For an organization to operate effectively without adhering to management principles today has proven difficult. Thus, the principle of management is a critical aspect of businesses and organizations that is considered from time to time. Principles of management provide guidelines on the decision-making process of an organization. Furthermore, these principles predict or dictate a manager’s criteria for promoting staff (Aungsuroch et al. 12). For example, one manager would decide to consider seniority while promoting staff, while another would promote staff based on merits. All of this is dictated by the principles of management.
The principles of management are concerned with the behavior of humans, and their application is based on the current situation. Human behavior is dynamic, and so is technology, business strategies, the structure of an organization and other factors affecting a firm’s operation (Mahindru et al. 215). Thus, it is essential to have the principles of management aligned to the dynamics. Some decades ago, the father of modern management theory, Henry Fayol, made advancements in the field and identified the fourteen principles of management that are still applicable in modern businesses by most managers.
Fayol’s Principles of Management and Application in KFC
Principles of management, as identified by Henry Fayol, are applicable in management today and provide general guidelines and perspectives to practicing managers despite criticism of the efficiency of the principles. Today, service-based and high technologies industries dominate most economies. The United States of America is an example of economies dominated by these industries that heavily apply the principles of its operations. Fayol’s book covers the fourteen principles focused on improving efficiency and culture, where his ideas still linger in most managers today (Tadle-Zaragosa, and Sonsona 859). Fayol’s title of the father of modern management was attained after his principles were proven beneficial to managers as they boosted their morale and productivity in their respective firms and organization (Mahindru et al. 215). At a glance, the following paragraphs will look at the fourteen principles of management highlighted by Fayol and their application at Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and evaluate the principles’ relevancy.
A firm operates effectively when every factor in the firm is balanced. The pioneer of management principles saw what worked and did not work well. According to the principles, most of the principles focused on administrative skills and management are termed a profession (Edwards 44). The fourteen principles include, Firstly, division of work, where employees are assigned tasks that they are efficient in, and the principles ensure productivity as employees become skilled (Johannessen 310). The principle is applicable in KFC in that the organization is based on multi-tasking, where employees are assigned positions depending on their capabilities. For example, employees best at customer service are assigned a role at the front desk.
Secondly, the principle of authority recognizes authority as a responsibility that every manager should possess to give orders. The principle is utilized effectively at KFC since a manager delegates duties to staff, and the responsibility is assigned effectively to ensure the employee performs the duties diligently. For example, an employee at the front desk must deal with the customer’s behavior and diligently perform the task. The employee has a certain range of responsibilities to run the duty smoothly and effectively. Thirdly, the principle of discipline dictates that every firm staff should adhere to the set rules (Johannessen 315). The principle is adhered to later at KFC because how employees perform their duties and responsibilities is essential to KFC. While serving and interacting with customers, staff must portray politeness and kindness. Moreover, sanitizers are changed after two hours, washing hands every hour, and updating the fries are examples of discipline followed strictly in KFC.
According to Fayol, the principle of unity of command is essential, and employees should have a single supervisor that gives orders; without unity of command, authority, order, stability, and discipline are all threatened (Ward par.6). The principle is not strictly followed in KFC, considering KFC has several branches globally, with each branch having a manager that mans the branch. The principle of unity of direction dictates that a team with the same goals and values should be under one manager who shares the same values and goals. The principle of unity f direction is applicable in the fast-food company because its goal and priority are serving customers to their best. For example, staff at the front desk have different priorities and goals compared to other departments; thus, they are managed and directed by a single manager.
The collective interest principle dictates that employees and staff members must put aside their personal interests and work harmoniously with the team. The principle has not been adhered to in the fast-food company considering that laziness, carelessness, and selfishness of employees have been an issue in the company with staff given the most benefits. The remuneration principle explains that employees’ satisfaction is dependent on fair remuneration, either financial or non-financial (Kaur 2). At the fast-food company, staff is offered equal pay, which is aligned with the standard rates. Furthermore, medical benefits and annual leave are offered equally amongst the staff since fair remuneration ensures a fair working environment for the employees in KFC.
Centralization, the eighth principle, emphasizes deciding on the top, that is, approaching decision-making from a centralized approach. Centralization is followed effectively in the organization considering decisions and other essential conclusions are made from the above, and decentralization is well distributed. Scalar chain principles emphasize ensuring employees know and understand the chain of command and their position in a firm’s hierarchy (Ward par.5). The scalar chain principle is followed in KFC because information at the organization follows a scalar chain since employees have to follow protocols and contact the manager of the lowest rank first in case of any pressing or burning issue.
Under the order principle, Fayol sensitizes the need for social order in a firm for effective production and management. Order is the core and behind the success of the fast-food company because most customers prefer KFC to other fast-food because of its orderliness. For example, the restaurants are cleaned every day, and before the preparations are completed, every item is sorted and put in its correct order to avoid confusion during working hours (Tadle-Zaragosa, Junalyn et al., 859). The principle of equity requires managers to ensure employees and staff are treated fairly to ensure the team operates their responsibilities in harmony and the loyalty required. The fast-food company treats employees equally, with no discrimination cases at any of their branches globally. Managers give equal honors and respect to all staff in that those grievances raised by staff are tackled effectively.
Stability of tenure of personnel, the twelfth principle dictates a firm minimize the change of roles and employee turnover to improve efficiency. The principle is followed since the company ensures employees hired are available for a significant time or longer before planning to hire or replace the staff. The initiative principle states that an employee should be encouraged to participate in events or plans that would lead to the improvement of services and products in a firm. At KFC, employee benefits are understood by the management and employees in the company are offered every chance that would ensure they feel free to take part in advising and suggesting an issue or change in strategy that affects positively or criticizes the strategies of the company that in the long run would lead to the success of the company. Lastly, the Esprit de Corps principle states that a manager should always strive to promote a group’s spirit, morale, and unity (Ward par.6). Esprit de Corps is applied in KFC since the kitchen, production, and front desk staff are coordinated to function together to ensure services are delivered to the customers at the highest level incomparable to their competitors.
The fourteen principles are greatly used today in various firms and organizations as they help manage an organization and are crucial as they dictate and predict how management functions should be, as highlighted by Fayol. Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling are the five functions of management as highlighted by the father of modern management, that are easily predictable by applying the fourteen principles.
Relevancy of the Principles’ Application
From a closer look at the application of management principles at the company, one would realize that Fayol’s management principles are relevant and still fresh in the current operation of a business; KFC is an example. In KFC, teamwork is advocated as the principle encouraged for the mutual benefit of the organization. Furthermore, at KFC, managers’ role is respected as they are supposed to lead by example, and the right training is offered before hiring a manager (Yang et al. 22). Moreover, as the principles acknowledge that management is a continuous process, so does KFC.
Violated Principles of Management
Most of Fayol’s principles have been adopted easily at KFC and are the reason behind the company’s success. The principle of collective interest and unity of command is violated at KFC. The consequences of violating the principle of collective interest and unity of command are that quality service delivery will be compromised at the expense of satisfying the need of a few employees and staff in the company. As a consequence of violating the unity of command principle, the management might face a difficult time when solving internal and external problems. Furthermore, employees are confused about which direction to follow in the occurrence of management misunderstandings; hence, an effective human resource department (Aungsuroch et al., 11). The violated principles can be modified to ensure efficiency at the company by stating clear values and goals for employees to achieve during a specified period.
Principles to Adopt to Achieve Efficiency Beyond Fayol and Taylor
Considering the position of the CEO for KFC is ineffective, some principles can be recommended to help achieve efficiency beyond Fayol and Taylor. Firstly, the principle of collective interest should be emphasized with the right magnitude when efficiency is a priority. Having staff focused on achieving the set goals and having a common interest like the one laid by the management of KFC would help resolve minor issues like laziness and carelessness of employees that harm the satisfaction and delivery of quality services (Yang et al. 12). Furthermore, time and resources would be saved and directed at improving products that would satisfy and attract potential customers across their global outlets.
The principle of division of work significantly impacts accomplishing efficiency in an organization. Despite critics being against multi-tasking, division of work and labour in an organization is key to achieving efficiency beyond Fayol and Taylor because employees are placed at designated places that match their skills. Division of work helps to reduce supervision. In one way or the other, employees are encouraged to work with less supervision as they focus on improving their skills, thus, helping the organization attain its objectives and goals in the long run.
Esprit de Corps is an important principle and carries a significant magnitude in the success and efficiency of an organization. Improving the morale, teamwork, and spirit in an organization will help employees work together in harmony, and internal conflicts that are major threats to the efficiency of an organization will be avoided easily. Conducting outdoor activities like tours, hiking, and sporting activities that would ensure employees and staff bond together are some recommendations that can be adopted to promote the Esprit de Corps principle to achieve efficiency in the organization. Furthermore, the fourteen principles of Fayol are crucial to be adopted fully to an organization to attain efficiency and guarantee business success.
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