘To Build a Fire’, readers can find a lot of information about nature. London talks about springs, creeks, fires, snow and how each of these natural processes can change and affect the elements surrounding them. In the book, one understands the repercussions of exposing one’s cheeks to extremely cold weather.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise, the same description of all things natural can be found in ‘The Open Boat’. Most of the discussions in the piece dwell on how the sea operates; its waves and tides can change dramatically and thus affect those who are standing on its way. At the beginning of the story, the sea seemed like a merciless monster that the men personified.
However, towards the end of the story, they soon realize that the sea is a natural object (Crane 14). It has no intentions and does not inflict deliberate harm. Crane wanted to prove that nature is ‘what is’. Man is the one that gets too preoccupied with what it should be.
Naturalists ascribed to Darwinian and determinist thought. Darwin led the determinist school by demonstrating how evolution occurred. The scholar affirmed that the environment shapes organisms over extremely long periods of time. It caused them to develop different physical characteristics (mutate) from those of organisms within the same species. In subsequent times, groups that had favorable traits survived while the ones with unfavorable ones died.
Determinism proved that man was helpless against his environment. His free will had little to do with what occurred to him (Sorrentino 104). These themes are present in both narrations. In ‘The Open Boat’, the waves are frequently changing; the men have little control over these waves even after spending a substantial amount of time at sea. Man can do little to change the forces of nature. Therefore, he must accept this condition and only focus on reacting to what nature presents.
Naturalists believed in the insignificance of free will. Likewise, the author of ‘To Build a Fire’, wanted to show how even intellectualism could not save many from nature. The man had a map and was set on hunting for gold. However, he later had to abandon these ambitions because of the harsh weather.
The dog had a higher chance of survival than the man because it understood its place in the natural world. It reacted to its environment and thus outlived the man. However, the protagonist did not respect the power of the natural world and thus subjected himself to danger. The deterministic environment altered his goals and thus triumphed over his free will.
Many naturalists acknowledge the determinism of the environment, but they do not believe in its divinity. Nature was neither against or for man; it was simply present. Therefore, one should not expect moral judgment from nature as this will not materialize (Bender 92).
We will write a custom Essay on ‘The Open Boat’ and ‘To Build a Fire’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More London does not blame the man for the fall in the snow, and neither does he blame the snow. If one must ascribe moral responsibility on a party, then it should be placed on man since he can predict the consequences of his actions. Nature is also indifferent to man in ‘The Open Boat’.
The men initially blame the sea for their predicaments. In one occasion, they claim that the sea is hissing and snarling. However, the narrator later learns that nature was not against them when one large wave carries him to shore. One can thus deduce that nature is not a partisan party if it can rescue and cause harm at the same time.
Adherents of the naturalism movement favored members of the lower classes. Alternatively, their characters became classless in the wake of environmental forces. In ‘To Build a Fire’, the protagonist is probably one such character because he leaves his home for a dangerous expedition, in hostile weather, so as to hunt for gold (London 8). Conversely ‘Open Boat’ has an oiler, a correspondent, a cook as well as a captain. None of these titles matter in the grueling and unpredictable sea; all that counts is their survival.
Conclusion Naturalists strongly espoused neutrality. This is evident in their succinct and factual language as well as their focus on plot rather than the people in their narrations. The authors under analysis show that man’s free will is irrelevant, and even his intellectualism cannot fight nature. Conversely, London and Crane acknowledge the impartiality of nature and its inability to wield moral judgment over man.
Works Cited Bender, Bert. Sea-Brothers: The Tradition of American Sea Fiction from Moby-Dick to the Present. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,1990. Print.
Crane, Stephen. 2011. The open boat and other tales of adventure. 2011. Web. ‹https://archive.org/details/openboatothertal00cranuoft/page/n6›
London, Jack. 2012. To build a fire. 2012. Web.
Sorrentino, Paul. Stephen Crane Remembered. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2006. Print.
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Strengths and Weaknesses of the Research Strategies Essay college admissions essay help
The research strategies proposed to develop the project in Engineering include the experimental work and data analysis with references to the conducted literature review. The experimental work and data analysis can be characterised by a lot of strengths. However, the proposed strategies also have definite limitations and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the focus on both the experimental work and data analysis is important to reduce the negative effects of the strategies’ limitations on the research project.
The experimental work is the necessary part of the project’s development in the field of engineering. The main strengths of the strategy are in possibilities to receive the results related to the real world situation. The laboratory experiment as one of the most effective scientific methods is characterised by creating the situation for obtaining the necessary quantitative data for the research.
The laboratory experiment is used to confirm the researchers’ hypotheses and observe the particular features or possible changes in the work of the project. Nevertheless, the laboratory experiment also has definite weaknesses which should be taken into consideration while analysing the experiment data.
Experiments are time-consuming procedures which are developed in the artificial environment approximated to the real world. That is why, many assumptions should be taken into account. Furthermore, the experiment results are based on the work with the concrete project, and it is usually difficult to generalise the data.
The findings of the laboratory experiment should be analysed to conclude about the project’s results. The data analysis is the important stage of the project’s development, and it depends on the previous literature review significantly. The data analysis should be realised with references to the results of the previous studies and researches in order to make conclusions about the urgency and originality of the current research.
From this point, the main strengths of the data analysis strategy are in providing the information about the reliability and validity of the research. Moreover, much attention should be paid to the conceptual framework and theoretical background. The data analysis is traditionally provided with references to the results of the previous researches in order to concentrate on the innovations and changes in the projects’ procedures and outcomes.
The data analysis based on the detailed literature review of the latest researches in the definite sphere of knowledge follows the trends in the field and provides the necessary depth in discussion the certain project. Thus, there are two stages associated with the analysis of the data in the research.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first stage in the form of literature review is necessary to present the theoretical background for the research and determine the aspects which need to be stressed on in the project. The second stage of the data analysis is connected with examining the experiment’s results and drawing conclusions with references to the previous studies in the field.
However, the data analysis can be also associated with a range of weaknesses which can limit the wide usage of the experiment’s results. That is why, it is important to pay attention to the possible incompleteness of the results and to their concrete character which does not allow further generalisation of the findings.
Focusing on the qualitative data presented in the reviewed literature, it is necessary to pay attention to the latest researches because of a lot of dated material. Furthermore, the information presented in the literature is often given only from one perspective. Thus, it is necessary to concentrate on reliable resources providing the information free from the researchers’ bias.
The key organizational elements of the aviation industry Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Training of air crew
Introduction The aviation industry comprises of a complex system that aims at delivering safe and efficient air transport. The industry has various organizational elements that ensure that service provision in the industry is up to standard. Among the important elements of ensuring this are the selection and training of aircrew. It is very important to have a competent aircrew that will ensure safety and minimal errors in the aviation industry.
Safety is one of the most critical factors in the aviation sector. It plays a major beneficial role in the prevention of accidents as well as in the enhancement of the financial performance of the aviation sector. It is important for the players in the aviation sector to take measures to ensure flight safety at all times.
One of the measures that should be taken by the aviation association is the implementation of safety management systems whereby, the different stakeholders in the aviation industry such as pilots, engineers and the rest of the cabin crew are facilitated with skills to ensure safe operations (Harold
Minimal State Liberalism vs. Active State Liberalism Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help
Over the years of human history, the world has witnessed many philosophies come and go. Most of them rise and fade away quickly, yet a few remain take hold, and affect the whole world forever. A good example is democracy and communism. In the U.S.A., democracy and capitalism are the overriding philosophies, yet the support for these systems has left people divided into three main categories: the liberals, the conservatives, and the radicals.
As a result of these three dominant divisions, it is evidenced that each group has a strong stand about government intervention and freedom. Minimal state liberals argue strongly that government intervention is a bad thing for the freedom of Americans and active state liberals argue strongly that government intervention is necessary to preserve the freedom of Americans.
This work contends for the view that even though government intervention may limit freedom of persons in a democracy, the system of democracy has in itself some vices that can never be left to fate. The vices of democracy are such as may lead to its own self destruction. Never once have the people been able to stand to correct the excesses of capitalism, only the government can do that (Dolbeare
Capgras Syndrome Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Capgras syndrome or Capgras delusion is a neuropsychological condition in which the affected person thinks that a close acquaintance or a family member has been replaced by a similar imposter. Capgras is usually classified as a delusional disorder and it is quite uncommon. Some psychologists have referred to the Capgras syndrome as the “imposter syndrome” (Hirstein and Ramachandran, 2007).
The syndrome is named after Joseph Capgras who was the first psychologist to describe this condition. Capgras syndrome is usually common in people who are suffering from other psychotic disorders such as Schizophrenia, dementia, and brain injuries. The complexity of this syndrome presents a challenge to both the patient and the people around him/her.
Around psychology circles, Capgras is considered to be a rare neuropsychological condition (Ellis and Lewis, 2001). This paper will present an analysis of Capgras syndrome including its history, manifestations, possible causes, effects, and possible treatment methods.
History Joseph Capgras was a psychiatrist of French origin who lived between 1873 and 1950. Capgras first described elements of this disorder in 1923 through a case study he conducted on a woman who claimed that her husband had been replaced by an identical imposter. Capgras and the co-author of this study first referred to the syndrome as “the illusion of doubles” (Fischer, Keeler and Schweizer, 2009).
Initially, Capgras syndrome was considered a symptom of schizophrenia that was exclusively manifested within the female population. After Capgras’s initial study of the condition, the subsequent studies were more psychoanalytical in nature. A breakthrough in the study of Capgras syndrome was made in the 1980s. This is when the syndrome was categorized as a neurological disorder after a series of studies.
Manifestations Capgras syndrome can be manifested without any warning taking both the patient and his/her caregivers by surprise. For instance, an old woman who is experiencing symptoms of Capgras syndrome might react with shock one morning after thinking that the person ‘claiming’ to be her husband is an imposter.
This is in spite of the fact that she can still recognize her husband’s appearance and mannerisms. Even after being reassured by other family members, the woman can still believe that the family members are a part of the impersonation scheme. Patients suffering from Capgras syndrome might also feel that multiple members of their family have been systematically replaced.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The suspicions against this replacement might also extend to pets and other household objects. There are various documented cases of Capgras’s manifestation. One of these manifestations was through a sixty-five year old woman who had previously been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The manifestation included instances of the woman’s husband trying to get her to recognize him.
The woman responds by telling her husband that he “looks like” her husband but she knows “that he is not him” (Fischer, Keeler and Schweizer, 2009). The woman goes on to tell her husband that he is one of the two imposters that come around pretending to be her husband. This case represents a real life manifestation of Capgras syndrome.
Although cases of Capgras syndrome are most common among women, they have also been witnessed among men. In a 2002 case study, an “89-year-old man who had earlier been diagnosed with Lewy Body Dementia was discovered by security guards while trying to locate his other apartment” (Silva and Leong, 2010). The man believed that he had ‘two’ apartments that were ‘exactly alike’ but he only slept in one at night.
Possible Causes It is not exactly known what causes Capgras syndrome but psychiatrists have forwarded various theories on possible causes. All these theories have a viable level of credibility. The first theory asserts that Capgras syndrome is caused by a malfunctioning of the brain’s visual cortex and the emotions of familiarity (Ramachandran, 2007). According to this theory, the patient’s eyes see the actual image but the emotional interpretation of familiarity is faulty.
This is why the patients identify characters as “exact” imposters. This theory is cemented by the fact that sometimes brain injury victims with Capgras are able to indentify characters over the phone only for them to claim they are imposters when they meet them face-to-face. This scenario may suggest that sounds are more connected to the familiarity process of the brain than sights. One of the most probable causes of Capgras syndrome is brain injuries.
The connection between familiarity and Capgras syndrome suggests that the disorder is caused by the part of the brain that controls familiarity. This diagnosis makes Capgras a biological disorder. This syndrome should not be confused with Prosopagnosia. Prosopagnosia is a disorder that refers to an individual’s inability to recognize familiar faces (Ellis and Lewis, 2001). Unlike Prosopagnosia, Capgras syndrome involves total facial recognition.
Effects Some neuropsychological disorders can be accompanied by symptoms that pose a danger to patients and those around them. Some instances of Capgras symptoms have resulted in violent behaviors or even death. This usually happens when the patient becomes violent towards his/her perceived imposters.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Capgras Syndrome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, instances of violent behaviors are minimal. In addition, the existing research on the subject does not provide enough information to enable psychologists to predict the instances of violent behavior. The available literature on the subject indicates that there are very few studies that have focused on the issue of danger and Capgras syndrome.
Recent literature on Capgras does not address the dangers associated with patients suffering from Capgras syndrome. Moreover, all the recorded cases of violence in people suffering from Capgras have been connected to pre-existing conditions such as Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. According to psychologists, various factors should be put into consideration when assessing the dangers associated with Capgras syndrome (Silva and Leong, 2010).
The first of these considerations is the co-existing forms of delusions in patients suffering from Capgras syndrome. The psychiatrist should also consider the accessibility of the people that the patient considers as imposters because close proximity to these “imposters” might increase the instances of violence. The pre-existing emotional dynamics that act as predisposing factors of violence should also be considered when assessing the dangers associated with Capgras syndrome.
Treatment Psychiatrists Dohn and Crews (2006) believe that Capgras syndrome is not as rare as it is currently believed. This is why treatment and management of this disorder should be prioritized. Moreover, some psychologists believe there should be more public and professional awareness on this neuropsychological disorder.
People who are experiencing Capgras syndrome can be highly perplexed and disturbed by this condition. This is also true for the caregivers of these people (Fischer, Keeler and Schweizer, 2009). There are various documented ways of managing Capgras syndrome. The complexity associated with the management of this syndrome has to do with the fact that effective management practices are very disturbing for caregivers of those affected by Capgras.
Most caregivers tend to turn to practices that aggravate the symptoms of this disorder. Treatment options for Capgras syndrome are based on an individual patient’s requirements. The management of this disorder aligns with the general management of other dementia related conditions.
Habilitation Therapy is one of the practices that are effective in the management of Capgras. This therapy specifies three concepts that are helpful to patients including choosing not to argue or correct the patient, “entering the reality of the person with dementia”, and creating positive experiences emotionally (Fischer, Keeler and Schweizer, 2009).
Seeing the world through an affected person’s eyes enables caregivers to understand the needs of these patients. The caregivers should also avoid arguing or correcting a person with Capgras syndrome. It is always advisable to avoid constant confrontation by avoiding arguments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Capgras Syndrome by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Constant arguing could lead to feelings of resentment in both the affected person and his/her caregivers. The other specification of Habilitation Therapy is to keep supplying positive reassurances to the affected person. Effective management of Capgras involves connecting emotionally with the affected person. In some cases, therapeutic and psychotic drugs are used in the treatment process. Other psychiatrists use cognitive therapy to help patients manage their daily lives.
Conclusion Capgras syndrome is a disorder that is closely related to dementia (Oulis, Dimitrakopoulos and Konstantakopoulos, 2012). Although it is a rare condition, the public needs to be educated about its manifestations, causes, and treatment options. There is lack of enough literature that focuses on the disorder’s relationship with violent behavior. Those affected by Capgras syndrome should seek psychological help with the assistance of their caregivers.
References Dohn, H.,
Similarities and Differences Between Communism and Democratic Socialism Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
The main similarity between revolutionary Communism and democratic Socialism is that both of these political ideologies consider Capitalism (as the form of a socio-political governing) historically outdated and utterly immoral. This is because, according to the proponents of both ideologies, in Capitalist countries, the majority of ordinary citizens are denied the right to have a fair share in the national wealth.
This is because in Capitalist societies, it is namely a small number of the representatives of bourgeoisie that exercise a unilateral control over the means of production. In its turn, this allows them to enjoy an undisputed dominance within the society – even though that there are no objective reasons for this to be the case.
That is, if we exclude the fact that the wealthy members of social elites simply happened to have enough of ill-gotten money in their bank accounts. In its turn, this creates a situation when most citizens are being denied the opportunity of a social advancement – only the individuals affiliated with the rich and powerful qualify for a social uplifting. Such state of affairs, of course, is far from being considered thoroughly fair.
Another thing, upon which revolutionary Communism and democratic Socialism agree, is the sheer inappropriateness of the Capitalist practice of subjecting workers to an economic exploitation.
This is because this practice establishes preconditions for employees to be treated as a soulless commodity – hence, causing them to experience the sensation of a societal alienation. In its turn, this prevents hired laborers (regardless of the essence of their professional duties) from being able to attain happiness. Both ideologies refer to such a state of affairs, as utterly inappropriate.
Revolutionary Communism and democratic Socialism also criticize Capitalism on the account of this political system standing in opposition to the concept of egalitarianism.
After all, it is specifically the assumption of people’s perceptual/cognitive inequality, which justifies the Capitalist idea that, in order to ensure the free-market economy’s proper functioning; societies must remain stratified along class-lines. Both, Communists and Socialists proclaim this idea being not only unethical, but also as such, that contradicts the dialectical laws of history.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Revolutionary Communists and democratic Socialists also share a strongly negative attitude towards the concept of a private ownership. According to the proponents of both political ideologies, the continual institutionalization of this type of ownership contributes to the process of a gap between poor and rich citizens growing wider, and makes the economy more vulnerable to financial crises.
This is why, just as it is being the case with democratic Socialists, revolutionary Communists advocate the concept of a state-ownership, as such that ensures a fair distribution of the national wealth among citizens.
Nevertheless, even though that revolutionary Communism and democratic Socialism do share much of an ideological ground, out which they initially emerged, there are many more differences between them than similarities. The most fundamental of these differences is the fact that, while Socialists consider Socialism to be the final phase of the humanity’s socio-economic advancement, Communists refer to it in terms of an intermediary one.
According to them, Socialism is the ‘transitional’ form of a political governing, which will be eventually replaced by Communism (Kors 3). In its turn, Communism presupposes the complete liquidation of a private ownership, the elimination of money, as the instrument of commercial transactions, and the establishment of the ‘dictatorship of proletariat’, as the mechanism of maintaining the society’s ‘classless’ functioning.
Democratic Socialists, on the other hand, point out to the fact that the practical realization of the earlier mentioned Communist agenda will prove impossible, as it does not consider the actual essence of people’s genetically predetermined psychological inclinations.
Another major difference between democratic Socialism and revolutionary Communism is that, while Socialists refer to the transition between Capitalism and Socialism in terms of an evolutionary process, Communists promote the idea that this transition should be revolutionary.
That is, according to Communists, there is only one way for ensuring the eventual triumph of Socialism/Communism – an armed uprising (Dobbs 495). Socialists, on the other hand, suggest that rather than parting away with Capitalism in the revolutionary manner (by the mean of overthrowing the government and eliminating bourgeoisie, as a social class), progressively minded people should aim to create preconditions for the gradual transformation of Capitalism into Socialism.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Similarities and Differences Between Communism and Democratic Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As Roberts noted: “In economics, their (Socialists’) main commitment is not to creating a new man by expropriating the expropriators but to taming the excesses of the market through state intervention. They (Socialists) have also been stubbornly reformist and gradualist rather than revolutionary” (358).
Unlike their Communist counterparts, Socialists do not subscribe to the idea that a truly fair society must necessarily be classless. In fact, the Socialist idea of a ‘welfare state’ presupposes that, instead of remaining antagonized against each other, the representatives of different social classes should be equally affiliated with the values of a ‘communal solidarity’.
Partially, the earlier mentioned conceptual dichotomy between democratic Socialism and revolutionary Communism can be explained by the fact that democratic Socialists do not think that the continual functioning of Capitalist societies should necessarily result in strengthening the acuteness of class-related antagonisms.
The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to the ideas of Eduard Bernstein, who is now being considered the ‘father’ of democratic Socialism. According to Sturmthal: “He (Bernstein) pointed out that by its progress labor was gradually transforming the capitalistic society and predicted that by this method of gradual reform and in co-operation with democratic middle-class parties, European labor would win democracy, and, at the end of a long evolutionary process, establish Socialism” (101).
Communists, on the other hand, promote the idea that, as time goes on; the intensity of class-antagonisms within Capitalist societies should increase. In its turn, this should eventually lead to the creation of a ‘revolutionary situation’, and consequently to the removal of bourgeois governments.
This brings us to discuss another important difference between both political ideologies. Whereas, democratic Socialists do favor democracy, as the people-oriented form of a political governing, Communists do not think this is actually the case – especially when we talk about the democracy’s functioning within Capitalist societies.
According Communists, ‘capitalist democracy’ is nothing but the instrument for the representatives of social elites to maintain its dominance within the society. The reason for this is simple. By providing ordinary citizens with the illusion that they can indeed influence the process of a political decision-making, by the mean of casting their votes, capitalists are able to reduce the acuteness of economic tensions within the society – hence, making these citizens less likely to revolt against being continually exploited.
After all, the very conceptual premise of democracy presupposes the process of people casting their votes being second in importance to the process of these votes’ calculation. This is exactly the reason why, according to revolutionary Communists, the concept of democracy is synonymous with the concept of corruption. It also explains why democracy is dialectically predetermined to transform itself into oligarchy/plutocracy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Similarities and Differences Between Communism and Democratic Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the Communist idea that the best form of government is the ‘dictatorship of proletariat’ when, after having eliminated capitalists physically, workers enjoy a shared ownership over the means of production. This idea derives out of the assumption that capitalists will never be willing to share some of their riches with the society’s underprivileged members – unless when they are being forced to do so by purely external circumstances.
These circumstances, however, must be strong enough. Therefore, in order for socially underprivileged citizens to cease being the subjects of an economic/societal exploitation, they must be ready to defy the very principles, upon which the continual functioning of Capitalist societies is based – including the principle of a democratic voting.
In its turn, this explains why; whereas, democratic Socialists refer to their presence in the Capitalist countries’ legislative bodies, as such that serves the purpose of the society’s betterment, Communists do not make any secret of the fact that the only reason why they participate in political elections, is that this provides them with yet additional opportunity to undermine ‘bourgeois democracies’ from within.
Revolutionary Communism and democratic Socialism also differ, in regards to how the proponents of both ideologies address the issue of people’s political opinions being formed. According to Communists, the manner in which a particular individual perceives the surrounding socio-political reality reflects the specifics of his or her affiliation with one or another social class.
In other words, it is namely people’s class-status, which causes them to be what they are, in the cognitive sense of this word. Democratic Socialists, on the other hand, refer to the Communist interpretation of what causes people to adopt a particular behavioral pattern, as being overly simplistic. According to them, regardless of what happened to be the particulars of people’s class-affiliation, it is in their very nature to strive to enjoy a social fairness.
Hence, the democratic Socialist idea that it is possible for the representatives of different social classes to cooperate. It is needless to mention, of course, that Communists do not agree with this idea, because according to them, the wealthy representatives of social elites, on the one hand, and impoverished workers/peasants, on the other, are sworn enemies. Therefore, there can be no cooperation with then, by definition.
The final difference between both ideologies is that, while revolutionary Communism implies that people’s likelihood to attain happiness is being solely concerned with their varying ability to satisfy their physiological needs, democratic Socialism suggests that, besides being provided with the opportunity to fill up their stomachs, people also need to be given the chance of an emotional/spiritual self-actualization.
In its turn, this can be explained by the fact that, unlike Communists, democratic Socialists believe that there is so much more to a particular individual than solely his or her desire to enjoy having a plenty of food. In this respect, democratic Socialism appears much more intellectually refined, as compared to revolutionary Communism, because it avoids making simplistic assumptions about human nature.
Works Cited Dobbs, Darrell. “Communism.” The Journal of Politics 62.2 (2000): 491- 510.Print.
Kors, Alan. “Can There be an ‘After Socialism’?” Social Philosophy
Internet security policy Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Organization’s policy on the use of corporate digital resources
Internet Security Policies
Introduction Since its inception, the Internet has experienced threats in its underlying communications network and nodes, protocols, network administration as well as host systems.
These threats have repeatedly been located in the security mechanisms of the hosts (Doddrell, 1995, Highland, 1996), examples being the capacity to obtain unauthorized private access, and the aptitude to gain unauthorized access to passwords. Furthermore, the commercial usage of the Internet has introduced new threats, such as the interception of data in transit by competitors or criminals.
Hackers, competitors, disgruntled employees and ex-employees have been exploiting Internet threats (Doddrell, 1995), forcing banks to recognize the changed nature of the Internet environment from uncompetitive and trustworthy to competitive and hostile. There is also increasing fear within the banking sectors over threats emanating from their own, trusted employees.
In other words, banks and other organizations are not only exposed to Internet threats from outside their boundaries, but also represent threats to other internet users. This rather new Internet security problem for organizations demands solutions in the form of different security policies, procedures and mechanisms.
This paper will discuss acquired expertise, judgment and maturity on the subject of cyber/information security, as well as Internet security policy and associated procedures which convey security guidance and rules to an organization and its employees.
Organization’s policy on the use of corporate digital resources The networking of distributed data and documents requires the interoperability of systems and services, which in turn require standards. In the development of an Internet security policy for a bank, it is essential that the risks to the organization arising from the Internet connection be addressed.
This requires the detection of pertinent risks, followed by a prioritization of the risks by the use of a risk assessment (Gollmann, 1999). Banks need to implement holistic perspectives in any solution to information security (Hartmann, 1995; Hitchings, 1995; Lichtenstein, 1996; Yngstrom, 1995), and for this reason, their Internet security policies should include administrative, human and technical Internet security considerations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though, organizations have largely disregarded the need for Internet security policy. This may be partly because of the limited guidance which has been available for the development and definition of such policy.
In line with this, the framework for an organization’s Internet security policy must considers the Internet risks experienced by the organization, and features a holistic approach to development. Use of the framework will allow the production of well-structured, comprehensive and effective Internet security policies for the organizations (Engestrom, 2000).
Internet Security Policies Various Internet security policies for banks exist; for example, the NASA Internet Acceptable Usage Policy (NASA, 1996). Though, current bank policies appear to be acceptable usage policies, or information protection policies, the following six sub policies form part of an organization’s Internet security policy:
Enterprise Internet acceptable usage policy
Employee Internet acceptable usage policy
Internet information protection policy
Internet information publication policy
Internet information access policy
Internet employee privacy protection policy
Each of these is summarized below:
Enterprise Internet acceptable usage policy: This policy should contain guidelines for the organization indicating acceptable and unacceptable uses of their Internet connection
Employee Internet acceptable usage policy: This policy should contain the security responsibilities for individual employees, and the acceptable and unacceptable purposes for which the employees may use the organization’s Internet connection.
Internet information protection policy: This policy should contain guidelines for the protection of the organization’s information resources from risks emanating from other Internet participants.
We will write a custom Essay on Internet security policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Internet information publication policy: This policy should contain guidelines for the division, allocation, electronic publication, and dissemination of information via the Internet.
Internet information access policy: This policy should contain guidelines for allowing and disallowing access to an organization’s information resources via the Internet.
Internet employee privacy protection policy: This policy should contain guidelines for providing an organization’s employees with privacy protection from other Internet participants.
Conclusion Standards and practices for interoperability of digital information in the banking sector must incorporate the means to authenticate senders, receivers, sources, data, and documents, and to determine copyright and access permissions (Baskerville, 1988).
Finding ways to address these requirements while facilitating open access to information ease of use, and adaptation to local practices is among the grander challenges of constructing an information infrastructure (Agree, 2003). With the implementation of empirical data indicating current and planned activity in Internet security policy within organizations, it is obvious that success can be achieved.
Reference List Agree, P. E. (2003). Information and institutional change: The case of digital libraries. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Baskerville, R. (1988). Designing Information Systems Security. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley
Differences between Grameen Danone and Conventional Social Enterprise Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Social enterprise is a non-profit business that applies commercial plan to maximise innovations as well as developing the environment (Drayton 2010). Grameen Danone, as a social enterprise, is a non-profit making company. In general, it serves on humane grounds by assisting in fighting malnutrition in poverty-stricken regions like Bangladesh. Set up in 2006, the company opted to sell fortified yoghurt at a low price ranging between 0.09 and 0.17USD.
On the other hand, conventional businesses extremely rely on high cost of their products to remain sustainable in the global and competitive market (Grameen Danone: Youths For Social Entrepreneurship 2012). Clearly, conventional businesses majorly depend on large profit margins in order to meet their strategic goals and objectives. Notably, conventional businesses have profit maximization as a key agenda in their daily operations. This is contrary to Grameen Danone’s goal in the market; they offer products at extremely low prices.
Apart from the philanthropic nature, Grameen Danone is tasked with empowering needy people in the community. Therefore, the company employs Bogra villagers in their Yoghurt factory, in Bangladesh. This shows their purpose to create job opportunities for the environs. The company further supports the villagers by purchasing their milk for processing Yoghurt. This shows that Grameen Danone helps the community by offering them extra income through the milk purchase.
The support to the community is also evident through the employment of Bogra women as sales ladies to conduct door-to-door yoghurt advertisement. The company offered the women 10% of their sales as commission. Currently, Grameen Danone has availed over 160 jobs within the Bogra district.
Evidently, this company’s mandate is to create a social impact to the society (Grameen Danone: Youths For Social Entrepreneurship 2012). Conversely, conventional enterprises’ mandate is to ensure high sales for their goods and services at a favourable market price; their main purpose is to lay effective strategies that will enable them expand their internal operations and influence in the market.
Grameen Danone has a social multi-focus strategy in the community; it aims at empowering parts of the society and minimizing malnutrition among children in impoverished zones. On the other hand, conventional enterprises focus on the economic development that is centred on customers’ satisfaction and continuity (Monroe-White 2012).
They focus on the rate of product reception and consumption among their potential customers. But, they do not go ahead to determine the effect of their product on the consumers’ well-beings. Conventional enterprises may only support communities at will. This is through Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR); firms engage in CSR as a means of supporting the community in their surrounding.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the activities that amount to CSR include a scholarship for needy students, engaging in environmental protection awareness and engaging in HIV/AIDS awareness programs. Markedly, these activities are not the key strategic objectives of conventional commercial enterprises. It is worth noting that, for Grameen Danone, such activities are the key strategic objectives.
Historically, Grameen Danone has two financiers, Grameen Bank and the Danone factory. This factory process bottled water and dairy products such as Yoghurt and milk. Interestingly, the bank was providing microcredit to the poor in the society. The villagers could engage in business activities thereby supporting their livelihoods.
This strong background on community support laid a solid foundation for the operation of Grameen Danone. In the economic front, conventional enterprises focus on personal or corporate growth and development. For instance, McDonald’s Food Chains and Wal-Mart are operating to register high profits; the huge part of the profits directly benefits the owners as they use them in expanding their businesses.
However, a social enterprise like Grameen Danone pays emphasis on societal well-being. It tries to uplift all persons in the society irrespective of their social classes, disabilities, and other challenges.
Grameen Danone plans to have every person drive the economy, as opposed to conventional enterprises that fear competition. They want people to purchase their products with no empowerment knowledge on how to produce the products. These two enterprises address social, environmental and economic challenges from an out rightly different perspective.
According to Monroe-White 2012, conventional commercial enterprises engage in a competitive business in order to gain competitive advantage over their competitors. They are predominantly found in an innovation-driven economy since they use new technological methods to attract and maintain their customers.
In such markets, there are price-wars among companies with the aim taking control of the markets. Grameen Danone, however, operates in a competition-free market. This is supported from nature in which it operates; it does not have to advertise its products to get more consumers. They are the ones who identify a region of operation and the number of people to serve. This is in line with the social responsibility that the company has adopted.
We will write a custom Essay on Differences between Grameen Danone and Conventional Social Enterprise specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the company operates as a simple, but it is well-designed. Profit from the sale of products is refunded to Grameen Danone and is reinvested for the company expansion. The company impacts more on the community since it empower employments to many people by building more factories.
The Grameen Danone Company sustains the social values in the communities, creates new opportunities, and engages in innovations. Its decision-making process does not rely on capital ownership; it is distributed in limited and a minimal amount of labour. However, investors who do business with Grameen Danone Company do not benefit them further in the realization of their social and environmental goals (State as Conventional Commercial Enterprise n.d.).
Its membership is an open set of goals in accordance to the public interest. According to the US, social enterprise addresses social needs through product promotion or high rate of employment they offer to people. In addition, they do not relay on the government support as they are non-profit.
Social enterprise is a citizen initiative as it involves people from the community who share and educate themselves on their needs. It is a community benefit as it offers employment to people belonging to the community. Social enterprise can include external revenues outside its market.
Their proprietors are hidden hence not identified by the law. Besides, the real proprietors are the top managers of the business. They distribute income in form of salaries and benefits while price formation, is based socially by involving mechanisms of powers, which can come from non customers or real customers.
Conventional business differs from the social enterprise in that conventional business sells its goods and services with an aim of making profit. It receives revenue inform of taxes. In addition, they pay costs associated in the provision of services with the intention of getting back profit, and then the business distributes it to the proprietors who are the beneficiary. Conventional business pays for its services.
Additionally, conventional business has different prices for their different services inform of different levels of taxation, and they mostly depend on the government (State as Conventional Commercial Enterprise n.d.). However, the proprietors’ nature in the conventional business are disguised in every aspect of their life; socially, economically and politically. This includes the nature of customers, revenues, price formation and how they relate with property; it is their secret.
Further, conventional enterprises do not link revenues and property basing on the economic power. Besides, their key revenue comes from the sale of goods and services while their proprietor’s cost relies on input resources, labour and land. Their profit comes from the revenues after subtracting everything left from the sales while capital gains and dividends are their form of income (State as Conventional Commercial Enterprise n.d.).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Differences between Grameen Danone and Conventional Social Enterprise by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through economic interaction during the sale of goods, they make form their price since their key customers are the buyers of their goods and services. In the conventional business, stakeholders are the real proprietors who are legally identified by the law, however, no exclusive rights are based on power or position is entitled to them. In addition, there are no exclusive revenues from the outside market.
In conclusion, Grameen Danone applies business principles to solve a social problem with no profit making intentions. From this perspective, it operates in a large field that had been discussed above; for example, health and economic development. Conventional enterprises apply business principles to develop their internal and external growth systems.
Profit maximization remains the core purpose for such enterprises thereby forcing them to strategise on inculcating new technological inventions in order to remain profitable in the competitive market (Monroe-White 2012). The French business, Grameen Danone remains a pioneer in the social enterprise field.
References Drayton, B., 2010, September 5, Social entrepreneurship: Characteristics of social entrepreneurship. Web.
Grameen Danone: Youths For Social Entrepreneurship 2012, Youths For Social Entrepreneurship | Youths Changing Their World. Web.
Monroe-White, T 2012, Organizational Differences of Social and Conventional Enterprises: A Cross-Country Approach. Web.
State as Conventional Commercial Enterprise, Theory of the State. Web.
Trifles by Susan Glaspell and The Hairy Ape by Eugene O’Neil Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Trifles by Susan Glaspell
The Hairy Ape by Eugene O’Neil
Introduction Novels, plays, songs and poems have been used in various ways by many scholars to convey important messages to their audience. People can view themselves in many literature presentations and realize the mistakes they make in life. Literature warns, educates, entertains and informs people about their societies and what shapes their behavior. This essay examines how play writers expose different perceptions of human beings through their characters and themes.
Trifles by Susan Glaspell This play was written in 1916 and it explores various perceptions of men and women and how they behave when faced with different challenges. The author condemns gender stereotypes by exposing the evils associated with male chauvinism. She manages to show her audience how people have equal abilities to manage various issues in the society. The play presents how the detectives failed to discover what killed Mr. John Wright.
On the other hand, the three ladies present in the room are shocked at how these ‘professionals’ are not able to gather clues that will lead to the arrest of the culprit. In addition, the audience is able to see the evils associated with gender stereotypes. The women concealed the evidence that would have been used to find out the cause of the death being investigated.
This play is a good example of how the society continues to fail due to weird gender perceptions. The murder investigators think that they know their work better than other people. In fact, they think that women cannot help them in any way to establish the truth regarding this matter.
On the other hand, these women are submissive and they do not want to engage in arguments with men. Even though they look innocent, they inwardly laugh at the fruitless attempts shown by the incompetent investigators. This is expressed in their conversations when the attorney and sheriff say that the house has no evidence to lead to any meaningful case. This play shows that men think that women are weak, illiterate and must be kept in the kitchen. On the other hand, women respect men but inwardly laugh at their failures.
The Hairy Ape by Eugene O’Neil This play portrays how wealth and power cause discriminations and class differences in the society. O’Neil uses bleak realism and natural conversation to create uniqueness. Literature continues to evolve and thus O’Neil was in the right path towards revolutionizing stage drama.
He has used a natural style to present his views to enable the theme of the play to blend with the behavior of the main character. Yank is a primitive but meticulous young man who thinks that he has more energy than machines. This male chauvinism drives him to despise women and think that he is not worth in his society. An honest statement that describes his character makes him change his residence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, he pays a lot of attention to bad comments about him and this makes him leave his community to stay with a gorilla. He meets his death at the zoo after staying there for some time and realizing that even gorillas do not want his company. His primitiveness is shown when he is disturbed by a negative comment from a girl and also when he said that he would blow up things while working with the firemen. The climax of his archaic behavior is when he decides live in the zoo with gorillas because the world had turned against him.
Conclusion Glaspell and O’Neal have successfully managed to show how gender stereotypes and traditions affect human life. They have used different ways to show how people perceive each other differently and this contributes to the problems they face in the society.
Specific types of behaviors associated with substance users or addicts and people suffering from various disorders Research Paper college admissions essay help
Identifying Behaviors As it would be observed, there are specific types of behaviors associated with substance users or addicts and people suffering from various disorders or diseases. This paper identifies some of the varied behaviors that would be observed through a diversity of disorders and social problems affecting humans today.
For the purpose of this subject, this paper has featured a number of topics through which the issue of behavior across various disorders and complications is examined.
The key topics featured in this paper include depression in cancer patients, tourette’s disorder, opiate dependence in heroin users, control and coping of chronic insomnia, sex differences in recovery of PTSD patients, changing automatic behavior through self monitor, decision-making and perfectionism in OCD patients, and attention bias and memory bias for negative words used casually.
Depression in Cancer Patients Cancer is a serious health problem which is characterized by uncontrolled growth or multiplication of abnormal cell tissues in the human body. This is arguably one of the most serious health problems that are known to trigger serious cases of depression among the global populations today, especially on the victims.
Cancer is usually characterized with a prolonged and painful medical attention whereby surgery becomes a looming likelihood in all grounds. These, when coupled with the uncertainty of the disease and its unpleasant symptoms, would be serious issues that are likely to expose cancer patients to serious depressive disorders. Depressive disorders in cancer patients would normally occur as a result of immense stress.
This may happen due to the thought of the traumatic disease and its many complexities (Trask, 2004). Some of the common stressors and emotional upheavals associated with victims of cancer include things such as the fear of death, changes in self-respect and body image, and sudden interruption of one’s life plans. In this case, features of depression in cancer patients would be similar and incoherent to the various behaviors associated with the disease.
The common behaviors of depression that would be associated with cancer patients would include, but are not limited to, lack of concentration, memory lapses or disturbances, withdrawal from favored activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, and excessive anger.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In most cases, cancer patients would tend to find it hopeless for them to do the things they fancy in life, probably owing to physical and emotional pain of the disorder. This attitude contributes to lack of interest in life, thus exposing the patients to suicidal inclinations, among other serious effects of uncontrolled depression.
Tourette’s Disorder Tourette’s Disorder or Tourette’s syndrome is a disorder that affects the nervous system. This rare disease is characterized by multiple constant tics. According to Leonard and others (1992), the symptoms of Tourette’s disorder are likely to occur after five years of age, but not later than ten years.
At this stage, the victims experience mild, simple tics in the face and arms among other specific parts of the body. These embarrassing conditions would tend to increase in variety and frequency as time passes by, thus becoming disruptive to normal life activities of the victims.
This variation in frequency and variation normally comes with age, whereby the severity of the disorder is observed to lessen with the advancement in the victim’s age. Tourette’s Disorder is associated with a number of behaviors as it would be observed through activities of daily living.
For instance, the victims would portray attention problems, especially in matters involving education and knowledge. Symptoms of obsessive-compulsory disorder would also be common with people suffering from this disorder. This makes the victims harbor unreasonable thoughts, obsession, or fear that they have to manage through ritualized activities in order to reduce the looming anxiety which comes with this disorder.
Other complex behaviors linked to Tourette’s disorder include pinching, kissing, touching behaviors, sticking out of the tongue, and making of obscene gestures. Most of these features and behaviors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive evaluation of a child’s social, psychological, and educational performance. Other effective ways of diagnosing such behaviors is through thorough family and medical assessment or examination.
Opiate Dependence in Heroin Users Heroine or diacetylmorphine refers to an opiate drug which is generated from morphine. Regular use of diacetylmorphine presents high chances of addiction to its many users across the world. Heroine is arguably one of the most abused drugs in the world. According to current statistics by the UN, the global usage of heroine ranges between 15 and 21 million people (Mark et al., 2001).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Specific types of behaviors associated with substance users or addicts and people suffering from various disorders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are various ways through which heroin is abused, and these include smoking, snorting or sniffing, and direct injection into the bloodstream using syringes and needles. Chronic use of this psychoactive drug , however, can result to physical dependence of the substance.
This is a condition whereby the bodies of the users become used to its presence that they cannot do without it. In medical terms, this condition is well termed as opiate dependence, and is characterized by the users’ inability to stop taking the substance. Opiate dependence in heroin users is associated with a cluster of behaviors.
For example, users would often display a strong desire to take the substance, no matter the efforts they apply in an attempt to avoid them. A physiological withdrawal state is also common among heroine users whenever they try to reduce or terminate its usage.
More importantly, opiate dependence is known to contribute to progressive neglect of alternative interests in life among heroine users owing to the addictive effects of the drug. Persistent drug seeking tendency and preoccupation with the interest to obtain the drug are other common behaviors that are likely to occur in heroin users as a result of opiate dependence.
Control and Coping of Chronic Insomnia Chronic insomnia is a serious condition which is characterized by disturbed sleep or the inability to get enough sleep in the night. This sleep disorder is classified into three groups which include transient insomnia, acute insomnia and chronic insomnia. Some of the common behaviors associated with this kind of disorder are habits such pre-sleep arousals, frequent wakening in the night, poor sleep habits, and early rising in the mornings.
Another common behavior associated with this disorder is an inclination to daytime sleep as those affected try to compensate the long hours of staying awake over the night with a daytime’s rest.
If left to persist, this habit could result to lowered productivity in the workplace since the people involved are likely to spend much of their time battling with sleep on their desks, rather than concentrating in work. As Morin, Rodrigue and Ivers note (2003), violent behaviors are also common with people suffering from chronic insomnia, probably as a result of excessive feelings of restlessness.
Pharmacologic treatments and psychological-behavioral treatments which incorporate the use of cognitive behavioral therapy are some of ways that have proven effective in the control of the sleep disorder (Currie et al., 2000). The most common behavioral treatments for insomnia include cognitive therapy, stimulus control therapy cognitive, and sleep restriction therapy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Specific types of behaviors associated with substance users or addicts and people suffering from various disorders by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cognitive therapy is a form of intervention whereby victims get to learn about the development of positive beliefs and thoughts regarding sleep. Stimulus control therapy incorporates the creation of a resting environment which is likely to promote sleep and rest. Sleep restriction therapy would be in form of a program which has been designed with the aim of limiting time spend on bed to ensure people are able to get enough sleep and rest throughout the night.
Apart from the treatment and behavioral therapies used in the control of this condition, it is also important for the affected persons to try coping with the condition through a number of ways. This can be achieved through the establishment and maintenance of healthy sleeping habits that would be applied in the course of the day and at night. During the day, for instance, victims should try to avoid nicotine, caffeine and alcohol, particularly towards the last hours of the day.
They should also try to avoid daylight siestas or naps, especially in the final hours of daytime. In the case of the nights, it would be a good idea for the sufferers to establish regular routine schedules for bedtime and waking up. They should also try to establish a cool and dark environment that would promote sleep in all aspects. More importantly, people should stay away from disturbing sounds during bedtime. Things such as white-noise machine and fans can be useful here, since they play a significant role in blocking out disturbing noises.
Sex Differences in Recovery of PTSD Patients The threat of exposure to trauma has been a part of human life since the beginning of life. In this case, the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been a common concept whose development over the time has raised much concern in the current world of medicine. As it would be observed from various studies, there is a number of sex or gender differences in the recovery of PTSD patients.
These differences are based on either societal or nonbiological aspects, and can be observed through a number of ways. To begin with, there is an increased prevalence of PTSD in women compared with the male. Another common difference here is in the presentation of PTSD, which is quite different for both men and women. While men are more likely to possess the associated features of impulsiveness and irritability, women would be associated with habits of numbing and avoidance (Holbrook et al., 2002).
However, although many disorders linked to PTSD would be common to both men and women, men are thought to present disorders that are characterized by comorbid substance use, while women develop comorbid mood disorders.
Another common difference here is in the treatment of the disorder itself through psychotherapy where there would be a significant difference in the drug therapy applied to treat people of different gender. It should be understood here that, there are no sex differences that have been identified as far as cognitive behavioral therapy treatment of PTSD is concerned.
Changing Automatic Behavior through Self Monitor The concept of self monitoring has emerged as one of the most effective ways used in changing human behavior nowadays (DeMarree, Wheeler
Aldi Supermarket chain Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Aldi is a global supermarket chain based in Germany (Aldi, 2013). Aldi was founded by Karl and Theo albretch brothers in 1946. The two had inherited a convenient store from their mother and created a chain of discount food shops Aldi first went global by opening a branch in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Currently, the supermarket chain owns more than 400 stores in the UK alone.
Aldi mainly deals in food and drinks, but also sells a range of health and cosmetic products and other low-cost domestic goods. The majority of the products sold by this supermarket chain are own-branded labelled plus a few non-branded products. This system enables Aldi to stock a variety of products similar to other general supermarkets but on a limited space (Aldi Group History, 2010; Fallon, 1987, p. 33; Mitchell, 1991, p. 5).
The aim of this report is to carry out an in-depth analysis of Aldi supermarket chain using PESTEL framework and to explore the potential impact of each factor on Aldi, its policies and competitiveness in the UK market.
Aldi’s Industrial Analysis: PESTEL framework Political Factors
Aldi is a multinational corporation and therefore is greatly affected by the political and legal conditions of individual countries where it operates. The political state of affairs in the UK can be described as steady. The main focus of the current government is recovery from the global financial crisis (Hamilton
Quantitative and Analytical Techniques for Managers Report (Assessment) college application essay help
Relationship between the variables The dependent variable in the model will be the rate of growth of GDP while the independent variable is the amount of investment expressed as a percentage of GDP. A sample data for ten countries will be used to estimate the regression equation.
The regression line will take the form g = b0 b1 (1/Yi) ui when the ordinary least squares method is used. The regression line can be simplified to Y = b0 b1X
Y = rate of growth of GDP
X = Investment
The theoretical expectations are b0 can take any value and b1 > 0.
Variable Coefficients of the variable b0 Y – intercept 0.331859084 b1 Investment 0.186311941 From the above table, the regression equation can be written as Y = 0.3319 0.1863X. The intercept value of 0.3319 shows the proportion of growth in GDP that is not dependent on investment.
The value captures the variables that were not included in the regression analysis. The coefficient value is 0.1863. The sign is positive which implies that there is a positive linear relationship between growth in GDP and investment. An increase in investment by one unit leads to the growth in GDP by 0.1863 units. This can be shown by the scatter diagram shown below (Bazen, 96).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluation of regression model
Evaluation of the regression model can be done by testing the statistical significance of the variables. Testing statistical significance shows whether the amount of investment is a significant determinant of the rate of change of GDP. A t – test will be used since the sample size is small. A two tailed t- test is carried out at 95% level of confidence.
Null hypothesis: Ho: bi = 0
Alternative hypothesis: Ho: bi ≠ 0
The null hypothesis implies that the variables are not significant determinants of demand. The alternative hypothesis implies that variables are significant determinant of demand. The table below summarizes the results of the t – tests.
Variable t – values computed t – α 0.05 Decision b0 Y – intercept 0.185875 1.9432 Do not reject Ho b1 Investment 2.924371 1.9432 Reject From the table above, the t – value of the y – intercept (0.1858) is less than the computed value of t (1.9432). Thus, the null hypothesis will not be rejected. This implies that the intercept is not a significant determinant of the rate of growth of GDP a 95% significance level and thus can be dropped. On the other hand, the t – value of the coefficient of the slope (2.9244) is greater than the values of t – tabulated (1.9432).
Therefore, the null hypothesis will be rejected and this implies that the investment a significant explanatory variable. Thus, investment is statistically significant at the 95% level of significance. The value of the intercept is not relevant when testing the significance of the regression variables. Since the explanatory variable is statistically significant, it implies that the regression line can be used for prediction.
Coefficient of determination shows the amount of changes in the dependent variable that are explained by the independent variables. A high coefficient of determination implies that the explanatory variables adequately explain the variations in the rate of growth of GDP.
We will write a custom Assessment on Quantitative and Analytical Techniques for Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A low value of coefficient of determination implies that the explanatory variables do not explain the variations in the rate of growth of GDP adequately. For this regression, the value of R2 is 51.67%. This implies that the amount of investment explains only 51.67% of the variation in rate of growth of GDP. It is an indication of a weak explanatory variable.
The value of adjusted R2 is superior to the value of the R2 since it eliminates the effects of the number of variables used in the regression model. It is because the number of variables has an effect of increasing the value of R2. Also, the value of adjusted R2 is low at 46.63%.
The value is quite low and it indicates that the regression model is weak. It is worth mentioning that the value of adjusted R2 is not always superior in all cases. The value is of significance only when dealing with a sample not a whole population as in the case above. Besides, it is also relevant in model building (Verbeek 87).
Testing the overall significance of the regression model
The overall significance of the regression model can be analyzed using an F – test at the 95% level of confidence.
Null hypothesis H0: β0 = β1 =, = βp
Alternative hypothesis H1: βj ≠ 0, for at least one value of j
The table below summarizes he results of F – test for the regression equation.
Variable F – values computed F – at α 0.05 Decision Regression 8.551948 4.71 Reject Ho From the table above, the value of F – computed is greater than the value of F – tabulated. Thus, the null hypothesis will be rejected and conclude that the overall regression line is significant.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Quantitative and Analytical Techniques for Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How to improve the model and results
First, the manager can remove the variables that are found not to be statistically significant. Also, the manager can improve the regression equation by more adding variables which are considered that can affect the regression equation. This is often done at the formulation stage. Finally, the manager can increase the power of the explanatory variables. Thus, the management can either use cubic or quadratic functions.
Theoretical Framework Justification Human Capital Theory
Fringe benefits and wage earnings are identified as the main components of compensation summation. However, fringe benefits are apportioned a larger share in the total compensation matrix due to the fact that their influence was experiencing a consistent growth over the last decade in the labor market.
These fringe benefits are classified as social security, unemployment compensation and employee’s compensation for every unit of labor given as indicated in the human capital theory. In classification, these fringe benefits assume the form of insurance benefits, paid leave, and legally acquired benefits to a worker for every unit of labor delivered against the revenue realized (Allen 10).
Labor Market Discrimination Theory
Type and form of fringe benefits are never universal. Rather, they are influenced by the type of industry in which labor operates, ration and occupational groups as indicated in the labor market discrimination theory. This is due to the fact that governments and other agencies have introduced laws and regulations aimed at pushing for higher and reliable compensation. In most instances, the blue collar employees have a larger share of the legalities, construed benefits than their counterparts in white collar jobs (Verbeek 77).
Job Characteristics Theory
In a bid to extrapolate this relationship, the Job Characteristics/Compensating Wage Differentials theory is a certain reason for the experienced growth over the sample space. Reflectively, the variables interacting within the parameters of this theory are leisure and income within the normal indifference curve.
Consequently, the resulting interaction becomes flexible to different bundles of budget constraints that might be present at each level of computation. Further, this theory asserts that indifference curve is a product of various fringe benefits and wage rates that interact simultaneously to yield same utility level for each worker. When all other factors are held constant, higher swing of the indifference curve indicates higher levels of utility (Kanbur 87).
Incentive pay theory
The requirement for intrinsic substitution as a component of the decision science aimed at managing the fringe benefits are peculiar in labor economics. In such case, the foregone alternative would be forfeiting leisure related savings for health and pension needs which are characterized as basic for every worker.
The adoption of this thought is influenced by the fact that basic needs are more critical than the secondary wants in the matrix of fringe benefits. Besides, the long term effects of purchasing the basic needs are greater than those opting to acquire secondary needs upfront. Tax advantages to employers, scale of economies, and efficiency are major factors that led to the growth of fringe benefits (Koning 137). Therefore, as fringe benefits increase, the workers’ utility increased in the same ratio.
When implanting compensation plans, it is important for the firm to consider the efficiency of each labor unit against the wage payments. These units should be quantified in line with performance targets and revenue accrued. In order to achieve this, introduction of regulatory agents, such as supervisors who work alongside the employees may be beneficial.
As explained in the labor union theory, this agent often influences wage prices to be very sticky downwards. In the sample, the unionized employees reported stable income and structured employment contracts as pull factors into their respective fields.
The regression line can be simplified to take the form Y = b0 b1X b2X … bnX for n variables.
Y = rate of growth of GDP
Xi = All explanatory variables
Evaluation of regression model
A two tailed t- test is carried out at 95% level of confidence.
Null hypothesis: Ho: bi = 0
Alternative hypothesis: Ho: bi ≠ 0
The table below summarizes the results of the regression and a determination a test on whether they are significant or not.
Model B Standard Error Beta t Comments (Constant) .458 12.729 .036 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Statistically significant S 1.788 .456 .302 3.924 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Statistically significant EDUCDO -.669 4.367 -.012 -.153 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant EDUCHSD -2.154 3.459 -.074 -.623 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant EDUCAA -2.899 3.627 -.057 -.799 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant EDUCBA 3.618 3.353 .099 1.079 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Not statistically significant EDUCMAST .990 4.095 .015 .242 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Not statistically significant EDUCPHD -8.242 12.956 -.025 -.636 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Not statistically significant EDUCPROF 43.449 7.229 .259 6.011 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Statistically significant ETHBLACK -2.952 2.871 -.063 -1.028 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant ETHWHITE -.921 2.424 -.023 -.380 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant AGE -.357 .244 -.057 -1.464 Negative relationship with the depend relationship Not Statistically significant EXP .642 .134 .197 4.806 Positive relationship with the depend relationship Statistically significant From the table above, only three variables are statistically significant. All the others are not at the 95% level of confidence and thus can be dropped from the regression model.
The value of R2 is 27.8%. This implies that the amount of investment explains only 51.67% of the variation in rate of growth of GDP. It is an indication of a weak explanatory variable. Also, the value of adjusted R2 is low at 26.1%. The value is quite low and it indicates that the regression model is weak. More variable statistically significant variables should be added to the regression model at the formulation stage (Allen 97).
Testing the overall significance of the regression model
The overall significance of the regression model can be analyzed using an F – test at the 95% level of confidence.
Null hypothesis H0: β0 = β1 =, = βp
Alternative hypothesis H1: βj ≠ 0, for at least one value of j
The table below summarizes he results of F – test for the regression equation.
Variable F – values computed F – at α 0.05 Decision Regression 16.892 4.71 Reject Ho From the table above, the value of F – computed is greater than the value of F – tabulated. Thus, the null hypothesis will be rejected and conclude that the overall regression line is significant.
Test for autocorrelation
Autocorrelation is a scenario where the error terms of different periods are related. It is often tested either graphically or by use of the Durbin Watson test. The Durbin Watson lies between 0 and 4. A value of 2 implies that there is no correlation between the variables. A value of 0 and 4 indicates a strong correlation. The values are summarized below (Kanbur 77).
Model Durbin-Watson Rounded off Comments (Constant) 1.796 2 No correlation S 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCDO 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCHSD 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCAA 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCBA 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCMAST 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCPHD 1.796 2 No correlation EDUCPROF 1.796 2 No correlation ETHBLACK 1.796 2 No correlation ETHWHITE 1.796 2 No correlation AGE 1.796 2 No correlation EXP 1.796 2 No correlation The information in the table below shows that there is no serial correlation in the data.
Heteroscedasticity is a scenario where the error term violates the assumption of constant variance. The standard error of the regression equation is 6920.717929. In the regression above, the robust standard errors are 8859.92728. It is an indication of the possible existence of heteroscedasticity (Koning 98).
Works Cited Allen, Michael. Understanding Regression Analysis, Alabama: Springer, 2004. Print.
Bazen, Stephen. Econometric Methods for Labour Economics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Kanbur, Ravi. Labour Markets and Economic Development, Alabama: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Koning, Jaap. Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policies: Measures, Public Private Partnerships And Benchmarking, New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007. Print.
Verbeek, Marno. A Guide to Modern Econometrics, New York: John Wiley
Ethnography: An in-depth analysis Essay essay help site:edu
Human beings are complex creatures and as such are often hard to understand. Unlike animals, which possess standard behaviour that is often easy to explain, every person’s behaviour varies from another even when in the same environment and under the same circumstances.
There is a wide range of reasons for these variations, which include an individual’s personality, adaptability of different people to different environments, racial variations, cognitive ability, and the culture or norms practiced by different people depending on their area of origin.
Through the years, philosophers have developed theories specific to the aspects of human behaviour they attempt to explain. These theories have however proven speculative, as they exhibit some bias and therefore do not result in objective descriptions or conclusions.
Therefore, In a bid to understand these differences, scholars have taken to studying the workings of humanity and developing answers regarding their dynamics using facts as their basis. This in-depth study of human beings, their interactions, reactions to different environments, and their reasoning is known as anthropology (Wolf et al. 1994). Anthropology led to the development of various forms of research methodology.
With these developments came the birth of ethnography as a method studying and understanding human behaviour. Ethnography has evolved over the years to suit other fields of study such as sociology. It is a distinct way of looking at things and involves several different aspects as opposed to the common assumption that it only involves observation by being around the study subject. This paper aims at explaining what the process involves, its advantages, disadvantages and challenges, as well its purposes.
Ethnography is a data collection process that is applicable in different fields of study such as sociology, economics and criminology. The word “ethnography” is a derivative of two Greek words, “ethnos” which translates to “people” and “grapho” which means, “to write”. The focus of this process is the collection and recording of detailed information about the activities of a selected group of people or community with regard to the topic of the study, which proves useful as the basis of any conclusion that develops thereafter.
In the past centuries, people studying various communities and their cultures would use a different approach. Ethnographers would form a thesis and then use the information they get from the study to support the thesis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The result of this move was the formation of a conclusion that has its basis on the ethnographer’s bias and was consequently more subjective than objective (Mead 1928). However, studies conducted today take the inverse approach. The information collected is usable in the formation of an opinion instead of serving as supportive facts to an opinion that is already existent.
In conducting the process, the ethnographer usually observes his or her study subject from a distance and records the activities depending on his or her topic of study. The purpose for maintaining distance from the study subject is to avoid disruption so that the subject continues with activities in the normal and natural environment.
For instance, an ethnographer researching on the jazz music culture will in a jazz club and observes the activity of people in and around the club. Some of his or her concerns would be the history of the music, the kind of people that frequent the club, the instruments used, what happens on days when music other than jazz is played and when the club closes, among other things. The observer writes down this data for later evaluation.
However, in order to get a personal feel for better understanding of the subject, Interviews are also applicable in order to obtain the subject’s point of view. Sometimes video recordings are necessary for later reference. Surveys are also common as they provide comparative views for an objective conclusion.
However, such surveys are conducted as part of the ethnography, regardless of the fact that they are regarded as an independent form of data collection. The period of data collection ranges from a few months to a few years. Generally, this period is lengthy but it contributes to the conciseness of the entire process.
The information collected in a study is applicable in different forms of presentation including graphs, scatter plots and analytical writing (Philipsen 1992). In the early days, ethnographers wrote most of the records of field studies in the form of narratives that are similar to entries made in personal journals (Mead 1928).
This was the most efficient method available at the time, as people carrying out the study would immerse themselves in the cultures they were studying in order to obtain first hand accounts of the dynamics those cultures comprised, without the advantage of modern technology such as video recorders.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnography: An in-depth analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This method of study is holistic in nature for it encompasses all aspects of a given subject including the subject’s history, geographical surroundings, materiality, and social interactions and welfare. It serves as a way of forming conclusions from the point of view of the subject instead of the application of universal premises that result from biased assumptions (Bentham 1907).
The benefit of this holistic nature is that it makes the same data collected applicable to almost every field as long as the subject of study is the same, i.e. the group being studied (Ember
Contemporary Issues in Corporate Social Responsibility Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethics in Corporate Social Responsibility
List of References
Introduction The business world is getting more sensitive and very competitive. Given the definition of a company, it would be right to say that a business unit is an entity, a person who can be viewed independently as a member of the society. It therefore, has an obligation to ensure that it participates in the normal developmental projects that other members of the society are involved in. The manufacturing companies are the leading polluters of the environment.
The retail stores are also adding to this pollution. Wal-Mart for instances, wraps its products with plastic papers which are poorly disposed and turn into menace in our environments. Many of the manufacturing firms emit the greenhouse gases into the environment, causing massive pollution (Keinert 2008, p. 116). They therefore, have great responsibility to the society. It takes away a very important item which it must find a way of compensating in order to ensure success.
There are a number of ways through which a firm can give back to the society. Corporate Social Responsibility is one of the most important activities for most of the corporate businesses in giving back to the society. It is a kind way of appreciating the fact that the community is important.
It is a fine way of telling the society that the firm appreciates its support. This way, the society will come to the realization that it is acknowledged by the firm. This would create trust and a close tie between the community and the firm (Majer 2011, p. 64). It is one of the best ways of making a firm part and parcel of the community.
This way, the community would not view the business as just a simple business unit out for pure gains in profits. They will see the firm as one of their own and will feel obliged not only to offer it any assistance and protection it may require, but would naturally be turned into a pool of loyal customers. Asongu (2007, p. 53) says that corporate social responsibility cannot be avoided by any firm that hopes to succeed in the market.
Coming up with an appropriate corporate social responsibility in the contemporary society is one of the biggest challenges in the twenty first century. The cultures of societies around the world are varied. For a firm with an international outlook, there is a serious need to develop a strategy through which this process can be made a success.
Corporate social responsibility can be taken from many fronts. There are different activities that a firm can do as a corporate social responsibility. However, what may be appreciated by the American society may not be the same thing that the people of the United Arabs Emirates appreciate. This is not only because of the cultural difference between the two countries but also the difference in economic status.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The United States is a developed country. Some of the activities that a firm may do in this country may fail to make any significant impact to the country’s population, but may mean a lot in another country (Kline 2010, p. 62). The biggest huddle will be for a firm to precisely determine what would be needed in each society. This would call for a deep understanding of the society not just from the economic terms, but also the socio-cultural and political fronts.
This paper seeks to reflect on contemporary issues in corporate social responsibility
Ethics in Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate social responsibility is taking a new approach in the contemporary world. The emergent of professional practitioners and corporate citizens is changing the approach given to corporate social responsibility in the society today. Ethics has been introduced in corporate social responsibility.
Ethics has got three facets. The first form of ethics is descriptive ethics in which moral standards differ from one society to the other. The second form of ethics is normative ethics; it describes the norms that are accepted in one society but are denounced in another society. The third form of ethics is analytic ethics which fosters the idea that the level of morality is comparative. Business ethics is a combination of all the forms of ethics discussed above (Bird 2007, p. 221).
Business ethics is defined as the assessment of the manner in which people or organisations are expected to conduct themselves in the field of business. To be specific, business ethics assesses the various limitations that hinder an individual or organisation from satisfying the self interest, or realizing huge profits when the activities of the individuals or the businesses influence each other.
Corporate social responsibility comes hand in hand with business ethics. Business ethics is concerned with the various ethical principles or ethical problems that occur in the field of business. In addition, business ethics checks on the behaviour of the business or the behaviour of the various stakeholders that run the business.
Ethics play the role of moderating the ethical behaviours that cannot be governed by the government’s laws (Weiss 2011, p. 23). The government normally uses laws in order to constitute the required business ethical standards; business ethics on the other hand are used by businesses to set up standards of behaviours that are not captured by the government’s laws. The development of business ethics has been enhanced by the rise of big business entities that do not pay attention to the welfare of the surrounding community.
We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Issues in Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Business ethics refers to the moral principles that govern the operations or regulations of a business. There are certain sections of business ethics (i.e. ethics concerning advertising or promotion) that connect with marketing ethics. Business ethics can be analyzed under the framework of value-orientation by looking at the various values that the morals infringe. In addition, the stakeholder-oriented approach also provides a framework for analyzing business
Business ethics of an organisation always change over a period of time with the changing environment that people live in. According to Manoj (2012, p. 78) business ethics is considered as a form of corporate social responsibility.
This is because it creates an environment in which a firm will behave responsibly to the society without being forced to do so by law. Large companies or corporations normally want to include such ethical behaviour in their CSR programs since they believe that when they do any charitable work to them, their efforts won’t be in vain.
Firms are forced to come up with an ethical organizational culture within its system. Ethical business culture normally brings to the fore their business ethics so that they can exempt themselves from the various scandals that normally occur in the business environment such as, financial crises or mismanagement. The ethical business practices of a firm normally manifest the philosophy of the firm (Urip 2010, p. 37).
The main goal of business ethics for a firm is to ensure that there is a positive relationship between the firm and the society within which it operates.
Business ethics should not be violated as its violation disregards the main goal of the business. Some of the ethical issues that are contained in the business ethics include: the interests and obligations of the company, employees, surrounding community and shareholders or stakeholders. Other issues in this context include: legal framework, CSR policies, marketing ethics and the political climate.
Conclusion Corporate Social Responsibility is one the most current strategies of marketing a firm. The market is so competitive that any misstep by a firm would lead to its automatic fall. Corporate social responsibility comes in as a way through a firm can show its concern to the society’s well being.
In such competitive markets, it is very important that this firm comes with strategy that would make the firm stand out among the rest, as the preferred firm that is able to understand the needs of the society. This should be based on the contemporary theories in this field. The firm can engage in various charitable activities in the society that may involve giving out financial support to the members of the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Issues in Corporate Social Responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Environmentally, the firm may get involved in such activities that would ensure it is seen as an agent of pollution-free environment. Socially, the firm should not only ensure that its employees working conditions are bearable, but also make the society appreciate the importance of respecting the rights and freedom of every member of the society.
List of References Asongu, J 2007, Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility in Practice, Green-view Publishers, Lawrenceville.
Bird, A 2007, Team structure and success as related to cohesiveness and leadership, Journal of Social Psychology, 103(2), 217-223.
Keinert, C 2008, Corporate Social Responsibility as an International Strategy, Springer, Heidelberg.
Kline, J 2010, Ethics for International Business: Decision-Making in a Global Political Economy, Routledge, New York.
Majer, C 2011, The silent killers of productivity and profit, T D, 65(2), 62.
Manoj, K 2012, Corporate social responsibility: Contemporary issues in India, Adhyayan Publishers
The Web Site for Online Journalism Report a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Egypt Daily News
Introduction The Web represents the future of journalism, and mainstream media houses have realised this point. The Web is a relatively cost-effective means of distributing information than the traditional printing press and physical deliveries. This is reporting of news on real-time through the Internet. Therefore, the Web site for online journalism must meet some quality standards of a good Web site.
This is a short report about four international news Web sites and one local Egyptian news Web site. It looks at the contents and types of news (sport, business, and politics), the accuracy, the design of the Web site.
Aljazeera Aljazeera is an international news Web site that presents round-the-clock news to visitors on the site. The site provides news from various parts of the global like Africa, America, Asia-Pacific, Central and South Asia, Europe, and Middle East.
The Web site presents news on current affairs, opinions, business, sports, weather, in-depth analysis, human right issues, and other scheduled programmes. Aljazeera Web site has a great amount of illustration. At least every news item has a graphical presentation because such graphical presentations can have a significant impact of the audience.
The Web page has a good colour in the background that makes texts easy to read. Moreover, the background is not crowded.
The texts are not too small and crowded, but are evenly distributed within the page to explain the image. The Web site displays latest news in capital letters.
Every title in the page has a link. However, the audience must put a mouse on the heading in order to know that the link works, i.e., there is no “click to read more” sign. However, a click on the title may lead to the main story to take the reader further to ‘sub-stories’, which relate to the main story (this is the case with most of the contents in the in-depth section). The site does not have any dead links, unclear navigation, orphan pages, and unwanted scroll bars.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The page graphical presentations are easy to load, are useful to the site, and fit within the screen. This site does not use animations. However, the section marked as ‘IN PICTURES’ has running images through, but they look professional.
Generally, the Web site has a good design. The site provides various ways of contacting the organisation. However, it has social media integration (Twitter and Facebook). It also has a mobile version because smart devices and tablets are responsible for the growing Web traffic. The site lacks any security icon.
BBC The BBC has been the benchmark for international journalism. From the BBC Web site, the audience can listen, watch, and read news. Moreover, there are also constant updates. The site provides science, sports, documentary, society, blog, and other categories. It has abundant resources for the audience. The news items are current and accurate.
The background is clear to allow for readability of the texts. Texts appear in clear blue and light grey colour against a white background. Thus, readers can easily read them. The BBC Web site uses small letters to display latest news from the globe. Texts are organised below the main story.
Titles in the page also act as links, which viewers must click in order to read, watch, or listen to a story. The BBC Web site uses a blue colour to differentiate the headline and the caption of the news. All the links are working, and there are no dead or orphan links in the site.
Navigation is easy because there are various categories of news e.g., sports, weather, business, health, environment, and other areas of interests. All these items fit within the Web page.
The site makes extensive use of graphics for main stories. Moreover, it also presents some features in forms of illustration. However, graphic reporting plays a major role in this Web site. There are no animations in this Web site.
We will write a custom Report on The Web Site for Online Journalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The BBC Web site has a well-integrated graphic design. All texts, snaps, and images fit within the site. Moreover, users do not have to scroll various segments in order to gain access to an item.
The BBC Web site has a mobile integration platform, live news, videos, and connected TV among others. There are also social media links. It also has extra links for FAQs.
The BBC Web site design has rich contents and meets qualities of an international news standard Web site with multiple languages for various viewers. Contact details are readily available.
ABCNews ABCNews is a part of the go.com. It provides the latest news items alongside video and audio messages. The format is clear and usable for the audience. Moreover, subscribes can get news alerts via their e-mails and mobile gadgets. The contents are real events.
The Web site has a clear background that allows text readability. It makes the use of white space in the background.
Texts in this Web site are mainly headlines with links to the main news item. The blue and black texts are visible against a white background.
The Web site links are working, users can navigate various pages of the site from the sections and headlines provided. The site is easy to scroll because users only use the side bar to scroll the entire content of the page. Moreover, the site has arranged its content into various categories. There are no inactive and dead links in this Web site.
The site has maintained its multimedia design. It has graphics, slideshows, audio links, and videos.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Web Site for Online Journalism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The site has multiple links, whit space, and multimedia approach to design. It also contains mobile apps and version for mobile devices, as well as social media links.
ESPN ESPN provides sports news, history and sports statistics. The site does not rely on extensive use of text on its dark red background. The news items are accurate sports news, suggestions, speculations, and opinions of contributors. It mainly relies on graphic journalism for reporting. It has maintained multimedia features. Moreover, there is a section with auto play (advertisement of mobile apps).
The design of the sight ensures that all items are within the Web page.
It has social media links and alerts. However, there are no visible security features for visitors.
Egypt Daily News This Web site focuses on local news from Egypt, Middle East, and world news. The reporting is accurate in current affairs.
The site is full of texts. In fact, most news items are in text format. The white background allows visitors to read the blue texts. The texts are small and may not be visible to some readers. However, this Web site looks crowded and cluttered with text. It contains more than enough. At the bottom of the site, there is a large white space with no content while the top side is cluttered with advertisements and headings.
The links are active and navigation is not difficult for the identified news item.
The site uses multimedia elements, but there are no animations and auto play elements. Graphic journalism also plays a critical role in this Web site.
This Web site requires improvement because of the cluttered presentation and small font sizes. Moreover, it focuses on several issues.
Conclusion The international news Web sites have strived to display professionalism on their sites. The news items are current, accurate, and reflect balanced coverage. They apply graphic reporting or journalism to present news items. There are words, illustration, and snaps. Graphic journalism acts as a backup for the text and audio reporting.
All Web sites have active links, which have easy navigation processes because of the sections and titles. Moreover, all these sites have social media links and alerts.
Some of these Web sites have strived to remain simple. As a result, they have integrated multimedia applications with caution. For instance, most of them do not have background music, flash, auto-play contents, and extraneous data that can slow down the page.
However, some Web sites have cluttered design in terms of graphic and text presentations, and the use of white space. Such sites require professional appeals. In addition, they also lack visible security signs.
Customisation of the content in some sites also allows visitors to choose a language of their choice.
However, these Web sites aim to achieve usability, aesthetic, and functionality of a professional Web site.
The Concept of Flexibility Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Pilbeam and Corbridge defined flexibility as the ability of an organisation to adapt the necessary people’s inputs in terms of composition, size, cost and responsiveness in order to effectively meet organisational goals and objectives (Pilbeam
Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements Essay essay help: essay help
Church-sect Theory Scholars have tried to classify religious movements by coming up with ways through which religious movements form. The most extensively employed categorization is the church-sect typology. The church-sect theory states that churches, sects, and cults form a continuum with declining effect on society. Groups that decide to break away from the mainstream religious organizations form sects.
Therefore, sects are never in good terms with other members of society because their members are perceived as perverts. This explains why sects tend to be in constant conflicts with society.
Sects are different from cults and religious movements because they do not have new teachings but instead deviates from the teachings of the mainstream church. Scholars utilize the attitudes of sect members and their level of involvement in society to determine their culture.
The church-sect theory is mostly used to differentiate sects from denominations and churches. The theory originated from the writings of Max Weber. As previously observed, the church-sect theory suggests that categorization of religions is a gamut that ranges from a protest-like sects to the symmetry preserving religion. The church represents the religious norms and standards of society.
In other words, churches are the custodians of religion in a certain society. In this regard, religious competition is not tolerated in such societies because it may bring about tension and mistrust. A perfect example of a church is the Islamic religion, which does give room for religious freedoms. Unlike sects, churches claim universality meaning that each member of society should be included.
Moreover, churches enjoy monopolies implying that they always try to eliminate all forms of competitions. In fact, the church has the endorsement of the state. State organs, such as the military, the judiciary, and the executive support it. During state functions, churches will always be invited to offer prayers and spiritual guidance.
Denominations are also different from sects but almost similar to churches. Just like churches, denominations are always in good terms with the state and may even influence the government to implement its policies. Unlike churches, denominations tolerate theological diversity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that members are free to criticize the beliefs of a particular denomination. Unlike sects, members are not involved so much in its affairs. However, the level of involvement is intent as compared to churches. Sects are new religious groups that are established by disgruntled individuals.
They always come up with new teachings, claiming that the mainstream church does not provide freedoms and openness. Sects are differentiated from denominations because low class individuals form them. For instance, sects can discourage their members from wearing jewelry and expensive ornaments that are often associated with the reach. After their establishment, sects take three major paths.
One of them is dissolution path. This happens when members come to the realization that they cannot achieve their objectives by following the teachings of the sect. Another path is institutionalization. This happens when the sect is forced to embrace the features of the denomination in order to comply with the law. The third path is the development into a denomination. This happens when a sect finally becomes a denomination.
Religious Conflict Conflicts in the church are evident in all parts of the world. It is noted that all religious groups experience conflicts. For instance, Hindu, Islam, Christianity, and other traditional religions have been faced with serious conflicts. A number of factors cause these conflicts.
If some individuals tend to control the affairs of the church, conflicts would be inevitable. In India, the Hindu religion experienced conflicts because the son of the rajah tended to control the affairs of the mainstream religion.
The leader was accused of favoring his relatives in the appointment of priests. In China, a different religious belief referred to as Taoism emerged to oppose Confucianism mainly because of personal differences. In the bible, the apostles differed over some issues.
For instance, the apostles of Jesus differed from the apostles of John over baptism. The apostles of Jesus believed that baptism would convince the followers to embrace the teachings of the bible.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflicts of Sects, Cults and Religious Movements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For the apostles of John, they believed that an individual had to repent before being baptized. The apostles of Jesus believed that an individual had to believe before being baptized. This means that repentance and belief were the causes of disagreement.
In the modern religion, there is an existing conflict between Roman Catholic and Protestantism. Catholic believes that people should be loyal to the church because the pope is the representative of Jesus Christ on earth. The central act of worship for Catholics is the Mass.
Grace is provided through the seven sacraments. Even though Protestantism concurs with Catholic over a number of teachings, the main conflict centers on the bible.
Protestants believe in the New Testament and have four major convictions. One of the beliefs is that an individual should relate directly with God as opposed to using priests. Moreover, the bible should be perceived as the word of God. Protestants observe that God works through miracles.
Online Media Products and Services Case Study essay help online free
Napster is an online music store that was developed as an online file sharing service. Originally, Napster concentrated on sharing of music files coded in MP3 format. This service was pioneered by Shawn Fanning, and it was aimed at sharing music files among users.
This marked a revolution in the music industry, thereby forming a platform on which online music services are based. It emerged as a powerful promotion tool for various artists and bands including the Dispatch band. Dispatch band is an American independent band that was formed in 1996.
Previously, the band had neither experienced formal promotion nor radio play. Through Napster’s peer to peer file sharing services, the band promoted its music to higher levels. As a result, the Dispatch band toured and performed in many cities, which they had never imagined before (Biagi, 2012).
The most significant aspect of Napster file sharing services is the active involvement of the audience. In this respect, many users or audiences were actively involved in receiving and sharing information. Napster technology facilitated easy sharing of music files in MP3 format among the users.
In regards to Dispatch band, display of their music in Napster enabled the band’s music to reach many audiences. This was attributed to Napster’s interface that was user friendly. This allowed easy downloading of music copies that could have been hard to get.
This included old songs, concert songs, and even the recordings that had not been released. In addition, the majority of users enjoyed downloading and trading music at no extra costs. In addition, Napster allowed users to create their music profiles where they could compile their own albums.
However, users chose the music on the basis of their values, beliefs, culture, background, experiences, interest, and education. Through this strategy, users could develop their social constraints of reality (Croteau, Hoynes, and Milan, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the contrary, the influence of the active audience on media can lead to harm. First, it can lead to the users narrowing and limiting themselves to certain dimensions. For example, users may isolate themselves and relate with only those whom they like.
Through Napster, users may isolate themselves in sharing music to certain people or groups like the Dispatch band. Secondly, group polarization can be a common occurrence. This takes shape where a group with views attracting much attention tends to absorb even the minority. The Dispatch band’s popularity amongst the majority triggered its influence to the minority (Croteau, Hoynes, and Milan, 2012).
As far as isolation of individual users is concerned, online media play a significant role. This can lead to various adverse effects. However, this is not common for all online media companies. As mentioned, the success of the Dispatch band group was attributed to Napster’s online services.
This portrays that Napster did not contribute to isolation of users since the Dispatch band music reached many users prompting widespread tours and concerts. This shows that it contributed to bringing togetherness amongst the users. Despite the challenges, Napster ensured diversification of ideologies that promoted social construction.
With respect to isolation, online media can overcome this challenge as in the case of the Dispatch band. The Dispatch band had no prior promotion or radio play that could have influenced polarization. Therefore, no dominant position influenced users towards them. Instead, it was at free will because the group was not formally known (Biagi, 2012).
References Biagi, S. (2012). Media/impact: An introduction to mass media. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Croteau, D., Hoynes, W.,
Media and Technologies as Agents of Socialization Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In the modern world, cloud computing has reshaped the usage of the web, as well as the storage of data in most companies. Cloud computing is a specialized technology that runs sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Furthermore, the new technology helps in the manipulation of files obtained from Google docs and Gmail.
In the field of information technology, cloud computing would mean a network of computers. These computers are used as service-oriented tools. Their major role is to transmit software and information. Websites can only be displayed in computers and servers.
However, cloud technology is different because it uses information from computers as a collective virtual computer. This means that all applications have the capacity of running independently, without relying on servers or server configurations. In other words, cloud technology allows information to float around freely. This implies that the hardware is not important (Croteau, Hoynes,
Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Childhood construction is a vital aspect in determining child intervention within the child protection system. Parents possess a natural responsibility to intervene in their children’s lives. Childhood is recognized as an important status by the religious and secular world. For example, throughout the ages, religious teachings have encouraged parents to protect their children from any kind of harm (Shonkof and Meisels 68).
The need that adults posses of intervening in the lives of their children has shaped the way adults understand and construct childhood. There are many reasons why parents intervene in their children’s lives.
First, they view childhood as a stage in life that is defined by helplessness and vulnerability, hence making it necessary for them to offer protection to children (Shonkof and Meisels 70). Secondly, they view children as human beings who should enjoy their full human rights.
Thirdly, they believe that investing in children by protecting them is investing in the success of the future society (Shonkof and Meisels 71).
Many child interventions are determined by the construction of childhood as a vulnerable stage in human development that requires adult security. Ineffective construction of childhood promotes the idea that children as less knowledgeable and not deserving of power to make decisions.
Discussion The perspective of adults and the perspective of young people lead to different childhood constructions. However, the understanding of childhood in both cases determines child intervention within the child protection system. For example, young people consider abuse as the use of power by adults to control the behaviour of children and young people (Mason and Falloon 9).
As an intervention strategy, young people consider negotiation as an effective method of preventing child abuse. However, this may be ineffective because children consider the power to disclose cases of abuse as their right.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, they claim that it enables them to handle such situations appropriately (Mason and Falloon 9). Interventions based on the perspective of young people may be ineffective because young people may decide to conceal information regarding cases of abuse. Reasons for information concealment include intimidation and fear of harm by abusers.
Research and literature on child abuse is mainly focused on the perspectives of adults. Children are considered as not being knowledgeable and as such, their opinions are of little or no help in formulating intervention programs (Mason and Falloon 12). This assumption has led to the marginalization of children as potential contributors in child intervention policies.
The perspective has labeled child abuse as a social problem that should be solved by those in power and has contributed in aggravating the problem. Abusers are considered the abused, and the abused are considered the abusers (Mason and Falloon 9).
It is important to take children’s opinions and perspectives into consideration. For example, a study by Parton et al (1997) found out that children’s opinions are only used to supplement adult opinions in child abuse cases. Ignoring the opinions of children has led to poor intervention programs.
There is a distinct difference between children’s and adults’ perspectives of abuse. In order to provide effective intervention, it is important to consider children’s definition of abuse. Children define abuse as the subjection to adult power and control, emotional hurt, being looked down upon and being denied a chance to voice their opinions (Bagnato 46).
Children’s perspective is different from the adults’ perspective, which considers children as less knowledgeable and unable to determine what is good for themselves. This results in ineffective child intervention efforts.
Adults should allow children to participate in discussions, give them freedom to choose what they want and take time to explain the consequences of the decisions that they make on their behalf (Bagnato 48). In addition, the views of children should be prioritized in interventions, and decisions should be made with the interests of the child as priority.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A rights based approach constructs children as human beings who have rights that should be respected (Brambring et al 82). In addition, it considers children as important contributors to society and as investments that are the foundation of the future. The 1994 Geneva Declaration and the 1959 United Nations Declaration were some of the first laws that offered child intervention, although in an inadequate way (Brambring et al 85).
They constructed children as dependent on adults because they are weak. They clearly stipulated the value of children to society, and hence the need to protect them. The first law that applied the rights based approach was the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).
The treaty comprises 54 articles that give children various rights. These rights include social, economic, political and cultural rights (Shonkof and Meisels 98). For example, Article 12 gives children the right to be listened to and the right to be involved in any decision making process that affects them (Brambring et al 89).
This leads to participation, a concept that recognizes children as part of the society, and as persons with rights that should be respected. The participation concept constructs children as human beings with rights and responsibilities. This perspective delegates certain responsibilities to children and other responsibilities to adults in order to strike a balance (James et al 52).
The rights based approach encourages children to participate in decision making through expressing their views and opinions. In most cases, adults make the final decision in cases that involve child intervention. However, these decisions should include the views and opinions of children. The participation approach has many benefits that make it an efficient approach to child intervention.
It helps children protect themselves because by voicing their opinions, they avoid situations that could amount to abuse (James et al 55). Children who are encouraged to express their views are able to challenge situations that abuse their rights. Therefore, children are less vulnerable to abuse when they are encouraged to express themselves (James 109). This approach is beneficial and effective.
However, it has many drawbacks. First, adults may take the rights of children lightly because many cultures place little value on the rights of children. Secondly, adults may refuse to give children power to participate in decision making because they believe that they know what is god for their children (James et al 58). Many adults feel that by giving children power, they encourage them to be disrespectful.
The idealistic perspective constructs childhood as a human development stage that is a period of innocence and carefree behaviours. This perspective stipulates that children should not be given adult responsibilities such as involvement in decision-making processes (James 122).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Childhood Understanding or Construction and Child Intervention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Proponents of the idealistic perspective discourage the participation of children in intervention decisions and as such, influence child intervention negatively. Failing to involve children in decision making discourages them from expressing their opinions on matters that are important to them.
This approach is ineffective because children’s understanding of abuse is different from adults’ understanding of abuse. As such, adults make decisions that do not align with the needs and rights of children.
Conclusion Childhood construction is a critical aspect in determining child intervention in the child protection system. Parents possess a natural urge to intervene in their children’s lives. Childhood construction takes several approaches depending on how it is understood. Many child interventions are determined by the construction of children as vulnerable, weak and in need of protection.
Other constructions view children as valuable human beings who have rights and form the foundation for the future. In order to provide effective intervention, it is important to consider children’s definition of abuse.
Some adults consider children as less knowledgeable and unable to determine what is good for themselves. This results in ineffective child intervention efforts that fail to fully protect children from abuse.
To ensure that child interventions are effective, adults should allow children to participate in discussions concerning child intervention, give children freedom to choose what they want, and take time to explain the consequences of the decisions that they make on their behalf.
The participation concept constructs children as human beings with rights and responsibilities. This perspective delegates certain responsibilities to children and others to adults in order to create a balance.
The approach encourages children to participate in decision making through expressing their views and opinions. Efficient childhood construction views children as valuable human beings with rights and in need of protection.
Works Cited Bagnato, Stephen. Authentic Assessment for Early Childhood Intervention: Best Practices. New York: Guilford Press, 2009. Print.
Brambring, Michael, Rauh, Hellgard, and Belmann, Andeas. Early Childhood Intervention: Theory, Evaluation and Practice. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1996. Print.
James, Allison and James, Adrian. Constructing Childhood: Theory, Policy and Social Practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print.
James, Allison. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Mason, Jan and Falloon, Jan. A Children’s Perspective on Child Abuse. Children Australia, 24.3 (1999): 9-13. Print.
Shonkof, Jack, and Meisels, Samuel. Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. London: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.
“Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” and “Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen” Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen
Differences between the two declarations
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen This document was conceptualized by parliament of France during the French Revolution (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The document was categorical that men were born in freedom and deserved equal treatment. The document maintained that the rulers of government had a duty to protect and safeguard these natural rights.
The declaration stated that any form of political mandate was derived from the masses. Members of the French National Assembly appreciated the need to uphold and safeguard rights of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The declaration contained a list of natural and inalienable rights and privileges of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59).
However, the declaration was categorical that all rights and privileges demanded a sense of duty and responsibility.
This declaration ensured that the actions of the executive and legislative arm of government upheld the rights and dignity of man (Anderson, 1908, p.59). The declaration ensured that all citizens lived in harmony and in absolute respect for constitutional provisions regarding natural rights.
The declaration had provisions regarding the rights of man and the citizen. All men were born in equality and freedom. According to the declaration, any political undertaking should be geared towards preservation of rights of man. Those rights include: freedom, riches, and agitation for rights.
The nation was declared to be the sole owner of all sovereign powers and all individual power was to be derived from the sovereign entity (Anderson, 1908, p.60). Liberty was defined as the ability to do anything that does not contravene the rights of man.
The law was granted the ability to stop any actions that posed danger to the rights of men (Anderson, 1908, p.60). Law was meant to protect all people. All had a right to participate in making laws. Man could only be arrested or held in isolation after the law granted such provision (Anderson, 1908, p.60). The law allowed punishment for wrongdoing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was to be carried out in accordance to established legal guidelines. Under the law, every man was held as innocent unless guilt was proven in a court of law. The declaration granted man the right to express opinion on condition that the opinion did not contravene law and order.
The right to opinion was considered a basic right of every man (Anderson, 1908, p.61). The rights of man were to be checked and maintained by an institution for the good of all.
Citizens were granted a right to remit taxes to the government at will, and for the common good. Society had to guarantee the rights of man and uphold them in accordance with the constitution. The declaration was clear on the right of man to hold and manage private property (Anderson, 1908, p.61).
Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen This document was authored by Olympe De Gouges in 1791. She argued that in the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, the rights of women were not catered for (Levy, Applewhite, and Johnson, 1980, p.87).
She was concerned that women were not granted a right to vote, right to hold legislative office, and other fundamental rights that were granted to men.
Of importance to her, was the fact that women were not granted a right to education (Levy, et al., 1980, p.87). She argued that the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen did not cater for the welfare of women. This reality prompted her to write the Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
She wondered why men were conspiring to deny women their rights (Levy, et al., 1980, p89). She felt that men were acting inappropriately and had no right to oppress women. She argued that men had no right to control women since women were intellectually equal to men.
We will write a custom Essay on “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen” and “Declaration of the rights of woman and the female citizen” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She demanded that women be allowed the right to hold public office. She argued that discrimination against women was the fundamental cause for wickedness in leadership (Levy, et al., 1980, p.91). She argued that women had rights and privileges that were natural and God-given.
The document held that woman was born in freedom and equal to man. Woman was also guaranteed the right to engage in political association. The document was very categorical that woman was entitled to equal treatment as man (Levy, et al., 1980, p.94).
Differences between the two declarations The two documents were different in terms of authorship and intent. One was authored to safeguard the rights of man. It was constituted by individuals who had the sole aim of propagating patriarchy. The Declaration for Rights of Man was concerned with the welfare of man.
Its contents were insensitive to gender concerns. The document propagated the view that men were superior to women. Women were not entitled to hold any form of power. Women were meant to remain at home. Women had no right to hold or manage property.
On the other hand, the Declaration for the Rights of Woman was authored by an individual who was disappointed by the contents of the Declaration for the Rights of Man. she protested the unfair treatment that was directed towards woman. She argued that all persons were born equal in freedom.
She felt woman was entitled to equal rights as man. Essentially, the declaration for rights of man was about the rights of man, while the declaration for rights of woman was meant to protest on the unfair treatment that was visited upon woman.
References Anderson, F. (1908). The Constitution and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France, 1789-1907. New York: Russell and Russell.
Levy, D., Applewhite, H., and Johnson, M. (1980). Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789- 1795. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
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Education in the third world Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
One of the most notable forums for education funding in third world countries is the World Education Forum, which was held in Dakar. The meeting led to development of a framework for the achievement of education for all. It outlined the roles that civil society, international donors and national donors would play in the achievements of this objective (DFID, 2008).
Additionally, a call to action for the Millennium Development Goals in 2007 reinforced education funding from multilateral partners. Therefore, education funding in poor countries occurs through a myriad of donor avenues.
One of these routes is the UN fund as administered through UNESCO. Furthermore, several non governmental organizations also participate in the provision of these resources and they may have divergent objectives.
Prior to allocation of resources to third world nations, donors often analyze the political will of the concerned government and its ability to commit to the funds. Additionally, they assess them on the basis of their level of transparency or the education policies that exist.
These recipient governments need to cooperate with members of civil society in education matters, as well. However, not all donor organizations follow such rigorous procedures. Some of them may choose to donate funds to a country that lacks these qualities, but may invest in capacity-building among those nations (UNESCO, 2006).
Non governmental support for education in third world countries may come in the form of debt relief schemes, budget support (general or sector), pooled funds, or through specific projects. These projects may be carried out through recipient governments or through parallel systems. Sector wide support aims to create a budgetary framework for education.
General budget support systems mostly focus on development and implementation pro-poor reforms, of which education is part. Sector budget support caters to progressive sectors in governments, while pooled funds deal with programs or budget lines intended on tackling such problems. In addition, specific projects cater to the civil society and private sector education programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These projects may take the form of bursary support or grants given to specific students in target countries. Additionally, some private schools may have difficulties in running their programs, so these NGOs can either subsidize their activities or assist in development of subsidies. Others may offer grants for schools in general.
In certain circumstances, non governmental or UN support for education has led to an increase in the level of funds dedicated to education in the recipient countries. It has also increased the number of children that access education. Therefore, education quality and accessibility have improved out of these efforts. Some poor countries have become more accountable because of UN requirements for transparency.
They have heightened their capacities for management of finances for education. These governments have also started dialoging with members of the private sector. On the flipside, analysts argue that financial aid from non governmental organizations or the UN leads to unsustainable development, as most receiving governments rarely think about scaling up their education strategies.
Underdeveloped nations may gain from aid for education in one year and loose it in the next year. Consequently, beneficiaries of educational policies may suffer. Since most funding organizations tend to focus on basic issues in education, a number of them may forget about other important sectors of education.
For instance many NGOs dwell on funding primary-education stakeholders in third world countries, yet a number of these beneficiaries will not have finances to go through secondary education.
Therefore, inequality persists in certain levels of education. Poor judgment on the part of NGOs leads to inefficient use of the aid and a dependency syndrome. In certain situations, little or no positive outcomes are reported after continual engagement with NGOs or the UN thus causing wastage of funds (GPE, 2012).
Countries and NGOs may fail to reach tangible outcomes when implementing donor programs for education because of a number of reasons. Sometimes the receiving country may allocate resources inefficiently. As mentioned earlier, many governments focus on primary education and leave out secondary education.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Education in the third world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to the above, some of the partnering institutions do not manage their recurrent expenditure efficiently. When NGOs fail to analyze an institution’s ability to do this, then they set themselves up for failure. Alternatively, they may find that budget management is a problem but may opt not to do anything about it.
One solution is teaching and monitoring those institutions’ cost containment efforts. Inefficient management of the flow of children in these programs may also be a problem. Sometimes repetition rates may be too high or examination policies unfavorable.
Certain learning institutions may not deploy teachers effectively, and this may lead to underperformance. Donor programs may sometimes fail to cost share or even recover costs during implementation of the scheme.
The ineffectiveness of donor funding for education in third world countries may also stem from failures on the part of the donors. For instance, if funding agencies do not align their objectives with priorities among national governments, then failure is bound to occur.
Issues of harmonization of donor efforts may also undermine outcomes. For example, a country may be receiving aid from over 30 NGOs, but those groups may not belong to any global organization.
Furthermore, they may not share information between one another, and this could lead to overlaps, and piecemeal outcomes. Donor organizations may sometimes fail to consider the number of parties that are already working in a certain country.
As a result, some nations may be overfunded while others might be underfunded. It is necessary to review the multiplicity of donor missions and commitment before plunging into such a program (Lewin, 2008).
Occasionally, failure of NGOs to achieve sustainable outcomes in education may stem from challenges on both sides of the divide; that is, the third world country as well as the donor nation. In certain circumstances, an NGO’s support may do more harm than good for a country’s education system.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Education in the third world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When aid leads to high transaction costs, then it is not worthwhile to pursue it. Third world countries need to have the audacity to reject assistance from certain aid agencies if this effect will arise.
When a country possesses several donating organizations, then it may need to coordinate its donor procedures. If multiple languages are involved and the receiving country has to deal with many projects, then the transaction costs may offset the benefits of the initiatives.
It is recommended that the UN, along with other NGOs, harmonize their efforts through donor-to-donor and donor-to-receiving country alignment. Governments should take ownership of development programs by planning and designing them.
These third world countries should create plans for tracking success. Additionally, both NGOs and aid recipients should create principles for mutual accountability, which will lead to better outcomes.
References DFID (2008). Core script one education for all: Cross-whitehall narrative. London: Department for International Development.
GPE (2012). Aid effectiveness. Web.
Lewin, K. (2008, February). Strategies for sustainable financing of secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa. African Human Development series, 136.
UNESCO (2006). Aid flows to education. Web.
Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
China’s Revolutionary Marriage
The Marriage Law
Promulgation and Implementation
The Disappointment Stage
Introduction This analysis focuses on the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s and the impact it had on the society. Importantly, the essay will detail the successes and failures that were witnessed as a result of the reforms.
In essence, the paper will explore how marriage was revolutionized and the overall impact of the reforms, which were initiated in 1950s. To achieve this objective, relevant information will be sourced from authentic books, written by reputable authors.
China’s Revolutionary Marriage In understanding marriage revolutionary under communism, it is essential to underscore the role of politics in the entire reform process, and how politicians used their positions to influence the society. For example, the People’s Republic of China was founded by students of Karl Marx, who believed that the marriage system was supposed to change based on the existing economic structure (Johnson 91).
As a result, the Chinese communists embarked on reconstructing their marriage system after the founding of the socialist state in 1949. Following the ratification of the new marriage law in 1950, the reforms were extended to the rest of the nation even though they had only been tested in the border areas.
As a result, most Chinese got used to the new freedom by the time the campaigns ended in 1953. Nevertheless, the process was met with some resistance, which triggered the need for a compromise between the state and its people as a way of attaining a balance (Diamant 30).
During this revolutionary period, the new marriage law led to certain changes, which ended up shaping the marriage system in the country. For example, romantic love was detached from considerations of matrimony and was replaced with the importance of loyalty to the party, matched political ideals, and revolutionary passions (Johnson 92).
Additionally, the state controlled the lives of its people through the introduction of the danwei. In this regard, marriage became a complicated process that entailed application, investigation, and registration.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The revolutionized marriage got rooted in the system, allowing its application to all Chinese across the country (Diamant 41). The following segments explain the marriage law of 1950 and how it affected the country’s marriage system.
The Marriage Law The marriage law was promulgated in May 1950, by the People’s Republic of China, a move, which was seen by leaders as a way of eliminating the old productive relationships and structure, to develop a socialist system of marriage. In other words, the law was aimed at liberating men and women from the bondage of the old system by conforming to a social system of development (Johnson 92).
Socialists believed that the old system was barbarian and backward. It therefore necessitated the introduction of a system, which would promote social productivity as well as the elimination of the old marriage system.
During the first year of the marriage reforms, communist leaders joined forces with the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation to study the new law. They carried out research on various issues by collecting data from different places.
They studied the marriage laws of the Soviet and border areas, Soviet Union laws, and regulations from the New Democratic Eastern European countries (Johnson 93). Importantly, the spirit of this group was in line with the past marriage regulations of the CPP, which included bringing to an end the feudal marriage system, promoting freedom in marriage, and equality between men and women, with more emphasis to the latter.
Promulgation and Implementation This occurred between 1950 and 1953 when the socialists focused on replacing the old system of marriage with the one, which they considered to be better for the people of China. Notably, the government launched propaganda that traversed the entire leadership, advocating for change (Johnson 115).
Several nongovernmental organizations joined the efforts of the state, including the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation, All-China Federation of Trade Unions, and the Central Committee of Youth League among others. The implementation period can generally be divided into two major stages; 1950-1951 and 1952-1953.
We will write a custom Essay on Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Disappointment Stage Even though the purpose of the new law was to establish a different marriage system, which was inclined towards socialism, the state mainly focused on adjusting marital relations, during the first year of its promulgation. As a result, it adopted various methods, not only to reach the masses but also to influence those who were reached.
Some of these methods included but not limited to broadcasting, art performances, public discussions, and literature (Johnson 115). The state worked towards changing the attitude of its people towards traditional marriage. By the end of the first year, tremendous strides had been made across the country.
For instance, the All-China Democratic Women’s Federation was satisfied with the fact that most Chinese youths were able to challenge the decisions made by their parents, regarding marriage. Women also became more enthusiastic about the reforms as they managed to overcome the connection with the old system of social relationships (Hershatter 5).
Due to this understanding, there was an increase in the number of marriage lawsuits as men and women advanced their marital rights. Despite the fact that the new marriage law was affecting both men and women, most of the reported cases were made by women, indicating that majority of them advocated for change.
It is believed that the first year of promulgating the law led to massive public consciousness about the law across the country, which was the goal of the communist government. However, the achievements realized during this time did not meet the expectations of women in the country and those of the sponsoring political party.
There were various problems that were observed by women’s associations like the increase in the number of women who were prosecuted under the new law (Johnson 116). There were also rising cases of women committing suicide during the first year of promulgation, with Shadong registering 1245 female suicide cases, while 10,000 were either murdered or abused in marriage in Zhongnan.
The implementation of the new marriage law turned out to be ineffective because of feudal thoughts, which remained in the minds of some leaders that were in-charge of the process. This was known to the central government from the time the idea of implementing the law was conceived.
Based on this possibility, the Communist Party of China strongly condemned misconduct among its members upon the endorsement of the new law, in April, 1950. In order to deal with such cases and minimize their occurrence, the government was concerned with training and educating all the cadres, who were in-charge of various areas in the country (Johnson 118).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s successful? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, nongovernmental organizations like the Women’s Federation were equally involved in dealing with marriage cases as a way of helping the local courts in prosecuting criminals.
It is doubtless that the Communist Party of China was committed to the success of the law through all the mechanisms, which were available. For instance, the party dealt with its members who interfered with marriage freedom directly without allowing such individuals to be punished by civil and legal legislations.
During the first year of implementing the law, its success was uneven across the country as some cadres had played a significant role in eliminating traditional marriage customs while others had not taken the task seriously. While the state had taken a leading initiative in implementing the marriage reforms, it is worth noting that the process was not smooth in every region.
In some cases, the law was resisted as residents adhered to the old marriage traditions, thus interfering with marriage freedom, which was enshrined in the new law. This was however blamed on the cadres who were in-charge of the affected areas.
As a result, arranged marriages remained common, women oppression continued with an increase in the number of related suicide and homicide cases. Some of the supporters of the traditional practices remained cruel to women and became a stumbling block to their success. For example, several women were murdered as a result of abusive relationships in Huoqu County in 1950.
It was quite ironical that cadres in the affected areas took no action against perpetrators of such inhumane actions but went ahead to criticize the victims, arguing that the affected women were out of their mind, and deserved death.
Some judicial organizations were also blamed for the unsuccessful implementation of the new marriage law; they delayed sentences and gave tempered penalties. These sent a wrong message to men who did not fear serving a jail term of two years for killing their wives (Hershatter 97).
It is important to note that the Chinese traditionalists believed that marriage was a domestic affair, which was not supposed to be governed by the laws of the state. As a general principle, all marriage problems were to be addressed and settled within the family, through the leadership of senior members, related to the husband.
Consequently, the new marriage reforms initiated by the state were seen as external interference, aimed at imposing totalitarian control on the family. It was this misunderstanding that led to panic and resistance within the public domain as some people avoided the cadres.
Among other reasons, it was believed that most Chinese men were worried with the freedom for one to seek divorce as it was stated in the new marriage law. In this regard, there was total fear among men since divorce would imply lose of the daughter-in-law, property and the right to take care of children without any form of compensation.
This would therefore introduce one to eternal loneliness and total detachment from the family. Based on this analysis, it can be argued that the first year of implementing marriage reforms in China was characterized by mixed outcomes of success and failure, as there was uneven acceptance of the reforms around the country.
Urban Success Despite the uneven response during the first two years, the government remained determined to promote the success of the reforms. In 1953, it initiated investigations, aimed at revealing the implementation of the new law and the performance of cadres, through propaganda (Hershatter 332).
According to the state, there was need for cadres to change their approach in implementing the new laws by adopting educational principles rather than coercion, which was commonly observed in land reforms. As a result, this approach turned out to be successful, especially in urban areas (Johnson 138).
This was achieved through proper training of the cadres with a sole aim of equipping them with knowledge and skills, which were vital in changing the minds of people regarding marriage.
Other strategies, which were employed, included solving the problems of the masses by answering their questions, use of models, and removal of the offender’s name from the public. Moreover, the authorities focused on voluntary participation in propaganda programs as compared to compulsory involvement by the government.
By September 1954, significant achievements had been realized in Beijing, including a drop in cases of women abuse, as masses accepted marriage freedom and denounced trading of marriage (Diamant 178). High level of this acceptance was registered among urban residents, teachers, and university students. On the other hand, partial success was reported among industrial workers and people with rural background.
With regard to children, most of them were not confident enough to make independent marriage decisions (Johnson 139). Despite this success, most girls believed that money was the foundation of love.
They therefore put into consideration the economic status of the man before accepting marriage. Nonetheless, the issue of inequality remained a major problem as it involved the entire society, thus calling for more time in order to influence more people.
Marriage problems Before the success of marriage reforms was declared, Civil Affairs Bureau of the People’s Government of Beijing reported a wide range of problems, which were facing the reform process in September 1954. In fact, problems related to feudal customs were common in 1960s, as cadres and parents got involved in the marriages of their children.
Additionally, buying and selling of marriages became common as the bride’s family requested for monetary gifts and expensive feasts before accepting the marriage proposal (Johnson 150). Farmers were also neglected as potential husbands since they lacked enough cash.
Most authorities argued that these problems were as a result of discontinuity of the marriage law movement. Many leaders opted for regular propaganda education and government inspections in order to maintain the spirit of freedom in marriage.
Conclusion In general, promulgation of the new marriage law in 1950s was the first step that was undertaken by the CCP’s revolution agenda. Importantly, the transition between the customs of the state and the thoughts of people could not be achieved easily. It required constant effort in changing the perception of the masses.
Despite the fact that the marriage campaign across the country ended in 1953, investigations, which were carried out later revealed that the transition required a longer period of time, than three years (Diamant 209). Notably, the communists’ attempt at marriage reform in 1950s was partially successful.
This was mainly based on the approach, which was adopted by the state in turning the masses away from their marriage traditions. Importantly, the fear of divorce dominated the resistance of men towards marriage freedom, enshrined in the new marriage law. As a result, most of the efforts towards freedom in marriage were fruitless.
Works Cited Diamant, Neil. Revolutionizing the Family: Politics, Love, and Divorce in Urban and Rural China, 1949-1968. California: University of California Press, 2000. Print.
Hershatter, Gail. The Gender of Memory: Rural Women and China’s Collective Past. California: University of California Press, 2011. Print.
Johnson, Kay. Women, the Family, and Peasant Revolution in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.
The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres) is located in France. The Cathedral is traditionally discussed as an example of the French High Gothic style, and the history of this building is associated with the 12th -13th centuries. The Cathedral of Chartres is famous for its remarkable architectural structure and unique stained glass panels and windows.
The Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres is one of the most interesting examples of the Cathedral’s stained glasses. The window consists of two parts which are dated from different centuries.
The window can be observed at the south side of the Cathedral, and its composition is made from twenty-four specific segments.
The upper part of the window was made during the 12th century, and the researchers accentuate it could be located in the earlier Romanesque building destroyed by the fire when the other part of the composition was created after the Cathedral’s reconstruction in order to meet the requirements of the Gothic style.
The research on the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres was traditionally conducted in relation to the problem of the glass or window reconstruction with references to the peculiarities of the Romanesque and Gothic styles.
The most important investigations on the issue of the chronology and characteristic features of the glass design are developed by Frankl and Connick in the 20th century. The most interesting works of the 21st century are provided by Harris, Klein, and Horst Janson and Anthony Janson.
Harris focuses on the Belle Verriere Window in the context of the history of the stained glass; Kleiner, Horst Janson and Anthony Janson present general discussions of the design of the Cathedral of Chartres and its windows from the perspective of the history of art and design.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The specific features of the stained glasses in relation to the play of light and shadow with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres are discussed in the article “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety” written by Charles Connick and first published in 1932.
The researcher pays attention to such characteristics of stained glasses as the possibility to change colors under the influence of sunlight. Thus, various lights affect the changes and vibrations in colors and tones, accentuating this or that part of the composition.
The public’s perception of the central figure of the Virgin Mary can change according to different lights. In his work, Connick also emphasizes the importance of flanking buttresses for creating the complex picture. Connick’s article is important for discussing the art impact of the stained glasses containing the definite religious meaning with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres1.
In his article ‘The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral” which was published in 1963, Paul Frankl focuses on the particular features of the glass and windows’ reconstruction provided in the Cathedral during several centuries.
The reconstruction was organized in several stages, and it was caused by the fact of destroying the Romanesque cathedral in 1194. The researcher states that only four windows could be used in the further design of the cathedral which was worked out according to the principles of the Gothic style. The Belle Verriere Window was saved as the part of the Romanesque apse, and it was used in the design of the Gothic Cathedral2.
Providing the complete chronological history of using the stained glasses in the Cathedral of Chartres, Frankl also concentrates on the history of Belle Verriere Window’s reconstruction. This glass was inserted in Lancet 14 in the south part of the Cathedral.
Regarding the window’s design, the researcher focuses on the fact of adding such components to the glass as kneeling angels and the pictures of Temptations of Christ in order to respond to the significant dimensions of the traditional Gothic window. Frankl also pays attention to the peculiarities of combining the principles of Romanesque style with the elements of the Gothic architecture and design3.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The idea to discuss the stained glasses not only as the objects of art and religion but also as the things depicting the philosophical notions is developed by Harris in her article “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century” which was published in 2008.
The researcher analyzes all the examples of the stained glasses in the Cathedral of Chartres concentrating on the correlation of their symbolic significance with the aspects of Heidegger’s phenomenological philosophy. From this point, the Belle Verriere Window can be discussed as the image within the image which has the features of the cultic traditions.
The conclusions made by Harris are based on the analysis of the elements of the window’s central part created in the 12th century and of the surrounding components made by the masters of the thirteenth century. The researcher’s work is significant for discussing the religious and philosophical meaning of this piece of art with references to the history of creating its later components which depict the definite rituals4.
In spite of the fact today a lot of information about the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window’s design is presented in the works oriented to the history of the Western art in general, the authors of these books provide the important details on the window’s design with references to the history of the stained glass and based on the proper research in the field.
Thus, in his work, Kleiner focuses on the effects of flying buttresses and such elements of the design as the depiction of the young Virgin Mary on the red background with the dove of the Holy Spirit as the variant of interpreting the tradition5. In their turn, Horst Janson and Anthony Janson concentrate on the elements of painting with references to the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres as painting with glass and painting on glass6.
To conclude, it is important to note that the mentioned researches and works do not provide the complete discussion of the particular features of the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres in relation to all the aspects and details of the object.
That is why, it is necessary to work out the further research in order to discuss the issues associated with the point that the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres is the culturally and religiously significant art of design.
From this point, it is possible to follow the approach used by Anne Harris in her research and examine the components of the window’s pictures as the objects of the religious tradition and cultic elements with references to their colors and composition.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Aspects of the Research on the Belle Verriere Window of the Cathedral of Chartres by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the fact of combining the elements of the Romanesque and Gothic style to present the complex composition of the Belle Verriere Window should be discussed from the perspective of adding not only new elements to the design but also new meanings to the whole composition.
Bibliography Connick, Charles J. “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety”. Stained Glass Bulletin 27, no. 5 (1932): 1-6.
Frankl, Paul. “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”. The Art Bulletin 45, no. 4 (1963): 301-322.
Harris, Anne F. “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century”. Different Visions: A Journal of New Perspectives on Medieval Art 1, no. 9 (2008): 1-30.
Janson, Horst Woldemar, and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art: The Western Tradition. USA: Prentice Hall Professional, 2004.
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. USA: Cengage Learning, 2008.
Footnotes Charles J. Connick, “La Belle Verriere of Infinite Variety”, Stained Glass Bulletin 27, no. 5 (1932).
Paul Frankl, “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”, The Art Bulletin 45, no. 4 (1963), 319.
Paul Frankl, “The Chronology of the Stained Glass in Chartres Cathedral”, 319.
Anne F. Harris, “Stained Glass Window as Thing: Heidegger, the Shoemaker Panels, and the Commercial and Spiritual Economies of Chartres Cathedral in the Thirteenth Century”, Different Visions: A Journal of New Perspectives on Medieval Art 1, no. 9 (2008).
Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective (USA: Cengage Learning, 2008), 349.
Horst Woldemar Janson and Anthony F. Janson, History of Art: The Western Tradition (USA: Prentice Hall Professional, 2004).
History of Somali Piracy Crises in 2009 Case Study college essay help: college essay help
Somali has stirred up and attracted global interventions to address various problems that have a common origin. Among many problems resulted from Somalia piracy, its coastline is more pronounced. Case problems do not give answers but gather different opinions, which should be integrated to come up with the best remedy.
The paper will outline two forms of case problems in relation to how a natural resource would dynamically relate with human activity. This will show how different interactions would result in highly negative impact both nationally and globally.
Case problem could be in the form of a given situation that would require different opinions. Consequently, it could be in the form of a report prepared and presented to be reviewed by a government official to see its relevance and seek for possible solutions (Gardner et al, 2008).
Somali piracy crises in 2009 led to devastating effects in different sectors both nationally and globally. The case study is a typical example of the interaction and dependency that exist between human activities and natural environment. Despite the fact that humans are in control of the environment, their interaction can result in impacts that cannot be predicted.
The Somali coastline has many shores so fishing industry is well pronounced in the region. Political instability in 1991 was associated with unregulated fishing and dumping of waste along the coastline by foreign states. Uncontrolled fishing was associated with trespassing and increased minor crime rates later transformed into major piracy attacks (Beeton et al, 2006).
The piracy crises affected social, political and economic factors in Somalia and other states. Military deployment by twenty four countries was done with the aim of suppressing piracy. The most directly affected organizations adopted tolerance approach.
For example, shipping factories avoided the routes that had a high risk of piracy. Ships sailed at a higher speed when around Somali, that was a strategy associated with increased expenditure on fuel.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The London conference held to tackle piracy issue considered collaborative approaches in reduction of the threat. Long-term solutions discussed included international interventions that would donate funds to ensure that state boundaries would be under tight security (Daly, 2007).
The threat of security was specific on the Shabab terrorists that had both long-term and short-term impacts on the entire world. Recently, Kenya has succeeded in suppression of the threat that involved military action deployment in Kismayu where the Shabab culture is rooted.
Eritrea has been reprimanded by the neighbor states due to the postulations that it supplied Somali with weapons (Garnaut, 2008). Interventions should be addressed towards reducing the influence of Eritrea and boosting the efforts of Kenya and Somali in overcoming the Shabab.
Food insecurity as a result of maltreatment from the Shabab claimed lives of about 80000 residents through famine and drought. International organizations have stepped in with relief aid for the victims. It should, however, be noted that this form of relief should not be overemphasized so as to reduce dependency.
Sustainable and long-term interventions like income generating activities need to be encouraged among the residents so as to solve the problem permanently. In the business field, interventions would include adoption of international monetary fund.
Credit facilities allocation in Somali would positively impact many fields both locally and globally. Collaboration with pirates would involve diplomatic actions that would settle the long dated dispute between Somali and foreign states. Adoption of this strategy would mean that Somali would voluntary stop piracy. Consequently, the foreign states would stop dumping waste along Somali coastline (Daly, 2007).
References Beeton, RJS, Buckley, KI, Jones, GJ, Morgan, D, Reichelt, RE
A History of the Cuban Revolution Essay custom essay help
The Cuban Revolution was an organized revolt led by Fidel Castro. The main reason behind the revolution was to overthrow the dictatorial regime of Fulgencio Batista. Fidel and his army men initiated the revolution in the year 1952. This was after Fulgencio Batista seized power following an election.
Fulgencio had been the country’s president from 1940 to 1952. The president decided to cancel the 1952 elections after realizing that he would lose. Batista decided to grab power and remained the country’s leader until the end of the revolution in December 1958 (Thomas, 2008).
After decades of unemployed and poor leadership, the people of the Cuba wanted their country to be democratic and successful. Some of these people included Fidel Castro, Ruz Raul Castro, Alberto Bayo and Che Guevara.
Fidel Castro and his men attacked various camps and cities to overthrow Batista’s regime. Throughout the revolution period, Castro used both large and small armies against Batista’s armies.
In 1958, Batista and his team realized that Fidel was definitely winning the battle. They decided to loot everything and fled. After seven years, Fidel and his team continued to fight without surrender. In early 1959, Guevara and his men captured the city of Havana.
It was victory for the revolutionists thereby making the country free. Historians have argued that the revolution was necessary because it brought new changes and better governance in the country. The revolution helped the people fight a dictatorial regime that had oppressed them for years (Chomsky, 2010).
The Cuban Revolution resulted in new governance and management in the country. There are certain good aspects realized at the end of the revolution. On the other hand, the revolution resulted in certain bad aspects as highlighted in the discussion below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After Castro became the president, there were new reforms and progressive ideas that improved the living conditions of the people. The Communist Government decided to introduce some new laws. These laws provided equality for women and Black Cubans.
The government also improved medical facilities and communication in the country. Historians have agreed that the end of the revolution brought new aspects that favored the population of Cuba (Thomas, 2008). For instance, the government improved the quality of health by constructing more medical institutions and facilities.
With improved education, more professionals were able to provide quality health services in the country. The revolution marked the end of inequality and discrimination in Cuba. The people become free after the revolution. The people became aware of their liberties and rights.
The president emphasized on good foreign policies for countries in Africa. The African foreign policy helped different countries in the continent gain their independence from the colonialists.
It is acknowledgeable that the new government improved the quality of education in Cuba. As well, the level of prostitution decreased due to new policies and creation of new jobs. These aspects made Cuba a successful nation than it had been during the time of Batista (Chomsky, 2010).
On the other hand, the revolution resulted in several bad aspects. For instance, many people died during the period of the revolution. There was no freedom because of the insecurity created by the revolution.
After several years, the Communist government dishonored the rights of Cuban people. The other negative aspect of the revolution was the lack of democracy. The new regime became autocratic thereby limiting the rights and democratic liberties of the Cuban people.
We will write a custom Essay on A History of the Cuban Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Chomsky, A. (2010). A History of the Cuban Revolution. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Thomas, H. (2008). Cuba or The Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Da Capo Press.
The Facts about Religion and Its Historical Development Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
Religion is the worship and belief in a supernatural power, especially a god or gods. Different people belong to different religions depending on their beliefs and ideologies. Most of the religions practiced in the world today began over 2,000 years ago. From the course materials, various ‘facts’ have been identified about religion and its historical development.
The first fact about religions during the pre-1500 period is that they formed an important part of human culture. During the period, religion and culture were two elements that united people in different regions. People depended on gods for revelation, healing and spiritual guidance (Lecture Notes). They did not visit a doctor or specialist for healing or revelation.
The second fact is that no one can judge whether a given religion has the right beliefs or not. All the major religions have their own unique beliefs and faiths. The outstanding fact is that human beings cannot decide whether the views, teachings and beliefs of the religions are wrong or right.
This explains why there are differences in these major religions. The other important discovery is that members of a particular religion place their faith in that religion alone (Lecture Notes). This fact has made religions very complicated to understand. Human beings are free to make their own decisions about faith and beliefs without the influence of other people.
The third fact about religions during the traditional world is obtained from the book The World: A Brief History: Combined Volume by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto. During the period, most of the civilizations were promoted by these ancient religions. During the traditional world, religious practices brought people together thereby promoting development.
This made it easier for them to work together and promote social development. Architects wanted to build long-lasting churches and mosques. As a result, the world began to civilize slowly by slowly (Fernandez-Armesto 52). Most of the ancient civilizations are linked to the people’s religious practices. These religions led to the establishment of modern systems of education and leadership.
The other fact from the book is that all the major world religions began during or before the Traditional World. These religious groups have retained their religious practices and ideologies for very many years. During the time, people from different religious groups could not coexist freely.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals belonging to different religions habited different geographical regions during the traditional period (Fernandez-Armesto 57). The traditional world occupied the entire world until 1500 when things began to change. The traditional world was characterized by slow growth, lack of communication and poor living conditions. The world was also isolated due to geographical distances.
The BBC website states another fact that Christianity was the world’s biggest religion and faith during the pre-1500 period. The website goes further to say that the religion was founded on the views and teaching of Jesus Christ. Majority of Christians believed that Christ showed them the way towards eternal justice and peace (“Religion” par. 2).
Christians believe in the existence of one Supreme God, but in Him there are three elements: God the Son, the Father and the Holy Ghost. The believers worshiped in special houses called synagogues. The early Christians considered the Bible as the Holy Book. The Bible consisted of the New and Old Testament. This has remained the same even in the modern and present world.
Works Cited Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. The World – A Brief History, Combined Volume. New York: Pearson, 2009. Print.
Religions 2012. Web.
Abu Dhabi Municipality Information Systems Essay essay help free
Management information systems are ways through which organizations utilize technology to manage workers and make appropriate decisions (Oz, 2009). They assist managers to collect and analyze data on diverse issues. They enable managers to obtain information on customers, staff, sales and production among others.
Information systems also assist organizations to control all business processes. Some of the well-known information systems are supply chain, customer relations, project management and human capital management information systems (Laudon, Price
Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry Essay college admission essay help
Executive Summary Suncoast Gold Macadamias Limited is the leading macadamia product processing company in Australia. In an effort to maximise profit, the firm has incorporated the concept of product diversification. As a result, it has managed to develop a strong product portfolio.
On average, the company’s annual turnover amounts to AUD $ 30 million. Over the years, the firm has nurtured a strong base with regard to tangible and intangible resources.
Suncoast Gold Macadamia Limited has also developed numerous unique capabilities and core competencies that have contributed to considerable improvement in the firm’s competitive advantage. In a bid to deal with the problem of climate change, it is critical for the firm to formulate programs that would minimise its weakness with regard to decline in nut production.
As its target investment destination, Saudi Arabia presents numerous opportunities for the firm to exploit as illustrated by the country’s characteristics such as the wage rate, population size, economic growth, exchange rate, the political environment, and government policy on trade.
The firm will be required to develop effective competitive strategies to deal with the prevailing competition in the market to penetrate the market successfully. Some of the modes of entry that the firm can consider include sole-ownership, joint ventures, and exporting.
Of the three options, exporting is the most appropriate entry point into the Saudi Arabian market. In a bid to be successful in its market entry, the firm should conduct comprehensive market research to understand the market dynamics of Saudi Arabia. Upon entering the market successfully, the firm should consider adopting foreign direct investment.
Introduction Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited is a public company that operates within the Australian macadamia industry. The company was founded in 1985 and it operates as a cooperative.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its core line of business entails production, processing, and supplying of high quality macadamias. Since its inception, the firm has been very successful due to incorporation of effective business and corporate level strategies (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
In an effort to attain its profit maximisation objective, the firm has adopted market expansion as one of its business level strategies. Suncoast Gold Macadamias Limited has successfully managed to establish itself in both the local and international market.
Currently, the firm ranks as the global leader in the macadamia industry. Despite its presence in the international market, there are some economies where the firm has not penetrated.
One of these countries is Saudi Arabia, which is currently an emerging economy according to business scholars. The purpose of this assignment is to analyse the market entry modes that Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited can incorporate in its international market entry strategy.
Ownership Over the past 28 years, Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has undergone significant growth from being a small business establishment to becoming an international leader in the macadamia industry.
Currently, the firm has a substantial annual turnover of approximately AUD $ 30 million. More than AUD $ 21 million of the firm’s total sales are generated from exports, while the domestic market only accounts for AUD $ 9 million (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
Tangible resources Since its inception, the firm’s management has been committed towards establishing a strong competitive advantage. One source of the firm’s competitiveness is effective nut processing technology. The firm has implemented modern nut processing facilities.
We will write a custom Essay on Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has been conducting major plant upgrade by integrating state-of-the-art technology. In 2012, the firm purchased two machines of the most modern sorting technologies in the industry, which significantly enhanced the firm’s competitiveness.
For example, its output increased with 50 per cent (Pilcher 2012). In a bid to improve its competitiveness with regard to plant technology, the firm has also purchased a multi-scan machine.
The machine has made separation of bad and good nuts more easily in addition to separating nuts based on their weight and colour before cracking. The firm has also established a supplier network of 135 suppliers to ensure that its products are easily accessed in its domestic market.
Intangible resources In addition to tangible resources, Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited has accumulated various intangible resources. The management team appreciates that the firm’s success is greatly dependent on the effectiveness and efficiency of its human capital.
Employee development is one of the elements that the firm has taken into account and to achieve this, the firm has formulated a staff training and education program. The program aims at imparting new knowledge to employees.
In addition, the firm is committed to nurturing a strong relationship with its customers, suppliers, and employees (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
In its domestic and international market, the firm has nurtured a strong positive reputation due to its operational efficiency, provision of high quality services, and development of an all-inclusive client service, which has contributed towards development in the level of customer loyalty.
Capabilities The firm has developed numerous macadamia brands to appeal the diverse customer product needs. The firm has integrated the concept of value addition. The firm supplies different variety of macadamia products such as macadamia oil, chocolate coated, macadamia shortbread, and macadamia nuts.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suncoast Gold Macadamias (Aust) Limited: Market entry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The firm has also developed sufficient capability with regard to packaging. Additionally, the firm ensures that its brands are packaged according to customer specifications. The firm has also developed the capability with regard to supplying fresh and high quality macadamia (Suncoast Gold Macadamias 2010).
Core competencies The firm’s success in an industry that is characterised y intense competition has arisen from development of effective core competences. One of the firm’s core competences relates to the provision of high quality macadamias. The firm ranks as the first macadamia company to attain internationally recognised quality within the industry.
The firm is also effective in quality management, which it has attained through assimilation of effective quality management systems. Suncoast Gold Macadamias core competencies also emanate from the high rate of innovation that it undertakes.
Its innovative ability has played a critical role in enhancing the firm’s competitive advantage. The firm utilises macadamia waste products by generating energy and thus it has managed to minimise the cost energy necessary for its operation.
Weaknesses The major source of the firm’s weakness is the high degree of susceptibility to nature. The firm has experienced a poor season due to bad weather over the past few years (The Australian Business Journal 2011). Bad weather adversely affects the firm’s profitability due to decline in the volume of production.
However, with numerous environmental conservation measures being undertaken by the government and other environmental stakeholder, the firm expects that climatic conditions will improve considerably.
Location advantage Saudi Arabia’s economy is mainly oil-based. The country has the largest proven oil reserves globally. Its rich oil reserves have played an important role in the country’s economic growth and development. In 2011, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was estimated to be $676.7 billion, which is an increment from its $635.6 billion in 2010 (Index Mundi 2012).
By the end of 2011, it was estimated that the country would undergo a real GDP growth rate of more than 6.5 per cent. The country’s total population is estimated to be 28 million. Additionally, the country has a relatively low rate of unemployment. By the end of 2011, unemployment rate stood at 10.9 per cent (Index Mundi 2012).
The country’s snapshot shows that there is a high probability of Suncoast Gold Macadamias succeeding in its profit maximisation by entering in Saudi Arabia. The high rate of economic growth coupled with the relatively low rate of unemployment means that the country will experience an increment in per capita income.
Ultimately, there will be an increment in consumer’s purchasing power. The country’s high population means that the firm can increase its customer base by identifying relevant target customer group. The attractiveness of the country is also enhanced by Saudi Arabia’s recent ascent to the World Trade Organisation. Its ascent will present an opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias to increase its customer base.
Customers Saudi Arabians are becoming more concerned with consumption of healthy food products. This transformation has arisen from an increment in cases of diabetes and obesity problems amongst the old and young. A report by Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Health showed that the rate of diabetes in the country is approximately 30 per cent.
Some of the factors that have been attributed to cause diabetes include increased introduction of western diets to the country, adoption of sedentary lifestyles, and growth in the number of supermarkets. Growth in the level of awareness regarding the health risk of such food products will contribute towards change in consumer purchasing behaviour.
Therefore, the shift in consumer purchasing habits presents a high opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias attracting more customers. Saudi Arabia is also characterised by a large number of middle and high-income customers and educated customers.
This customer category is the largest consumer of diet products such as the macadamia products produced by Suncoast Gold Macadamias. These customers are more concerned with the nutritional value and quality of the food products in their purchasing patterns (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d).
Politics In 2011, the country experienced an increment in calls for speedy reforms with regard to governance mainly from intellectuals. However, the country has not experienced major incidences of political instability in the recent past compared to other Arab countries, which experienced the effects of Arab Spring in 2011.
The political stability being experienced in Saudi Arabia presents a good opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamia to enter the market. According to Klug (2006), a country’s attractiveness is increased by the prevailing peace and tranquillity due to political stability.
Government policy (taxes and tariffs) The Saudi Arabian government is greatly concerned with enhancing the country’s economic growth. Promoting foreign investment is one of the strategies that the government has adopted. A number of measures such as the abolition of taxes and trade restrictions have been implemented in an effort to foster foreign investment.
The government has designed the country’s economy based on free enterprise and thus no limitations on imports and exports of goods and services. This aspect means that Saudi Arabia has a favourable business environment for foreign firms (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d.).
Wage rate For a considerable duration, the Saudi Arabian government had not imposed any minimum wage for employees. However, in an effort to deal with unemployment, the government recently instituted SAR 3,000 as the minimum wage (Al Swailem Consulting Group n.d).
Exchange rate The Saudi Arabian Riyal is relatively stable to most major currencies such as the Australian dollar. The current exchange rate of the Riyal to the Australian dollar is AUD $ 1 to 3.7 Saudi Riyal. This rate of exchange will make it possible for the firm to venture into the Saudi Arabian market more cost effectively for the firm will require a few AUD dollars to enter the market.
Competitor analysis In its operations, Suncoast Gold Macadamias will face intense competition from other confectionary companies operating in Saudi Arabia. Some of these companies include:
Al Nukaly International Trading Company: -This firm has been in operation in Saudi Arabia for a number of decades, since its inception in 1932. In its operation, the firm has developed a strong workforce of approximately 100 employees.
Bahadi Company: – Since its inception, this firm has established itself effectively in the international market. Currently, the firm has established an effective operational base in Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and Africa.
Anwar Al-Mustafa: – The firm was established in 2000 and has over the past decade managed to penetrate the nuts industry in Saudi Arabia. It has also managed to develop a substantial financial base with its turnover estimated to be US $ 0.5 million.
Competitor threats The above-mentioned competitors pose a number of threats to Suncoast Gold Macadamias. One source of threat arises from the fact that these firms have incorporated the concept of product diversification in their operations. Some of the products that these firms deal with include nuts, dried fruits, coffee, spices, chocolate, nuts, bakery, candy, and crackers.
Consequently, the firms have managed to offer consumers a wide range of products. Ultimately, competitors have managed to develop a substantial level of customer loyalty. Therefore, Suncoast Gold Macadamias will experience a significant challenge in developing a substantial market base.
Suncoast Gold Macadamias opportunities Despite the intense competition in Saudi Arabia, Suncoast Gold Macadamias has a considerable competitive edge that will contribute to its success. One source of the firm’s competitiveness relates to its ability to produce high quality macadamia products. The firm has incorporated the concept of quality assurance in an effort to ensure a high level of food security.
Considering the increase in the degree of health consciousness amongst the consumers, there is a high probability of Suncoast Gold Macadamia attracting customers. This arises from the fact that its products have high nutritional values.
For example, macadamia oil is not in any way associated with the rise in cases of obesity. Additionally, the high population in Saudi Arabia also presents an opportunity for Suncoast Gold Macadamias to increase its sales revenue by employing aggressive marketing.
Modes of market entry Firms seeking to venture the international market should consider making effective strategic decisions on the mode of market entry to adopt (Agarwal
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Price and Quantity Adjustments for Australian Tourism and Hospitality Products Report a level english language essay help
Executive summary The Australian tourism and hospitality industry has continued to grow tremendously. Currently, the sector contributes significantly to the country’s GDP. Despite global threats such as terrorism and economic depression, the sector has continued to bolster impressive results.
However, with the growing competition from other countries such as South Africa, USA, and China, many factors need to be considered to gain a competitive edge. Price and quantity demanded are the principal guidelines to setting prices of facilities in this sector. As such, the country should endeavour to provide competitive prices as well as the right quantity to its domestic and international tourists.
Price and Quantity Adjustments for Australian Tourism and Hospitality Products
The impact on the market for Australian tourism products of a decrease in the price of tourism products in the United States
A decrease in the price of United States tourism products will have a significant effect on the demand for Australian tourism products. This will affect the demand curve of Australian tourism products. This phenomenon can be best explained using the traditional demand and supply curve.
Figure 1: Demand and Supply of Hospitality Products 10 50 100 150 200 250
Assuming the graph is representative of the current Australian tourism demand and supply trend, we can conclude that the quantity demanded of hospitality products is 100 units at a price of 15. This is, therefore, our Australian market equilibrium.
However, it is generally accepted that marketing, technological advancements, and pricing policies of competitors can easily destabilise market equilibrium. Nada and Sarath notes that since the United States and Australian tourism industry share a lot, any changes in market activities in one region, easily affect the other party1. By reducing the prices of its products, the United States will attract more tourist, local, and international, to use its affordable facilities. This will consequently reduce the demand for Australian tourism products, which will be viewed by many tourists as too expensive. In this case, services become substitutes for one another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the effect is price motivated, there will be a movement along the demand curve, but not a shift of the demand curve. The quantity demanded would thus, drop from 100 units to say 50 units. This drop will represent a downward movement along the demand curve.
These changes will influence quantity exchanged and price differently. To retain its tourism market, the Australian marketing authority may step in to reduce prices of its facilities. According to Singh, Australia being “one of the leading tourist destinations,” this option presents a good opportunity for curbing loss of market2. Otherwise, the Australian quantity will reduce. However, according to Tourism Australia, the reduction will not be very significant considering that international tourism only represents 27% of the country’s tourism earnings.3
The impact on the market for hotel rooms if the price of airline flights increases
Increase in flight prices affects the demand for travel negatively. Many people, even those who had planned for their trips, find it easy cancelling them when travel prices go up. In fact, air travel and accommodation demands are complimentary goods. Any change in the price of such a good affects the price of its complimentary good.
Figure 2: Demand for Accommodation
Increase in the cost of flight will affect the demand curve; it will shift to the left. As shown in figure 2, an increase in the cost of air travel leads to a decrease in the demand for accommodation. Dwyer
Foreigners Changing China Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Historical overview of China
The influence of foreigners on industrial growth in China
Introduction Most researchers are making attempts to link the industrial transformation in China to the developments of the 19th and 20th centuries. The most critical question to ask about the growth of industries in China is the country’s growth with the relations it had with other countries like Japan, the Soviet Union, The United States, and the United Kingdom among other nations.
The history of the transformation of China in various fields can be traced from the early years of the 19th century. The transformation of industries in China cannot be explored without talking about the role that was played by a substantial number of countries. There is a substantial amount of historical data that points to the fact that the course of development in China was greatly shaped by the activities of foreign countries.
Among these countries are the Great Britain, the United States, Japan, and the former Soviet Union. In this paper, it is argued that the growth of industries in China in the 19th and 20th centuries was significantly influenced by both positive and negative relations between China and other countries.
This paper explores the transformation of industries in China between 1830 and 1990. This period denotes a cut across two centuries, the 19th century when there were a lot of political developments in China and the 20th century, when the political upheaval was patterned by the pursuance of economic reforms that later saw China’s industrial triumph at the global level.
The paper centres on the influence of foreign countries, in particular the political and economic influence of foreign countries in the growth of industry in China for the mentioned period.
Historical overview of China The question that ought to be asked is how China has managed to attain the prevailing level of industrial growth and to what level other countries like Japan played a role in shaping industrial growth in China. As observed in the introduction, China is a country that has had a long history dating as early as the 16th century.
However, the current l level of industrial development in China can be traced from the 19th century. China had a lot of political issues in the 18th and 19th century, which impacted upon the development path of the country. The most critical thing to note is that China has had relations with different countries since the 17th century. Therefore, the interaction of these countries with China must have, in one way or another, impacted upon the industrial development in China.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One important element in the development history of China is the age of fragility that was experienced from the later years of the 18th century into the entire 19th century. The historical antecedents of the 20th century denote that China made contacts with a substantial number of countries, which shaped the political and economic developments in the country. It is important to note that the change in the political set-up of China in the mid of the 20th century is the main landmark in the industrial transformation of China.
According to Hays (para. 1), China attracted a number of foreigners in the ancient years, who later came to influence the pattern of industrial development. The ancient years denote the period between the 17th century and the 20th century. The contact between the Chinese and the British was not only based on colonial relations, but also on economic conducts with British companies. This also applies to other countries that began relating to China later.
The birth of the Chinese economy and industrial sector began with the penetration of Britain in China. The British staged its concession in one of the most commercially developed towns of Shanghai in the year 1842. This was followed by a French concession, which was set up in the year 1847.
Russians, Germans and the Japanese came in later, although they all came in before the end of the 19th century. By 1930, the population and industry in Shanghai had grown greatly, making it the largest trading town in Asia. This implies that the town had the capacity to attract a substantial number of foreigners from the Asian region and beyond, who were interested in trading activities (Hays para. 2-4).
The influence of foreigners on industrial growth in China One of the main developments in China that has given China a global attention is the rate at which Industrial transformation has taken place in the country. As observed earlier, China, just like a number of the influential economies in the world, has not grown devoid of interactions and influence from other countries.
While a substantial number of historical texts seem to focus on the comparison between the path of industrial growth of China and other developed countries, there seems to be a minimal number of texts focusing on the nature of changes in China’s industry from the 18th century. However, there are a number of historians who have focused on the factors that have shaped the economic changes in China over time (Bickers 29).
According to Bickers (29), the contemporary developments in China are highly connected to the recent and the ancient patterns of relations between China and other countries, for instance Britain. The question that ought to be asked is to what extent foreigners impacted on the changes in the industry in China from the early years of the 19th century to the industrial orientation in the later years of the 20th century.
We will write a custom Essay on Foreigners Changing China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the most critical parts in the explanation of the economic changes in China is its contact with Britain. During the later years of the 18th and the entire 19th century, China was marked by a lot of territorial wars. The main areas of interest in these wars are that they depict the nature of relations between China and other countries. Between 1854 and 1950, a substantial number of Britons settled in China (Parsons 3).
The Britons settled in Shanghai, which later became one of the earliest centres to urbanize. The royal navy was bestowed with the responsibility of guarding Shanghai during the 32 years of British colonial control over Shanghai. The presence of the British in the country encouraged the growth of trade activities in the country, and by effect transformed the minds of the Chinese population that had been highly involved in war.
The Anglo Chinese trade is argued to have played a significant role in shaping the trading environment in China, which in turn encouraged the growth of industry and development in China. Trade was accompanied with the setting up of business bases and industries (Bickers 30-31).
The other critical areas in the history of industrial change in China can be traced in the activities of the 1920s and 1930s. This period is marked by the search for a world order after the end of the Second World War. During this period China was still under Maoism. Under the philosophy of Maoism, China went through a period of economic standstill.
While the size of industrialization in China has expanded greatly, beating the size of industry and economic magnitude in Japan, it still remains evident that Japan developed earlier than China. This is justified by the activities of the 20th century. Japan is often termed as one of the main aggressor countries in the Second World War.
The most vital question to ask is why Japan was termed as the cause of the Second World War. An exploration of history denotes the conquest of China by Japan in the early 1930s. China was rich in natural resources, like iron ore other minerals, which are vital for industrial development. The most critical area to observe in the conquest is the impact of the conquest of Japan and the effect it had on the industrial change in China (LaFleur 84-85).
According to Wong (60), China had a number of traditional industries that had prevailed for a long period of time. However, it is important to note that the influence of Japan on industrial growth in China can be explored from two perspectives. These include: the issue of destabilization of the ancient industry through the conquest and the encouragement of transformation from the traditional industry to modern industry.
Irrespective of the approach that is taken, there is a resounding linkage between the industrial transformation in China and the relations between China and Japan. Most of the traditional industries in China were agricultural-based. Prior to the conquest of 1937 by Japan, traditional industries were vital elements of the economy of most of the Chinese provinces. However, after the conquest, a significant number of changes were put in place in China.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreigners Changing China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The realization of the country that more profitable and flexible industries could be developed in China became real. Modern craft industries were built out of the influence of the Japanese in the country. The conquest of China and the operations of the Japanese in the country necessitated a transformation from an agricultural market oriented economy to an agrarian commercial economy.
The commercialization feature was quite critical in the industrialization of the country. In spite of the defeat of the Japanese and the subversion of the conquest, the economy of China continued to commercialize, with the scale of the prevailing industries being broadened (Wong 67).
Apart from the involvement with China in the post-world war I period, Japan had also engaged with China in the late 1800s. The Japanese are said to have played a critical role in the development of Dalian. The Japanese took over the development of the town from the Russians.
This town was a major fishing centre in China that prevailed up to the later years of the 19th century. The Russians had begun by transforming Dalian to make it one of the deep-water ports in China (Weisl 5). By the 1920s, Shanghai, which was one of the largest industrial centres and towns in Asia, was already receiving a large number of foreigners besides the British who had settled in the region earlier.
The country received numbers of foreigners ranging into tens of thousands, who had fled away from the developments of the First World War. The European refugees were running away from the Nazism in Europe. The presence of such a population in Shanghai was a mark of the expansion of trade and industries arising from the commercial activities of each group of refugees who were residing in the town (Hays para. 20).
The main area of focus in the historical development of industry in China is the period of rapid industrial growth that was witnessed since the mid of the 20th century. Several questions are often posed about the approach of China to industrial growth and the level at which foreign nationals have played in China’s industrial change.
No one can doubt the observation that China is one of the countries whose industry transformed at a high speed in the last half of the twentieth century. However, a substantial number of people argue that the phase of the industrial revolution in China from the mid of the 20th century was largely based on the self-realization of the country and the subsequent implementation of effective policies by the Chinese government.
This observation is based on the fact that the policy of China during this period isolated the participation of foreigners in the local economy of China. This cancels out the issue of the influence of foreigners in the growth of the industry. Nonetheless, the foreign influence must be applauded for influencing industrial growth in China before the period of rapid industrialization (Nayar 19).
Conclusion China is one of the countries in the world that has had a long history of political and economic development. The influence of foreigners in industrial change and growth in China can be traced from the movement of the British in China. While the influence of foreigners in the growth of industry in China is appreciated, the most critical part in the history of China’s industrial transformation drives away the direct participation of foreigners.
Works Cited Bickers, Robert. “China’s Age of Fragility.” History Today 61.3(2011): 29-36. Print.
Hays, Jeffrey. Foreigners And Chinese In The 19th And 20th Centuries, 2008. Web.
LaFleur, Robert A. China: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2003. Print.
Nayar, Baldev. “The Geopolitics of China’s Economic Miracle.” China Report 40.1(2004): 19-47. Print.
Parsons, Timothy. The British Imperial Century: 1815-1914 : A World History Perspective. Lanham [u.a.: Rowman
The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the life of Sir Francis Walsingham
Work of Sir Francis Walsingham
Walsinghan and the development of intelligence
Introduction The growth of nationalism in most countries and the establishment of national intelligence systems are highly based on the work of Sir Francis Walsingham. The field of intelligence has undergone several changes due to changes in the available modes of information flow, storage and communication. In spite of this, there are still a substantial number of pointers that show that the contribution of early resource persons is still valid in the contemporary exercise of intelligence.
This is a pointer to the fact that early contributions in intelligence were significant since they act as a basis on which the contemporary modalities of intelligence are built. Francis Walsingham is one of the earliest people in history who contributed greatly to the development of intelligence (“The New Encyclopaedia Britannica” 783).
Walsingham was born in the year 1532 and died in the year 1590. The question that ought to be explored is how significant Walsingham is in the field of intelligence in the contemporary times given the fact that his works in intelligence were accomplished before the year 1600. The modern changes in the practice of intelligence cannot totally stand without reference to the critical ancient works that were done in the field.
The contribution of Walsingham in the field of intelligence was based on the nature of work practices and tasks that he accomplished as he worked as the principal secretary to the British Royal Monarchy, Queen Elizabeth I (Budiansky 1-5). In this paper, it is argued that while Sir Francis Walsingham lived four centuries ago, his contribution is still highly valued in the development of modern practitioners in the field of intelligence.
This paper explores the life of Sir Francis Walsingham. Of relevance in the paper is the discussion of the nature of work and tasks that he was involved in and how they shaped the field of intelligence then and in the contemporary times. The paper begins by summing the life of Sir Francis Walsingham.
This is followed by a deeper look into the work of Walsingham, especially the work of Sir Francis Walsingham as a secretary to Queen Elizabeth 1. The last part of the paper carries comparative discussion of the works of Walsingham and the contemporary practices in the field of intelligence.
In this paper, several questions are answered. These are: What was the early life of Sir Francis Walsingham like? What led to the appointment of Sir Francis Walsingham as the secretary to Queen Elizabeth 1?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What special work did Sir Francis Walsingham do in ancient England, which makes him an icon in the study of intelligence in the modern times? What were the shortfalls of Walsinghan as an agent and how did the full affect the development of intelligence? An exploration of these questions broadens the discussion, thereby making the paper elaborate on the subject.
Overview of the life of Sir Francis Walsingham As observed in the introduction, Sir Francis Walsingham lived more than four centuries ago. Walsingham was born in a large family of gentry. He was born in the year 1532 at Foots Cray. The father to Sir Walsingham was a lawyer. Walsingham was deceased of his father in 1534. His family was well connected.
The status of his family enabled him to travel in Europe after his university. Walsingham, studied at the King’s College in Cambridge with a set other Protestants, but he did not sit for a degree owing to his high social status as a protestant (“The New Encyclopaedia Britannica” 784).
At the age of 20 years, Walsingham started pursuing a course in law at Gray’s Inn, which was a top qualifying body for lawyers in England. This was in the year 1552, after he had travelled in different parts of Europe. He was a committed Protestant during the period of rule of Queen Mary I of England.
This made him to join other expatriates who had moved into exile in Switzerland and Italy. He returned to England after the death of Queen Mary I, who was heading the Catholic Church in England. Walsingham ascended in power to take the position of a coterie. He was charged with administering in the state of Elizabethan in religious issues, both at home and in the diaspora.
It is important to mention that his rise to power was highly backed by a group of people to whom he had been exiled with during the Reign of Elizabeth I. The most notable former exiles who backed him to power are Earl of Bedford and Francis Russell. He was first elected to the Elizabeth parliament in the year 1559. He was reelected to the parliament in the year 1563, but under a different constituency under the support Earl of Bedford (Hadden and Henry 112).
Walsingham got married in the year 1562 to a daughter of one of the top political figures in the United Kingdom, Sir George Barne, who was the Lord Mayor of the city of London between 1552 and 1553. His wife died two years into his marriage, leaving behind a son who was to be taken care of by Walsingham.
We will write a custom Essay on The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He married another daughter of a political figure in the year 1566, who bore him a daughter. In the year 1967, two of the stepsons of Walsingham died out of a gunpowder accident, which occurred at Appuldurocombe. Walsingham championed the course for the Huguenots in 1958.
In his course, he developed close working relations with his predecessor in the Lyme Regis Constituency, Nickolas Throckmorton. Throckmorton was a former British Ambassador to France. To neutralize the schemes formulated against Elizabeth, Walsingham joined William Cecil in 1959. This was the beginning point for the recognition and a beginning of his carrier as an aide to the Queen of England (Fitzgerald para 1-2).
Work of Sir Francis Walsingham An exploration of the early life of Walshingham, as has been done, is a critical factor in noting the nature of developments that resulted in his appointment as the secretary to the Queen of England and later his works in fostering British intelligence as he worked for the Royal monarch.
The early life of Sir Francis Walsingham denotes an upheaval of events, which are argued to have shaped the life and career of Walsingham. According to Adams (60-61), the history of the work relations between queen and Walsingham, who was the Queen’s chief agent, is often complex. T
he complexity of the relationship is expounded by the manner in which Walsingham worked. Therefore, it is vital to unearth the nature of work relations between Walsingham and Queen to capture the various natures of work practices between Walsinghan and Queen and get insights into the role of Walsingham as the chief spymaster of the Queen of England (Hadden and Henry 112).
According to Fitzgerald (para. 1), Walsingham occupied a key operational position in the Queens court. This took place from 1573 to 1590 when he died. He is often cited as one of the main people who established the boundaries of conventional intelligence and began a revolution in intelligence tactics, which are still highly deployed by governments in the contemporary times by most agencies of governments.
The first rule of Walsingham in government came in the year 1567 when he was assigned to the role of breaking up a plan of assassinating Queen Elizabeth I, which is widely referred to as the Ridolf Plot. It can be said that this was a purely intelligence role and pointing to the latter role that he occupied in the Queen’s rule.
With the support of other agents, Walsingham managed to break up that plot, thereby freeing the Queen. A substantial number of people argue that this role made a turnaround in the working relationship between Walsingham and Queen (Fitzgerald para. 10).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Life and Times of Sir Francis Walsingham by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the year 1578, Walsingham was sent on various missions in European nations by the Queen. These countries included France and Holland. This helped him in establishing strong contacts with Francis Drake. By 1854, he had developed an unveiling view that Britain needed to intervene in European conflicts; for instance, the conflict between Belgium and the Netherlands.
He also oversaw the establishment of a pro-Britain government in Scotland. After the year 1854, he spent most of his time preparing the country for war due to the escalation of conflicts in Spain. He carried with the espionage work till he died in the year 1590 (Fitzgerald para. 19-21).
According to The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (783), Walsingham found a lot of favor with the Queen, resulting in his appointment by Queen in 1570 to back up the Protestant Huguenots of France in their diplomatic standstill with Charles IX, who was the then King of France. He also succeeded in fostering the negotiation between Charles IX and the Huguenots. This resulted in his appointment as the Ambassador to France.
His appointment as the England’s ambassador to France was another great milestone in his life. It helped him to establish stronger alliances with the key political and religious figures, such as the King of France and the Huguenots who aided in the revolt against the Catholic Spain.
However, his work as an ambassador to France did not auger well with his career in intelligence. The main reason for this argument is that the revolt against the Catholic Spain led to the deaths of a substantial number of Protestant Huguenots, whom he was meant to protect.
This took place in what is referred to as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in Paris. While this was seen as a blow to his works as an intelligent jury, a substantial number of historians termed the St. Bartholomew’s Massacre as another critical event that streamlined the career of Walsingham in intelligence. This is explained by the developments that later took place upon his return from France in 1573 (Fitzgerald para. 10-13).
It is argued that the attempt to revolt against the Catholic Spain exuded more confidence in him by the Queen of England, who promoted him to become her principal secretary in 1576. Prior to his appointment as the principal secretary to the Queen, Walsingham was serving as the manager of England, managing both the domestic and foreign affairs for the Queen of England. His allegiance and service to the Queen was later recognized when the Queen awarded him with the title ‘Sir’ in the year 1577.
This was yet another turning point in the life and work of Wlsingham as it gave him more power and fame to discharge his work as the principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I. The tittle meant that he could be more recognized in England, as well as other foreign states. He fully engaged in espionage and other pieces of intelligence work, working as the chief agent in England. Till his death, he was involved in a number of intelligence works, which established a high profile of British intelligence (Fitzgerald para. 14-18).
Walsinghan and the development of intelligence The question that ought to be asked at this point concerns the significance of Walsinghan in contemporary government intelligence. A substantial number of researchers argue that this can be explicated through a deeper look at his work as the principal secretary to the Queen.
An assessment of the rise of Walsinghan to become the principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I show that Walsingham was a great strategist and a master of intelligence, a feature that was later to be replicated in the manner in which he discharged intelligence work for British (Adams 60-61).
The development of modern espionage work is highly attributed to Walsingham. The political status of England can be used to show the nature of security that the country had during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. This gives a basis from which one can easily argue for the resounding works of Walsingham in fostering intelligence work.
According to Louis (184), Elizabethan England was one of the most advanced states in the ancient times. The state had a substantial number of things that it could boast of. During that time, the state was the main centre of trading activities in Europe. England produced Shakespeare and was beginning to establish colonies across the world (Louis 184).
According to Louis (184), England had a constricted military power, something that exposed it to constant dangers of being invaded by states that had proved to be militarily active during that period. These states included France and Spain. Compared to England and Spain, England was incapacitated in both the navy and the land military power, thus it could not easily withstand the power of the countries that posed threat to it.
Therefore, Elizabeth, the Queen of England, was forced to battle the enemies by using wits since he had no power to wage a physical battle against them. The battle of wits was one of the indicators of the deployment of intelligent tactics to neutralize the threat that was posed on England.
The main Weapon by Queen was Sir Francis Walsingham. Walsingham operated under the title of the principal secretary to the Queen. However, through his work Walsingham came out as a spymaster to Queen. One notable achievements of Wlsingham as a spymaster to the Queen was his ability to trump the Catholic states with a formidable force, which was stronger than the Spain’s armada espionage (Fitzgerald para. 16-18).
Therefore, it comes out that it is important to base on the political and religious status of states since these two were the main pillars of security at that period in history. Religious and political strife were a common source of tension and conflict between nations. It is argued that Walsigham invented the art, as well as science, which acted as a basic foundation on which modern espionage has been built upon.
The modern intelligence work is highly built around the development of spy agencies by governments, who check on the developments that are bound to threaten the security of the states. An example of the spy agency that has been developed in the world today is the US Federal Bureau of Investigations, which uses agents to spy on certain developments. Similarly, there are other espionage agencies that have been established in a substantial number of states in the world today.
The only main area of difference between espionage in the Walsingham times and the modern times is the applications of tactics by the agent. Modern espionage applies a lot of technology in advancing spy work, unlike in the past where these technologies did not exist. His espionage tactics led England under the leadership of Queen to become an empire.
One resounding thing in the modern government intelligence is the planting of agents in diverse regions. This is a tactic that was purely borrowed from the espionage tactics of Walsingham (Louis 184).
Mandelbaum (12) observed that the 16th century in the history of England marked the period of the emergence of science and reason from the dark ages, where there was a lot of reliance on superstition. During this period, there was a great challenge in the deployment of science in development since science coexisted with superstition. Superstition was rampant, thence, a great impediment to the development and deployment of science in intelligence.
There were close ties between the religion and the operation of the state, thereby making difficult for the state to eliminate the reliance on superstition as the means of predicting and reacting to events. Therefore, the deployment of science at this point in time was a highly remarkable development.
As observed earlier in this paper, Walsingham was able to apply science in his spy work. One resounding question here concerns the ability of Walsingham to deploy science in an environment that had minimal foundations in science. Walsingham is mentioned among the first people to advance intelligence work for the Queen of England.
The relevance of Walsingham in British intelligence is founded in the vitality of the information that he was able to gather and avail to the Queen. It could be said that his closeness to the queen was an additive factor for his recognition in the history of intelligence. While the connectedness of Walsingham with the queen cannot be ruled out, it is important for one to ascertain the way in which he got the attention of the Queen (Mandelbaum 13).
Mandelbaum (16) argued that Walsingham got attention by virtue of the activities that he had been involved in. The queen saw the potential of a great spymaster in queen out of the initiatives of espionage, which he had been involved in and the level of success that had been attained in the initiatives.
The Queen noted the potential of Wlsingham to execute national intelligence operations in England through his participation in domestic counterintelligence. Another thing that comes out here concerns the nature of spy missions that were launched and executed under the leadership of Walsingham as the chief spy agent of the Queen of England.
Upon his appointment as the spymaster for the Queen, he deployed a desirable level of creativity be deploying agents, as well as the utilization of personal knowledge in science to execute a number of espionage missions. Most of the spy missions that were established and managed by Walsingham turned out positive. He was able to arrange for foreign reports on all the foreigners who resided in England at that time.
The intelligence works of Walsingham are said to have withstood the occult nature of political times in which he was working. His ability to eliminate all forms of threats through intelligence vindicated his ability and his appointment and recognition as the father of ancient British intelligence (Mandelbaum 17).
Having discovered the weakness of the country, Walsingham thought of the idea of implanting agents to spy for the State in diverse states in Europe. The rationale behind the implantation of agents was to spy on the political development in the regions in which they were implanted. The main areas of focus for the agents were the political events in the regions and their implications on the security of England.
Walsingham deployed agents in each of the foreign courts that prevailed in Europe, as well as within the conspiracies of domestic plotters. This enabled him to thwart repeated efforts by foreign countries to launch attacks on the British soil. The application of science in intelligence also began with Walsignham, where he is argued to have used the new mathematical science of code breaking to intercept messages between ambassadors and kings.
This enabled him to learn of the developments between states without necessarily availing his agents in certain regions of Europe. He also established subtle disinformation camps, which were used in foiling England foes and beguiling her allies. The scheme was effective in capturing “Mary Queens of Scots” during her attempt to assassinate “Queen Elizabeth 1”.
Walsingham was a genius in covert operations and his techniques have remained exemplary in the modern exercise of espionage. The assurance of security and the establishment of England as an empire are highly attributed to the work of Walsingham (Louis 184).
Literature on the work of Walsingham denotes a certain kind of power that made him to discharge his work in a firm way. It is argued that Walsingham did not fully subject himself under the Queen; rather, he executed certain decisions devoid of the direction and command from his supposed boss- Queen Elizabeth I.
However, what matters is the validity of the decisions and their contributions to the stabilization of security in England. One of the examples that are offered is the execution of the Queen of Scots after the discovery that she was planning for the assassination of Queen Elizabeth I.
One main concern by researchers of Walsingham’s works concerns the question of whether he owed his allegiance to the Queen or to his work as the lead spy agent of the Queen. Some researchers base on the methods that were used by Walsingham to justify their opinion (“The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I” 261-262).
Standardizing the methods that were used by John often results in the negative view about a number of tactics that he deployed in eliminating threats to the Queen and England. This opens up into the evaluation of the standards of espionage and to what level the standards ought to be adhered to.
Among the debates that surrounded the work of Walsingham was his view that Elizabeth had miscalculated his steps in failing to prosecuting Mary in the Ridolphi Plot. The trial and subsequent execution of Mary is termed as one of the most unheeding episodes over 20 year’s work of Walsingham, yet it still does not draw away his contribution to the establishment of the pillars of intelligence in England and the other parts of the world.
During the discharge his duties, he emphasized on the use of espionage tactics through verbal and written tactics. This is what aided him in most of the courses that were pursued under his leadership, thereby resulting into his depiction as the father of intelligence (Adams 60).
Conclusion Sir Francis Walsingham is termed as the father of the modern intelligence. This paper has explored the life and work history of Sir Francis Walsingham in order to ascertain the worth of this assertion. From the discussion in the paper, it can be concluded that the basis of modern national intelligence systems is strongly founded on the works of Walsingham as he worked as a semester for Queen Elizabeth I.
He developed and deployed different spy techniques like the use of spy agents, something that is highly replicated in modern espionage tactics by governments.
Works Cited “The New Encyclopaedia Britannica.” Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1998. Print.
“The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I.” Contemporary Review 294.1705(2012): 261-262. Print.
Adams, Simon. “The Queen’s Agent.” History Today 62.1 (2012): 60-61. Print.
Budiansky, Stephen. Her Majesty’s Spymaster: Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, and the Birth of Modern Espionage. New York, NY: Viking, 2005. Print.
Fitzgerald, Peter. Sir Francis Walsingham. n.d. Web. http://www.thefinertimes.com/Spies/sir-francis-walsingham.html
Hadden, Briton, and Henry R. Luce. Time. New York: Time Inc., 1923. Print.
Louis, Kruh. “Sir Francis Walsingham.” Cryptologia 30.2(2006): 184-184. Print.
Mandelbaum, W. Adam. “The 16th-Century Founders of British Intelligence often used Sorcery to Obtain Information.” Military History 21.3(2004), 12-13. Print.
Eminence Green: Patagonia Corporation Essay essay help online free
Introduction This article highlights how an entity created a niche for itself in the corporate world. Patagonia, the entity in question was founded by Yvon Chouinard and operates in the sporting sector. Yvon turned his passion for outdoor and adventurous activities into a viable business venture. Subsequently, he embarked on a path which has culminated in the creation of an entity that has challenged conventional corporate philosophies.
The article also details the impacts of research, innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship skills in Yvon’s business. This has allowed the entity to deviate from the strategies adopted by most corporations. As such, Patagonia has become the ideal corporation, which has established a balance between capitalism and corporate social responsibility (CSR). In most corporations, capitalism and the need to generate profits has resulted in the erosion of values on which entities were based.
Yvon has adopted a radical approach in corporate management. He is unwilling to compromise on numerous policies that Patagonia has adopted.
Most entities begin as private companies. Nonetheless, they go public once they become a force in the market. This is a path which Yvon is unwilling to pursue. Such a corporate choice would change the policies of the organization in entirety as the management would focus on maximizing the shareholders’ value rather than undertaking policies which will benefit the clients in terms of value delivery.
The entity has diverted from convectional human resource management hence; employees are key stakeholders in the organization. Moreover, the organization has adopted a culture, which is relevant to the organization’s industry. This is crucial for motivating employees and leaving a long lasting image in the clients’ minds in regard to its culture and services.
The model adopted by this organization has created a precedent that many organizations cannot emulate. The current corporate world is dominated by large monopolistic entities that make it tough for small organizations to break into the mainstream market. Patagonia, via its inspiration founder Yvon, provides an example of how small entities can establish a market segment that large entities cannot take over.
I believe that creativity and innovation will be central to the success of smaller entities. An example of an innovation in Patagonia is the development of swim suits that are more comfortable and attractive. These qualities denote some of the customers’ main concerns. The large entities have been unable to reach this milestone, giving Patagonia a competitive edge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above accomplishments are also attributable to partnerships with various entities in the polyester and cotton production sector. Yvon has been brilliant at establishing strategic partnerships, which have spurred Patagonia forward. Such partnerships have given this entity a competitive edge that many entities in the sector cannot achieve.
Based on the strategic, managerial and operational decisions that Patagonia has implemented, it would only be logical to acknowledge Yvon’s skills in corporate matters. He has been honoured by many institutions for being a key player in transforming corporate governance. He has realized this by leaning away from corporate governance that is primarily motivated by capitalism.
The ideas postulated in the passage have multiple applications in real life. Many potential investors face questions such as how do I start a business? Which sector is the most profitable? How will my business perform against the powerful businesses? The article answers these queries by revealing how Yvon turned his passion into a viable commercial venture. The ideas in the passage reveal how he addressed those queries. In real life, potential entrepreneurs should invest in sectors that they are passionate about.
Conclusion I have noted with concern that many other important issues of corporate governance have taken precedence over profitability. These issues include conservation of the environment and CSR. The entity spends large amounts of its revenues on such undertakings. Such policies would be treasonous in the current corporate world. The radical approach to management adopted by Yvon has contributed massively to Patagonia’s success. Moreover, its failure to go public has enabled Patagonia to retain its corporate innocence.
Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Diversification of Dippin’Dots
The corporate strategy applied by the company
The business level strategy applied by the company
The company entrepreneurial strategy
How the company managing intellectual assets
The cross border strategy the company is using
Introduction Founded and incorporated in 1988, Dippin’Dots Inc. specializes in making ice cream. Originally, the company was targeting the American market but later diversified into the world market. The company is touted as the “Ice Cream of the Future” meaning its products were targeting the younger generation.
Though the company markets were majorly domestic, it expanded into the international markets majorly in the middle and the Far East Asian countries including Japan, Philippines South Korea as well as Australia. Today, Dippin’Dots products could be shopped from major stores, shopping malls, water parks, amusement parks and all festivity venues all over the world.
The report will be examining the expansion strategies used by companies in particular the case of Dippin’Dots Inc. The case study analysis of Dippin’Dots Inc. will be looking at the company diversification strategies including its corporate level strategies, the business level strategies, the entrepreneurial strategies, and the cross border strategies. The analysis will also include how the company is managing its intellectual properties.
Diversification of Dippin’Dots Dippin’Dots Inc. is a highly diversified company particularly in terms of products as well as its operations. The company started with a single product line and operation. The company began by selling BB-size pellets of flash frozen ice cream that was combined with some two dozen flavors.
The products were majorly sold to franchisees and the national account. However, by 2010, the company has diversified its operations as well as its product lines. The product lines included Dot Delicacies that targeted the international market. The Dippin’Dots expansion strategy contributed to the production of more product line moving away from ice creams to uniquely brewed coffee.
The technology used in the manufacture of these products is similar. The instant freezing below the normal freezing point that was used in the production of the ice cream was also applied in the production of new product lines such as the coffee brews. The sales strategy also improved. Before, the company was targeting the younger generation however, its target market has matured and the new products was targeting the older generation. Therefore, the company is diversified both in terms of products as well as in terms of market.
The corporate strategy applied by the company Dippin’Dots Inc. is using related corporate strategy where the company is using its operations to expand and remain competitive into the market. Since the company was already in the ice cream and related industry, the major issue in the corporate strategy is how to put together its operations to boost its combined performance, leverage its value chain fits and establish its investment priorities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first corporate strategy is to sell its products to franchisees both within the United States and internationally. However, during the flat periods the company was faced with a dilemma of whether to reduce the number of franchisees or increase the number of franchisees. Increasing the number of franchisees means additional cost to the company amid flattened market.
However, the company strategy of expanding into the new market remains. The popularity and reputation of the company products has enabled its expansion into the new market. It must keep its franchises at operational level particularly when the market continues to flatten.
Nevertheless, the company is quit stringent when taking advantage of the franchising opportunities. In fact, the company is exploiting two area of monopolizing opportunities that are characterized by an even and storage. That is event-based and store based monopolizing prospects.
The company invested huge amounts for it to acclaim some of the locations, which are suitable for its business. In addition, the company has to ensure that its stores are located in areas close to big restaurants, visible and have good combination of persons on foot and auto traffic. All its franchisees in the world have these similarities. Moreover, its products must also be sold in major social events.
Besides its organized franchising strategy, the company is efficient in its value chain management. The company products are distributed to the franchisees stores within the shortest time possible before its competitors. The way the company manages its distribution channels add value and make the corporation be more competitive.
In addition, the super-cold conditions the company products are made in and stored increases the complexity of the company products. Therefore, the company products could not be found in the normal freezers both at homes and at the normal stores.
Moreover, the products must be transported in special containers and sold in their own stores. Under such conditions, the company must be effective and efficient in its distribution of the products to the market. The efficiency in value chain management becomes the competitive advantage to the company.
We will write a custom Essay on Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The business level strategy applied by the company Even though the company is selling ice creams and brewed coffee, the products are highly differentiated making the Dippin’Dots products unique and attractive in the market. The Dippin’Dots ice creams and brewed coffee have diverse flavors that differentiate them from other brewed coffee and ice creams.
The ice creams were manufactured in flash-frozen beads that were typically served in vending packages or cups. On average, the ice creams have 90 calories and 9 grams of fat depending with the kind of flavor. The quantity of calories and fats are lower compared with other ice creams.
In fact, Dippin’Dots is a combination of the old-fashioned handmade ice creams and the space age technology. Their minute round droplets of ice creams that are manufactured under sub-zero temperatures, given out at similar temperatures characterize Dippin’Dots’ products.
The freezing process is achieved using liquid nitrogen making the Dippin’Dots’ ice creams maintain their taste and originality that could not be found in any other product. The sub-zero temperatures nearly take away the entire entrapped ice and air making Dippin’Dots’ ice cream has clean aroma and tough feel.
Not only Dippin’Dots find new ways of making ice cream but the products have proved to be much more flavorfully and richer than the normal ice creams. In essence, the Dippin’Dots products are differentiated from the competitions in terms of nutrients and richness. The market need ice creams with low fats but increased calories.
With technological advantage in production, the company offers products at low cost. In other words, the company products are affordable and are of high quality compared to the competing products. In addition, the company first position in the industry has enabled its products to be sold globally particularly on new markets. The innovativeness in the product line has also increased the company competitiveness in both domestic and international markets.
The company entrepreneurial strategy Dippin’Dots is taking any opportunity to market its products or introduce its products into the market. After reinventing the frozen dessert the company patented the technology used and opened the stores where the product have to sold.
Within a few days after introducing the product into the market, it is distributed to the franchisees, the company stores as well as other selling points around the world. The product was transported from the production point to other destinations around world through either tracts or ships. The huge product delivery was attributed to marketing strategies that the company had put in place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Dippin’Dots Expansion Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, all its franchisees were putting half of the revenue into marketing or rather advertising the products. The company always targeted the younger generation and will always put in place strategies to get them attracted. Often, the firm associates its products with the celebrities. Most of the company products are being sold at parks and sports venues as well as schools. Therefore, the company will take every opportunity to market and sell its products at any opportune moment.
Given the fact that there are quite a number of similar products in the market, Dippin’Dots continues to differentiate its products according to the needs of the market. The company will always conduct the market research to understand and know the market needs and develop a product accordingly. In addition, the company increased its marketing including advertising, which has enabled its products to be known across the market niche.
How the company managing intellectual assets The company successes have been attributed to the way the company have been managing its human resources. The company was started as a family business. However, as the business expands it required more innovative personnel to run most of its expanded functionalities. The business required marketers, the chief executives, and the franchisees managers as well as the stores managers. The way the company operates and manages in value chain requires highly innovative personnel.
With the type of structure, competitiveness of the industry and products, the company requires knowledge based strategy that is mainly personalization with some degrees of codification. In other words, the company required personnel that will increase its key strategic activities in the value chain management that will in turn make its products be distinctive in the market.
Moreover, the company requires personnel that understand the corporate, business and entrepreneurial strategies in order to increase its competitive advantage. In other words, the company requires a group of experts that will foster new inventions and new technologies, which will in turn enable the company continue producing unique products that will increase its competitive advantage.
So far, the company has retained its founder and inventor Jones as chief executive to chart the way forward. As chief executive of the company, Jones is investing in research and development to create conventional ice cream product that has super frozen dots embedded in it.
Jones was developing a new product that could withstand conventional freezers while preserving the super frozen dots in the ice cream. While these could only solve the domestic problem, Jones has to invent new products for its international markets. Jones came up with Dots Delicacies commonly known as the as the Dots Treats to be introduced in the international market.
Moreover, the company has started its online venture by selling some of its products through its website. The purchases could be made online and the products delivered according to the specification of the customers. The company has also branched out and increased its coffee based products. In fact, the coffee products were manufactured based on new concepts. For instance, frappe and espresso that could be eaten by spoon or could be made into hot coffee drinks by just adding water and milk.
The other untapped market that Jones and his team tried to enter was the market of healthy ice cream. Jones and its team, as a healthier alternative to ice cream, introduced the low fat frozen beaded dessert called Chillz made with all natural sweetner. The highly innovative team made this product targeting public schools and was distributed to schools through vending channels.
Despite the development of new products, the company experiences and resources were directed in the ice cream manufacturing and scoop shop retailing business. Dealing with supermarkets chains and vending distribution firms proved to be challenging to the firm.
However, opportunities could still be pursued through the enlargement of the franchise and national account business for scoop shops and vending machines. The company chief executive and his team has to continue assessing the situation and choose the best alternative option that would ensure the growth of the company.
In essence, the company has utilized its human resources accordingly to ensure that its products remain competitive. Moreover, the technological knowhow of the founder has enable the firm retain its leadership in product development. The distinct products in the market has enabled the firm retain its competitive advantage. Therefore, proper use of the firm’s knowledge increases its competitiveness in the both domestic and international market.
The cross border strategy the company is using In the cross border strategy, the firm is selling standardized products that are adaptable to the local market. For instance, the company is selling ice creams and brewed coffee, which is unique and highly differentiated making the Dippin’Dots products attractive to the international and local market.
The Dippin’Dots ice creams and brewed coffee have diverse flavors that further differentiate them from other brewed coffee and ice creams being manufactured elsewhere in the world. In addition, the ice creams are being manufactured in flash-frozen droplets that were classically served in retailing packages or special made saucers.
The characteristic that is unique only to the Dippin’Dots products. Moreover, the attributes adds more value compared to other products manufactured by other companies selling in the global market. In terms of content, the ice creams have high calories and low fat depending with the kind of flavor. The high calories and low fats of the company ice creams increase the products likability internationally.
In fact, Dippin’Dots is a combination of the old-fashioned handmade ice creams and the space age expertise, a unique combination that could not be found with any company. The other innovativeness in the company products that enable international market penetration includes the product shapes, which are for all time in miniature round droplets.
In addition, the products are frozen below zero temperatures by liquid nitrogen that does not remove the original flavor as do the freezing process in other products. The originality of flavor is what differentiates Dippin’Dots products. Moreover, the sub-zero temperatures practically get rid of the entire rapt ice and air making the final product has spanking new taste and solid touch.
All these characteristics could hardly be found in most of the products in the international market. The internationalization strategy that the firm has adopted enabled its products to be sold in most of the stores globally. Though the company might use other strategies in its global expansion, internationalization becomes the major strategy.
Human resource management: Price Waterhouse Coopers Essay cheap essay help
Introduction Human resource can be defined as the individuals’ contributions to an organization in terms of efforts, skills and capabilities, thus enabling the organization to maintain its existence. On the other hand, human resource management (HRM) is the division of the organization that deals with the management of human resource (Dessler, 2008, p. 4).
Human resource management can be looked at in two different perspectives: First, human resource management is the personnel or support function in the firm. They provide backing to the HRM issues to keep workers in line, or individuals who are directly involved in the production process. Secondly, Human resource management is a duty of the senior level staff. Whether in the formal or informal sector, the management of employees is always a function of the managers (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).
The management and staffing in organizations are done by individuals and without these individual organizations cannot exist. As a matter of fact, the prospect and challenges of developing and managing an organization is normally caused by individual-related problems that originate within them (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
On the other hand, individual-related problems often originate from the misconception that all people are equal and deserve equal treatment in organizations. However, this is far from the truth. No two humans are precisely the same, even with identical or fraternal twins. Each and every individual is unique both physically and psychologically (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
Even among individuals who are almost the same physically they must have different psychological characteristics. A number of them will be sociable, others snobbish; some will be gifted, others not. The point this study is trying to bring up is that the disparities among individuals in an organization call for more attention in order to maximize their potential. It also enables the organization to enhance efficiency and optimize the use of its human capital (Cascio, 2006, p. 43).
Managing human capital is an important role of the managers because of the current changes both within and without the organization. Studies have shown over and over again that HRM practices cam makes a significant, feasible difference in terms of crucial organizational results (Sokun, 2004, p. 3).
Maintaining a high level HRM system promotes strengthens employee commitment and loyalty which is very important in attaining business objectives. This applies to all types of businesses whether public or private. The success of any organization depends on the ability of the human resource department to acquire and assign individuals to a right job and pass on to them the necessary skills and knowledge (Wexley