Application Of Microeconomic Concepts In Personal Life Descriptive Essay Essay Help Online

Microeconomics involves observing the behavior of an economy to understand how to distribute resources. This study is very important in business world because it influences supply and demand of goods and services, which are used to set the cost of products and services. Both buyers and sellers use the two elements to make financial decisions. This paper will focus on how microeconomics concepts are applied in life.

Supply and demand are perceived to be the most influential factors concerning the cost of goods and services. This means that if the demand of a given commodity is high and the supply of that commodity is not adequate to meet the market needs, then the cost of that item will rise. This can be worse if there is only one sole supplier because he/she will be overwhelmed by the increase in demand.

This may cause the supplier to bring goods of low quality in the market and the sellers will trade them off at the usual prices. This happens because the manufacturer produces the products in a hurry. A smart shopper should not be contended with what he/she finds in one shop, but should instead look for other places where the same commodity is being sold at subsidized price.

Competition among sellers favors buyers because each of them tries to entice the customer by slashing their prices without reducing the quality of the merchandise on sale.

In addition, one needs to be cautious when making a purchase and the shortage of supply should not be the issue. There are people who are known to judge the quality of an item by its price tag. This is wrong because sellers are out to make profits and to them the real worth of an item is not an issue.

It is therefore important to evaluate an item because it helps decide whether it is worth the cost. Many are times when the price of an item misguides someone, only to regret later when it turns out that the item is not as durable as we were made to believe. Besides, one cannot distinguish a pair of shoes that was bought at $20 from the one that cost the owner $50.This is because they serve the same purpose.

The above scenario implies that when the price of items that we require the most goes up we should identify alternative items to serve the same purpose. This is because there is no point of buying an expensive item when there are other cheap items that can quench our needs. However, it depends on the financial status of an individual. Another option would be to wait until the supply goes back to normal. This is necessary especially when the items in question are not needed that much, meaning that the needs can wait.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise, planning is quite beneficial to both the sellers and buyers. To the buyer planning ahead helps to prevent purchasing items at high prices. For instance, when schools close a parent should purchase the items that his/her child requires in the following season because at that time the demand for books and other learning materials would be low.

However, if the parent opts to wait until when the schools are reopening, he/she would pay more for an item that would have cost him/her less money if he/she had made the purchase earlier.

Alternatively, a smart seller observes the market behavior and understands when the low and high season commences and prepares adequately. By being knowledgeable about changing market trends a seller obtains enough stock and lies in wait for the demand to shoot up and make his/her score. In microeconomics, it is the smartest people who continue to thrive even when conditions continue to deteriorate.

Microeconomics can also be used when one intends to establish a business by evaluating supply and demand. By observing the environment, it is easy to spot an opportunity that is yet to be exploited. This involves identifying the needs of the people around you to determine what items you can sell to them. Going blindly will cause a noble idea to fail.

Some people want to venture into businesses that have been tried by others simply because they know one or two people who get huge returns from selling particular merchandise. Just because John got his wealth by selling bananas by the roadside does not mean that another person will equally succeed in the same venture.

It is therefore important to study the market first to identify possible customers. The same goes for people who wish to borrow money from financial institutions. This is because it is not difficult to get the money, but the interests that will accumulate. In fact, most people fear to borrow money because of these interests.

When one wishes to apply for a loan, he/she should first analyze how the money is going to be repaid. This entails carrying out research on how interests have been changing in the past. This is because the changes in interests could favor borrowers and have a negative impact on lenders. This implies that if the interest rates came down while you have already obtained money from the lending party then you will pay less money than the stated amount.

We will write a custom Essay on Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In such a case, the borrower should take advantage of the situation to repay the loan while the rates are still low. If the borrower hesitates, the rates could increase and thus, the amount to be repaid will increase. Alternatively, the borrower can apply for a loan that has a permanent interest rate because that way he/she would be cautioned from the changes in interests.

However, if one needs to borrow money when the interest rates are still high it would be advisable not to apply for a loan in such a situation. Changes in interest rates also influence investments in bonds and shares.

An investor can purchase bonds when it is speculated that the interest rates will go up in the future. This is because the returns he/she will get from those bonds will be much greater than when the interest rates remained low. In the stock market, it is possible to make profits when the interests are low .In such a case, an investor purchases stocks when the prices are still low and sells them when the prices appreciate probably due to increase in interest rates.

Moreover, microeconomics can be employed in business management to dictate when an individual should enter or exit a venture. This is because if a business is not bringing any profits there is no point of operating it because it will continue to draw money from the investor instead of generating income. This is very common during recession periods.

An individual who is employed should use the knowledge he/she has in microeconomics to negotiate for salary increase. The decline in the value of a local currency provides an opportunity for an employee to demand for wage increment because the salary that was once enough to meet his/her needs is no longer useful. A concerned employer would understand this logic much better. If the employer refuses to listen to such arguments then the employee should look for another job that pays more while still working for the current employer.

If the situation persists, the employee should identify ways of surviving the inflation. Some of the approaches include eliminating some unnecessary expenses such as luxuries.

Alternatively, when inflation reduces the people who are not employed should increase the frequency of searching for employment because job opportunities increases with reduction in inflation. When inflation increases, the learners who graduate from learning institutions should look for ways of employing themselves because the job market will decline and employers will be firing instead of hiring employees.

For individuals who participate in international trade, learning about changes in other economies would help them up their game. This is economic bubbles that are experienced in one country are extended to other countries that interact with it. For instance, if the value of the US dollar rose against the value of Japanese yen then the people who import goods from US would incur more costs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Application of Microeconomic Concepts in Personal Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, exports from Japan would be cheap to the Americans. In the above stated case, it would be logical for a Japanese to invest in the US because he/she will earn returns in US dollars and he/she will get more profit when the money is converted to Japanese yen. On the contrary, it would be unwise for Americans to invest directly in Japan because their investments will not yield any profit owing to the low value of the yen against the dollar.

In conclusion, individuals should dare to apply the principles of microeconomics because it is only then that they can make wise decisions. Microeconomics is not just learned for passing exams, but because we need its insight in our day-to-day lives. This implies that consumers, sellers, and the public should make decisions that are based on what they know.

If we all applied this knowledge appropriately, no one would be penalized for failing to pay his/her debts in good time. Furthermore, knowledge in microeconomics increases our bargaining power as seen in the case of employees and their quest for getting better pay.


Privacy Issues and Monetizing Twitter Essay essay help free: essay help free

Problems Faced by Twitter Trio A twitter is a social internet site, which allows users to send short text messages with a limit of 140 characters. The short messages are called tweets, and a twitter user seeks to have many followers as possible. Twitter users have been faced by many security problems, which is a threat to the Twitter trio.

Some of these problems are caused by links that are found on the twitter page. Some links directs users to unknown destinations. These links have commands for downloads which might destroy an individual’s or company’s data. More so, the links directs a user to malicious user’s sites. Some cookies are designed to be destructive because when it is saved on the hard disk it destroys useful information or data.

According to Ivey (2011), tweets written by users can also be searched using Google. This is a risk because the users feel that their tweets are being followed by investigators and hence they fear expressing their views in detail.

Hackers have been able to follow tweets from users, hence hacking passwords and interfering with private information, especially when it leads to a company’s sensitive information. Since anyone is able to follow and see what users are commenting, competitors have been able to follow up company’s secrets and at times even financial and investors information.

Since twitter users accounts enables them to follow other peoples accounts, hackers also create accounts and follows many users, hence the users follow them too without knowing whether the accounts are for malicious use. These malicious people enter the twitter network and seek to damage it as long as they follow thousands of the social network users.

As compared to other website accounts like Facebook, when you sign up an account, it is verified through the email address that a user has provided, but when you sign up a Twitter account, it does not verify the account through the email address that has been provided. This has enabled spammers to create some fraudulent networks and accounts on twitter.

It is recommended that personal information should not be added on Twitter because people can monitor user’s activities; there are cases where people have been robbed because of twitting their movements and activities, which led to buglers easily monitoring them. Despite the fact that a tweet is real time, destructive leaks of information about a company or an individual can travel all over the world in just seconds. This can damage a reputation which has been earned for years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shelly, Napier, and Rivers (2009) argue that Twitter unlike Facebook has many limitations because it allows a user to upload only one small picture. This is a major challenge to the three partners. Twitters interface is not friendly because when a user signs up for the first time, it is not easy to know what to do next.

As compared to other social networks, people struggle to have many followers and hence it creates some competition and it is sometimes not easy for a new user to get followers. It is advisable for a user to consider both advantages and disadvantages before signing up on twitter as a social network.

Data Privacy on the Internet and Threat to Privacy Although the Internet has made communication easy with information and other activities meant for entertainment, security about the data storage use in the Internet has become a major concern because it is not easy to tell whether malicious people can access personal information.

Other issues are whether the websites visited are safe and how hackers can access a website data. The security threats are a major issue because many Internet users have been exposed to security threats. These threats may be instructions that are created by malicious persons and are designed to spread in the internet and cause damages to data on unprotected websites. Hackers access the systems through codes generated by programming operating systems (Laudon


Do countries really benefit from international trade? Essay college application essay help

Countries do benefit from international trade in a broad way. There might be flaws as far as benefiting from international trade is concerned but there is evidence to show that many countries have benefited from this. Every country has its own expectations and targets as far as benefiting from international trade is concerned and this is something that has always differed. It is quite evident that every country goes into international trade with an aim of benefiting and this has been fulfilled in various occasions.

There are good signs and indications to show that international trade has benefited many countries and this should be capitalized on for long term sustainability (Glyn 23). Therefore, it is undeniable that countries have benefited a lot from international trade. We live in a unique society where we can not say that we have everything thereby justifying international trade.

The world has become an open economy where people can move from one place to the other without many restrictions thereby advancing trade. There is no country that has ever shied away from international trade and this is a fact. In this case, we can not say that there is any given country that lives in abundance meaning that there is everything to gain through strategic partnerships and cooperation.

All the countries whether developed, developing or underdeveloped can benefit from international trade in various ways. International trade can only thrive in an environment that does not have any barriers (Watson 34).

Such barriers can be looked at from an economic point of view through quotas, tariffs and other government subsidies. In cases and occasions where such aspects have been well effected and implemented, countries have benefited a lot from international trade. Such practices enable different countries to get goods and services that they are not able to produce on their own.

Countries benefit from international trade because it has become the backbone of our modernity and commercial world. This can be looked at from different perspectives because there are positivity’s and negativity’s that can be realized from international trade.

It is quite practical that producers from different countries can benefit and profit from a wide and open global market through international trade. There is a large population that has been lifted out of poverty through international trade. International trade enables companies to access new markets thereby employing more people from their communities and environments (Glyn 51).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the long run, a lot of people are lifted out of poverty because they can create wealth and invest. Economists argue that people will only invest if they have a good disposable income through savings. In this case, an expanded market means that different companies will be profitable thereby giving employees’ a good package. As time goes by, people and employees invest in their societies thereby creating wealth.

The general theory of comparative advantage has been put into practice through international trade thereby benefiting various countries and companies. In this case, the more it’s put into practice by people, the more it benefits countries. There are occasions where international trade has led to socio-economic inequalities but this can not override the benefits that come with it.

This has only been practical where good policies and frameworks have not been put into place. As far as Adam Smith is concerned, individuals, companies and nations can be better off if they specialize in the production of a given good instead of striving to be economically self- sufficient. This therefore justifies international trade which seeks to give people different goods and services that they can not produce in their own countries (Glyn 21).

This principle of specializing in the production of a given good or service can be applied in international trade for long term sustainability. All this should be done for mutual benefits meaning that there is no country that can participate in international trade if it is not benefiting in any way.

There has been an argument that countries can benefit from international trade even if a given nation is producing two different goods cheaply than the other. International trade occurs across borders and this has given different countries a big boost on their GDP as time goes by.

In this case, countries that have wanted to grow their economies quickly have occasionally relied on international trade to achieve this. International trade is very lucrative than it used to be in previous years and this is because of the interest and attention that it has been given. In this case, industrialization and globalization have changed the approach to international trade thereby giving it a new face and dimension (Watson 56).

Nations have benefited from international trade through the value of peoples lives. In this case, their choice is not limited in any way which opens up borders. This means that people are not confined to what they have been given which is the nature of human beings.

We will write a custom Essay on Do countries really benefit from international trade? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Countries can not say that they have not benefited from international trade because it saves on costs. In this case, a nation can produce its goods in a different country that has low costs of production. Income opportunities have been created through international trade thereby benefiting locals and the country at large.

Every country has its own laws and policies that govern international trade and this means that they should always favor them. This means that mutual understanding and corporation should work in favor of both countries. As a matter of fact, the world trade organization has been monitoring trade activities to ensure fair play. This has enabled countries to enhance their relationships thereby benefiting everybody.

Problems have been identified in advance to ensure that good solutions are arrived at for long term sustainability. Through international trade, countries have been able to increase their stock of resources (Watson 71). Most notably, the supply of labor and capital has been enhanced as time goes by.

Foreign investors have been instrumental in the transfer of capital through numerous business opportunities that exist in different countries. Free trade has been identified as the key concept under which international trade operates. As a matter of fact, free trade has not been practical throughout the world.

This is based on interests that different nations and individuals have as far as restricting others from their territories is concerned. The benefits of specialization and free trade can not be disputed because this is something that can be seen in the world today. There is an argument that free trade has failed to deliver what it was intended to achieve but this is based on different expectations (Glyn 29).

For instance, poor countries are still poor but we can not expect international trade to solve all the problems yet other countries do not have the capacity. The ultimate aim of trade is to benefit both parties and this should be achieved through good interaction and mutual understanding.

Thorough international trade, various countries have established agreements and treaties that have ensured that they benefit well. There are countries that have good economies of scale meaning that it will be much easier for other countries to shift production which is good. International trade is very complex meaning that countries can never be equal.

In this case, it is quite obvious that a different nation will have more economic power over another but this should not be used against trade because there is something that they can benefit together (Watson 36).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Do countries really benefit from international trade? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consistency in trade has given countries an opportunity to reevaluate their approach to international trade thereby correcting their initial mistakes. Countries have always wanted to finance their budgets and take care of their infrastructural projects which can be enhanced through international trade.

In this case, countries have ended up earning foreign money which enhances growth. As a matter of fact, this money stimulates economic growth and developmental activities that can not be achieved single handedly. Standards of living in different countries have been enhanced through international trade as people travel to different destinations to grow their business. As a producer, it is quite obvious that markets need to be expanded to enhance growth (Glyn 33).

This means that there is nobody who can say that international trade is disastrous because everything has been going on well. Countries will continue benefiting from international trade because there is an urge and effort towards self sufficiency. This means that there should be less reliance on foreign aid to correct inequalities.

Works Cited Glyn, Davies. Ideas: A history of money from ancient times to the present day. Wales: University of Wales Press, 2002. Print.

Watson, Peter. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention from Fire to Freud. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Print.


Art in Public Spaces Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

San Francisco’s Skygate and semiotic approach

Purpose of San Francisco’s Skygate as a public art


Works Cited

Introduction The following essay examines a piece of public art and the space it is found in order to discuss art, beauty and the purpose of public art. The essay specifically focuses on the Unnamed Sculpture at Pier 39 in San Francisco and uses the concepts from Semiotics to analyze the space and art piece together.

Also, the essay discusses the purpose of the Unnamed Sculpture at Pier 39 in San Francisco as a public art. The Skygate in San Francisco is a modern sculpture that was designed by Isamu Noguchi.This public art is usually set for free entertainment each Wednesday at noon. The Skygate has a natural framing that is presented by trees and thus giving it an outstanding background.

The contributions of art in public places have not been fully recognized. Art in public places affects the everyday lives of millions of people across the globe as more money is spent while commissioning them. However, the critical recognition of public art is yet to be recognized despite its proliferation.

This is as a result of such factors as lack of a clear historical framework, evaluation as well as confusion concerning the definition of art in public places. According to some scholars, art in public places has been in existence since time immemorial. According to them, public art existed in form of Lascaux’s cave paintings.

Other scholars believe that art in public places came into practice in 1967 following the creation of public arts program by the National Endowment for the Arts. According to some historians, art in public places began in 1935 with the establishment of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) which was aimed at providing the US citizens with economic relief following the Great Depression.

It is believed that President Roosevelt enhanced the proliferation of arts in public places during this time by providing employment opportunities to thousands of artists who worked in the public works division of WPA.Thus,the; the main challenge with regards to public arts is establishing the time line for its development.

This makes the definition of arts in public places to be at issue. Since the term ‘art in public places’ was coined over fifty years ago, it is disappointing to note that the term has not been clearly defined. According to Hein’s, public art has the capacity of occupying public space and also drawing public into debate and intelligent discourse.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to him, art has the potential to of engendering new ways of thinking and new perspectives .Similarly, Barber in his ‘Cultural Interventions in the Public Sphere’ book stated that public art provides people with an opportunity to develop a range of resistant and critical strategies that have an effect of encouraging multiple responses(Merryman and Elsen 656-658).

Arts in public places can exist in various forms including letters, orchards, sculptures, displays, monuments, memorials among others. A large number of arts in public places are found in towns and urban areas even though some are found in rural areas. Art in public places are found everywhere i.e. they are displayed on side of buildings, airport terminals, recreational parks, business organizations e.t.c. (Merryman and Elsen 656-658).

San Francisco’s Skygate and semiotic approach Usually, arts in public works have the effect of conveying meaning to millions of spectators. Semiotics is commonly defined as the ‘science of signs’ implying that, pubic art is intended to have some significant meaning and purpose to human beings. According to semiotic approach, public arts can provide meanings in various forms including; words, texts and codes (Ashton 301).

Isamu Noguchi in his Skygate work adopted a semiotic approach by harmonizing both the architecture and the space. He created an attraction site with a view of communicating a range of meanings to societies, spectators, designers and all the interested persons across the globe. The sculpture is constructed in such a way that, in absence of written records, the space and site can provide people with the required information for understanding the identities.

The work by Isamu Noguchi takes Skygate identity from the site as it reflects the space and architecture around it in manner that is accurate and distorted. Despite the fact that Skygate’s title has a chaotic title, the space and the subject are harmonious. Isamu Noguchi in his sculptural work has combined shape with mirror-polished stainless steel to produce an attractive public art (Ashton 301).

Purpose of San Francisco’s Skygate as a public art Skygate in San Francisco as a public art enhances democracy in that it is accessible to everyone.Basa (2008) in his studies states that public arts should be designed in such a way that everyone is capable of viewing it. Public art that is accessible to everyone promotes public response and support. Public arts form an integral part of any public environment due to the fact that they are seen everyday by millions of people.

Art in public places usually have an enormous impact with regards to the impressions that are created about a place. The appearance of public art plays an important role as far as people’s feelings are concerned. It is for this reason that millions of dollars are spent for public arts. Also, the appearance of arts in public places can become a subject of debate in editorial columns. It is therefore important that arts in public places have a good appearance as it can become a public issue (McNiff 36).

We will write a custom Essay on Art in Public Spaces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Skygate has the effect of attracting larger audiences from all walks of life. The youths are the majority of audiences who comes to Skygate. The sculpture is a major tourist attraction as millions of tourists tours United States to view it.

Throngs of people constantly fill the park everyday. This public art provides people of all races, ages, nationalities and classes with an opportunity to interact with each other. This in turn plays an important role of earning the United States Federal Government foreign exchange. This sculpture has become a major tourist marketing (Fleming and Goldman 201-225).

This public art is found in an open space and therefore, people can use the environment for multiple purposes ranging form politics to social interaction. The art piece is found in an open space and does not have an obstructive effect on the surrounding buildings i.e. it is both people and environmental friendly.

This aspect has the effect of forcing people to visit Skygate on a constant basis. People are usually proud of art in public places that are found where they live. Everyone has a stake in public arts and everyone wants to be associated with them. First people are concerned with enjoying their environments. Secondly; they prefer to visit those places that favorably impress them. People also prefer that their self image and self worth be reflected by the appearance of public arts (Fleming and Goldman 201-225).

Also, the material that is used to construct the public art is environmental friendly. The artists were careful while they were choosing the kind of materials to use when constructing the public art. They preferred using polished-stainless steel materials which are undestructive.

The investors demand that public arts be well planned and attractive as this increases property values. Art in public places is an important component as far as any strong and vibrant community is concerned. The Skygate in the San Francisco acts as an economic development tool. It has seen numerous cities jump start their economies. According to a research by Basa (2008), major towns that have a robust and lively art in public places are associated with sustained economic growth.

Conclusion Skygate as a piece of art has an aesthetic appeal and this makes it to look attractive. The art piece is in accordance with the semiotics approach of arts in public space. This public art has the effect of appealing to a large audience. Its design can satisfy the large mass of people who experiences it on a regular basis.

Aesthetic appeal is necessary as it significantly contributes to how the public feels and values a given public art. Aesthetic appeal has social and cultural components and it goes beyond simple expressions of a person’s taste .Public arts should be designed in such a way that the beauty resides in the art piece as opposed to the beholder’s mind.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Art in Public Spaces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Ashton, Dore. Noguchi East and West. New York. University of California Press, 1993.

Basa, Lynn. The Artist’s Guide to Public Art: How to Find and Win Commissions.

New York: Allworth Communications, Inc., 2008.

Fleming, Lee and Goldman, Melisa.The art of placemaking: interpreting community through public art and urban. Michigan: The University of Michigan, 2007.

McNiff, Shaun. Integrating the Arts in Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice.Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, 2009.

Merryman, John and Elsen, Albert. Law, ethics, and the visual arts. Alphen aa den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2002.


Conceptions of Self Essay best college essay help

Self and identity though closely related feature some significant differences, not only in their meaning but also in their applications. Self refers to how an individual perceives himself/herself in relations to other variables for instance people or characteristics that form part of the existence of human being.

On the other hand, identity refers to the attributes that people form or see in a person that distinguishes him/her from other people (Leary and Tangney 467). Therefore, it suffices to declare identity as no more than how one views another in relation to others while self is an intrinsic judgment that originates from an individual.

There stands a close relationship between self, self-concept, self-awareness and self-esteem. For instance, self-concept refers to a person’s perception of self in relation to other characteristics or variables like gender, race, and religion among others.

Self-awareness constitutes the individual level of his or her own self while self-esteem is an overall or an evaluation of the level of someone’s self-concept. Therefore, the word “self” seems closely linked with these three concepts as all refer to the way an individual views himself. However, one can ask, ‘How does self come about?’

Self is formed based on how an individual assesses himself/herself with regard to his or her own personality relating to skills, knowledge, abilities, hobbies occupations, physical characters and many others. A person can only tell his/her other self after a careful assessing of those areas or things that he or she believes as part of him/her or what he/she gets gratification and satisfaction from (Joan 78). For instance, an individual may say, “I am hard working”, an example of a self-assessment that transmits to self-concept of an individual.

On the other hand, if a person says, “I am tired, or happy”, it does not amount to self-concept because the statement stands out as not objective and is temporary since tiredness implies something that does not occur always and is not permanent. Therefore, it lasts just for some few minutes then the feeling will vanish. Being hard working implies an assessment and it can be exhibited in most parts of an individual’s life for a long time.

However, contrary to this, it holds true to declare the self-concept of a person as dynamic, changing with time based on how he/she re-assesses himself/herself. Such like changes may lead to identity crises as people will find it difficult to identify or know the clear stand or behavior of such an individual and therefore they would not record a common view concerning a person.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Locke, personal identity is something that depends on consciousness implying that people remain the same in their past and future actions and thoughts as well as their present ones. Identity therefore, comes after some time and therefore the thoughts and actions of a person become part of his/her identity or rather part of him/her after a certain period.

Furthermore, they might function as “impetus to the future behavior of an individual apart from providing this interpretative and evaluative context of the current thinking or view of the self” (Rodriguez 23). Therefore, self-concept does not restrict itself to the present only but rather encompasses the past and the future selves.

This means that it represents people’s future wishes as well as what they want to become future or those things of which an individual is afraid. Hence, it corresponds to standards, threats, goals, opportunities, hopes, fears, and happiness among others.

The self-categorization theory forms part of the few theories, which clearly relate to self-concept. The theory presents self-concept as having two levels namely personal identity and social identity implying that people’s evaluation of self depends on how a person’s self-perceptions fit in the social constructs as a whole. Therefore, the self-concept of an individual may alternate between the personal identity and the social identity.

Different cultures and societies have different views of self. For instance, in the western countries the ideas of self seem more leaned on independence as opposed to Asian countries where most people’s view of self stands as interdependent with the people’s ways of relationships and interpersonal interactions gaining prominence compared to their personal achievements or accomplishments.

Therefore, it becomes evident that self-identity is dynamic in the sense that it varies from one culture to another, and is not something static or permanent. It keeps on changing with time and even results to identity crises.

There stands various primary forces of identity formation such as the home/family, religion, sexuality, education, music, gender and many more that identify well with a given individual or rather relates to an individual. Therefore, every person has his or her way, which describes his/her identity.

We will write a custom Essay on Conceptions of Self specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The paper focuses on gender as one of the primary forces of identity formation. Gender differences in most cultures act as self-identity. The concept of self as applied to a person begins early in his/her life as the society socializes with the person because of gender segregation initiated by children themselves and the parents or rather the adults.

Various researches conducted have identified that, regardless of the culture, children, regardless of their gender, tend to engage in their plays separately. It therefore proves difficult to change or alter the way they want to live. Therefore, these plays and segregation contribute much towards the formation of the different identities seen in relationships and social interactions, which later inculcate in the entire way of life during their growth

Furthermore, girls tend to engage in one-on-one communications in their interactions while on the other hand, boys prefer engaging in-group activities. These preferences also contribute to their later lives concerning the identification of the two genders.

For instance, boys will prefer forming groups and putting together their efforts towards achievement of certain goal in life while girls will tend to constricted themselves in their day-to-day interactions due to what they used to do. Girl’s therefore, will tend to be secretive and will form strong intimate relationships of bonds among themselves as opposed to boys.

Another aspect of formation of identity among these genders is how the girls carry on with their lives. For instance, when it comes to speaking, girls wait for their turn and will often agree with others more easily and with fewer arguments. They will further acknowledge the contributions of their colleagues while the boys on the other the side will often build or form large groups, which result from their shared interests and the activities they engage in.

They also seem fond of boasting, threatening, and arguing more to show their levels of dominance in any discussion or any activities they engage in as a way of hierarchy. These examples of gender differences illustrate how the formation of identity of the two different categories comes up or forms based on their subsequent interaction and socialization later in their lives.

The society has also contributed a lot in the formation of identity especially on the gender. The society has come up with ‘segregative’ ways of showing differences in the way boys and girls ought to carry on with their life. The society does this through the evident segregation of roles, which the boys and girls engage in (Leary and Tangney 43).

For example, in a family where there are boys and girls, the society will inculcate different values in these children in the tasks they assign them. For example, girls will be given tasks relating to domestic affairs involving, kitchen work and keeping a house clean while on the other hand a boy child will be given responsibilities that are not related to domestic roles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Conceptions of Self by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, as the children continue to grow, they will have already been oriented with what they are supposed to do or not. Another illustration of the same comes in the way guardians bring up their children in terms of choosing their clothing. These differences in selection of what the boys and girls wear contribute to their formation of identity.

Therefore, the differences in how parents socialize their children contribute to a greater magnitude in the way they socialize and make relationships in the society. Furthermore, this segregation internalizes and makes up their way of life in future as they grow up doing what they were brought up doing. Therefore, the issue of gender becomes a crucial factor in the formation of identity of an individual since a child grows with it and hence becoming part of his/her life.

Works Cited Joan, Kron. The Semiotics of Home Décor. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.

Leary, Mark, and Tangney, June. Handbook of self and identity. New York: Guilford Press, 2003.

Rodriguez, Richard. A Hunger of Memory. Boston: Godine, 1982


The Significance of Social Networks on Young People’s Lives Analytical Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction






Works Cited

Introduction The advent and spread of the computers brought many changes to the world. The first years of computers so their widespread adoption in military and learning institutions as they were considered efficient tools for information exchange. This era was characterized by less computer usage by the civilian population. This was followed by another important period in the history of computers which saw mass adoption of these devices by the civilian population and the spread of computer networks (later coined “internet”).

It may be true to say that the Personal computer was the main catalyst for this change. The internet was quickly adopted by governments, businesses, and individuals as the preferred channel to communicate, educate, transact business or just for entertainment. However, none of this uses took center stage position in the use of the internet.

Since early 2000s, a new force has arisen; this force threatens to permeate every aspect of our lives. Be it business, relationship, profession, or leisure. This force is the social network and it is all about “you” and your friends or “followers” with friends updating each other about their daily activities.

Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, Blackplanet, Classmate, Flicr, Flixster, Friendster, Hi5, LinkedIn, Multiply, MyYearBook, Perfspot (Blow, n.pag ) and tickle to mention just but a few are some of the popular social sites with millions of users. This papers discusses the significance of social networks on young people’s lives with specific focus on how it is influencing how they learn, relate and the challenges presented by this technological change.

Uses Social networks are very popular with young people within the age group of 13 to 25 (Blow, n.pag).These young people primarily use a host of social sites to establish new and maintain old friendships in a unique and non-physical way (Ito, n.p).

The social networks have given them a superb platform, complete with freedom and autonomy to meet new people, date and even marry online (Ito, n.p). Social networks give young people an opportunity to “apply” for friendship from people they have even never met before or from persons they idolize and greatly admire.

Special qualities are not essential for one to win over a multitude of friends. To win over more friends it is common for these young people to lie about their height, weight, age, social status, relationship, history, habits among others in a bid to create an image of attractiveness about themselves (Blow, n.p).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This may be difficult or impractical in real life but is not the case in “online life”. Online users are tolerant toward some of these lies or simply care less about them (Blow n.p). The established friendships are sustained and maintained via constant charts, messaging or gaming services most social sites offer. These efforts are privately augmented with communications such as instant messaging or mobile phones (Ito, n.pag).

Social network networks are increasingly becoming a source of information for varying types of users. Young people are using them to research and further their interests in addition to learning new skills (Ito, n.pag). This may be through help from reputed peers they meet through social networks or through shared resources (Ito, n.pag).

On the other hand, professionals in many fields are also turning to social networks in order to extract personal or public information that may be of interest to them. Hiring managers are using social networks data in screening potential employees (Havenstein, n.pag). As young people turn to social network to conform to the peer culture and look for information, few are aware of silent risks these networks expose them to. The greatest risk is loss of privacy.

Risks Young people may inadvertently share private information in social networks. This may constitute drug use, inappropriate photos, former employer details, criminal behavior or qualifications details (Havenstein, n.pag). Unknown to them some people, such as hiring managers and ethnographic researchers are always snooping for such information. There is also a possibility that social network firms may leak private data to third parties without users consent

Charles blow of New York Times presented “hard data” about behavioral traits of online users. What is clear is that most people give out fake details. This clearly shows that the art of deception rules in these networks. For gullible users, the results could be disastrous: broken heart, financial loss, injured reputation to mention just but a few.

While the social network offers young people ready information on whatever topic of interest, the nature of the information is such that its quality and effects cannot be ascertained (Ito, n.pag). Despite this fact, some like Ito Mizuko, a research scientist in the department of informatics at the University of California have been quick to claim that literacy offered online by say, social networks is just as good as traditional classroom institutions. These risks however are minor compared to a host of benefits social networks present to users.

Benefits Social networks certainly offer a wide array of benefits to their young users. They give users freedom to experiment on various interests using vast resource online and in the process acquire “technical and media literacy” (Ito, n.pag). Such networks are also good marketing as users can distribute their work at a cheap cost through them assured of feedback from their peers (Ito n.pag).

We will write a custom Essay on The Significance of Social Networks on Young People’s Lives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Social network users can also take the opportunity of adoption of such networks by corporation which are their possible future employers. As pointed out by Havenstein it is important that users portray themselves as “hireable” in these networks because their next employer may be “watching”. Unemployed users are advised to update their profile with “latest accomplishments” (Havenstein, n.pag).

Social networks can also be effectively used to complement classroom learning. Expert peers can be offer quality help to novice users thus facilitating understanding. Social networks also present ethnographic researches with good source of harvest study data. This however should be undertaken with users consent.

Legislation The issue of privacy is a concern to many social network users. To this end, user privacy protection laws need to be enacted and implemented. This is to ensure that rogue social network firms do not divulge sensitive data to third parties for a profit. The data should not be used without the user consent.

Users also need to be educated about online privacy. This can be achieved for example by enabling “friends only” setting in one’s account (Havenstein, n.pag). Education policies formulators can also not afford to ignore social networks bearing in mind their popularity and use by young learners. The adoption of social networks in learning calls for new definition and acknowledgement of its role in education. (Ito, n.pag).

Conclusion It is without doubt that social networks are changing the lives of many users who constantly use them. Popular uses for social networks include connecting with new and old friends and as a medium for learning and furthering personal interests. All these require personal efforts to succeed. Many organizations have also started using social networks data in workers management and recruitment. The popularity of social networks has also come with new challenges such as privacy violation.

The credibility of information online is questionable as most studies indicate. Apart from such limitations social networks offer user a good platform to learn new skill through personal supervision in addition to availing the freedom to experiment. Policy makers can also learn from these dynamic changes and come up with legislations that are in harmony with these technological changes

Works Cited *Customer indicated no need for works cited references as he already wrote them.


Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Variables and Formulas of calculating GDP

Importance of GDP

Differences between Nominal and Real GDP


GDP is the measure of the market worth of the output of a given country for a particular period. The output comprises of goods and services made available in that country. There are three formulas used to calculate GDP, but no matter which formula one chooses the results will be the same.

The first formula is the expenditure formula because it uses the figures computed from the sales of items. In this formula, the worth of output is gauged by the amount of money people had used to pay for the items they have. Here is formula (Taylor, 2006):

GDP=Gross consumption Gross investment Government spending (eX-i)

Variables and Formulas of calculating GDP Exports are also included because the items are made locally, but the imports are subtracted because they are made from other countries. The Income formula refers to the incomes earned by the people who participate in the manufacturing of goods in terms of wages, salaries and bonuses. The returns earned by organizations and profits made in the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors (Moffat, n.d).

The second method of calculating GDP uses the amounts spent by individuals to buy items, but this method can be misleading because sometimes we make items for our own use. For instance, when we obtain foodstuffs from our own gardens and cook our own food we do not pay for anything, thus the GDP may be misguided. Here is the formula used in this method:

(GDP) Y = C I G (x-m)

Y represents the total consumption; C represents consumption, which is the biggest variable in any given economy. It is comprised of the expenses paid by individuals when purchasing goods and services such as clothing, food and Medicare services among many others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Investment (I) consists of the costs incurred by people when they venture into businesses, such as when they purchase equipments and purchasing of new houses by individuals. Stocks, bonds and other financial products are excluded from investments, but are rather expressed as savings. Taylor (2006) points out that this is necessary to prevent double entries because if they were calculated as investment a clash would occur when the savings are used to buy other things.

Government spending (G) comprises of the salaries paid to civil servants and the money that is designated to the military. The items and services that are purchased by the government are also included in this variable. However, the money that is spent on pensioners and the people without jobs is not included in this variable.

X represents exports and comprises the goods and services produced locally and later shipped to other countries. For instance, if a given country exports oil products to another country then the profits earned in that trade would be included. Imports (m) are subtracted because they are obtained from other countries.

The third method of calculating GDP involves calculating the remunerations provided by employers to employees such as salaries wages and the money deducted for social security from the salaries and wages. The method further incorporates the profits earned by organizations and the profits earned by minor enterprises, such as barbershops and food joints. Here is the expression used in this argument (Taylor, 2006):

GDP = COE (compensation of employees) GOS (gross operating surplus) GMI (gross mixed income) Taxes subtract subsidies on manufacturing and imports (Tp


Federalist Paper Number 10 Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Madison’s Discussion

“Iron triangle”

Interest Groups and the Bureaucracy



Introduction Federalist Paper Number 10 was among the papers published in 1788 in New York. Three authors namely; Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison were involved in the publication of these papers. Their major aim was to sway opinion during the ratification of the new American constitution. James Madison authored this particular paper.

It is one of the most influential papers and it talks about faction and the role of government in regulating it as well as liberty. Madison studied at Princeton, Virginia. He participated in the local politics and thereafter Continental Congress. Madison represented Virginia in Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia. He therefore participated in drafting of United States constitution. He later became a leader in the congress during the ratification of the constitution (Wills, 1982).

Madison’s Discussion Madison’s discussion is clear evidence of his devotion to the republic and its liberty. In his argument, Madison strongly says that faction and liberty go hand in hand. The government should not concentrate on causes of faction, instead, it should focus on controlling its effects. According to him, eliminating causes is as well as hindering people’s opinions and doing away with their liberty. Forcing the people to hold the same opinion is oppression or totalitarianism which goes against the nature of human beings.

As man exercises liberty, faction is bound to happen because it is enclosed in fallibility of man. In other words, freedom of expression should not be interfered with. This is because even though man’s reasoning is not always perfect, important opinion can be blocked out in case liberty is curtailed.

In addition, Madison argues that liberty and faction is important in political life and government system. However, he clarifies that faction involving violence is not liberty and is destructive in a country. He further advises the government to control the effects by employing republican model of government.

“Iron triangle” Madison mentions the legislature, interest groups and bureaucracy to refer to the three angles of iron triangle. In his discussion, he says that the three would work independently but with one major goal of protecting the good of the public. According to him, legislation should be put in place to enhance the rights of the people. Interest groups can be allowed to exist but should not be a part of bureaucracy in order to avoid corruption.

Interest Groups and the Bureaucracy Just like any other individual, Madison was concerned with government use of nation’s resources to bring about coercion. To him interests groups can be compared to such government. Individuals create groups with their own interest at the expense of minorities’ rights. Moreover, just like Aristotle, Madison agrees that virtue should be upheld by the authority.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also believes that democracy cannot be achieved. Like Aristotle who argues that democracy cannot work because people are busy with other activities and thus have no time to do good for the better of the public. Madison believes that animal nature in man overdo the ability to do good for the public by an individual in a democratic state.

He adds that democracy allows people to protect their own interests. This in turn hinders them from doing well for the sake of the public. Madison would therefore advocate that interest groups be independent from bureaucracy so as to avoid a situation in which they use power to protect their own interests (Epstein, 1984).

Conclusion Federalist Paper Number 10 outlines how the new constitution and the republican government would function for the good of the people than the continental congress that was in power before. Madison also wanted to see that the system does not allow factions that would go against the rights of people and especially the minority. He further argues that factions cannot be avoided if liberty has to be achieved. The government should therefore focus on controlling the effects and not eliminating causes of factions.

References Epstein, D. (1984). The Political Theory of the Federalist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Wills, G. (1982). Explaining America. New York: Penguin Books.


Making an Argument about War Analytical Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

War historians, political analysts and researchers have demonstrated evidence that war is as old as mankind. In prehistoric era, civilizations used to engage in armed conflict fueled by factors such as population pressure, consolidation of geographical areas and conflict over resources (McPherson 12).

Presently, countries still engage in war for many other reasons that were absent during the prehistoric era, such as fighting terrorism, driving dictatorial political regimes out of power, and stopping other countries from developing weapons of mass destruction.

Debate has been wide-ranging about the necessity of war in the 21st century, with anti-war advocates arguing that war is not a necessary ingredient to the progression of man (Landry para. 3), while war supporters counteract by arguing that war is necessary for the advancement and stability of the world. It is against this background that this paper aims to outline arguments demonstrating that war is still necessary in the 21st century despite its social, economic and political costs.

It is indeed true that acts of war unnecessarily claim many innocent lives, particularly civilians who are caught in the crossfire and who have absolutely nothing to do with the war. The U.S. invasion of Iraq to dislodge Saddam Hussein bears witness to this fact as thousands of innocent Iraqis lost their lives while many more were maimed.

The economic cost of the Second Gulf War is hard to quantify for both the invaders and the aggressed nation. But from the utilitarian perspective, the Iraq war is justified since it achieved a greater good to a large number of Iraqis, not mentioning that the world in general and the Middle East in particular became more stable after Saddam was dethroned and a new political order instituted (McPherson 15).

Today, many more Iraqis enjoy a whole new range of freedoms and rights that they could not dare to ask under the dictatorial leadership of Saddam Hussein. Consequently, this war was justified by the virtue of the fact that most Iraqis can now enjoy their democratic rights and human rights, and people are no longer coerced to live in fear.

Some political leaders, especially in Africa, have been known to refuse to hand over power even after serving as presidents for decades. Recently, the world learned with shock how Tunisians have been subjected to the same president, Ben Ali, for over two-and-half decades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Presently, NATO forces are engaged in removing yet another political demagogue in the name of Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, who has been in power for over four decades but has flatly refused to cede power. Using the jus ad bellum (just cause) perspective (Suzuki 3), it can be argued that NATO forces are justified to participate in such a war that will benefit Libyans, economically, socially, and politically, once the heavy lid of the their dictatorial president is lifted.

However, necessary caution need to be taken when progressing such an offensive to ensure that Gaddafi soldiers and his military installations, not civilians, become the target of the NATO bombings. This will make the military campaign and any other military campaigns undertaken to dislodge static and unyielding political regimes more justified, permissible and valid.

The U.S. is currently engaged in undertaking preemptive attacks against terrorist targets in Afghanistan, Iraq and in other parts of the world. Critics, human rights activists and other lobby groups have criticized these preemptive attacks, arguing that they only contribute to loss of lives and destruction of infrastructure. It would be irresponsible to support this line of argument while turning a blind eye on what befell innocent Americans in the infamous 9/11 terrorist attacks on U.S. soil.

According to the consequentialism view, the U.S., and indeed any other country, is justified to wage war on terrorists using preemptive attacks to destabilize the terror networks since such a policy will occasion the best overall balance of good over bad (Suzuki 9). Although it’s sad that a few innocent lives are lost during such preemptive attacks, the desire to prevent hundreds or even thousands of innocent lives that these terrorists are waiting with baited breadth to decimate renders justification to the war.

Lastly, some countries are known to attack their neighbors with a view to forcefully extract precious natural resources from them. It can be remembered that Iraq under Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait for her gas, while Uganda, located in Africa, sent her troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo to forcefully extract gold and diamonds.

In such invasions, the aggressed states are justified to go to war against the aggressors to protect their resources. Borrowing from the traditional view, “…war is permissible if and only if it is fought as being necessary to defend the attacked party from aggression” (Suzuki 5). It is therefore irresponsible for an aggressed state to sit back and watch her civilians being massacred by an aggressor who is only interested in extracting or ‘stealing’ resources for enrichment.

To conclude, this paper has comprehensively engaged the utilitarian, just cause, consequentialist, and traditional perspectives to justify that war is still necessary in modern times. It is a well known fact that war initiates violence, which is generally impermissible in its nature and scope (Suzuki 4).

We will write a custom Essay on Making an Argument about War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reasons given for going to war, however, weigh heavily on the pursuit of a peaceful and stable world. Leaders and countries therefore need to be particularly careful not to tamper with factors, conditions or situations that may render justification to war.

Works Cited Landry, P. “On War.” 2011. Retrieved from

McPherson, J.M. This Mighty Scourge: Perspectives on the Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007

Suzuki, M. War and Massacre. 2006


Race in a Southern Community Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

North Little Rock is ranked number six in the population density among all the cities in Arkansas. This city was founded as Argenta in 1866, but it was incorporated in 1901 under the name North Little Rock. The population of this city in the 2000 census was approximately 60,500 people inclusive of about 25,000 households and 16,000 families. This community is made up of people from different cultural backgrounds though the whites’ population is the majority at around 63%, followed by the blacks at around 34%.

The other ethnic communities in this city include Native Americans at around 0.4%, 0.6% being Asians and 0.03% being the pacific Islanders. 1.18% of this community is made up of the other races which include minority races such as the Hispanic and Latino (Pitts, 2002). The government of this city is headed by a mayor together with eight other aldermen serving to a maximum of four years period.

In many discussions on racism, the most famous races are usually the whites and blacks. The main difference between these two races is their skin color though their cultures also differ a great deal. Blacks for example are known to be rowdy though this is more of a stereotype than a fact. Other elements that bring about differences between whites and blacks are their entertainment industries.

Music done and listened to by blacks is generally hip-hop which contrasts with the soft classical music preferred by the whites. Their preference in terms of movies also differs a lot with the whites preferring the romantic movies while the blacks are mostly inclined to thrillers and action movies. The existence of these two ethnic communities in the same region has always been a problem especially where the whites are dominant.

They are known to discriminate against the blacks asserting that they are criminals and they typically work towards eliminating them in their neighborhoods. This has however never worked particularly after bills against blacks’ discrimination were passed in parliament, and this tendency was now being treated an offense against the law chargeable in court.

Just like in any other region in America in the 1950’s the Arkansas state, was thoroughly dominated by cases of racial discrimination against the black community.

They were being referred to as the colored people who were never allowed access to most of the social amenities including the learning institutions. A movement was formed dubbed National Association for the Advancement of Colored people and the main aim of this movement was to attempt to terminate the discrimination especially in the learning institutions (Egelman, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was believed that the black people would always remain servants if they were never given the opportunity to obtain higher education and become professionals. The court however, came up with a conclusion that there was nothing wrong with there being independent schools as long as they were equal. This movement however, did not agree with the ruling stating that blacks, and whites schools had never been equal, and they would never be.

The information provided by the movement to the court was proof enough that these schools were not equal and therefore, the previous judgment was overruled, and the separate schools policy was declared unconstitutional. The state of Arkansas was one of the states that refused to abide by the new rulings of abolishing the independent schools policy.

A good example of this is that of a student who had been admitted to a previously white’s only school and ended up facing unbearable humiliation on the first day. She had enrolled at the Little Rock Central High School, and when she went on the reporting date, she happened to be the only black on site. On her arrival, the people who were at the entrance moved away as she approached and they began shouting insults at her.

There were guards on site whom she thought would protect her in case the crowd turned violent but she was wrong about that. She was forced to leave the school neighborhood for her safety as she realized the extent of racial discrimination in this community was way beyond what she had thought. This is just an example of the severity of racial discrimination in North Little Rock city.

The municipality leaders made up of the mayor and the aldermen are also highly affected by racial discrimination issues. A good example of this is whereby the governor once hired guards to prevent blacks from accessing a school’s premises. The fact that there are different joints in town for whites and the colored is enough indication that the leaders are in the front line in promoting racial discrimination.

There are shops for whites and for blacks and as expected those for the whites have an advantage over the blacks. When it comes to the payment of government dues such as taxes, complains have been raised that blacks are charged more than the whites especially in investments (Pitts, 2002).

When it comes to the elections, the whites stand a better chance of winning owing to their great numbers and so the black contestants have never gotten the chance to acquire positions in the government. This explains why the battles against black discrimination are always lost.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Race in a Southern Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The whites however are usually treated in a different way. They are given all the privileges denied to the blacks including well- kept facilities and more investment opportunities. They freely attend the best schools in the city and as a result end up taking up the best professional jobs. This is owed to the fact that the leaders of the city are largely whites. The joints allowed for the whites in the city are more in number compared to those allowed to the blacks.

These facilities are also well kept and stocked in a way that the whites are able to access whatever services and products at their own convenience. Their stores for example are located in the largest malls in the city while those for the blacks are located in the outskirts of the city. The products are also sold at lower prices in the most of the white’s stores and this discrimination issue is blamed on the local government because they are never take any action against this despite the fact that they are in a position to do so.

The texts used in the study of race and ethnicity mostly address the blacks’ discrimination owing to the fact that this has been the most recognized category of people who have suffered this ordeal. An example of such texts is the Racial and ethnic groups by Richard T. Schaefer. This book presents the different races in the city of North Little Rock which includes the whites as the dominating population followed closely by the African Americans.

Others include Native Americans, Asians, Hispanics, and other races in the world. The text however concentrates more on the blacks/whites relationships in relation to racial discrimination (Schaefer, 2006). It brings out the challenges brought about by racial discrimination in the local government, the service groups, and clubs as well as in schools. According to the text, this problem has been persistent for a long time and this has resulted in an almost permanent hatred between the whites and the blacks communities.

Most of the texts and manuals that are published however contain little information on the blacks and the challenges they face as a result of racial discrimination. This is mainly due to the fact that such information always raises eye brows especially in the international community.

To prevent this therefore, the local government of North Little Rock city prevents much publication of the levels of discrimination in the city. Some black writers have however tried to publicize this whole issue and one of such successful attempts was by Daisy Bates who was at that time the president of NAACP in Arkansas. She wrote a book titled The Long Shadow of Little Rock and this was aimed at bringing up the issue of how the blacks suffered under the segregation policies.

This book showed how the students were treated in the schools and the leader’s utterances concerning this problem. One of the local government leaders was heard saying “blood will run in the streets if Negro pupils continue with their attempts to enter central high school” (Schaefer, 2006). The leaders attempted to stop the publication of such books but since they are constitutionally permitted, they writer was protected by the constitution.

The local media in the North Little Rock city have also been affected by racial issues a great deal. The media is biased in producing its reports in the sense that the black community is only mentioned in relation to crimes and other bad things in the city such as drug trafficking and other forms of hooliganism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Race in a Southern Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The whites on the other hand are mostly displayed as being the victims of crimes committed by the blacks. This therefore brings about the idea that blacks are the bad people in the society and they fall victims to police harassment. Young people walking on the streets in the evening are most likely to be arrested if they are blacks with the assumption that they are about to commit some sort of crimes.

This is owe to the portrait had been painted by media concerning the black youths. As a result of this harassment, these people automatically turn into criminals alleging that they had better be harassed for what they have done rather than suffer innocently. At the end of the day, they believe they have nothing much to lose compared to what they have already been stripped of, that is their dignity.

In most parts of the United States, the leadership positions are dominated by the whites and so racial discrimination against the blacks seems inevitable. These people are usually mean to the point of preventing the other races from developing and obtaining relevant positions in the leadership circle.

This is why despite the many years of campaigning, racial discrimination still remains a big problem. Rules are passed and implemented in writing but when it comes to practicing, things are different. People are not in a position to incorporate non -discriminatory policies because they even do not know how to handle them.

The blacks for example are used to being discriminated against such that they do not believe whites can treat them well without any ulterior motives. The result of this therefore is that both parties are not able to embrace a non- discriminatory society even when it is created. It therefore proves difficult to fully represent the interests of the minority groups because of the whites’ supremacy.

From the text, it is notable that the main concept in relation to race is that of discrimination. In most cases, the term race is usually followed closely by discrimination and this is an indication that different races in the United States have never been able to coexist without there being some sort of discrimination, whether direct or indirect.

This is therefore considered as an issue that will never be fully settled though the government is trying its best to reduce the magnitude of the same. In the study of racial discrimination, the relationship between the whites and blacks features most of the discussions owing to the fact that these people have been in a constant conflict since the days of the slave trade to date. This explains why these two ethnic communities have always been important in the study of racial discrimination.

Reference List Egelman, W. (2002). Understanding racial and ethnic groups: Critical thinking and analysis. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Pitts, P. (2002). Anti-Racism Leadership: The strategic response to Neo-Racism. Little Rock Nine Remembered, 10(3), 23-28.

Schaefer, R. T. (2006). Racial and ethnic groups. Upper saddle River, NJ: Prentice hall.


To His Coy Mistress Analytical Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Seize the Day

Love and Sex


Freedom and Confinement


Works Cited

To His Coy Mistress is a poem which was written by a man to express his feelings to a lady who did not seem to see the essence of love or sex. The poem captured several themes including time, sex, mortality, freedom and confinement. This essay will discuss these themes and also the use of style as well as their relevance in the poem.

Seize the Day Carpe diem is the major theme in this poem. This means, seize the day. It is a phrase that explains that life is short; therefore make best out of what you have at the moment. It means you maximize the opportunities you get without letting any go to a spill.

With the use of alliteration and irony, the writer said: “Had us but world enough, and time, this coyness, lady, were no crime; we would sit down, and think which way, to walk and pass our long love’s day (Jokinen 1). He used images of passion when he used instant fires and birds of prey referring to the excitement they would get in their freedom.

The man’s view was that he was in short of time and he was wasting the time he already had. He was feeling bad that the lady he admired was not bothered by him or time. The idea he had was that if they had all the time in the world, he would not be worried that she did not seize the day.

He thought that he was supposed to have time for sex with this lady before they got old and failure to seize the day meant they would not have enough time to enjoy: “At my back I always hear, Times winged chariot hurrying near…Thy beauty shall no more be found” (Jokinen 1). Each line has eight syllables with four iambs. This sets the pace of reading.

Love and Sex The first two stanzas express the theme of love and then the desire of having sex with this lady. It seemed that the lady was smart enough to be admired by men but without intentions of any relationship with them. The speaker then decided to break the silence and talk out his feelings.

However, the woman was hesitant to respond. He tried everything to pursue her by using beautiful expressions. He promised her a love that would last. He praised her beauty and said that he could gaze and praise her at all times. The horny man is persistent and wants to celebrate the lady’s virginity. He used symbolism, “Should rubies find; I by the tide, Of Humber would complain. I would” (Jokinen 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rubies are symbols of preserved virginity. The speaker was very creative. In the first stanza, he appealed himself to the lady. Secondly, he expressed the emotions and the meaning of time to both of them. He later opened up to him and explained his motives to have her and the benefit they would get. They would save the time they have at the moment and have a great time together.

He exaggerated his love by saying that he could admire her beauty for hundreds of years without getting tired. He also told her the consequences she would face if she did not do according to his advice. He also tried to convince her of the loveliness and the enjoyment she would get if she gave in to have sex with him. Whatever the speaker said throughout the poem was to alarm her that whatever time she wasted was precious and she would have to face negative consequences if she kept on being reluctant.

The desire of the man to have sex with this lady was clear. He was trying to convince her to accept the love that he had for her. He said that he would love her ten years before the floods till the conversion of the Jews. This signified the history of the Bible in the time of Noah and Jews who could never convert. He meant that he would love her forever and love her without conditions. He presented himself as the best man without faults.

The metaphor, “My vegetable love should grow Vaster than empires, and more slow” (Jokinen 1) was to convince this lady that he would not be quick to love but he would be slow but sure. The speaker argued that if they had sex, their time would not be wasted. He claimed that, if she preserved her virginity, it would be all in vain and it will be a waste for him too. “My echoing song, then worms shall try, that long preserved virginity, And your quaint honor turn to dust, And into ashes all my lust” (Jokinen 1).

The metaphysical love poem expresses the theme of sex in a frank way. One wonders if he truly loves the lady. The poem is ironical because the speaker used a rhetoric tone. Perhaps the lust within him pressured him to express his feelings towards her. He believed that it was a must for the lady to agree to his request. He thought it would be a crime if she turned him down.

In the third stanza of the poem, the speaker expressed his sexual fantasy. He begged the woman to accept sexual union with him. The speaker asked the lady to team up her strength with his: “Let us roll all our strength and all, our sweetness up into the ball, And tear our pleasures with rough strife” (Jokinen 1). The speaker used diction to express his thoughts. At the time of writing this poem, England was exploring and discovering the exotic East.

Mortality The speaker relates time with Mortality and thus this becomes a theme in this poem. By saying that times winged, chariot hurrying near, the speaker is viewing that death is as if it was coming swiftly in a chariot so as to reach them ( Shmoop Editorial 1). He used imagery to his advantage. Again he relates the forthcoming disaster to worms, dust and ashes to express their mortality if they fail to live in their freedom.

We will write a custom Essay on To His Coy Mistress specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Freedom and Confinement The imagery of use of crime signifies the consequence the lady should face on her failure to agree with the speaker. The speaker believed her refusal is a punishment to both of them. The marble vault refers to a grave of a maiden. He believes that her attitude towards sex is old fashioned and she has the wrong idea of what the world is all about. Now let us sport while we play. Sports cannot be enjoyed by prisoners.

The speaker probably was referring to sexual freedom as sport: “And tear our pleasures with rough strife Thorough the iron gates of life, thus, though we cannot make our sun, Stand still, yet we will make him run” (Jokinen 1). The speaker wanted to free himself from the life he sees as confining in the iron gates of life. He wishes to live his life with the lady free to do what they wish to before time runs out (Jokinen 1).

Conclusion This poem utilized styles such as imagery, irony, metaphor and alliteration to bring out the main themes. The poem captured expressions of a man to a woman with mixed emotions of lust and love. The speaker was also in search of freedom to have a sexual union with this mistress who was reluctant. He used an appealing speech, expressing his emotions and the need for his freedom in the fast running time. Thus, themes Carpe diem, love and sex, mortality, freedom and confinement were bought out clearly in this poem.

Works Cited Jokinen, Aniina. To his Coy Mistress. Luminarium, 2007. Web.

Landry, Peter. To his coy mistress. Blupete, 2011. Web.

Shmoop. To His Coy Mistress. Shmoop, 2011. Web.


Culture and Global Business Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Culture and business decision-making

Culture and business structure

Culture and human resources management

Culture and marketing



According to Mohammad Bakhtazmai in the article, “A study of Globalization in International Business” is of the observation that the world is undergoing massive globalization; international trade has facilitated exchange of goods and services across borders.

In the international trade and globalization, culture of a nation has an effect on business processes, products, and management approach. To produce products that meet people’s needs, it is important to understand cultural factors likely to influences business in international markets. This paper analyzes the role of culture in modern globalized markets.

Culture and business decision-making When operating across the board, managers need to make decisions that are responsive to the needs of a particular market; different markets require different management approaches. When discussing the decision of management, we will restrict the discussion to process and products decisions.

Some cultures may not support certain commodities, they may find them as an omen in their culture, and thus a business producing such goods should probably be forced to change the nature of their business. For example, incase a company in operating a meat supply business, if it operates in a Muslim cultural environment, then it is likely to be forced not to supply pork meat that is considered an omen by the Muslim culture (Walker, Walker


Managing Information Quality Term Paper essay help site:edu

Introduction Management of information quality is a very important aspect in every organization because besides helping the managers of the business to make informed decisions, it also helps in improvement of business performance. The extent to which an organization understands the business environment as well as its customers’ needs and wants is dependent on the effectiveness of information quality management.

Managing information quality calls for one to have a clear understanding of the relationship between data quality, information quality, and knowledge quality. Most organizations have policies that govern the flow of information both inside and outside the organization. Management of information quality is a process that interlinks data quality, information quality and knowledge quality as well as the measures taken to enhance the overall effectiveness in an organization.

The relationship between data quality, information quality, and knowledge quality To establish the relationship in the above-mentioned elements, one requires an understanding of each. Data quality refers to the extent or rather the degree to which data accurately gives a reflection of the exact object or event that the data represents. It is the quality of the origin of data utilized to establish information resources used as references by various groups of people. The essential aspects of data include accuracy, validity, completeness, objectivity, and consistency.

Information quality is a measure of value for the sustainability of information for the purpose required by its users. It is the degree of value of data in supporting an organization’s processes. It is important to mention that information quality varies among users and uses of the information. The requirements of information quality are effectiveness, efficiency, confidentiality, integrity, availability, reliability and compliance to the set rules and regulations governing the flow of information within a given state.

Unlike data and information quality, knowledge quality depends on ones’ ability to attach significance to information and render it useful. It is the capability of an individual or a group of people to utilize information to meet some given needs. It depends on skills, heuristics, experience and natural talent.

The important aspect of knowledge quality is its relevance to need that one is addressing. It is therefore evident that ultimate use of data is to establish information sources. Organizations use this information and apply it in various useful ways for development purposes. Quality is essential at every instance in this process and the three are inseparable.

Ensuring information quality It is important to know the factors that call for constant check of the quality of information like errors that occur during data entry by employees, and customers. Others are changes to source systems, data migrations, mixed expectations of data quality, errors introduced by importation of external data as well as system errors that cause data corruption. Owing to this, organizations carry out information audits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another reason for information audits is to establish the extent to which information resources and their use contribute to organization’s objectives. The target for information audits can be creation or refinement of intranet and extranet, improvement of information center services, searching for external information, knowledge management and corporate performance management.

The audit process answers the questions ‘who’, ‘how’, ‘where’ and ‘what’ on each of the aspects under audit. The audit process is of great importance because it allows the organization to address immediate threats and capture the immediate opportunities. It also increases awareness of presence and availability of useful information.

Conclusion Managing information quality is an important aspect in every organization. In order to ensure that managers make informed decisions, every organization should ensure that the data used in establishment of information sources is of high quality. There should be proper selection of data for the information sources. It is also important to mention that every organization should utilize information audit results to enhance the development of the organization.


Managing Ethical and Legal Issue Term Paper college admission essay help

Introduction Ethical and legal issue are some of the most important issue that a company has to ensure that they well taken care of. Any business organization, whether profit or non profit, must have a clear outline of code of ethics as well it must adhere to the laws set buy the jurisdiction in its area of operation. Failure to uphold ethics working ethics may often lead to law suits.

In this paper I give a summary of what constitutes ethics in the context of a manager carrying out his/her duties and the legal involved in such. This article specifically examines the ethical and legal issues in reference to managers involved in data storage on behalf of their client.

Summary Data storage on behalf of client is quite sensitive as the data, in most cases, is sensitive and has to be offered full and comprehensive protection from any intrusion. With the advancement in technology it has continuously become possible for stored data to be illegally accessible; this has become possible through identity theft, hacking among other means. At the work places sometimes information access by employees is limited and this is an ethical issue depending on why and what kind of information is being limited.

Though most of the unethical issue are illegal, the two – ethics and law – can not be said to mutually inclusive as some business activities may be legal but not ethically. Business ethics therefore can be said to go beyond what the law stipulates and can be viewed as the foundation upon which a mutual relationship between a client and a business firm is build.

However, with time the law is progressing to cover some unethical issues which have been left out of its grasp in the past: use of spam, leaking of private and confidential information, intrusion into competitor information among others.

The internet has been one of the major channels which have magnified unethical practices and its governance is a subject that is much considered. The internet can be viewed as the fabric which joins almost all aspect of the society from governance, carrying out business and socializing. The internet has therefore become part of our everyday life implying that ethical issues will even be more pronounced as the society integrates the internet more into its everyday use.

Integration of the internet in the daily activities in the society has given rise to ethical issues with regard to privacy. The ethical issue brought about by the internet literary flows out in all directions; for instance, employer monitoring of the employees over what they do may raise intrusion of privacy and at the same time if the employees are using office hours to engage in non office tasks over the internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a need for more effort to be put into developing ways of restricting illegal access to information. Illegal access of information over the internet can arguably be said to be the most disturbing and biggest challenge that has come along with the internet. Illegal access of information has led to loss of lots of money. The internet has made it possible for copyright laws to be violated.

Conclusion Managing ethical and legal issues is a challenging task. The internet has been continuously used to bring out issues touching on ethics. Due to the sensitivity of information passed over the internet, there is a need to develop means of protecting such data from being accessed illegally.


Giotto as the First Renaissance Painter Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Giotto di Bondone

Pietro Cavallini

Renaissance Painters

Revolution of Art in Western Europe




Introduction During the Dark Ages, there was emergence of various types of arts following civilization in Europe. Medieval period of art covers a span of over a 1000 years ranging from about 2nd Century to 16th century, marking great development in the history of art. After series of evolution of arts during this period, Gothic art emerged in 12th century marking a significance period that led to the development of Italian Renaissance.

Behind Italian Renaissance was a great painter and architect, Giotto di Bondone, who existed in the 13th and 14th century. “The Renaissance was a period of artistic and cultural achievement in Europe from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. It was characterized by a number of distinctive ideas about life, specifically secularism, individualism, humanism, and materialism.”[1]

Renaissance art revolutionized the history of art in Italy and the entire Europe. Pietro Cavallini, an Italian mosaic designer and a painter, is a contemporary of Giotto di Bondone. He made significant contribution to the Renaissance in Rome and expansive parts of Europe. Since they were contemporaries of Renaissance period, how does the work of Pietro Cavallini challenge the idea of Giotto as the first Renaissance painter?

Giotto di Bondone Giotto di Bondone was an Italian architect and a painter who lived from 1267 to 1337. Since he was a Roman Catholic, his paintings and mosaics reflected his religious beliefs. His contemporaries credited him as an expert artist during the Italian Renaissance because he was a brilliant sculptor and painter, as well as an astonishing architect. Giotto di Bondone gained prominence in arts during late 13th and early 4th century when people were transforming their lifestyles and traditions from medieval period to Renaissance period.

During the time of transformation, Giotto di Bondone emerged as a great painter for he received more credit from his contemporary artists, religious leaders, and politicians.[2] Due to his immense contribution to Renaissance, particularly great Italian paintings, many people considered him the father of European painting. His artistic works and medieval art formed foundation of the Renaissance that led to revolution of arts in Europe.

Although Giotto di Bondone had humble background, Comune of Florence did employ him and this gave him an opportunity to expand his artistic talents thus making him a great painter in Italy. Giotto di Bondone was very talented in arts because art historians acknowledge that he did not have any knowledge about arts yet he was able to depict his paintings in three-dimension.

During medieval period, artists were only able to paint in two-dimension but Giotto’s paintings made significant transformation in panting styles by introducing three-dimensional painting style.[3] Giotto di Bondone biography shows that he got his early education from Cimabue, a Florentine painter.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many artists believe that Cimabue took Giotto di Bondone when he was a boy and taught him varied artistic skills that shaped his talent in arts. Thus, great painting and architect skills that Giotto di Bondone had came from the teachings of Cimabue. His paintings depict that Giotto di Bondone liked natural and religious objects as he depicted saints and religious icons in diverse frescoes, common in cathedrals. Therefore, Giotto’s inclination to nature and religion made him a naturalist painter during Renaissance.

Great works of paintings made Giotto di Bondone become a prominent painter during Renaissance. His works included embellishments of cathedrals and chapels in places such as Assisi, Padua, Naples, Italy, and Florence. The masterworks of Giotto include the decorations done on the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua in about 1305, generally called as the Arena Chapel. His work in the Arena chapel is a strong depiction of Roman naturalism that is an unambiguously the key to the Florentine Renaissance artists[4].

The work marked Giotto’s existence as a Renaissance artist and therefore gained enough fame on it because it entails lives of the Virgin Mary and the Christ. Frescoes that he created made him so popular that the church of Florentine assigned him another noble task of designing the bell tower, Campanile, in 1334. These two works, the Florence cathedral and the Arena Chapel, are the works that Giotto di Bondone claims complete authenticity and makes him the great painter of Renaissance.

As aforementioned, the significant frescoes and paintings of Giotto di Bondone are Arena Chapel in Padua, Basilica in Assisi, San Francesco monastery in Assisi, and Santana Croce in Florence and Oganissanti Madonna in Florence. These works portray his excellence in painting, which has earned him great fame in the history and development of arts during Renaissance.

The paintings and frescoes depict three-dimensional icons of catholic saints and apostles, and this represented the highest point of his paintings. However, the fresco cycle of the life of San Francesco depicted on the upper church at Assisi by Giotto di Bondone was an attribution. Some of the German art historians, who supported Giotto di Bondone, have received criticism because there were a number of artists who contributed to the fresco paintings in Assisi.

One of his early works of around 1290 includes the Dominicans at Santa Maria Novella, which depicts the frescoes of Annunciation and Oganissanti Madonna.[5] Giotto had enormous fame in his time as Padua for the Scrovegni Chapel and various cathedrals invited him to limn the life of Virgin Mary and Christ. Thus, great paintings and frescoes made Giotto di Bondone the first Renaissance painter.

Pietro Cavallini Pietro Cavallini is an Italian mosaic designer and a painter who lived between 1259 and 1330 in Rome. Like Giotto di Bondone, he was born in Rome and became a Roman Catholic, thus his paintings carried religious figures and icons as well. He was a mosaic designer and worked during the period of Renaissance where many artists credited him as a leading artist of his time.

We will write a custom Essay on Giotto as the First Renaissance Painter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other artists consider Pietro Cavallini a painter who actually transformed from the Byzantine style towards classical forms of art when dealing with the elements of space, illusion, and naturalism in his work. He made masterpieces in fresco and mosaics, which presented three-dimensional forms, precluding stagnant and static paintings and enhancing the areas that portrayed reality in forms and illustrating figures that were influential.

His work gained prominence in painting because he was an expert in mosaic designing. Pietro Cavallini first legitimate work is fresco cycles for the Basilica di San Paolo Fluori le Mura, which illustrated the stories of the Old and New Testament in the Bible.[6] Fresco cycles were Cavallini’s masterpieces as they depicted individuality in style and a cosmos that was yet unknown in the medieval art. Like Giotto’s tendency of naturalism, fresco cycles portrayed the elements of naturalism in his artistic skills.

Apart from fresco cycles, Pietro Cavallini also portrayed naturalism in his paintings of Basilica of San Francesco d’ Assisi in Assisi, which was in honor of St. Francis late in the 13 century. Being a Roman Catholic, he did the paintings to reflect religious icons and saints. Due to great deal of similarity between the works in San Francisco and that of the Florentine artist Giotto, he received much credit from some of the fresco paintings, although many of the art historians believe it to be a false claim.

Despite many criticisms that tend to degrade artistic ability of Pietro Cavallini, apse mosaics and fresco cycles are the major works that have managed to stand the test of time.[7] The apse of mosaics in the church of Santa Maria Trastevere illustrated the scenes of Virgin Mary and her baby. Since this illustration forms central part of Catholic beliefs, Pietro Cavallini gained prominence in religious spheres, which made him continue in making religious paintings as well as mosaics.

Moreover, fresco cycles in the church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere portrayed the history of the church including its destiny and judgment of Christians. Such delineations depicted a great message for many Christians and enhanced Cavallini’s prominence during Renaissance. Pietro Cavallini used incredible solid of drawings, contemporary styles of art, subtle colors, and emphatic space, as rendered in uniform placement of the apostles or other religious icons.

Although most of his works hardly survived, art historians preserved his works in pristine conditions, which attests his great contribution to the revolution of art in Renaissance. Art historians have saved and preserved various pieces of work such as the artifacts of the last judgment and fresco cycles as significant work of Pietro Cavallini that contributed to the emergence of Renaissance in Rome and Europe during 14th to 16th centuries.

Apse mosaics and fresco paintings are great works of Pietro Cavallini that made him prominent during Renaissance and in modern art. Fresco paintings identify him as one of the renaissance painters who transformed the nature of paintings in Renaissance by introducing three-dimensional painting and naturalism. Pietro Cavallini learned great deal of artistic skills in painting from his contemporary, Giotto di Bondone, and incorporated the concept of naturalism.

Moreover, he painted the apse fresco in St. Giorgio in Velabro, which was a ravishing piece of art done with beautified technique of fresco and made reforms in the area of dignified and linear arts. Sharing his contemporary knowledge and contributing to Renaissance, Pietro Cavallini created masterpieces in fresco painting and mosaic. As a proof of his contribution to the Renaissance and modern art, there are some remains of his work from 1320s in the church of St. Maria Donna Regina in Naples.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Giotto as the First Renaissance Painter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Renaissance Painters Historians believe that medieval art formed the foundation of the Renaissance art, which spread across Europe between 14th and 16th centuries. Among other great artists, Giotto di Bondone and Pietro Cavallini are prominent painters who revolutionized the history of arts in Europe. Although Giotto di Bondone seemed to be more prominent during the Renaissance period, the artistic works of Pietro Cavallini were very competitive and thus he was equally famous in some Roman cities.

Since Giotto di Bondone was prominent in Rome and Europe as a painter and architect, Comune of Florence employed him and this offered him an opportunity to explore his artistic talents relative to Pietro Cavallini. Giotto di Bondone “is famous for his frescoes such as St. Francis Preaching to the Birds. His realistic paintings replaced the artificial two-dimensional art represented in the Middle Ages and designed a bell tower, usually called Giotto’s Tower, for the Cathedral of Florence.”[8]

He specialized in religious frescoes that were in cathedrals, which increased his fame during Renaissance period. Many of his contemporaries like Pietro Cavallini learned from his paintings and employed skills gained in development of novel artistic styles that revolutionized history of art.

Critical analysis of the contributions that Pietro Cavallini made to the Renaissance period challenge the idea that Giotto di Bondone was the first Renaissance painter. The work of Pietro Cavallini includes Santa Maria mosaics and Santa Cecilia paintings that dominated cathedrals in Rome.

“The mosaics and paintings of the Life of the Virgin in the apse in Santa Maria in Trastevere are still typically attributed to Cavallini because of the remains of his name in an inscription found in the seventh-century watercolor copy of the mosaics.”[9] Following his artistic works, Pietro Cavallini was a great mosaic designer and a painter who worked for the kings. Since he did make great arts, many people have credited his work to other artists thus affecting his prominence and contribution to the Renaissance art.

Revolution of Art in Western Europe Revolution of art during 13th century in Northern Italy stemmed from metaphysical swing, a crevice that was eventually going to separate and define religion and science. Medieval artists have been grappling with religious issues during the late antique period that ended about 11th century paving way for the emergence of Renaissance.

At the transition of medieval art and Renaissance art are two great artists that marked significant contributions, which marked revolution in art. “Although at a crucial time of transformation in Europe, the early fourteenth-century court in Naples defies definition as either medieval or Renaissance,”[10] thus making it a transition period.

This means that Giotto di Bondone and Pietro Cavallini existed in the transition of medieval and Renaissance that saw revolution of art. Since both artists were contemporaries, Giotto di Bondone became more prominent as a Renaissance painter for he concentrated in paintings while Pietro did both painting and mosaic design. Moreover, given that introduction of three-dimensional paintings improved clarity and emotional depiction of objects, Giotto di Bondone earned much credit and fame.

During the 13th century, everyone questioned philosophy of medieval painting because it had elements of barbaric art, late antique art and classical art. The philosophy of art at that time dictated that direct experience was the only way of understanding complexity of the world, which prohibited medieval wisdom and initiated revolution in art.

During this period, there were tremendous changes that include application of scientific, reawakening of classical age new ways of rationalism and defining self-identity. From general perspective of Renaissance, “…historians have shown that the Medieval Era, or middle Ages, did produce art, architecture, literature, and other ideas in law, languages, and economics that influenced Europe in the fourteenth century and provided the foundation for the Renaissance.”[11]

During the period of transition, many factors of civilization such as politics, society, religion, education, and arts played critical role as integral elements of Renaissance. This means that Giotto di Bondone and Pietro Cavallini made their own unique contribution to the Renaissance of art though at various capacities.

Renaissance marked line of contrast between medieval art and modern art. In painting art, it was a transformation from flat and flat Byzantine images to more naturalistic depiction in three-dimension. In three-dimensional delineations, the artists incorporate emotional aspect of the painting thus enhancing attraction to the eyes of observers.

Giotto di Bondone and Petro Cavallini employed three-dimensional skills in their paintings, which increased their prominence during Renaissance making them the leading artists of the revolution. Pietro Cavallini, being a student and contemporary artist of Giotto di Bondone, gained enough experience in arts to warrant recognition as one of the Renaissance painter as well.

Art historians acknowledge that both Giotto and Cavallini worked together making “St. Francis cycles of frescoes in the Upper Church at San Francesco at Assisi … also worked in Rome on the projects associated with ecclesiastical and papal patrons, which Vasari noted and later scholars have thus studied.” [12] Thus, Pietro Cavallini had equal ability in paintings as Giotto di Bondone, and deserved credit as one of the Renaissance painters.

Giotto’s paintings in the Arena Chapel in Padua, which were commissioned by the Scrovegni family and completed between 1304 and 1306, are extraordinary.

However, it is debatable with the altarpiece for the Florentine Church of the Oganissanti, finished about 1310, that he first attains the realism we associate with the Renaissance. Here we see a Madonna sculpted in lustrous light, her underlying figure and ravenous shape revealed, rather than covered, by her clothing, the essence of full-breasted motherhood, which contemplates and stares directly at us with all-knowing tranquility.

The Oganissanti altarpiece is now in Florence cathedral where it sits between two altarpieces with the same theme, done late 13th century, by Duccio and Cimabue. The Oganissanti altarpiece was a great work of Pietro Cavallini that boosted his prominence as a painter who made significant contribution to the revolution of the arts during Renaissance.

Rich patrons were responsible for the revolution of Renaissance for they mobilized resources and employed artists who could make arts that suit their political and religious interests. Bardi and Peruzzi were two patrons who commissioned chapels ornamented by Giotto in Santa Croce in Florence. Due to religious and political patronage of the paintings, Giotto di Bondone had an upper hand for the patrons favored him relative to Pietro Cavallini.

Giotto di Bondone gained patronage when “he painted the chapels of the Bardi and Peruzzi in Santa Croce in Florence before leaving for Naples, so perhaps the artist came to Robert’s attention through those families.”[13] On the other hand, Pietro Cavallini arts did not attract much political and religious patronage, hence did not gain much prominence as a great Renaissance painter.

Conclusion Giotto di Bondone and Pietro Cavallini were great artists who made significant contribution to the revolution of art during the Renaissance. The Renaissance occurred due to cumulative knowledge of arts of the medieval period that lasted for over 1000 years. The two artists lived in 13th and 14th centuries where there was transition of medieval art and Renaissance art, thus they participated actively in the revolution of art.

Although Giotto di Bondone appeared to have gained great prominence as a Renaissance painter, Pietro Cavallini also had equal capacity. The prominence of Giotto di Bondone was due to religious and political patronage that he received, thus enhancing his competitive advantage and drowning Pietro Cavallini’s fame during the Renaissance.

Bibliography Fleck, Cathleen. The Rise of the Court Artist: Cavallini and Giotto in Fourteenth-Century Naples. Art History 31, no. 4, (September 2008): 460-483.

Hetherington, Paul. Pietro Cavallini, Artistic Style, and Patronage in Late Medieval Rome. The Burlington Magazine 114, no.2 (January 1972): 826-38.

Ross, Leslie. Artistic Achievement of the Renaissance 1350-1550. The Journal of Art 45, no. 11, (May 1996): 33-46.

Smart, Alastair. The dawn of Italian painting, 1250-1400. Ithaca. New York: Cornell University, 1978.

Zanardi, Bruno, and Donal Cooper. Book Reviews: Giotto e Pietro Cavallini. La Questione di Assisi e il Cantiere Medievale Della Pittura a Fresco. The Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1220, (November 2004): 764

Footnotes Leslie, Ross. Artistic Achievement of the Renaissance 1350-1550. The Journal of Art 45, no.11, (May 1996): 33

Alastair, Smart. The dawn of Italian painting, 1250-1400. Ithaca. New York: Cornell University, 1978, 321.

Bruno Zanardi and Donal Cooper. Book Reviews: Giotto e Pietro Cavallini. La Questione di Assisi e il Cantiere Medievale Della Pittura a Fresco. The Burlington Magazine 146, no. 1220, (November 2004): 764.

Cathleen Fleck. The Rise of the Court Artist: Cavallini and Giotto in Fourteenth Century Naples. Art History 31, no. 4, (September 2008): 46.

Alastair Smart. 1978, 321

Paul Hetherington. Pietro Cavallini, Artistic Style, and Patronage in Late Medieval Rome. The Burlington Magazine 114, no.2 (January 1972): 826-38.

Paul Hetherington. 1972, 7.

Leslie Ross. 1996, 40.

Cathleen Fleck. 2008, 463

Cathleen Fleck. 2008,460

Leslie Ross. 1996, 40.

Cathleen Fleck. 2008, 464.

Cathleen Fleck. 2008, 474.


How to write an essay college application essay help

Introduction How to write an essay is a difficult question. Much has been written and said about the main components of an essay, its purpose and functions, and the principal criteria of quality writing. However, it seems that standardization and essay writing are incompatible. Writing is entirely about inspiration, and any conventions or rules severely limit writers in their self-expression opportunities. An essay must have an introduction, body, and conclusion.

An essay must introduce the topic and lead the reader through the rising act to culmination, and again through the falling act to a conclusion. An essay is expected to be logical, but is there any logic in writing? Based on the thoughts and ideas of Alma Luz Villanueva, an essay is a complex product of the writer’s thought which has a central theme and numerous characters and ideas, fighting and competing to produce a fluent, coherent, and logical piece of writing, which exemplifies an act of transforming energy into matter.

Students and young writers are used to believe that an essay must always rely on a simple and comprehensible structure, which necessarily includes an introduction, a body of the paper, and a conclusion. Students are taught to write their essays in a logical and fluid manner. Outlines help to present complex ideas in an easy-to-understand format.

The main components of an essay usually include a brief introduction to the topic, a rising act and culmination, as well as a falling act and a conclusion. This is particularly the case of fiction and creative writing. Here students are compelled to follow a predetermined sequence of writing actions, which helps them to earn them good grades but does not always make their papers interesting and fascinating. The fact is that writing and rules are not always compatible.

An essay must have an introduction, body, and conclusion, but writing is not merely about structuring. Writing is about inspiration. It is an act of transforming energy into matter (Villanueva 85).It is like giving birth to a child or dreaming awake (Villanueva 85). It is a complex product of the writer’s thought, which does have a central theme and characters fighting and competing with one another and creating a full, multidimensional picture of the world.

The main components of an essay, including introduction, body, and conclusion serve the purpose of logical writing. They create a structured and fluent vision of the surrounding reality. Simultaneously, they may disserve quality writing, as they make the process of writing fully conventional and absolutely uninteresting. The act of writing is often unexpected. It is unexpectedness that makes writing so fascinating.

That was how Alma Luz Villanueva wrote her first novel: she allowed her characters to reveal themselves in their own voice (84). They do so without betraying the central theme, or the vision, of the writer (Villanueva 84). Characters play with the writer’s vision of the world. The central theme remains unchanged; but characters have relative freedom of participation and performance. The central theme guarantees fluidity of the essay.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central theme also imposes some limitations on how characters reveal their egos. Therefore, the central theme is the main component of any essay that also serves the purpose of quality, interesting and fascinating writing. The need to remain within the boundaries of the central theme also justifies the need for creating an outline. An outline is a brief and comprehensive set of ideas discussed in an essay.

Villanueva recognizes that an essay is always a logical sequence of ideas and acts (84). The magic of the writing process is a unique combination of wonder and terror (Villanueva 84). An outline makes possible even the most difficult sequences (Villanueva 84). An outline makes possible to continue the writing process with fluidity (Villanueva 84).

An outline helps writers to pursue logic and coherence in writing. Unfortunately, the idea that writing is entirely about outlines and boundaries is misleading. No one can fully explain what writing an essay means. Each and every writer has his (her) own model of writing essays.

Villanueva claims and teaches her students that writing is an act of transforming energy into matter (85). It is a leap of faith – a question that warrants an answer (Villanueva 84). It is a magic of terror and wonder (Villanueva 84). Writing an essay is almost the same as giving birth to a child (Villanueva 85).

However, a woman cannot give birth to a child, unless she has a basic understanding of what it is. A woman always imagines its birth (Villanueva 85). Likewise, a writer always imagines his (her) essay. The central theme is probably the most relevant element of an essay that creates a foundation for developing its structure, with an introduction, and rising and falling acts, a culmination and logical conclusion.

The central theme drives the thought and creates the boundaries of knowledge. It reinforces the sense of fluidity and coherence within a piece of writing. It is through the central theme that writers transform their energy into matter – a readable and comprehensible essay that leads readers through fascinating ideas and characters to a logical but always unexpected end.

Conclusion An essay is a complex product of the writer’s thought which has a central theme and numerous characters and ideas, fighting and competing to produce a fluent, coherent, and logical piece of writing that exemplifies an act of transforming energy into matter. An essay is always a logical sequence of ideas and acts.

We will write a custom Essay on How to write an essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The central theme drives the thought and creates the boundaries of knowledge. It is through the central theme that writers transform their energy into matter – a readable and comprehensible essay that leads readers through fascinating ideas and characters to a logical but always unexpected end.

Works Cited Villanueva, Alma Luz. “Leaps of Faith.”


Arguments in Star Trek Movie Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument Evaluation

Argument analysis


Work Cited

Introduction The Star Trek episode “Measure of a Man” is an episode directly related to the movie Star Trek. The movie franchise and the television series spot a sci-fi theme where there is an interplanetary federation and enforcers who make sure there is peace and security. The cast of the involves both human beings and automated machines like Lt. Commander Data who will prominently feature in the legal tussle that results later on.

The title captures the theme in the episode where there is a tussle over the extent to which an android, Data can be humanized and if he can enjoy privileges like a human being. Many characters play protagonists while other play antagonists in their quest to prove Data as either a mere machine or different kinds of machine with abilities hence can measure up as a human being. The setting of the episode is on the Starfleet ship, inspired by the United States war ship the USS Enterprise.

The ship is commandeered by P is Captain Picard, D is Data, M is Maddox, J is Judge Phillippa Louvois, R is Commander Riker. G is, at different but completely separate times, Geordie and Guinan. Also comprising of the ships leadership are Ob is O’Brien; Pu is Dr. Pulaski, W is Wesley, Ad is the admiral. C is the computer.

The entire episode is laced with arguments concerning the fate of Data. There is conflict between Maddox and Captain Picard when the admiral introduces the commander and reveals that he is intending to work on the android that is Data.

Apparently, Maddox is keen on continuing the work of Data’s creator, Dr. Noonian Soong. Maddox wants to create numerous perhaps thousands of robots, replicas of Data that will help in the running of the ships and also enhancing security especially where living creatures have weaknesses.

Maddox intends to achieve this through dismantling Data and studying his make up so that he can produce the replicas. Captain considers Data to be one of his officers despite Data being just an android. He also presents an argument that Data, as fully commissioned officer and a member of the federation has rights that must be respected.

Data as well is not pleased with Maddox’s plan and is of the opinion that he has a duty to defend what his creator had made vis avis his dream. Further, on the advice of Judge Phillippa Data tries to corner Maddox through resigning his post as an officer in the federation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maddox is not pleased with the maneuvers the supposed machine is making and is forced to seek legal action. In the hearing that follows, data wins and is declared free with freedom to choose just like other serving officers who are humans. The ruling effectively puts brakes to Maddox’s plan of dismantling Data and using him as his guide to making multiple androids.

Throughout the episode are arguments that centering on the pros and cons of having data remain intact or be dismantled. Many people feel Data has a right to remain intact and enjoy full rights as an officer while Maddox can have none of it. The arguments from the offices to the courts will be the subject of discussion in this paper. The paper will seek to analyze critical thinking thoughts presented in the arguments and the logic that they present.

Argument Evaluation It is important to recognize arguments before you evaluate them (Hurley 14). Evaluation or recognition of a reasonable argument can be done through the use of numerous methods. In analyzing and evaluating the arguments presented in this episode, the paper will utilize multiple methods used at arriving critical thinking.

However, the commonest will be the use of the elements of reasoning which are quite helpful in crafting and evaluating arguments. The elements are commonly referred to as the critical thinking wheel. Whenever they are applied, it is imperative to use the questions and answers that it mandates to evaluate arguments.

The likely goals and objectives of an author in an argument is one of the dimensions that the wheel advocates for. There is also the question of the question at hand, the question that deals with the available information which can also be referred to as the empirical domain of inquiry.

It is also important that an argument contains inferences and relevant concepts. Another dimension of the wheel of critical thought that will be used in this evaluation is the assumptions that underlie the arguments together with the implications and repercussions that will result from accepting the argument. Finally, there is the question of the relevant points of view that an argument must have to qualify as an argument. All the above will be taken to consideration in the analysis of the arguments present in the Star Trek episode.

Argument analysis Captain Picard and Judge Phillippa argue about the reason why she quit her job before again making a come back. The Captain believes that the judge had no reason to quit due stubbornness and pride while the judge insists she was forced out of the job. The captain aims to lay the blame on the judge’s feet.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Arguments in Star Trek Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He aims at reminding g the judge that quitting is really not an option one should purse. In other words, the ego and pride that the judge sought to protect is even more injured after she eats humble pie and returns to work. The captain in essence displays blatant assumption that quitting her job was her fault. The question that the captain aims to present is why she quit her job and why is she back after such a long time. According to him, the judge should have moved on and never come back to do the job she despises again.

Though the argument is to some extent devoid of logic, it has concepts like “stubborn pride”. When carefully looked at, the consequence and the subtle underlying issue of not quitting is clearly brought out when the captain fights all the way to end in defense of Data’s rights. This argument brings our different relevant views of like strong work ethics and strong personal morals that especially discourage people from quitting their causes.

The above argument spills over to the judge’s previous work. The captain apparently was prosecuted by the judge. He holds the opinion whatever motivated her to prosecute him was not purely work related. The captain insists the judge enjoyed the prosecution and that the whole process was motivated by adversarial tendencies rather than finding the truth. Phillippa does admit that she did not expect to see the Captain but again she grudgingly admits that it is good to see him which is more or less sarcastic.

The intention of the captain is to make the judge aware that he still hasn’t forgotten what she did and that he thinks it was motivated by malice. The argument does not have a logical conclusion but it does have some logic in it. Phillippa only prosecuted the captain because the ship was lost. She was only carrying out her duties.

Whether she did it professionally of not is a different question all together. One can therefore say that it’s logically consistent that prosecution be pursued when a mistake is done. If it went for the lost ship, them Phillippa would probably have no grounds to settle any scores she had with the captain. Standard procedure, adversarial process and truth come out as the main concepts in these arguments while search for justice comes out as the main assumption of this argument.

Data and Maddox argue about the necessary procedures that Maddox has to master before he conducts any experiment on Data. Data believes Maddox has to learn the concept of electronic resistance across neural filaments. On the other hand, Maddox believes he can do so after dismantling Data from where he can learn about the robots anterior cortex.

Picard and Data press Maddox to be particular on specifics. The captain seizes the chance and clearly states his position about releasing Data. Maddox argues that he is in possession of transfer orders hence nothing can stop him.

In the argument, Picard and Data aim to persuade if not to discourage Maddox from going forward with his experiment. Both officers try to argue against Maddox on technicalities but Maddox is better armed with the law. The questions here are whether Data should be released to be the specimen for Maddox’s experiment and if he is adequately prepared to undertake it. Picard and Data doubt Maddox Capability to pull off the experiment hence the objections they raise.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Arguments in Star Trek Movie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is hardly any logic in this argument because Maddox lacks concrete reasons why he should take on this project. Moreover, Maddox is cannot commit to the specifics denying any sense to his argument that the project is necessary for the good of the federation. In his argument, Maddox assumes that Data is a machine that does not have rights and that should wait and have decisions made on its behalf.

Maddox and Data have an argument when the captain suggests to the robot that he resigns. Maddox is stunned that Data has resigned and the android tell him to his face that he under no one’s orders. Data argues that he is the product of one mans dream. The doctor who created him had a vision and he achieved it through him. He therefore cannot subject himself to any experiment. That will effectively mean killing the dream. So to avoid killing the dream, he has to resign.

Data’s argument is meant to discourage Maddox from implementing the project. It also serves as a reminder to Maddox that he cannot have the robot as easily as he thinks. The question here is if the dream of one man is important than the interest of the entire federation. Additionally, the question of whether the machine has any rights arises. The fact that he resigns just like any officer is reason enough to mull about the extent to which machines like Data can have rights like human beings.

The concept of the dream is captured in the argument. Data is trying to protect the dream of his creator while Maddox is trying to fulfill his own dream of creating numerous ‘Datas’. Both officers assume their individual interests are important to their causes. Maddox on his part assumes that he is pursuing a higher cause than what data is trying to protect.

Captain Picard and Maddox have an argument that includes the slight involvement of Judge Phillippa. Maddox thinks the captain is being over sentimental and emotional. The captain defends Data’ intended resignation and describes him as one of Starfleet’s officer. Maddox opposes the resignation.

He reveals how replication of Data will bring boundless benefits to humanity and for that reason, the robot must not resign. Picard introduces the issue of rights that Data is entitled which greatly angers Maddox. He acknowledges that Data is a wonderful creature but the bottom-line remains he is a machine. Picard argues that Starfleet has laws that protect Data and that they must be respected.

The ultimate survival or dismantling of Data is discussed in this argument. The goal is for both officers to try to defend their causes without much involvement of the legal process. The question here is whether Data can be treated before the law like a normal human being or not.

The concept of the law as it applies to property is revealed here. There is no consensus if Data is an officer or merely a smart machine that is seeking human treatment, which is almost impossible. The clear assumption here comes from Maddox who believes just like office computers, Data is a property. He therefore has no right to determine what should be done to him.

Captain Picard successfully argues in courts that Data is not a machine. Riker who is leading the case against Data argues that Data is a machine hence not entitled to all the rights that life forms have. Riker says that Data is a physical representation of a dream whose only need is to serve human needs and interests.

Geordie counters Riker’s argument saying that Data’s treatment is similar to that many disposable creatures have undergone in many world. The living creatures only hide behind the notion of property in their quest to use creatures like Data. Picard argues that human beings are machines too.

According to him, they are machines that were built using the building blocks of the DNA. In other words, there is enough evidence to support the classification of humans as machines. Therefore, if Data is to be dismantled, the same fate can befall humans as well. They also argue that creating thousands of Data is tantamount to creating a whole race. If their rights will not be respected, then there lies a real catastrophe.

In their arguments in court, the captain and Geordia aim to convince the authorities that Data is an officer and therefore deserves the rights of like other officers. They incorporate the concept of race into the argument, which helps judge Phillippa careful consider their request that Data should not be dismantled.

The assumption here is that Data who performs duties and goes through all the procedures any officer at Starfleet goes through should not be subjected to intrusions like fronted by Maddox. They also assume that even non-living creature that act on the direction of human beings need to be respected.

Conclusion There are a few more arguments in the movie not tackled in the paper. Most of the arguments however lack a logical process that justifies the reasoning that is presented by many characters. Most of the arguments though are valid and do provide grounds for a critical analysis of their content. Given that most of the arguments center on the rights of Data and his right to exist, deductive reasoning and logic is evenly spread hence only subtly brought out in some of the arguments.

Work Cited Hurley, Patrick. A Concise Introduction to Logic (10th Ed.). Belmont: Thomson Learning, 2006. Print.


Cash Rebates for Client Encouraging Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Basically, rebates are acknowledged as accepted tools that are commonly used by both small and large business enterprises to encourage clients to buy merchandises. A rebate generally implies a deduction or refund that is given to a customer as a discount to reimburse a fraction of the buying price.

Cash rebates are thus purported to serve various purposes since they are not merely permitting the evolving business enterprises to seize cash accruing from the undertaken transactions and accumulate interests generated in a particular time interlude, but they equally offer essential information appertaining to the clients and the bazaar. Besides, cash rebates seem to be a kind of a proficient promotional tool other than just a price cutting technique given that not all merchandize buyers are willing to request for cash rebates (Belverd, 2010).

Cash rebates is regarded as business ethical practice provided the clients are knowledgeable that the rebate is included in the commodity’s selling price before the transaction and promotions are made. Furthermore, the technique becomes a sound business ethical practice only if the rebates application processes are visibly unveiled and the cash rebates are paid based on the agreed terms.

It is therefore rather intricate to examine cash rebates as being unethical because the application for a rebate is based on an individual’s will, and a client cannot necessarily receive it without making an application. Indeed, it might be inopportune from a client’s discernment to receive cash rebates due to the application processes that have to be undertaken (Fabozzi, 2000).

However, if a business enterprise cannot afford to decrease the prices charged on the commodity after offering the cash rebates, then it would rather be better for the customers to purchase the services and products at full prices.

A good business illustration where the cash rebates seem practical appertains to the case of printers. Basically, printers are traded at the feasible least prices to entice clients to buy the proprietary merchandise. Thus, the printers market is very competitive with respect to hardware pricing and this normally tends to make the sales margin awfully petite.

Most printers are often vended in retail stores which profoundly hinge on encouragement actions to enhance sales. Hence, the printer dealers always fancy dealing with producers who habitually encourage the buying of their respective commodities (Hill


Effect of bad weather on the production of wheat Report (Assessment) cheap essay help

Introduction This paper seeks to examine the effect of bad weather on a wheat season. The effect of bad weather on wheat affects different markets that has relations with it and hence will trigger a chain of events. Based on the changes arising from the main event, we shall discuss five of them and study the kind of impact and that happens.

We shall examine its effect on direct products of wheat, the substitute of the wheat products and also a complementary product in relation to the demand and supply impact. This project explains the effect of bad weather on the season of wheat along the lines of demand, supply and the equilibrium price.

Demand is defined as the willingness and ability of potential consumers to buy a particular commodity in a particular quantity at a particular price at a particular time. Supply on the other hand is the willingness and the ability of sellers to make available certain commodity in the market.

Demand and supply of a particular commodity is defined by either the law of demand or the law of supply. The law of demand indicates that the relationship between price and quantity demanded is the inverse and in the demand graphically it is represented by down sloping demand curve. The law of supply on the other hand explains that the relationship between price of a commodity and its supply in the market is direct.

The forces of demand and supply can not be explained without mentioning substitute goods and also complementary goods. Substitute goods are those that can replace or that which can be used in the place of the main product. Goods are described as complementary if they can be used together or their consumption is tied together.

In the case of our topic that bad weather destroyed wheat season, we may analyze that this situation negatively impacted on the quantity of wheat produced. This means it led to the increase in the price of wheat and subsequently that of wheat products in the market like bread, beer, and biscuit.

Increase in the price of these commodities, according to the forces of demand and supply, led to consumers opting for the substitutes. In this scenario, the demand for complementary goods will be affected, more so it will decrease. All this is explained and demonstrated graphically in the main body of this project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the case of my analysis I have studied the effect of bad weather on the following markets; Beer and bread as the direct products, wine and pasta as the substitute to these products and also I will explain the effect of the event on tea/coffee as the complementary. In the chart below, the markets and the chain of events are illustrated through graphs.

Effects of bad weather on the wheat season Market 1 – Bread market

Bread is considered the principal product of wheat and as such its production and supply to the market will be greatly be diminished in case of bad weather during wheat season. If a bad weather is experienced during the wheat season, then the price of bread at the market increases resulting in subsequent decrease in demand for bread.

This will mean that its net effect on the market will be negative and supply will be decreased and the supply curve will decrease hence causing the supply curve to shift towards left resulting to a change in price equilibrium where the price of the good and its substitute will increase and the quantity supplied will diminish. This is as shown in the supply and demand curve below.

Market 2 – beer market

Since bad weather diminishes the supply of wheat products, beer being one of the products from wheat will also be affected. One of the ingredients of beer is wheat and decrease in the production of wheat will mean decrease in the quantity of beer produced into the market. This scenario will have an effect on the supply side of the market.

This effect will be negative since it is understood that with the bad weather of wheat, the supply of the products which depend on wheat will decrease which applies in the case of beer. This will cause the supply curve to shift towards the left thus changes the equilibrium price and quantity supplied. The price of beer will increase whereas its supply will decrease. This effect is demonstrated by the demand and supply curve below.

Market 3 – wine market

My analysis of wine in this context is due to the substitutive principle of demand and supply. This implies that decrease in the production of beer and subsequent increase in its price will force consumers to look for goods with the same use and value as beer. Following the rise in the price of beer as explained above, consumers will go for wine. This is because wine has similar value with beer and hence can be substituted for it and may be it might be cheaper since its price will not be affected.

This will have the net effect of affecting the demand side of the curve. This effect will be positive because if the price of a product increases, the demand for its substitute will increase. The demand curve will shift outwards towards the right direction changing the equilibrium price and quantity. This will subsequently result in the rise in the price of wine and also increase in the quantity of wine supplied into the market. This is demonstrated by the demand and supply curve below.

We will write a custom Assessment on Effect of bad weather on the production of wheat specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Market 4- Pasta market

Just as we have analyzed in the case of wine, pasta can be used as a substitute for bread (Wheat, 2011). Bad weather diminishes the production of wheat in the market. This has the net effect of pushing the price of bread up and diminishing its supply. This will lead to consumers looking for a commodity that has similar nutritional value and that which serve similar purpose as a bread. These commodities may include sweet potatoes, yams and pasta.

From the above analysis on the bread market, the price of bread had risen due to the decrease in production of wheat. This will result to consumers looking for a different product that’s cheaper but which has similar nutritional value and can serve similar purpose as bread. If we assume that pasta becomes the substitute, so, since the price of the related good rises, the demand side of the curve will be affected.

The net effect will be positive because if the price of the commodity rises, then the demand of its substitute increases. This scenario shifts the demand curve to the right leading to change in equilibrium quantity and price causing the price of pasta and subsequent increase in the quantity of pasta demanded. This is demonstrated by the demand and supply curve below.

Market 5 – Tea/ coffee market

Tea or coffee is discussed here as complement commodities. It is a principle that bread being the primary commodity from wheat is always taken in the morning during breakfast. It has been made a norm that breakfast is always accompanied with wheat products like donut, pancake and bread (Wheat, 2011).

Increase in the price of these commodities will mean that breakfast will never be similar again since consumers will skip it due to absence of compliments .If it is assumed that people take bread with coffee or tea, then tea and coffee will be considered complement to bread. When the prices of bread goes up then, the demand for its compliments will be expected to decrease hence resulting in a negative relation.

With the decrease on the demand of rice the demand curve will shift inwards to the left changing the equilibrium of the tea/ coffee market. This has the net effect of decreasing the price of coffee/ tea and the quantity demanded will decrease as shown in the demand and supply curve below.

Conclusion The forces of demand and supply are dynamic and they are normally triggered by any one instrument of supply or any one chain of production. In the above event a bad whether during wheat season affected directly not only the direct products of wheat but also the price of substitutes and complements. Demand and supply only apply in the presence of the invisible hand of the market.

References Wheat. (2011). Wheat Substitutes. Retrieved from:

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Aging as a Social Problem Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Ageism


Age Stratification

Aging Population in U.S.A


Works Cited

Aging is one of the social problems that are currently affecting U.S citizens. This problem has affected the social institutions and the lives of people. The social challenges of the old people are further worsened by the economic constrains, and labeling. When we assess the issue of aging from a functionalist point of view, we realize that it is one of the social problems.

This is because the modern society does not have proper institutions and strategies that can enable the elderly individuals to cope with life effectively. Integrationists contend that people stigmatize elderly individuals since they are not able to adjust to the youthful culture. On the other hand, conflict theorists contend that problems experienced by the elderly occur since there is no effective power that can be used to streamline social institutions so that they can support the elderly.

Ageism Ageism is another social challenge and it refers to a situation where people look down upon the elderly people in the society. In this case, people become biased against the elderly. This problem stems from the fact that some individuals perceive the elderly as worth doing nothing good that can benefit the society.

For example, they are not able to do any productive work or chores, and they are also incapable of reproducing. This kind of perception prevails in many places of work and even in the government institutions. The youthfulness that is common in U.S also makes people to develop some negativity toward the aged. The erosion of the extended family system has also partly contributed to this challenge in which the elderly are not given kinship support.

Apart from them being neglected, old individuals do endure the following challenges. They are susceptible to chronic illnesses, yet most of them are not in a position to cater for such expenses.

They are also victims of both mental and physical abuse. Since many families are not properly equipped to handle the old people properly, they always end up being institutionalized and this not good enough for them. Primary aging occurs due to cellular changes in the body. Secondary aging is an expedited type of the usual aging and it occurs due to environmental challenges. For example, stress and poor diet can expedite aging.

Modernization Modernization is the progressive development of a society from traditional systems to a modern set up. U.S.A actively became modernized in the twentieth century. They had much focus and trust in science, education, and technology as the viable means of solving their societal challenges.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They also had interest in solving economic and social challenges. Besides this, they also encouraged urban-industrial society. “When modernization increases within a society, the individual becomes more important, and it eventually replaces the family or community as the fundamental unit of society” (Kornblum and Julian 179). As modernization increasingly becomes wide spread in a society, it normally dominates the cultural practices and religious believes.

Age Stratification Age stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of people in terms of age clusters within a society. When age stratification is done in terms of ascribed status, it can lead to inequality and these may cause ageism. Social structures affect us in many ways. “The Stratification of society based upon age helps determine the availability of social roles, the meaning attached to members of various age groups, and the opportunities provided to the members” (Kornblum and Julian 234).

Aging in a given society is normally determined by cultural expectations. Sociologists always analyze causes and impact of the current trends, and how they affect a graying population.

Aging Population in U.S.A There has been a gradual increase in the population of the elderly individuals in U.S.A., and it is likely to affect the health services in the country because they need better health care. It will also affect sex ratio and social services. Increase in life expectancy has greatly led to high number of elderly individuals. Approximately, a third of U.S citizens are in this age cluster.

Conclusion The above discussion clearly depicts the problems that are affecting the elderly individuals in our society and we should change our feelings toward them. This is because we shall some day get old and we shall also experience the same negative treatment, if we do not change now. I like this topic because it enables me to understand the social problems in our society. Hence, I can find strategies for solving them.

Works Cited Kornblum, William and Joseph Julian. Social Problems. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.


Rationalism as a Branch of Epistemology Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction Rationalism is a branch of epistemology which studies people’s opinions applying to reason as a foundation of knowledge and justification. It is the theory in which the principle of truth is not sensory but academic and deductive. There are varying degrees of emphasis on rationalism. This has led to a variety of rationalist perspectives from the average position that reason has priority over other ways of gaining knowledge.

Rationalism is thus similar to philosophy and the Socratic life of query. It is normally related to the introduction of mathematical techniques into philosophy. It takes into account issues such as knowledge and the difference between knowledge and belief (Barneskole 215). It also considers whether certainty is different from knowledge and whether knowledge is possible in reality.

Rationalism claims that knowledge in contrast to opinion is only possible if founded on clear principles. Such principles are not gained via experience but are implied through reasoning. In rationalism, sense experience cannot offer the assurance needed to guarantee that what people know is factual.

As a result, rationalists have to depend on reason itself as the ground for establishing whether people’s opinions are rationalized true beliefs and that is knowledge. This paper will compare and contrast Plato and Descartes versions of rationalism and the strengths and weaknesses involved in both approaches.

Discussion Similarities between Plato and Descartes Versions of Rationalism

Though Plato and Descartes lived hundreds of years a part from each other, there is a number of similarities in their versions of Rationalism. Plato argues that justification is by reason and not senses while Descartes goes ahead and shows that these senses are not trustworthy.

Both ascertain that the most primary knowledge is a priori. Another similarity is seen where both Plato and Descartes argue that Mathematics is very essential and is like a foundation for knowledge. Their goals in rationalism are finding the permanent order that lies beneath the knowledge flux (Guvier 138).

Differences between Plato and Descartes Versions of Rationalism

Plato and Descartes lived in two distinct ages and societies hence the reasons for their differences. Plato is viewed as an Intellectus rationalist while Descartes is considered a ratio rationalist .According to Plato, sense experience does not provide people with assurances that what they experience is in reality true.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He argues that the message people get by depending on sense experience is continually changing and frequently unreliable. This can however be rectified and assessed for dependability only by appealing to rationales that do not change. These fixed principles are the foundations of what it means by reasoning in the first place. Plato further argues that all knowledge is vulnerable to doubt.

He emphasizes that the source or reason for anything must have as much precision as its effects. Descartes on the other hand begins with a cynical view of human knowledge and hopes to provide experience that people can do without doubt. He adds that something cannot be derived from nothing and believes that God has an essential role in human knowledge (Oakeshott 301).

Descartes and Plato’s Downplaying of Sense Experience

Many traditional theorists have downplayed the importance of the function of the five senses in human life. To downplay the importance of sense experience, Plato and Descartes show that sense experience can never be a cause of experience since the objects captured through it are vulnerable to change. Humans therefore obtain knowledge by going beyond sense experience to discover constant objects through reasoning.

For Plato, sense data simply provides people with shadows that they take for reality. Truth cannot however be found in the unsatisfactory world of time and space. Relatively, it must be taken hold of by the sensible part of our soul. According to Plato, there are two unreasonable parts of the soul which are closely linked to our bodies. These can only provide us with passing and imperfect images of things.

Descartes down playing sense experience is demonstrated in his first, second and third meditation. Descartes does not accept that sense experience has a significant role in human life. He undermines a human being to a thing that thinks. His first meditation is based on doubt. Descartes was hit by how many wrong things he had trusted and by the uncertain structure of his beliefs.

Descartes second meditation deals with the character of the human mind and how it is better known than the body. Descartes assumes that everything he sees is untrue. He supposes that his mind only tells him lies. Here Descartes talks about a piece of wax from a honey comb. It still has the flavor of honey and the odor of flowers it was obtained from.

At this time, it can be easily handled and if rapped, it makes a sound. However, if this wax is held close to the fire, its taste and smell disappears, the color changes, the shape changes, size increases and the wax becomes fluid and hot. Descartes in this case however argues that this is still the same wax. Descartes third meditation talks about the presence of God. He believes that God has an essential role in human knowledge.

We will write a custom Essay on Rationalism as a Branch of Epistemology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strengths and Weaknesses involved in Plato and Descartes approaches

Weaknesses involved in Plato’s approach are related to where knowledge comes from while the weakness involved in Descartes approach is related to whether it’s true that God, the divine being, really exists.

Works Cited Barneskole, Aune. Rationalism, Empiricism and Pragmatism: An Introduction. New York: Random House, 1970. Print

Guvier, Trudy. Socrates Children Thinking and Knowing in the Western Tradition. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 1997. Print

Oakeshott, Michael. Rationalism in politics and other essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Print


Witchcraft in Early America Research Paper essay help online free

Witchcraft in America was rampant during colonial era, the seventeenth century. During the occurrence of calamities such as epidemics, dry spells, or floods, the British colonialists laid their blame on the witchcraft. Moreover, the colonial government blamed their poor governance on witches whom they believed intelligently or wittily challenged them.

Consequently, the colonialists arrested the alleged witches and then put them on trials to substantiate their crimes before imprisoning, persecuting, or torching them to death. More than eighty percent of the witches were women while some even young girls who faced the law.

In America, the fear and persecution of witches started to subside in nineteenth century and became extinct in the twentieth century. Although the colonial government blamed the occurrence of calamities on the witches, thus persecuting them, the main reason for the conflict was the contradiction in religious doctrines.

Historically, the origin of witchcraft in early America finds it way to first settlers (Hicks 1988, 5). Nevertheless, witchcraft practices are in line with paganism. According to historians, witchcraft is a cult, Satanism, or religion. The witches, especially the evil ones, had gothic and satanic symbol that usually put people in fear.

They lived in caves with satanic paintings or in dark rooms. There were different categories of witches; the social witch, supernatural witch, sorcerer, and the night witch. The social witch had powers to curse or cast a spell on a neighbor or friend they had fallen out with while the sorcerer through an ‘evil eye’ had the ability to alter the health or mind of the body, which may lead to insanity.

The night witch had the tendency to disturb people’s sleep by constantly appearing to them through dreams or visions especially at night. The supernatural witches had powers to connect the society or human beings to their gods. They had the ability to communicate with gods and predict calamites, rainfall, and abundant harvest among others in the society. Therefore, due to their magical powers the witches had the ability to manipulate the community to enrich themselves or earn respect.

In America History, generally there were two common divisions of witches applied either good/positive who majored in midwifery, healing, weather and calamities predictions. Then there were the bad/negative witches who majorly cursed or cast spells on enemies and innocent people due to jealousness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sometimes evil people in the community who wanted to get back at their enemies used witches to punish them. The good witch had the powers to counteract a spell cast by another witch. On the other hand, the evil witches had the powers to manipulate a person’s health, psychology, good luck, and financial wellbeing. For instance, they had powers to instill madness, sickness, poverty, or calamities in a person or a family.

The practices of most witches were always without anybody’s consent or will and the ability to instill suffering or even kill people led to the public resentment of the witches.

Although some people were against the witchcraft, others approached them to solve their social problems and even seek magical powers to acquire wealth. Some people used the witches to kill their enemies or to deprive them their wealth. For identification witches had to be coerced to reveal themselves while others publicly confessed after facing accusations from their neighbors.

The major method for performing witchcraft was through use of body parts like eyes, hands, mouth, or the whole body. The witches had to utter words or sing strange songs that were neither familiar to the common people nor to another witch. They had a collection of paraphernalia like swords, knives, herbs and mirrors, which they used to evoke their magic powers.

Witches kept Herbs and other concoctions in small pots while charms acted as a prescription for those who sought their intervention and protection. Others had the powers to communicate with spirits of the dead people especially when a calamity faced the community. The ability to communicate with the dead was the source of fear to most people in the community. The paraphernalia in their house were the major identification of any witch and used as evidence when prosecuting them.

Although witches were enemies to many in the early America, the ancient rulers or people sort their assistance to identify and punish anybody who broke the law. The most common was the identification of thieves from the community who had to pay a fine or face imprisonment. Incase a calamity like drought and disease befall the community, the supernatural witches intervened through seeking divine help.

Furthermore, witches cured diseases and psychological problems like madness from the society. Positive witches were beneficial to the society because they gave solutions to complicated problems like theft and calamities. On the other hand, some witches not only instilled fear in the society but also led to suffering of the community. Through magical powers, the malicious witches killed people or animals in the community (Saada 1981, 15).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Witchcraft in Early America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, the community stoned some of them to death, excommunicated others, and imprisoned others. Unfortunately, it was not easy to identify witches especially those who did not do their magical powers in open place. Furthermore, some especially the evil ones even had to hide their identity to protect themselves from the wrath of the community. Therefore, the malicious witches were unacceptable in the community while the non-evil magicians received respect and honor from the society.

When Britain colonized Americans, they thought witchcraft was a constant bother to their governance. Thusly, in seventeenth century, the colonial government decided to fight against the principalities and practices of the witchcraft. Due to the widespread witchcraft in North America especially in Salem and Massachusetts, the British colonialists embarked on carrying out trials to stop the vice. They blamed the calamites that befall their colonial territory to the witches.

About one hundred and fifty suspected witches faced the trials in the courts. Consequently, approximately fourteen women and five men died through execution while about fifteen people faced imprisonment, the rest were set free due to lack of sufficient evidence against them.

Through establishment of a number of courts in the colonial Massachusetts and Salem, the government publicly condemned witchcraft, which eventually reduced in eighteenth century. On the other hand, in Latin America, women used witchcraft as a way to overcome their male counterparts especially the whites.

Through social and cultural gatherings, the Spanish women collaborated with African women to practice witchcraft (Behar 1987, 34). Moreover, witches in Mexico were from a specific cast, class, or ethnic group. Thus, witchcraft not only led to persecution of many children, women, and few men but also led to the division of the society along social classes and ethnic groups.

The fight against witchcraft in early America was a combination of efforts from the colonial government and the indigenous people. The colonial government fought the witches in America because of the contradiction in religion and not as governance as it claimed. Through hatred and suffering instilled by the witches, neighbors had to identify witches and force them to confess publicly their magical evil practices.

Incase he/she defied the orders, the public could stone him/her death. The most condemned witches were the night and bad witches who were a source of nuisance in the community. Therefore, by twentieth century, witchcraft was almost extinct in America. The few existing witches practiced their witchcraft in hideouts. Finally, there are still witches in modern America who inherited their practices from ancient witches.

In summary, witchcraft is an ancient practice that existed in America. The origin of witches is not in any records though historians compare the practice with paganism. Witches have very many categories but the commonly known are two, bad and good witches. From their names, bad witches practice evil magic, which is contrary to the good witches. Through incarnations, utterances, song and communication with the spirits, the witches could solve a problem in the community or cast a spell on the community.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Witchcraft in Early America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the community sought help from the witches, the ability of some of them to kill led to their persecution. During the colonial period, the British fought witchcraft killing most of them. Most people especially Christians disliked the witches due to the contradiction of their practices with Christianity. Finally, before colonization in early America, witches existed freely in the society but all that changed immediately after colonization.

Reference List Behar, Ruth. 1987. Sex and Sin, Witchcraft and the Devil in Late-Colonial Mexico. American Ethnologist 14, no.1 (November/December): 34-35.

Hicks, Brad J. 1988. Witchcraft in America. News Magazine (March): 4-7.

Saada, Jeanne F. 1981. Deadly Words: Witchcraft in the Bocage. London: Cambridge University Press.


US Inventions: Electronic Appliances and Transport Facilities Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Most of the electronic appliances and transport facilities that exist in the modern world originated from America. Although Britain colonized America, it remains the world superpower because of its ability to invent powerful war machineries such as rifles, bombs, war jets and other gadgets.

The US is the home of famous ancient scientists who carried out inventions and discoveries especially in the scientific field. Since 1800 up to today, there are a number of discoveries/inventions especially in the medical field. Historically, though colonized, America was a rich nation that had funds and facilities for research for its scientists.

Currently, all the modern appliances whether electronic or not are a modification of America’s inventions. In addition, most of music genres like jazz and pop first played in America. The paper therefore seeks to justify that since historical times America has invented various electronics, transport, medical and even entertainment facilities that have dramatically upgraded the lifestyle, health, and culture of all the people in the world.

The US ancient inventions are in four major categories, the first category occurred earlier than 1890. The inventions before1890 took place during the Britain’s colonialism. Swim fins were the first inventions by Benjamin Franklin in 1717.

Although made of wood, they assisted swimmers to attain speed during sporting or when diving in deep sea. Moreover, he invented the stove and cataloging in 1742 and 1744 respectively, to improve the lighting and mailing systems respectively. In 1731, Thomas Godfrey discovered the octant, which is an important tool in water navigation.

One of Franklin’s medical discoveries was the urethral catheter that assists patients especially those with kidney failures to drain fluids. In collaboration with Charles James, Franklin invented harmonica, a glass musical instrument. In 1776, a swivel chair came into existence courtesy of Thomas Jefferson while in 1782 Jacob Yoder built a boat to enable him navigate the rivers in America. Additionally, due to his deteriorating vision, Franklin invented bifocals, which could enable him read through magnification of words.

In the late 1700, there were more inventions, which included automatic flourmill (1787); Oliver Evans, Eli Whitney Thomas Jefferson respectively, invented cotton wheel (1793), and wheel cipher (1795). The cigarette invention also came up early (Kilborn 1983, 8). Due to existence of colonialists, some of the early inventors had to collaborate with their British counterparts and sometimes the accreditation could go to the Britons and not the Americans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To curb fire breakouts, Frederick Graff senior invented a fire hydrant, which is an essential tool in firefighting. Through research and upgrading of the original fire hydrant, Birds Holly was able to come up with the current fire hydrant.

Oliver Evans did not only invent the first vehicle (amphibious vehicle in 1805) but also invented the refrigeration, therefore, through his ability to compress the air; a modern fridge came into existence. To improve the kitchenware, Robert Thomson Rumford invented the coffee percolate, which he used to prepare coffee.

On the other hand, Levi Spear Parmly, a dentist recommended the use of silk floss to clean teeth as away of keeping plague at bay. Through his invention, came the dental floss, which most dentists of the modern times recommend for their patients. To accelerate the number of his word works, Thomas Blanchard invented the profile lathe in 1816 while Simeon North invented a milling machine to assist him in shaping his metals in 1818.

There are many US inventions like the sewing machine, combine harvester, solar compass, graham cracker, detachable collars, threshing machine, the circuit breaker, and the ether for amnesia among others (Philbin 2003, 15). The list of inventions, which occurred before 1890, is endless. Nevertheless all the machinery and technology in the communication, media, music, transport, clothing and medical industries trace back in the first era of invention before 1890.

The second category is between 1890 and 1945, which led to improvement of lifestyle and transport facilities. The major inventions by different people in 1890 were the traffic signs to assist in flow of traffic, tabulating machine, which helped in accounting and mathematics, the Babcock test to measure the content of fat in milk, the smock detector and the jack home.

In 1891 the inventions included the Ferris wheel by Washington Gale, dow process by Herbert Henry, tesla coil by Nikola Tesla, pastry fork by Anna Mangin, zipper by whitcomb Judson, Schrader valve by August Schrader among others. The bottle cap, tractor and the dimmer were all invented in 1892 by William Painter, Granville woods and John Froelich respectively.

Silicon carbide, laxative and radio came into existence in 1893 while clip less pedal, volleyball and cyclocomputer inventions occurred in 1895. Therefore, as the years went by the US scientists invented more machineries, which were an improvement of the previous inventions. Airplane, air conditioners, cars, sporting activities, and other electronic devices were the major inventions in the second phase.

We will write a custom Research Paper on US Inventions: Electronic Appliances and Transport Facilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, the inventions progressively improved the lifestyle of the American people and other people in the world. Additionally, pop, rock and jazz music originated from the US. Fortunately, the inventions of recorders, compact disks, and radio led to the spread of the music in other parts of the world. Unfortunately, the emergence of World War II between 1939 and 1945 slowed down the rate of invention in the United States.

The third category is between 1946 and 1991, which saw to the advancement of technology not only in the US but also in the whole world. Planes flying at supersonic speed, diapers, computers, defibrillator, cancer chemotherapy, and video games were among the inventions during the third era.

Due to advanced technology, the communication, security, and survival rate especially in children improved. Scientists particularly in the medical field collaborated to cure or put under control diseases like cancer. The final category, which is between 1991 and 2009, has led to the invention of advanced medical tools and facilities in communication and medical industry. The vaccines of diseases like Hepatitis and measles among others came into existence.

Furthermore, inventions of laptops, flash disks, advanced medical surgery, or transplantations applied and internet services took place (Hafner 2005, 2). Additionally, the medical scientists established surgery machines and artificial transplant organs like the kidney and the heart. Therefore, the health of people in the current world relies on the American inventions since ancient times to date.

The impact of the US inventions is highly profound in the contemporary world. Most of the inventions in one way or another relied on each other, which accelerated more inventions. For instance, the discovery of electricity led to the discovery of electric bulbs, electric trains, cookers, kettles among others. Therefore, the US scientists relied on the intelligence of one another to come up with a new discovery.

The scientist involved in the inventions whether ancient or current not only became famous but also received honor from their leaders. For instance, Dr. Benjamin Franklin is one of the early scientists who modified the medical industry through his creative inventions. Franklin received a number of awards from the president for most of his inventions. Although he died long time ago, his name still exists in the world books as an important figure in the medical industry.

The major reason why US has the highest number of inventions is its ability to honor and fund scientists. Currently, the whole world largely depends on the US inventions. The medical, clothes, food, communication, and transport industries depend on the US inventions. Although most of the inventions have undergone modification by scientists from different parts of the world other than US, the idea or inventory traces its roots from the US.

In summary, nearly all inventions are from US while Benjamin Franklin is one of the major inventors in the world. All the industrial and technological machinery or ideas originated from the US. Though colonized by the Britain, America is the top world inventor because it posses nearly all the major inventors in the world. The world perceives all the inventors as celebrities and most of them have received honor and presidential awards.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US Inventions: Electronic Appliances and Transport Facilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The reason why America is successful in inventions is the ability of government to provide research funds to the scientists. All the machinery in the medical, transport and other industries primarily originated from the US. The only major challenge during the invention was the breakout of the Second World War that decelerated the rate of inventions. Nevertheless, after the war the US inventors did tremendously in their inventions.

Reference List Hafner, Katie. 2005. Laurels for Giving the Internet Its Language. The New York Times (February): 2.

Kilborn, Peter. 1983. The Twilight of smokestack America. New York Times (May): 8.

Philbin, Tom. 2003. The 100 Greatest Inventions of All Time. New York: Kensington Publishing Corporation.


Use of Ladders on the Workplace Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction to the Use of Ladders in the Work Place

Duty Ratings and their Uses


Works Cited

Introduction to the Use of Ladders in the Work Place On average nearly 16% of all work related accidents involving falls occur from falling off a ladder, while it is often the case that such accidents occur due to the carelessness of workers this just means that it is a necessity to correctly choose the type of ladder required for a particular job and to utilize it properly (Naso, 18). First and foremost it must be understood that while there are different variations of ladders utilized for a variety of tasks and purposes all of them have the common attribute of having a duty rating.

A duty rating can be described as the load capacity that a ladder is capable of handling before it exceeds the recommended allowable weight to be positioned on it. It must be noted that the term “load capacity”, refers to the total weight of a person the weight of the tools, clothing and various other materials that they have with them at the time.

Frank Heaven, a notable critic of the U.K. construction industry states that “as is often the case workers tend to measure load capacities based on their own weight and neglect to take into account the weight of the various tools and supplies that they’re carrying which is one of the primary reasons behind the number of accidents involving ladder failure in various construction sites” (Heaven, 36).

When taking into consideration the number of work place accidents, style selection takes precedent as an important aspect of ladder use in construction sites. The reason behind this is rather simple, specific ladder types work well in certain types of conditions and environments compared to other types of ladders. Step tools, step ladders, platforms or general multi-purpose ladders are usually recommended for indoor use while taller types of step ladders or extension ladders are usually more appropriate for outdoor use.

Proper use of ladders is particular important as seen in the commentary written in the resource journal “Plant Manager” specifically stating that “while specific ladder types are interchangeable depending on the circumstance at hand it is advisable to use a specific type of ladder that is well suited for the job at hand compared to settling for an alternative since this reduces the possibility of accidents from occurring” (Ladders unsuitable for sites, 6).

Duty Ratings and their Uses As mentioned earlier there are certain types of ladders appropriate for particular circumstance depending on the inherent need, it must also be mentioned though that within the different types of ladders exists a sub-category referring to their duty rating.

This particular classification is important to take note of since it refers to the capacity of the ladder for particular work loads and the type of jobs that they can be used for. Duty rating type 3 ladders for example are household grade ladders meant for domestic household use and not for heavy duty construction work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These particular ladders can handle work loads of up to 200 pounds and on average can be used for relatively light household duties. Type 2 ladders on the other hand are commercial grade ladders capable of work loads of up to 225 pounds and are the best for light to medium duty work types. This ladder is usually used by painters, handy men and various households that require a ladder type to support a certain amount of weight.

The final rating types for ladders are Type 1 A extra heavy duty ladders that are often seen in various construction sites. These particular type of ladders are meant to take a great deal of punishment from the rigors of construction work and as such are capable of handling work loads of up to 300 pounds which supports not only the weight of the construction worker but the equipment they carry as well.

The reason behind these particular duty ratings is to help people decide on what particular type of ladders would be best utilized for particular work situations. While Type 1 A ladders can be used for home use Type 3 ladders cannot be used in the construction industry due to their relatively fragile nature and the fact that they cannot support a great deal of weight.

In relation to this, investigative writer Jennifer Yario even states that “while some construction companies attempt to use lesser ladder types in various construction projects due to their relatively lower cost compared to the Type 1A ladder the fact remains that their use often results in an increase in fall related accidents since those particular ladders were never meant to take the rigors of construction work” (Yario, 80).

Conclusion From this short presentation I hope that I have imparted enough information regarding the different types of ladders and their uses. If you ever find yourself in a situation where a ladder needs to be used in a particular project I would seriously suggest that you take what I’ve said into consideration. Utilizing the proper type of ladder can make the difference between proper safety and an accident waiting to happen and as such the task of choosing one should not be taken lightly.

Works Cited Heaven, Frank. “Construction Space.” Contract Journal 448.6736 (2009): 36. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.

“Ladders unsuitable for sites.” PMJ: Plant Managers Journal 31.5 (2004): 6. Business Source Premier. EBSCO. Web.

We will write a custom Assessment on Use of Ladders on the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Naso, Markisan. “Number of fatal falls climb in 2004.” Safety


Level of Credibility in the USA Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

1. Al Gore – Former U.S. Presidential Candidate

Current Occupation: Environmental Conservation Advocate

2. Warren Buffet – CEO Berkshire Hathaway, 2nd Richest Man in the World, Estimated fortune $55 Billion

Current Occupation: Investor, Philanthropist

3. Oprah Winfrey – first Billionaire African American, Pioneer of televised intimate public discourse

Current Occupation – Retired, Philanthropist.

4. Mark Zuckerberg – Creator of Facebook

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current occupation – Facebook owner and CEO

5. Barrack Obama – First African American U.S. President

Current Occupation – President of the United States

The various individuals that have been listed above have all impacted U.S. society in their own unique way. Mark Zuckerberg has helped changed the way we communicate and interact with people online, Barack Obama has shown that minorities can rise to great heights of achievement, Oprah Winfrey became one of the first African American billionaires showing that poverty among minorities can be overcome, Al Gore is championing the cause of the environmental movement even though he lost in his run to be president and finally Warren Buffet has become a stellar example of proper and responsible investing in a world where investors are thought to be cut throat and purely money oriented. All these individuals in their own way reflect the qualities inherent to credibility through their own legitimizing factor.

Legitimizing factors refer to aspects inherent to these particular individuals that lend a certain amount of credence and authority to their words and deeds (Tormala, 684). This can come in the form of either academic knowledge in their particular field, recent notable accomplishments from which they received public acclaim and distinction, or even a certain type of distinction attained through current actions or the attainment of a particular position of notability (Tarver, 412).

This legitimizing factor can be seen in the various individuals given as examples since through their inherent qualities such as their character in the public eye they are afforded a certain level of credibility which in turn gives them the ability to properly persuade audiences regarding the righteousness of their actions or statements.

As seen from the various examples given, they all come from diverse backgrounds ranging from politics, economics to technological development yet each has a distinct similarity in terms of the attitude they bring to the public eye. Each of these individuals emphasize on the nearly endless opportunities available to the common individual.

We will write a custom Assessment on Level of Credibility in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They state that individuals can create great things as it can be seen from their own experiences, that the only limitation is a person’s inability to see the opportunity that is right before their eyes. What must also be understood is that credibility often comes hand in hand with the accomplishments and “power” that a person currently wields. In the case of the examples given one distinct types of power emerges, namely, the power of influence through accomplishment.

From Al Gore all the way down to Barack Obama the power of influence through accomplishment can be seen in the various goals these people set for themselves and actually accomplished which lends them a distinct air of credibility in terms of public perception towards them. As a result this creates a form of empowerment through which these particular individuals are given credibility through public identification with their various accomplishments.

Based on what has been presented on the various individuals chosen for this paper it can be seen that creation of the perception of credibility is often attached to either particular accomplishments or a sense of public identification for that particular individual towards a particular subject that creates perception of credibility.

As such when addressing an audience during persuasive presentations it often important to create an initial sense of public identification between you as a speaker and the topic that you are discussing. This often comes in the form of stating that you accomplished a particular task which gives you the ability to speak about it or that you’ve attained a certain degree of educational accomplishment in a particular field enabling you to make your own persuasive arguments regarding it.

Works Cited Tarver, Jerry. “Communication and Credibility.” Vital Speeches of the Day 47.13 (1981): 412. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.

Tormala, Zakary L., Pablo Briñol, and Richard E. Petty. “When credibility attacks: The reverse impact of source credibility on persuasion.” Journal of Experimental

Social Psychology 42.5 (2006): 684-691. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web.


This I Believe Essay best essay help: best essay help

A role model is a person or persons that is worthy of emulation and imitation. Becoming a role model is neither an easy task nor something that you become overnight. A process of growth and interaction with the person is required. There are many forces of influence to people today but it is important for every person and especially children to identify specific role models in the society.

In a time when the most influential persons in society like athletes and entertainers are involved in all manner of wrong doings, it is high time that parents played a major role in their children’s life by guiding them appropriately for in such practice lies the key to the young generation becoming a force to changing the world.

I count myself lucky to have had Mike Casidey as my mentor. He is someone who understands right from wrong and has good morals that he has instilled in me over time. Though I always believed that I am a gifted artist since childhood, in my teenage years I was confused and did not understand the meaning of life.

It was not until I began my career and with the careful guidance of my mentor, that I began perfecting my paintings. I do not count myself any different from other humans but if I ever had a question or was not sure of anything, my mentor was always at my service. I cannot be able to thank him enough for the positive impact he has had in my life; actually, he has made me become someone who can now influence others.

I believe that the world can change only by doing practical things. I have emerged to love figurative painting especially making paintings that provide solutions to problems. Construction painting means applying art in painting of new or refurbished buildings to make them more attractive and sometimes provide protection from damage (Schmitz 10).

Many people out there are able to make exceptionally good works of art; unfortunately, the numbers are dwindling. Construction painting in Asturias especially one with dignity and beauty is quickly fading away. I believe a painting on the colorful tradition of Asturias will go a long way to provide solutions to problems plaguing us as a society.

Construction painting has been associated with the low-income earners and just for the sake of earning an income. The result is the production of low quality construction paintings that lack beauty and the artistic touch (Hughes 174). I believe that art is the deepest expression of the society and the beliefs it underscores.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, art can be used constructively to bring out issues and provide solutions to problems in the society around us. Construction painting, though neglected, should be no different at all and through the colors, shapes and sculptural variations, artists can express the deepest feelings of their being.

I believe in making the world a better place to live in, where the ‘haves’ share what they have with the ‘have nots’. The older share their hard-earned wisdom with the more careless and daring young in the society. I believe in freedom of expression of oneself for the good of the society.

I believe in the conservation of the environment for the prosperity of the human race. I believe in the unity of the human race and bringing an end to racism and human trafficking. I believe that good mentors to the young people can achieve all these through careful guidance. Although the challenges may appear insurmountable, I believe it is possible for Casidey has achieved it through what he has done to me.

Works Cited Hughes, Roy. Painting and Decorating. Amsterdam, Newnes, 2005.

Schmitz, Augustus. Painting Construction. Iowa: University of Iowa, 1971.


Symbolic Imagery and Theme of Morality in The Tale of Kieu. Essay college essay help

Imagery is one of the strongest elements used in literature, and especially in poetry. It is one of the major means which is often used in order to develop the theme of the tale. There are many types of imagery used in the poetry: nature imagery, imagery of smell, view and hearing, weather imagery, etc. Symbolic imagery is one of the strongest means available to the authors too convey the message.

The most commonly used elements of imagery are taken from nature. Indeed, the elements of nature have deep philosophical and cultural context, thus, they presents a great help to the writer when developing a particular theme.

Moon imagery is often used in literature, especially in Asian, because moon is very symbolic and takes a very significant place in the Vietnamese life and culture. The story of Kieu is considered to be a masterpiece and it is well known to every Vietnamese. The author uses symbolic imagery of the moon in order to develop the theme of morality.

This imagery explores the character of the main hero of the tale, Kieu, and moral choice that she faced. Using the moon, the author demonstrates the purity of the soul of the main character despite harsh conditions of her life. In particular, the author addresses symbolic imagery of the moon when talking about mental state of Kieu, her appearance and how she managed to remain the same girl as she was before the events.

For Vietnamese, The Tale of Kieu became, “a kind of continuing emotional laboratory in which all the great and timeless issues of personal morality and political obligation are tested and resolved (or left unresolved) for each new generation” (Swensson n. p.).

Thus, it is no wonder that the author uses the uses the imagery of the moon in order to explore the mental state of the main character in situations that she encounters in her life. First of all, the author refers to moon when describing the purity of Kieu’s first love, “The stark bright moon was gazing from the skies/ as with one voice both mouths pronounced the oath” (Du line 25). Moon is associated with the Keeu’s mood.

The mood is bright, as well as the mood. We meet the image of the moon each time when Kieu is happy, or when the situation is positive. For example, when she comes back home after a long time, “the waning moon shines more than at its full” (Du 161). The girl is happy and the moon shines brightly. However, moon is a symbol of not a good mood only, but appears when the girl is sad, “An autumn night-through windows wafts of breez;/ high in the sky, a crescent moon, three stars.” (Du 85).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moon is used to describe the appearance of the main character, as well as her sister Thuy Van. In Vietnam mythology, there is a goddess of the moon which is considered to be the icon of beauty.

The girls are described as “her (Van) face of a moon, her eyebrows two full curves” (Du 3) and “She (Kieu) ought to rule the moon.” (Du 57). Van is beautiful as the mood, but Kieu is even more beautiful. She possesses the features of the Moon goddess which means, that she has the same qualities; that she is not only beautiful, but tender, graceful and gentle, with the same moral qualities.

As it has already been mentioned, the nature imagery (moon) is used to develop a theme of the tale and address the moral issues. As the moon is associated with the main character, the author refers to Kieu when developing this theme. The girl was forced to meet difficult circumstances.

Each time, the presence of the moon accompanied these dramatic events. We can see that regardless the “turns of fate” and harsh circumstances, the girl managed to remain the same personality that she was at the beginning when manifesting her pure feeling of love to Kim.

She was forced to go against morality and sell her body, but her soul was guarded by the moon. Her actions were moral from the point of view of her intentions. Thus, we can conclude that moon preserved her morality and her soul remained as pure as the moon. The moon was a witness to her innocence. “We’ve had no chance to tie the marriage tie. / But it’s still there, the moon that we swore by:/ not face to face, we shall stay heart to heart” (Du 29).

It can be considered that the author shows the immorality of the tale. Indeed, the girl’s actions were immoral, even when her intention was sincere. In this regard, the imagery is used to contrast the purity of the moon with immorality of the girl. However, the girl did a moral choice, and thus her actions are moral. The image of the moon at the end of the tale supports this.

The image of the moon plays an important role in the tale. The author makes use of the moon imagery to develop the theme of the story and address moral issues. The image of the moon is used to describe the appearance, mental state and morality of the main character. It also helps in understanding of the problem of the Kieu’s moral choice. Thus, the author estimates that the girl managed to save her morality and the innocence of her soul regardless the circumstances she faced.

We will write a custom Essay on Symbolic Imagery and Theme of Morality in The Tale of Kieu. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Du, Nguyen. The Tale of Kieu. Trans. Huynh Sanh Thong. New Haven: Yale University, 1983.

Swensson, John. “Kim Trong and Scholar Ma Section”. Lecture by John Swensson, Oct. 1998. Web.


Challenges and Suggestions that British and American Government faced after the Second World War Essay essay help: essay help

Winston Churchill’s speech has been dedicated to the analysis of the past events happened in the course of the Second World War as well as the challenges and problems arisen from constrains people had to overcome. The speech was promoted as an opposition manifest toward the tyranny, deterrence and war.

Instead, the primary focus was made on the necessity to propagandize democracy, freedom of speech, and strength of mind. Awareness of existing threats, according to Churchill, was the only way to understand and estimate the economic, political, and social situation occurred to the US and British government.

Churchill’s speech starts with the consideration of the past problems and challenges that people suffer from, the sacrifices they should make, as well as the solutions they should provide to overcome the consequences of military actions. In order to overcome these problems, the British politician insists on the necessity to singly out clearly the purposes, to grant simplicity of the decisions made, and declare the human rights and freedoms on the threshold of the forthcoming American Democracy.

Introducing the main features of a peaceful and democratic society, Churchill strives to advance the penetration of the British government to a more civilized community that will be accountable for their decisions and strategies within the country.

While speaking of the American government, Churchill states that it also faces similar problems in the face of the forthcoming Cold War. Particular reference has been made to the analysis of challenges connected with the development of the nuclear power that was in question after the termination of the Second World War.

The secret development of the weapons of mass structure was on the agenda during this time and, therefore, Churchill considers it a priority to keep this secret knowledge away from the International organizations. Being under the influence of war, the political and ideological activist believes that the country should be on guard on the ongoing change to stand the opposition and promote democratic policies.

The development of powerful weapon can ensure citizen’s safety and security from the established tyranny in the world. As Churchill reports, the society’s “…supreme task and duty is to guard the homes of the common people from the horrors and miseries of another war” (2). In this respect, the speaker is specifically concerned with the dangers and threats that might come outside the country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to overcome the challenges of war, the Britain activist also proposes to equip the United Nations Organizations with an international armed force. In addition, sheriffs and constable should also be introduced to take control of magistrates and courts. Such a position proves the necessity to proclaim the principle of liberty and human rights that constitute “joint inheritance of the English-speaking world” (Churchill 3). These principles are also implemented into the American Declaration of Independence that also stands the utmost freedoms and rights.

In conclusion, it can be stated that Churchill was anxious about implementing radical principles for promoting democracy, equality, security, and human rights. Overcoming the consequences of the Second World War, the British politician places a strong emphasis on the necessity to introduce greater responsibilities and duties for promoting the concepts of security and safety which is possible with the implementation of armed forces development.

Works Cited Churchill, Winston. Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain). Missouri: Westminster College.


Love and Marriage during the Era of Mao in Communist China Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Before marriage



Works Cited


Introduction The era of Mao lasted from 1949 to 1976 when Mao Zedong died. It was during this period when China experienced many reforms in most of its institutions especially marriage. Mao led the promulgation of the 1950 Marriage Law on 1st May the same year[1]. The implementation of this law led to many changes in the marriage institution. These changes, according to Mao, brought freedom to women in the Chinese society.

Mao believed that the captivity of women in the Chinese society hindered economic development and by implementing this law; women would be free to participate in economic development. Marriage is a very important institution in any society though prior to the Mao era, the people did not award it much attention and respect. The Mao era brought flexibility in marriage in the Chinese community. The promulgation and the implementation of the 1950 Marriage Law ensured that one man married one wife only.

Before marriage During the Mao era, if someone wanted to get married s/he was free to look for a mate of his/her own choice. In the pre-communist period, this was an abomination since parents chose the mates for their sons/daughters. It allowed the breaking of barriers that the pre-communist community upheld regarding marriage.

Some of these barriers were social classes in that, people from the wealthy families could not freely interact with leave alone marry, the poor people. However, there were age limits in that the minimum age of the man was seventeen years while that of the woman fifteen to qualify for marriage[2].

It is important to mention that betrothal was not a prerequisite for marriage and none of the parties would specify compliance to the agreement. Unlike in the pre-communist era, marriage presents were not necessary and if present, the parties gave them as donations. In the Mao era, the law did not allow polygamous marriage in the Chinese community and through such, the sale of young females within the society ended. It also the society to improve the attention awarded o the girl child.

The society did not give much attention to bride price and dowry as before. However, the bridegroom’s family had to pay some amount of money to the bride’s family. According to the Chinese customs, the bride’s family was to return a portion of the money to the bridegroom’s family as dowry as a sign of goodwill.

Marriage On the success of the betrothal, the parties proceeded to marriage. An open wedding ceremony marked the union of the two parties in marriage. The wedding ceremony followed the traditional Chinese procedure. The bridegroom picked up the bride from her home where he respectfully greeted her parents. The two then proceeded to the bridegroom’s home for the bride to greet her in-laws. The two parties greeted the parents with a cup of tea and in return, daughter(s) in-law received some money inside a red packet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like any other form of wedding, this ceremony required witnesses as the two were officially getting married. In some parts of China, the parties were not supposed to finish the fish served to them. They were not to touch the head, tail and the whole skeleton of the fish. By doing so, they symbolised a good start and end of their marriage.

Once married, the wife and the husband would stay in the husband’s home. The statutory scheme provided for a number of arrangements regarding matrimonial property. However, the husband had the right to manage the property and enjoy the fruits of the wife’s contribution to matrimonial property.

Dissolution of marriage could occur through death or divorce. In the pre-communist era, the husband was the only one with the right of initiating a divorce. It was not the case during the Mao’s reign where divorce could only occur through mutual consent of the parties involved.

The legal formality of divorce was a written document signed by two witnesses. The judiciary allowed divorce under several circumstances[3] including bigamy, adultery, ill-treatment of one of the parties by the other, in case one of them suffers a malignant disease or a mental disease, and continual desertion of bad faith.

Divorce could also occur if one party was uncertain of the existence of the other for three years or when the other party served a jail term for more than three years. When divorce occurred, the children remained in the custody of the husband, unless otherwise stated in the agreement.

Conclusion During the Mao era, the Chinese community experienced many changes as far as marriage is concerned. It was in Mao’s attempts to free women from male captivity to enhance their productivity. Planned marriages ended allowing people free to make their choices when it came to choosing spouses. Women were also empowered to make major decisions in the marriage institution. It brought a sigh of relief to the young females from humble backgrounds whose families hitherto sold them as concubines to rich men in the society.

Works Cited Chang, Jung, and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

We will write a custom Essay on Love and Marriage during the Era of Mao in Communist China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes Chang, Jung, and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. 145.

Chang and Halliday, 143.

Chang and Halliday,139


English and Politics Research Paper online essay help

Introduction Orwell is an individual who was concerned about the correct usage of English language in politics and other areas of life. He notes with a lot of concern some very common mistakes that are made by politicians, professors and other people who use English in public. He particularly notes that most of the times, the politicians use sub standard English because they want to conceal something and therefore end up using vague language.

In an attempt to reduce and eventually eradicate the incorrect usage of English grammar in both spoken and written works, Orwell suggests some set of rules that one could use. He however states that, even with the rules, it is still possible that one can make some mistakes but the mistakes would not be very bad compared to those that were made by some people in the texts that he uses as the sample of incorrect use of English language.

Orwell’s standards In the first rule, Orwell says that one should avoid the use of common phrases for example metaphors which have been overused and other clichés. Phrases that have been used in various written works for a long time are especially discouraged. He also warns people to refrain from using long words and instead, try to look for shorter words which can serve the same purpose. The long words make the text unnecessarily complicated when it can be simplified by use of other words with the same meaning.

Another rule is that one should choose their words carefully and use only the necessary words. If a word can be left out, then one should not include it in their writings or speech. By doing so, one is able to avoid being unclear because of including such words. The other common mistake that people make in language use is overuse of foreign or scientific terms when one can get other simpler words of the same meaning in English.

Orwell says that such words should only be used when there is no other option, otherwise they should be omitted in any good specimen of English. Orwell also warns against the operators or verbal false limbs. He explains this as the unnecessary conversion of a single verb or even a conjunction to a phrase consisting of several words. It can also be used to describe the tendency to follow a certain pre-existing ending format of a sentence instead of one being creative and coming up with their original endings.

Many people make this mistake when they are writing or speaking In his last rule, he gives people the discretion to break any of his rules other than say something that will not make sense. Orwell says that if people would adhere to these rules, cases of bad language usage would reduce significantly and eventually be eradicated.

Conformity of John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech of 1960 to Orwell’s standards This is one of the speeches that have been praised by many people in history. It is particularly applauded because of its impact on the listeners and also the various artistic structures employed (Humes 207). It has bold declarations made by John F. Kennedy during his inauguration as president.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, he promises to do everything to protect the democracy of the country and also speaks several statements directed to the enemies of his country. He also calls upon the citizens to be occupied with what they can do for the country instead of just waiting for the country to do things for them. In this paper, the conformance of the speech to various rules set by Orwell meant to gauge a good piece of English text will be evaluated.

Dying metaphors The speech is characterized by the use of metaphors to create mental pictures to the listeners of what is being said. Metaphors can be categorized into different groups for example; there are metaphors which have been overused such that they no longer play the role that a metaphor should play when used and are considered as dead metaphors.

There are others considered as dying metaphors which have been overused but still have not lost their impact and finally there are those considered as living which are able to cause one to have a clear mental picture because they are fresh and probably have been used for the first time by the particular writer or speaker. According to Orwell, dead metaphors are to be avoided if the purpose for which that metaphor is being used is to be served. Dead metaphors lack the important quality of creating a mental image in the listener’s mind.

Kennedy, in his speech tries to adhere to this rule because most of the metaphors he uses are not in the category of dead ones. For example, he talks of ‘iron tyranny’ ( 1). Although this is not exactly in the category of a dead metaphor, it is still a common metaphor that is overused by many people in spoken and written works. The metaphor however is still able to produce the mental picture intended in the listener’s mind.

There are other metaphors too that he used effectively in conveying his message during his inauguration. In reference to the people who find themselves in danger that they could have avoided if they were wise enough, he uses the metaphor ‘riding the back of the tiger and ending up inside’ ( 1). He also talks of exploring the stars conquering the deserts metaphorically to pass the message to the people concerning their intention as a country to going for great things and overcoming all obstacles.

These two metaphors still are able to create images in the mind of the listeners although they are not very new and also cause them to react in certain way because of the influence of the words that have been used.

By using them, Kennedy is still on the safe side when it comes to application of Orwell’s standards because the two are not wholly in the category of dead metaphors. He also talks of assisting the people who are still ‘struggling to break the bonds of mass misery’ ( 1). This is a metaphor that helps the listeners create a clear mental image of what he is saying.

We will write a custom Research Paper on English and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The speech slightly deviates from the set standards because of the use of commonly used phrases like ‘friend and foe alike’ which is not recommended by Orwell ( 1). According to him, such overused phrases should be left out as they make one unable to be creative in speech and they can contribute to vagueness in the message that one intended to communicate

The use of active or passive voice The speech is full of sentences in active voice as compared to passive voice. Most of the sentences have a subject as opposed to passive sentences which leaves out the doer of the action.

However there is an instance where there is the use of passive, i.e., when he wants to says that the responsibility has been given to someone else, he uses the passive sentence: ‘the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans’ ( 1). In the rest of his speech, he uses sentences in the active voice. He commits himself to doing things that are his responsibility by using the active voice and first person singular pronoun instead of evading commitment by using passive.

He uses sentences in the active voice to show people the reality of the imminent long struggle that they are going to face as a nation despite the fact that they have just come out of a hard period characterized by cold war (Clarke 9). He does not try to give the people false hope by using passive voice which is mostly used by people who are not straightforward in what they are saying.

He also speaks to the enemies of the nation directly using the same sentence structures and points out the responsibility of both the state and the citizens directly instead of just assuming that each is aware of what is expected of them. Through the effective use of active speech, Schlesinger (165) notes that the young president, Kennedy, also commits himself to defend the country’s democracy by all means.

Pretentious diction The speech also passes the test of pretentious diction as a standard of good English specimen proposed by Orwell. This is because Kennedy uses simple everyday language as opposed to some political speeches which are full of exaggerated foreign words and other uncommon words for example scientific words.

Most of the words that he uses can be understood by ordinary people without much struggle. He uses short clear words and also sentences whose structure is simple therefore making the speech captivating and easy to understand (O’Brien 75). This has made his speech to be praised by many people and especially because of its simplicity to everyone who can understand English.

His choice of words is good as he chooses words which are able to produce certain reactions in the people. For example, he tells the people not to negotiate out of fear or fear to negotiate. Most of the text is written in simple words. It is only in the sentence where the word ‘belaboring’ is used where he seems to have used a complex word although it is possible to substitute with a more common word like ‘dwell on’ or others which are simpler and more common.

Not sure if you can write a paper on English and Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Operators or verbal false limbs Here, one tries to avoid the task of choosing appropriate parts of a speech for example the nouns of verbs and tries to simplify the task by several means e.g. transforming a lone verb to a phrase with several words. The use of conjunctions is also altered by introducing other words in addition to the conjunction to make it a phrase. Certain sentence endings are also commonly used because one does not want to think of a different way that the sentence can end and therefore opts for what is common.

The speech in question lacks such operators or verbal false limbs. Most of the verbs and conjunctions are used correctly without adding extra words to make them phrases and the sentences endings are all unique and not just following a certain copied pattern. He avoids most of the phrases, either with verbs or conjunctions as listed by Orwell, which should be avoided in a good specimen of English. He uses single verbs and conjunctions and conforms to this rule in almost the entire text.

Meaningless words Again, Kennedy’s speech avoids the use of meaningless words which at times crowd a piece of English text making it hard to understand and also unnecessarily long. The speech is relatively short and is devoid of such words which may not make any sense when used. He chooses his words carefully and joins them together in a way that they cause the reader or listener then be persuaded that he means every word he says in the speech (Wills 62).

Like many political writings, there are some areas in the speech where there is vagueness. He says, for example, that they are going to help those in poverty to get out of it. He does not say precisely what they are planning to do to help these people who he says live in abject poverty. It is also not clear the specific people he is addressing because, globally there are many people who are struggling to break free from the chains of poverty.

Also the words, ‘to convert our good words into good deeds’ ( 1), seem not to have a definite meaning because the word ‘good’ is relative and can mean different things. It becomes hard for anyone listening to such a speech to clearly understand what good words or good deeds the person is talking about.

Conclusion Although John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech breaks a few of Orwell’s rules, it is still a good specimen of English because it observes most of them as discussed in the paper. For example, the speech is devoid of foreign or scientific words which are misused in most written or spoken works.

He tries to use simple, everyday language which can be understood by many people. He puts forth his points clearly using only the relevant words and leaves out any unnecessary words. The speech also avoids the use of clichés and long words which can be replaced by shorter and more common words.

It is so easy for anyone who reads this speech to understand it. It is written in ordinary English that does not need a lot of in depth understanding of vocabulary. The ideas in it flow well. According to Giglio (2), his speech seems to represent what he truly believes in because it lacks vagueness which is mostly used by politicians who do not want to be clear in what they are saying to the public.

Such politicians use this tool to be dishonest and cause confusion among the people on what they actually intended to pass across. What he intends to do for the nation and also what is expected of the people is clearly stated. He urges the people not to focus on what they want the country to do for them but on what they too can offer to the country.

Works Cited John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address. London:, 2011. Retrieved from

Clarke, Thurston. Ask Not: The Inauguration of John F. Kennedy and the Speech that Changed America. New York: Henry Holt and Co, 2004.

Giglio, James. The Presidency of John F. Kennedy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Humes, James. My Fellow Americans: Presidential Addresses That Shaped History. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

O’Brien, Michael. John F. Kennedy: A Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.

Schlesinger, Arthur. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston,MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.

Wills, Garry. The Kennedy Imprisonment: A Meditation on Power. Boston, MA: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1981.


Air Pollution by Automobiles Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Automobile invention has continued to have profound effects in the world due to the fact that they have been owned by a large number of people, particularly in the U.S. This overreliance in automobile has generated environmental and health concerns, which trigger a number of global debates. Automobiles have a great environmental and lifestyle impact, an aspect that is attributed to the fossil fuel combustion (Wallace 138).

The extent of automobiles pollutants differs and includes toxic exhaust emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, VOCs as well as particulate matters. Besides, the evaporative emissions emanate from fuel vapors that are emitted to the atmosphere, having not been fully combusted. The vapor could be managed by properly capping the fuel tanks, avoidance of having the petrol overfilled or addressing any leakages.

Automobiles also release smoke, which contains incompletely combusted byproducts that are toxic to the eyes and the respiratory system, thus detrimental to human health. This is however, dependent on the periods of exposure, age, the health status of an individual and the concentration of these fumes that one is exposed to. This paper shall address specific automobile pollutants in relation to causes and public health, to draft possible recommendations to the obstacles, in order to manage the problem.

Causes of automobile Pollution Air pollution has long been associated with motor vehicles as they are operated, fueled, manufactured and even when they are disposed. Moreover, pollution occurs at the time of distributing and refining of the fuels. With urbanization, many people have owned vehicles that have continued to cause heavy traffics leading to increased pollution.

The automobiles are related to primary as well as secondary pollution. Primary pollution occurs when there are direct emissions into the atmosphere while secondary pollution is incurred when there are chemical reactions for the emitted pollutants with the atmosphere itself.

Specific Pollutants and Health Effects Particulate Matter

The main motor vehicle pollutants include, particulate matter, which are particles containing metal and soot and make smog to become murky. The particles are so fine and pose as a great danger to human health, as they are inhaled to damage the respiratory system. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides as well as hydrocarbons are emitted together with the particles and therefore, are enhanced as secondary pollutants.

Particulate matter contains particles close to a diameter of ten micrometers in the atmosphere. Larger particles contain smoke as well as soot that have been incompletely combusted especially from diesel. PM has been pointed out as the most hazardous constituent of automobile exhaust (CTA 9).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They infiltrate the respiratory system building up to become irritants and leads to nasal congestion, sinusitis and asthma. Exposure to PM is directly linked with asthma and subsequent hospitalizations. According to International Centre for Technology Assessment (CTA), “ for every 10 micrograms/meter3 increase in PM exposure, hospital admissions rose by 7% for patients with respiratory disease, 3.5% for patients with acute respiratory illnesses, and 3% for patients with cardiovascular disease” (9).

On the same note, California EPA maintains that for each “10 micrograms/meter3 increase in PM exposure level to 2.5% cause increase in emergency room visits and 1% increase in mortality for people with pneumonia” (CTA 9). Besides, many Americans end up having premature deaths due to PM exposure. Exposure to PM for instance may lead to irritations in the respiratory system, which leads to cognitive complications as well as depression.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

VOCs are as well referred to as aromatic hydrocarbons and are emitted when burning or on vaporizing fossil fuels. They include benzene, toluene, and formaldehydes among others (Krzyżanowski et al. 55).

They are detrimental environmentally and adversely affect human health, having been identified as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). For instance, 1, 3-butadiene and benzene have been identified as being carcinogenic and are attributed to cause breast cancer. These carcinogens affect an individual with increased exposure while inhaled benzene has been linked with leukemia (CTA 13).

It may also cause mutations and changes in bone marrow and blood cells. A separate study reflects that ethyl benzene has been attributed to tumor growth while exposure to benzene by females leads to menstrual abnormalities as well as atrophied ovaries and infertilities (CTA 13). Exposure to 1, 3-butadine affects the respiratory system and skeletal deformities while inhaled toluene causes lung irritations, CNS disorders and spontaneous abortions.

Carbon Monoxide

CO is released as gaseous byproduct when gasoline and diesel burns incompletely. According to CTA, “ a newer model, properly maintained car, emits about 420 pounds of CO each year, while a newer model, properly maintained SUV, emits 547 pounds over the same period” (23).

As a result, poorly maintained old automobiles, which have faulty emission control systems, lead to more emissions of carbon monoxide. Besides, a cold Engine releases more carbon monoxide as compared to a warmer one. Hence, the emission of this gas in cities is notably more during winter as compared to summer. In general 60 percent of carbon monoxide emission is from automobiles, but in cities it is emitted by up to 95 percent due to traffic jams (CTA 23).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Air Pollution by Automobiles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chemical substance released is the carbon monoxide, which is highly toxic and is emitted during the burning of gasoline. After it is inhaled, it interferes with oxygen circulation in the body’s vital organs such as the brain and heart through combining with hemoglobin. This may not only accelerate the already present illnesses within the body, but also could lead to death.

When oxygen brain supply diminishes, this may affect cognitive function of a person. CO toxicity is fatal and is attributed to over ten thousand hospitalizations annually in the U.S. It is also attributed to suicidal deaths where individuals intoxicate themselves from the exhaust content.

Accidental fatalities in the U.S since 1977 to 1988 were over one thousand one hundred individuals, who died while riding in these automobiles (CTA 23). Acute intoxication with carbon monoxide causes inadequate oxygen supply in vital organs, which adversely affect vulnerable groups such as the elderly and individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

The California Air Resource Board (CARB) conducted tests during onrush and off- rush hours and noted that “average in-car CO levels ranged from 3.5 ppm in the freeway carpool lanes to 5.1 ppm in regular freeway lanes during rush hour.

The average peak CO concentrations in the lead test car during the freeway rush hour runs were 34.0 ppm. Compared to 26.5 ppm for freeway non rush hour runs, and 9.0 ppm for freeway carpool lane runs” (CTA 27). This was attributed to traffics jam where large trucks emit more CO and intoxicate the rest vehicles.

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen Oxides not only causes ground-level ozone but is also is attributed to the formation of acid rain. As a result, respiratory irritation occurs that could deteriorate related illnesses such as asthma. It results to a reduced lung capacity and therefore, one becomes prone to infections resulting to asthma influenza and also pneumonia. If exposure does not exceed 30 ppb, hypersensitivity of airways occurs while 15 ppb results to irritations.

Over 80 ppb leads to respiratory diseases (CTA 32). Nitrogen oxides that are emitted by automobiles irritate the lungs weakening the immunity against respiratory infections like influenza and pneumonia. Nitrogen oxides also are attributed to the formation of particulate matter as well as ozone near the ground (Sevigny 1).


Ozone at ground level is detrimental to human health resulting from smog, which is usually great in summer. Ozone is not only caustic but is attributed to lung damage and respiratory illnesses such as asthma. It also causes irritation on reduced exposure but more exposure is linked to hospitalizations as reflected from a met analysis study, which indicate that “asthma, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increase by 6% for every 50 ppb increase in peak ozone exposure” (CTA 33).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Air Pollution by Automobiles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This affects especially children and old people, exacerbates asthma and results to fatalities for persons over the age of sixty five. However, ozone is formed as a result of a chemical reaction from automobile pollutants and sunlight (Frumkin 202).

Hydrocarbons, Sulfur dioxide and Lead

Yet another component of automobile pollutants is the hydrocarbons. They undergo a reaction with nitrogen oxides under solar energy to comprise the ozone which is usually at a ground level to result to smog. Ozone is very essential when it in the upper atmosphere but when it’s near the ground, it is attributed to respiratory system irritation leading to coughs, chocks, as well as a declined lung capacity.

Sulfur dioxide on the other hand is released by motor vehicle after combustion of fuels comprising sulfur such as diesels (Krzyżanowski et al. 37). It is known to react with the atmosphere to result to substances that are dangerous to the newborns and the people who have asthma. Other toxic chemical substances emitted by automobiles have been associated with defective births, cancer as well as other diseases.

They especially have been directly linked with the rise in global fatalities, and such emissions include lead. Leaded gasoline has long been causing lead pollution until it was banned in the U.S but it is still in use in other parts of the world. Lead for instance, is known as a cumulative toxin, which defects the brain development especially in small children and most importantly, has been linked with hypertension and related fatalities.

Lead exposure is mostly achieved from leaded gasoline. It impairs the central nervous system thus deteriorates the mental function, resulting to memory and learning impairment. Lead causes neurological dysfunction and results to psychological anguish that may deteriorate the mental state of a person. Lead exposure results to neurotoxicity, which impairs cognitive functions

Efforts to Curb Automobile Pollution

Automobile pollution not only causes health concerns such as lung cancers, but also has secondary effects when emitted to the atmosphere.

This has raised the concern of the government and various environmental agencies in the U.S. Since 1970s, air quality has been pursued by the United States government through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Sevigny 1). The passage of Motor Vehicle Air pollution Control Act of 1965 by the federal government had to review level of automobile emission to set the appropriate standards (Jacobson 211).

The Nixon Administration tried to manage pollution from automobile as one of its many objectives when it passed the Clean Air Act in 1965 (Bates


The California’s Budget Process Qualitative Research Essay cheap essay help

Introduction The budgeting process of any given state is an arduous task since it involves a number of active processes. A budget of a country is reviewed annually in order to determine the expenditures within that fiscal financial year.

The California budget process is a dynamic process which requires regular reviews in forms and procedures, law, descriptions and instructions among other factors. The process involves the combination of the country’s assembly phases which includes the executive, legislature and the governor’s. These assembly phases (executive, legislature, and governor) work integrally and are directly coordinated with the public input, the economy, federal and local governments, initiatives and legislation, legal issues and the natural events.

By embracing literature review, this case study will look at the California budget, how it works, how and where they get their money, the problems the system face. Besides, the paper will address the available alternatives ways of solving these problems. Consequently, the paper will point out the recommendations available to these problems.

Background of the study This case study identifies the California’s budget process and how its budget process works to effectively manage the expenditures of California’s annual fiscal year. The analysis will focus on the stages involved from the initial design process to the final implementation process of the budget process of the California state.

The study will also focus on the financiers of the budgeting process and the different criteria employed by the government of the California state to facilitate the smooth funding operations of the budget process to ensure efficiency. The study will also analyze the various challenges or problems faced by the California state with the budget process.

The study will identify these problems and elaborate on them and look at the causes of these problems. The study will determine the possible solutions to the present problems and draw up recommendations to be taken.

Literature review California budget process

According to Department of Finance (2011), The California budget process is formulated by the assembly that draws out a simultaneous budget resolution annually. The house lays out a long-term plan (usually five years) of the California state deficit targets, revenues and the overall total expenditures. The president’s signature and the influence of law are omitted by the congress during the process of the budget resolution, hence, neither the president nor the force of law possess the right to reject the proposed budget resolution by the congress.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The initial process in the budget resolution involves the formulation of a strategy to allocate the gross total expenditures among the key departments of the government such as health, transportation, defense among others. The way the money should be spent is determined by the senate and the house committees to the appropriate individual congressional committees and their subcommittees (Department of Finance, 2011).

The independent congressional committee then carefully analyses the budget for consistency with the aggregate targets, properly analyzing program by program and check on the consistency of the details of the budget (Anagnoson, 48). The overall and the concluding debate on the budget resolution focus on the budgets of the individual programs and their implications.

The congress committee seeks technical advices on matters pertaining to the budget in a non- partisan way through the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The house and senate committees ensure that all the bills which pass through, its structure are attached with a CBO cost estimate. The purpose of the attached CBO cost appraisal document is to establish consistency between the proposed spending and the budget resolution’s targets.

According to Edmund G. Brown (2011), the governor appoints the director of finance who also serves as the chief financial policy advisor. The director of finance apart from being the senior staff, he is also a member of the Governor’s cabinet.

The financial process is very dynamic since new laws are enacted regularly, available resources increases or decreases continuously, priorities change regularly. Administration changes constantly and new regulations are adopted regularly. The government Code Section 13070 grants the general authority to the department of finance. This section also grants the Department of Finance the mandate to oversee all business and financial policies of the state.

The director of finance is responsible for various state activities which include saving of the state funds through pooling money under the investment board, overseeing the capital expenditure projects for the public works board, investment of the state teacher’s retirement funds, hearing and deciding on the state mandate commission and distributes school construction funds through the state allocation board.

The legislature liaises with the Department of Finance through a number of reporting requirements such as testifying and analyzing on the legislation which appears before the legislature, defending the governor’s budget and presenting the governor’s budget (Anagnoson, 97).

We will write a custom Essay on The California’s Budget Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other state departments are constantly interacting and communicating with the Department of Finance through various activities such as establishing of the accounting systems, communicating the governor’s fiscal policy, reviewing of the fiscal proposals, administering and enacting of the budget process, analyzing legislation and auditing department expenditures.

According to Ana (2011), the California budget process is a dynamic process which involves the combination of three phases which are, the executive budgets, the legislature’s budget and the governors’ budget, with the influences of the public, the economy, legal issues, political interactions, initiatives and legislation, and the correlation between the local and the federal governments. The complexity and the size of the California state results to in variances in maintaining and establishing an orderly process.

The budget development stage initializes with the submission of the budget to the legislation by the governor. The budget is generally supposed to be submitted by January 10 of every year (Anagnoson, 125). In cases of the proposed expenditures exceeding the estimated revenues, the governor is expected to endorse the possible sources for the additional funding.

The governor’s chief financial advisor who is also the director of finance oversees the preparation of the governor’s budget, by issuing directives to be enacted in the preparation approach to his subordinates primarily the departments and agencies. The current basic strategy utilized by the California state is incremental budgeting, but previously the state adopted approaches such as the total quality management, management by objectives and the zero- based budgeting (Edmund G. Brown, 2011).

The increment plan of the budget method employs the use of Budget Change Plan (BCP), a deed which proposes variations from the existing budget. The finance unit then evaluates and assesses the BCPs. Contrary, the finance department heads, handles the proposals of the non-agency departments. In cases of unresolved issues which the finance staff and departments are unable to resolve, they are handed over to the director of finance for further and detail discussions.

The governor is the only person with the mandate to handle the very sensitive issues. The finance unit harmonizes the publication of various reports consisting, the package of the governor’s budget and upon accomplishment of all departmental major decisions.

Besides, the governor’s budget, salaries and wages supplement, governor’s forecast summary and the governor’s budget highlights also included in the publication. The final ratification of unveiling the budget lies on the governor who does so at an official press meeting. Among the governor’s, key speeches are the general arrangement for management’s budget priorities and policies.

The constitution requires that the budget bill must accompany the governor’s budget listing recommendations for the new expenditures to be debated upon (Ana, 2011). The committees involved in the budget bill is varied, but mainly composed of; the congress budget team, the financial evaluation team and the senate budget team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The California’s Budget Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These committees role includes allocation of the budget bills to various subcommittees which responsible for the budget hearings, which normally takes place in late February after the issuance of the ‘analysis of the budget bill’. The common statutory budget team employs the legislative specialists together with other departmental personnel’s so as to provide a clear and precise to approvals at sub-committee stage, however, their recommendation can necessitate adjustment in the governor’s budget scheme, if a need arises.

The public and lobby groups are also open to express their views at the hearings. In cases of any occurring adjustments, the department of finance proposes through the documents commonly known as the ‘finance letters’. By April 1, the legislature should be in possession of all proposed documents, such as the May Revision and the Capital Outlay.

By May 14, the traditional May Revision adjustments are appropriate whereas, the Capital Outlay adjustments are due by May 1. The final budget decisions on major programs such as Human Services, Health, Corrections and Education can only be made after the May Revision has been updated (Ana, 2011).

A subcommittee relays its findings to the entire committee members, upon completion of its activities. After adopting the budget by the relevant committee, recommendations are outlined which forms a basis for the voting procedure. The ability of the bill to be passed depends on the majority vote system which is the two-thirds vote. Consequently, the passing of the budget bill allows the Assembly and Senate version of the bill to be analyzed and adjusted during the budget conference committee in readiness for approval in the house.

In case, a consensus in not reached within the conference committee, the unresolved issues are dealt with by the Big 5 who includes the President, the Governor, Pro Tempore, minority leaders of both houses and the Speaker of the National Assembly (Ana, 2011). Receivership of a two-thirds vote of each house validates the passage of the budget bill to the governor, who may reduce an item of appropriation.

Once the budget bill has been enacted, the department of finance publishes these three documents: final change book, final budget summary and the California state budget highlights.

In cases of changes in the budget which may be proposed by the legislature or the governor, separate bills (trailer bills) are launched to promote the changes and are heard simultaneously with the budget bill. February 1 is the date when all proposed constitutional changes which facilitates the implementation of the budget bill due (Edmund G. Brown, 2011).

The primary source for any misuse is the budget act and the expense authority is also provided by the special legislation and the constant constitutional appropriations. Departments and state agencies must work within the stipulated budget plans and must also comply with the preset standards of the legislature.

The legislature has established some flexibility measures in the budget expenditure to cope with unexpected emergencies such as natural disasters. Also, there are provisions in the legislature for budget adjustments in the budget act, which requires the consent of the Director of Finance.

Provisions which necessitate adjustment involve; variations in compensation, deficiencies, modifications to federal funding stages, and intra-item handovers. Executive orders, budget revisions and letters, are the medium through which budget changes is approved by the Department of Finance (Ana, 2011). The changes are then sent to the state controller’s office to include in its records for accounting. The governor can adjust the spending plan in-cases of emergencies but not to alter appropriations.

California state financier

The government is responsible for promoting the resources needed to facilitate the orderly process of the budget process. The government funds the budget process through the use of the state’s annual financial reservoirs. The government allocates the funds from the pooled money investment board with a key mandate of investing in the state funds.

The state allocation board is responsible for the allocation of funds for schools developments and constructions (Edmund G. Brown, 2011). The state teacher’s retirement system is mandated to infuse the system’s fund and the provision of the surveillance capital outlay projects are facilitated by the public works board.

California’s problems with the budget

According to Yeh (2010), the increase in the critical domestic economic crisis has led to major unprecedented budget, shortfall in the state of California. Each and every department and area of the California state has been crashed by this financial crisis. The increase in the deepening effect of the global recession has greatly attributed to the deteriorating state of the California economy, increasing the deficit set to high figures above $ 26 billion (Yeh, 2010).

Recommendations for solutions to California’s budget problems The legislature was submitted by the department a set of savings scheme which targeted, to deliver $334 million in General Fund savings in the financial year 2009-2010. Among the key areas that the savings plan would affect includes the following ten areas among numerous others (Yeh, 2010):

Federal funding, the federal funding system, will have to be expanded to increase the money received by the California state. The anticipated funding estimate is $78.8 million, and the department will be in partnership with the Medicaid services, federal centers for Medicare, and Medicaid services and the department of health care services (Department of Finance, 2011).

Adding of regional center operations, the overall operations of the regional center can be reduced by reducing one time regional centers, elimination of triennial quality assurance review and the elimination of the eligibility criteria for early start children.

Merging of the quality assurance studies, an improved unified quality assurance system will be enacted. The quality assurance consolidation estimates to $2.0 million.

Elimination of early start programs, an alternate program, will be established to swap for services and eligibility for early start programs.

Introduction of new services for seniors, new services which cater for, the needs of the aging consumers should be designed. Consumers who fall over the 50 age group mark to select preferred option (Department of Finance, 2011).

Reforms in the transportation sector, the regional centers to come up with alternatives to cheaper transportation solutions that are affordable to the consumers.

Works Cited Ana, J Matosantos. Department of Finance. 2008. Web.

Anagnoson, J Theodore, Bonetto, Gerald, Buck, Vincent J, Deleon, Richard, E


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Obesity is a serious disorder that must be prevented since prevention is better than cure. This is one of the most prevalent diseases in children in the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. In prevention of this disorder, physical exercises should be enhanced in small children. In both countries, seriousness in controlling this devastating calamity should be enhanced to ensure that by 2015, the affected number is decreasing instead of rising.

Every individual should be in a position of trying to control the disease. It has also been revealed that the disorder is affecting people of other ages. Proper and optimistic strategies have to be laid down to curb the problem and to save the generations to come. The health sectors in these two countries should be on the front line in controlling this epidemic and educating people (Kopelman, 2005).

After the research was conducted, effective measures in controlling this disorder were found to be optimistic if followed to the latter. If applied it will control the problem and save future generations. One of the ways is to ensure that newborns are breastfed as per the guidelines of doctors. This will help in controlling occurrence of obesity in days to come. In addition to breastfeeding, parents and children should be educated on nutritive and healthy diets (Dietz


International Marketing Plan for Tata Nano Quantitative Research Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The aim of this case study is to develop an international marketing plan for ‘Tata Nano’ the world’s lowest price car with lowest fuel consumption produced by the Tata Motors of India. To carry out the marketing plan, this report will provide historical background and cultural background of host country and give a brief overview of the company and economic analysis of home country India including an export diagnosis of the company.

Background of the Company TSL (2011) reported that the Tata group stated it journey in 1868 and now operating in eighty countries with ninety different subsidiaries with a market capitalization of US$ 100.39 billion while its 57% of the revenue comes from export. Donlan (2005) mentioned that in 2003, the hundred and forty years old group of companies announced in the Geneva Motor Show that Tata Motors would produce world’s cheapest car ’Tata- Nano’.

In 2006, Tata Motors started to establish its Nano plant at Singur of West Bengal in India by accruing 1,000 acres of land, which was disturbed by the political violence of farmers who were not willing to give agricultural land for Nano plant. After trilateral negotiation with the government political parties and entrepreneurs Tata Nano successfully came in the market in March 2009 and the market response were more than expectation due to the world’s cheapest car with highest energy efficiency both in home and abroad.

However, this brand is popularly known as a raise- engine, cheap, four- passenger city automobile and it is generally a silver bodied car. Some common features of this product include single windscreen wiper, three pull nets on wheels, single mirror without CD player or radio along with airbags and power steering and 623cc engine, etc.

The Nano has three basic models offering distinct patterns of additional values regarding without additional benefits, with air condition and with power windows along with air condition. According to the annual report 2010 of this company, its outer layout has designed by Italian Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering, and its engine configurations involve 2 cylinder petrol, value of Motronic engine, 35 PS power, 48 N.m Torque and the compression ratio of 9:5:1.

Regarding suspension, brakes and tires, the car has 180 mm of front and 180 mm of rear brake, 1315 mm of rear and 1325 mm of from track and finally, McPherson strut of front and free coil spring of rear suspension while its wheels are sized as 12 inches.

It has the average speed of 60 km/h with the maximum limit of 105 km/h a full efficiency is 23.6 km per liter; however, it is a rear wheel drive car that has 4 speeds manual spreads with automatic rack and pinion steering with 4 meters of revolving radius. Various entities supply its multiple parts among them some are Bosch, Caparo, Delphi, Ficosa, GKN, Mahle, TRW, Visteon and AG etc. (Tata Nano, 2011)

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Political factors: USA is the country that has relatively stable government with specific and advantageous business policies for foreign companies, like- Tata. Also the country’s local government already has several trading relations with various Indian vendors which would leverage the introduction of Nano into that country (USA Forum, 2011).

Economic factors: The overall economic condition of USA is very well and for this, it is considered the strongest economy in the world. Thus, Tata needs to consider a number of integral factors, like- interest rates, inflation and unemployment level and GDP etc. because those factors can positively or negatively affect the sales and profitability from the product (USA Forum, 2011).

Socio- cultural factors: It incorporates prime religion, local attitude towards imported products, projected influence of language, recreation and leisure pattern of people, environmental concern and the practice of green marketing, family pattern and life cycle etc. (USA Forum, 2011).

Technological factors: One of the prime characteristics of US consumers is that they are highly technologically advanced than many other consumers of other parts of the world. So, this factor includes customer affordability to enjoy new technology, habituation of using online distribution channel and the potential to use technology more than product differentiation as providing customer service or promotion (USA Forum, 2011).

Relevant History

Library of Congress (2004) pointed out that India is one of the Asian emerging economies that became independent in 1947 coming out from British colonial rule more than a two centuries, the country upholds multi party federal democratic system based on secularism and social justice. In context of population, India is the world’s prevalent democratic country that has successfully evidenced balance of power between the central and state government with rich diversity of nations while the country huge political unrest with a number of isolation movements.

Kujur (2008) mentioned that the remarkable political and social unrest of India has aligned with underground political organizations like Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of India, People’s War Group, Maoist Communist Centre and Naxal Movement all these go with arms straggle that seriously hampered the smooth investment environment of country.

We will write a custom Essay on International Marketing Plan for Tata Nano specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government and law enforcement agencies have to engage special effort for the unification of the country and to protect terrorist trends of communist groups and liberation activists. The major political parties who are in democratic practice are Congress- that carried out independence, BJP and Left Alliances though there are dozens of regional parties in every state with strong institutional infrastructure to protect isolation or so called liberation movement.

With far above the ground religion diversity such as Hindu, Muslim, Buddha, and Christen, Indian political system has ensured human right, freedom of speech, liberty of media, and nourishing scholars to face the challenger of globalization though there are enough evidence of emergency and presidential rule in some provinces.

In the province West Bengal where the Tata Nano plant situated, has ruled by left alliance under the leadership of communist party for more than four decades, and the Tata Motors has to face serious political disturbance with its Nano project though the government has strong support for Tata.


IndexMundi (2011) forecasted that the total population of India is approximately 1,189,172,906 in 2011 while it was 1,173,108,018 in 2010. Initially, the population growth rate was high, but not this rate is reducing dramatically, for instance, in 2004 and 2007, it was 2.91 % and 3.15% approximately and now the growth rate is 1.39%.

Figure 1: Total population of India from 2003 to 2011

Source: IndexMundi (2011)

Legal System

India is a promising market to the present corporate houses and the legal system of India is very flexible to the multinationals and new entrants as the government tries to ensure the highest possible business-friendly environment to the firms, as a result, the policy makers support to increase Foreign Direct Investments.

However, it is notable that commercial legislation regarding labor and environmental concerns are theoretically very strong, but practically practice of labor law and ethical codes is not too standard in terms of remuneration, workplace safety and compensation issues.

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For distributing Nano in the USA, the marketer can import the ‘easy- to- assemble’ kits from their home country and then the products should assemble at certain locations. After that, the company should redistribute the finished cars to the various showrooms throughout the country and fifty sales centers can be opened for this purpose (TNN, 2011).

Gross National Product (GNP) of India:

ICAI (2008) pointed out that Indian GNP[1] calculated by adding net factor incomes from foreign counties with GDP[2] and subtracting the foreigners income from India while it is equated as GNP = GDP NFIA [3]; NFIA indicates the balance of export earning and import spending.

In this process, service rendered for free of cost are not taken into account of GNP, at the same time capital gains and losses are also dropped from this calculation as they are not the consequence of concurrent economic activities of that year. During the 10th five years plan India targeted 8% GNP growth but in practically the country has gained 7.6 % while the country pointed to gain 8.5 %.

Zaman et al (2008) added that there is no particular standard to identify the gross national income in India, it has incorporated a number of factors, while the economic growth of the country are benchmarking with GNP growth, per capita income, renovation with multidimensional course of action connecting the restructuring and progress of entire economy with social systems.

At the same time in Indian, the improvements of incomes and outputs are characteristically engross with fundamental changes in institutional infrastructure, education, social and political alignments, different ethic groups along with administrative structure.

The export data of Indian statistically demonstrates noteworthy positive signs and its export are in intensifying with upper trend that point toward potency of the economy while the FDI[4] inflow in the country is a vital concern of the economy that has presented statistically momentous progress. The Indian GNP from 1990 to 2006 has demonstrated in the following table as follow-

Figure 2: Indian GNP Table 1970 – 2006

Source: Zaman et al (2008)

WUSTL (2011) pointed out that the Indian economy is the world’s eleventh largest economy with GNP of US$ 2400 billion in context of purchasing power parity while the agriculture sector contributes 25.3 %, industrial production donates 26.2 %, manufacturing segment produces 15.1 %, and rest 33.4 % contributed by the service sector.

For the country has been progressing in its GNP growth at a targeted growth of 8 % and the driving force laid behind for such achievement are the democratic society with low cost labor, vibrant capital market, and liberalized capital market and open window for foreign direct investment.

Principal Industrial Sector of India

The raising sectors of India those are aimed to compete in the global market are as biotechnology, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, iron, steel, chemicals, vehicles, entertainment, alternative energy resources, software, and information technology and the country already proved its successful footstep for IT industry while major multinational companies are deeply concerned with the Indian market.

WUSTL (2011) also added that the major growth driver of Indian economy and the biggest asset for future growth is its competent people while the population of the country has been growing at 1.8% per year with increasing education rate and the domestic customer market is growing 5 to 10 percent per annum.

Principal Exports

Johansson (2008) stated that exporting means the promotion and direct sells of locally manufactured products in the foreign market and it is a well-developed and conventional form of strategy to capture international markets.

As a result, export is the core basis of revenue for the India’s financial system because it generates huge amount of money from this segment and earning from exports is increasing per year, for instance, India’s net exports earning was approximately $168.2 billion in 2010 whereas economists estimate $201 billion in current year (IndexMundi, 2010). However, the following figure demonstrates the actual figure of exports from 2003 to 2011 –

Fiscal Year Total Imports ($billion) Rank 2003 44.50 32 2004 57.24 31 2005 69.18 33 2006 76.23 33 2007 112.00 29 2008 151.30 25 2009 176.40 25 2010 168.20 21 2011 201.00 22 Figure 3: Net Exports

Source: IndexMundi (2011)

Trade Deficits

Library of Congress (2004) India’s negative trade balance has grown gradually from last three decades such as in 2010 exports were $168.20 billion and imports were $253.90 billion, resultant Trade Deficits were of $85.7 billion whereas Indexmundi (2011) estimated that this negative balance of trade would be more than $126 billion.

Figure 4: Surplus or Trade Deficits

Source: Trading Economics (2011)

Cultural Analysis Education and literacy rates:

The US government is basically responsible for providing education with three sectors of funds as state, federal and local. More than 77% people have completed their educational life from kindergarten to graduation level. Among the adults, more than 85% have finished their high school level and 27% have completed bachelor’s degree or more.

This sophisticated educational background of the country is an optimistic factor for Nano since education assists knowledge and such knowledge would help US customers to understand the technical and general superiority of the car. For example, the white color car purchasers would be highly conscious about the safety issue of a car rather than any other configurations. In this regard, Nano would be able to gain much of their attention because of its careful safety arrangements (USA Forum, 2011).

Social classes

In USA, social class is a mixture of educational achievement, occupational and income sovereignty that influences its culture highly. In general, there are three layers of social classes as high, medium and low. The upper section involves in luxury consumptions and leisure. The middle class is commonly identified as the educated class having some key values.

Although their budget is limited, they often have more opportunity to enjoy more travels and vacation. They want to have such consumptions which can be obtained at lowest price and yield in highest return. They are not at economy level but they are to maintain economy at their living. The working class is the top sufferer of economic vulnerability.

This class and many middle class individuals frequently face job downsize. Moreover, the US workforce is highly productive as the average per week working hour is above 40 hours (USA Forum, 2011). In these circumstances, the Nano can be offered for the middle and especially the low class segment of US society.

Since the car is positioned as an affordable item for all, this segment can easily find it suitable for both purchase and usage. The middle class would also prefer it by considering the economy along with the competitive advantages offered by the Nano (USA Forum, 2011).

Belief system

Most of the Americans commonly believe in equal opportunity for all in the society. Here, the concept of individuality and self- expression are highly emphasized. Competition is also a common thought which is practiced by progressive attitude for improvement. For them, tradition is less valuable as they trust in rationality rather than emotion for taking any decision.

This attitude is motivating for Nano as if they find it better than other American cars; they would be interested for buying this car. The integral parts and other value added features of Nano would be able to attract the rational sense of satisfaction of local customers (Virtual USA, 2011).


Above 97% of Americans speak in English although there are above 300 native languages. Some other commonly used native languages are Spanish, Indo- European, Pacific Islander and Asian languages etc. The American dialect is called American English which has 4 major divisions involving south, north- eastern, mid- western and inland north.

Both local and immigrants use English as a common language that acts as the symbol of cultural integration and can also influence the performance of Nano. Language can act as common form of promotional device for Nano. For example, one customer can express his/ her positive feeling about the car to another one by using language and thus form viral marketing (USA Forum, 2011).

Living conditions and leisure

Housing is a prime factor of living conditions. In urban areas of USA, most of the families live in semi- attached houses and apartments. Existence of dwelling houses, business units, shopping malls and educational institutes as a single unit is also common here. Urban dwellers also need to have more travel by mass transportation while children are familiar for walking or driving bicycle than rural areas.

Life is comparatively busy and hasty in urban areas rather than rural ones. Thus, the small, city car image of Nano would be highly meaningful for accelerating such pattern of busy life. Since having a personal transport is very essential regarding the American living standard, the evolvement of Nano can satisfy such requirement with its size, engine and speed etc. (Virtual USA, 2011).

The Americans undertake a number of activities during their weekly holidays and vacations. Around the year, outdoor is the most common form of enjoying leisure. Some other forms of holiday activities are hiking, sailing, skiing, camping and mount riding etc. Participation of professional and non- professional sports is equally well- known there. The role of a private car is significant for enjoying that different types of leisure tasks, especially for outdoor.

For many small families having the maximum members of 4 and single college or university students who want to spend their weekend at hill top, river side or jungle camp, Tata Nano would be the perfect choice regarding the overall size, passenger capacity and longevity of the car. Its 4 wheel driving condition would also be preferred by those who want to pass their vacation on rough hilly areas (USA Forum, 2011).

Music and folklore

Among a number of versions, American young generations and teens basically prefer rocking and cheerful music. This is particularly true when they go for a long drive alone or accompanied by some friends or simply enjoy a party.

Folklore has also various dimensions regarding patriotism or fascination for cultural values which can be a symbol of expressive culture. Since the choice of music and orientation of folklore can significantly affect customer’s preference and attitude towards a product, both those factors would be notable for the US market expression of Nano (Virtual USA, 2011).


There are some other cultural elements that should be considered for Tata Nano in USA. Such as-

Family patterns: Divorce is a common phenomenon of American culture. Almost all the Americans commonly face this incident at least once in their life. For this, the trend of living in a single father or single mother family is increasing. Many also remarry; having kids and then continues a nuclear family. Thus, the specialization and features of Nano are adjustable for meeting the need of such families. Moreover, its low price offer would also be attractive towards those families (USA Forum, 2011).

Fashion: Americans believe in flexibility and informality as a part of their fashion whether it is for clothing, eating, traveling or driving. This simplicity would be effective for expanding the market of Nano as the car integrates most of the mandatory parts and eliminates several common but less necessary items, like- CD player (Virtual USA, 2011).

Culture of automobiles: In USA, the evolvement of sub- urban areas and the need of working class for communicating with cities are accelerating the need of having a private car. In almost all the states of USA, people have their own automobiles whether the brand or price would be. So, in this situation, the Nano poses a wide market potential since the car can be offered for a larger group of people for whom it is one of their primary needs (USA Forum, 2011).

Evaluation of the Possible Success of Product

The growth rate of the world economy declined from 5.2% in 2007 to 3.2% in 2008 because of global financial downturn and this crisis has started from the US market. The impact of this economic downturn was severe in this market as many companies has collapsed or insolvent due to liquidity crisis of Banks, corporate frauds or other financial management problems.

On the other hand, Banks had not interested to provide car loan because of increasing number of unemployment rate and unstable market condition, which increased the risk of failure to pay back. As a result, it was difficult for the middle class people to purchase large and luxuries cars within their budget and this force creates the opportunity for the small car manufactures to enter the developed countries with their low cost products.

However, Ruddick (2009) in The Telegraph reported that the largest automobile market has fallen dramatically due to recessionary pressure regarding unstable oil prices and lower employment ratio. In addition, market leader General Motors has also experienced unfortunate loss as in 2009, GM’s sales have been lowered by 30% than 2008 and this company had fired international white- collar payroll from 73000 to 63000 with downsizing of 3400 US employees (General Motors, 2010).

However, the market position of GM has declined with the overall market demand after 2008, but it is important to mention that Toyota and other companies have already stared to manufacture small cars in order to create market demand for small sized products and the customers have showed positive response.

On the other hand, IFC (2011) reported that the government of US is not interested to establish foreign companies by FDI, but this crisis must influence the government to reduce tax for foreign companies and flexible entry requirements. As a result, it can assume that the market would be profitable for Tata Nano as the market share of these Japanese companies is increasing in this market.

Characteristics of the Possible Market

The new entrants enjoy huge facilities and greater flexibility in this market because it is the greatest and most technologically dominant economy in the globe.

According to the report of IFC (2011) and Indexmundi (2011), this is the right place for developing products or expanding existing business though newcomers have to face high competition with other entry barriers, but the per capita GDP US$47,400 would minimize these risks. Indexmundi (2011) estimated that more that 12% people of US below poverty line and more than 4.43% Asian migrants who have straggle to sustain in this country.

They also need transportation facilities, but they have not enough money to fulfill their demand, so, they can purchase Tata Nano as it is a comfortable, safe, well-weathered, low emission, and high fuel efficient model. On the other hand, Indexmundi (2011) reported that the unemployment rate is increasing day-by-day, for instance, present unemployment rate of the US is 9.3%, which was 5.8% in 2003.

However, increase rate of unemployment influences the current market position and purchasing power of customers in many ways, such as, bank would not ensure large fund for car. At the same time, middle class and higher class people would like to purchase luxury cars, but there are many small families and single person who also buy small car for their regular uses or reduce fuel costs.

However, there are many companies (like McDonalds, KFC, Fedex, and so on) those offer home delivery services and these companies require transportation system, therefore, local multinational companies can be potential target market of Tata Nano.

Description and Characteristics of Competition

Tata Motors has to compete with numerous direct and indirect auto manufacturers though it is one of the most prominent and the largest markets in the world. However, this company may face hard competition from some other alternative transportation besides large and small, for instance, a significant part of the community use public transportation like bus, railways, trams and so on.

According to the annual report 2010 of Tata, international business of the company had adversely affected by the financial crisis in the main markets, but its’ integrate market share of small vehicle sector has increased by 13.3% and developed brand image in global market.

However, this brand has to face instance competition in local market as many companies like Maruti Suzuki Ltd and Bajaj Auto produce small cars, but Tata Nano has to compete with other multinational like General Motors, Hyundai, and Toyota, which are now manufacturing small cars to compete with Nano to attract middle class customers (Tata Nano, 2011).

Tata Nano’s Distribution in the US Market

Noronha (2005) pointed out that Tata Group has long integration with US market from early 1900s with a huge segment of product and services while the company has enlisted in the New York Stock Exchange with eighty offices all over the USA with ten thousand employments, thus Tata Motors would get some competitive advantage to establish distribution channel for Tata Nano.

Tata Nano being the world’s lowest price car, has a great market demand in rural and urban low-income level people under the current recessionary economy, thus it would be suitable for the company to adopt free distribution channel rather than engaging territorial distributor. The company would first establish at least five sales and service centre covering the US market and all car distributors of US market arte entitled to collect Tata Nano from these points for their customers.

Every distributor would facilitate with handsome commission package depending on their sales volume. The Economic Times (2011) reported that the Tata Motors has already gained a good customer base by purchasing British Auto Company for its Jaguar Land Rover that has an existing market in the US territory.

To distributing Tata Nano, the company has the opportunity to involve the distribution channel of Jaguar Land Rover that would provide a strong distribution with less effort. It has predicted from the car dealer study that such a low price car with low fuels consumption – 54 miles for each gallon of gas would be preferable for the US market even if the price stands at US$ 10,000 and a large number of dealers are interested to act as Tata Nano’s distributor.

Advertising, Promotion and Media used to communicate Product

Tata Motors Ltd is going to undertake several strategic methods in order to boost its sales-configuration in existing market as well as to aware people of prospective market about the features of the products. However, its advertising strategies are now focusing on gratifying and impressing the people who put across abhorrence over Tata’ cars, but the advertising policy for the US market should different from existing market to create market demand with strong market position.

Therefore, the marketer of Tata Nano Brand should consider effective media and promotional strategies to communicate with the customers to develop loyal customer base in the US small car market. However, the marketer will arrange integrated marketing communications (IMC) campaign to aware people about the advantage of this brand to save the environment from air pollution and to get economic benefit in this recessionary period.

As the promotional strategy of the Tata Motors varies in accordance with changing consumer attitudes, demands, and other external factors, the marketer should mainly consider the environmental, socio-cultural and economical factors of the US market in order to arrange IMC campaign and other promotional activities.

Media Plan Key Features Web site Initially, the marketers of Tata Nano will require to find out the web designers or programmers to design an excellent Website with integration of latest software because the US customer mostly collect information from the web content and they also ask feedback by using the company’s website. As a result, they will highlight the main features of the model, key advantage to purchase this car, environmental concern, materials, safety measures and so on; You Tube Nowadays, TV. YouTube was launched in the year of 2005 as a video sharing website which allows users to download, upload, and view as well as share videos, but it is now the most popular and successful website of video sharing service in the cyber world. In addition, YouTube was providing over two billion videos per day, which is almost twice as many as the prime-time audience of all three main US television networks together; therefore, it could replace the traditional television and become the new television Social Networking Site As social networking sites contributed significantly over Tata’s marketing activities, it will use social networking sites like Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and Linkedin in order to attract more customers in the US zone; Billboard and Hoardings these can be every powerful media if the company can utilize this media by conducting proper market research Television Advertising is a type of communication that continuously imposes into people’s daily lives though people do not pay much attention to it, its form of persuasion, and of the extent how it manipulates the culture. At the same time, the Therefore, the marketer will use this media as one of the most effective sources to create customer attention; Radio The cost of advertisement in radio is lower than television, therefore, Tata Motors can also use this media to advertise its Tata Nano Brand Search Engine link in Google, yahoo, MSN and other sites are useful promotional tools for Tata Motors; Newspaper Advertisement in the newspaper is also effective tools Table 1: Media Plan for Tata Nano in the US market

Source: Self generated

Price Range for Competing Products

Conklin (2005) reported that the entry of Japanese auto makers like Toyota, Honda and Nisan have already reduced the market share of the General Motors, and Volkswagen by creating strong customer base in the US car market by using low cost strategies.

At the same time, Tata Nano is the cheapest car brand in the world, which has long experience to enter new market and capture large share within short period using different strategies beside pricing strategy. However, different company setup the price range considering different factors such as market competition, production costs, direct margin, purchasing power of the customers and many other factors.

As Tata Nano is marketed with lowest price structure, it can assume that it will ask cheapest price in the US market though the price would be comparatively higher than the price of other Asian countries. However, the rationale behind this pricing strategy would be included the extra costs to incorporate new features to decrease CO2 emissions and increase the safety measure in the model of Tata Nano.

According to the annual report 2010 of Tata Motors, the price of this brand is only $2500 for international market, but this price changes considering the specific requirements of the markets and external environment, such as, the price of Tata Nano is higher in EU zone. However, Ramesh (2009) reported in The Guardian that the company would develop the European Nano to fulfill the requirements of the USA market in terms of higher safety standards includes airbags and antilock brakes.

As a result, Tata Nano will set up the price of this brand considering EU market where the additional features make this brand more expensive. However, the company can ask $6,000 to $6500 to introduce this brand in the US market because Ramesh (2009) reported it has already asked more than ₤4000 in the EU market.

Market Size and Sales Estimates

According to the data of the World Street Journal, the US market is really potential to the small and Eco friendly car makers. However, WSJ (2011) reported that about 546,687 cars were sold in the US market in May 2011, among these cars 196,498 were small sized.

However, it is important to note that the prospect of small cars is better than luxury cars or large cars in this market because the auto makers aggregate sale volume was only 73,566 luxury cars and 5,962 large cars in May 2011 (WSJ, 2011). Considering this fact, it can be estimated that the annual sale of small cars would be approximately 2357616 units. However, total car market size is also depend on the

On the other hand, the customer behavior of the US market has changed due to the global financial crisis and development of the consciousness about the difficulties of large cars. The recessionary impacts derived the customers to purchase cars at low price and this force influenced small car producers to enter this market. Therefore, it would be easy to Tata Motors to capture large market share of the US car markets with their Tata Nano product.

As this company needs to invest large amount of fund to enter this market, it is important to estimate approximate sales volume in order to avoid market risks. However, this report suggests that Tata Motors should enter the US market with small sales target at the initial stage, for instance, it sales target should 10000 units per month or 120000 units per year. The actual car sales of first year will direct the company to take further step to increase sales volume in this market.

Recommendations From the above discussion, Tata Motors should enter the US market with Tata Nano brand as it has designed and manufactured in such way which assures the low budget customers to purchase a better quality, small size and fashionable car.

On the other hand, the biggest competitive advantage of Nano is its cost cutting features would help the company to create market in the post-recessionary period. Since the company is thinking to renovate the electric version of the car, it is also possible that such electric version would become the least expensive electric automobile with a range of 130 km and lithium- ion batteries.

In addition, the marketers of Tata think that the Nano is safe as the car incorporates some especial features, such as, side arm mirror for passenger, no airbags and wrinkle zone. As the US people highly concern on safety issue, all of these criteria help to have a safe driving at Nano than any other forms of two- wheel cars.

Reference List Conklin, D. C. (2005) General Motors: Acting Strategically. Ortario: Richard Ivey School of Business.

Donlan, T. (2005). Recent History of Tata Motors (TTM). Web.

General Motors (2010) Annual Report 2010 of General Motors Company. Web.

ICAI (2008) National Income India: Concept and Measurement. Web.

IFC (2011) United States: Doing Business 2011 – Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs. Web.

Indexmundi (2011) Country profile of India. Web.

Indexmundi (2011) United States Population below poverty line. Web.

Kujur, R. (2008). Naxal Movement in India: A Profile. Web.

Library of Congress (2004) Country profile India. Web.

Noronha, C. (2005) Good tidings. Web.

Ramesh, R. (2009) Tata Nano: World’s cheapest car is India’s answer for cash-strapped drivers. The Guardian.Web.

Tata Nano (2011). Annual Report 2010 of Tata Nano. Web.

The Economic Times (2011) Tata Motors puts Jaguar, Land Rover back on track. Web.

Trading Economics (2011) India Balance of Trade. Web.

TSL (2011) Leadership with trust. Web.

USA Forum. (2011). United States of America. Web.

Virtual USA. (2011). USA Culture. Web.

WSJ. (2011) Sales and Share of Total Market by Manufacturer. Web.

WUSTL. (2011). Doing Business in India – the Indian way. Web.

Zaman, K. Aman, Q.


Why might a person need to go through significant personal changes to be an effective essay help online

A change, like a rest, stands out as one among the many inevitable things based on how it manifests itself in the field f leadership especially for those who target at becoming reliable leaders. Yes, they must make significant personal adjustments to ensure that they remain in hand towards leading that formidable unit, whose effectiveness burns down to whoever stands in the helm. There exist several reasons as to why such changes in most cases prove inevitable.

Effective leaders lead by example thus becoming the first people to set the tunes of the things they want their people to do or rather portray. For instance, if one expects his/her team to follow a specific dress code of which he/she does not adhere to, there stands a very high probability of the people he/she leads not grasping the importance of such a code.

Striking a perfect balance between compassionate and firm leadership proves inevitable for effective leaders. Effective leaders show humane concern to their teams’ problems yet remain careful not to compromise productivity.

Being approachable and accommodative are other traits common in an effective team leader (Daft, 2010, p.23). As the head, one must make sure that he/she has the ability to accommodate the different ways of doing things. For instance, some people will take longer to learn or do what others will do in a flash. It proves not the leader’s place therefore to criticize an individual’s pace or mode of learning. Instead, he/she needs a good deal of practice concerning how he/she ought to appreciate people’s discrepancies.

People expect magnanimity of everyone joining the ranks of team leadership (Mann, 1959, p.247). They will always require him/her to give credit where it stands due rewarding efforts made by individuals in his/her team. Effective leaders cultivate for and earn loyalty from their team.

He/she therefore has to modify his character to fit into the shoes of the people he/she leads in order to achieve this loyalty. Remember, the team will only stand by its leader if he/she too stands by it. Thus, the easier it is for the person to gain that dedication, trust and loyalty positively, the higher the chances of him/her becoming an effective leader.

As a result, actual changes will come in handy in the journey towards achieving the aforementioned effective leadership. For instance, a leader needs to adjust his/her actions and behaviors to conform to what he/she expects from the team. “The manager leads the group and the group agree to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal” (Burns, 1978, p.13).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rules are supposed to transcend above individuals for them to function fully. A leader ought to manifest a change concerning his/her style of dealing with people. Therefore, he/she needs to establish himself/herself, not necessarily as a leader, but as a member of the team with which he/she leads.

When conducting a team meeting, he/she should make it all-inclusive asking the team members for opinions and suggestions. “First, listen then offer solutions but when you ask for their opinions let it not just be a formality, instead dedicate yourself to working the issues out” (Stogdill, 1948, p.40).

An effective leader ought to change his/her perceptions towards giving or rewarding. He/she should view it not as a loss but an added advantage that boosts the performance as well as corporation in the team. A reliable leader should prove more approachable.

People will always come for solutions at their convenience without considering the flipside of the situation. He/she foster calmness and professionalism avoiding lashing out in frustration at his/her team members. Leadership is no doubt an art and like all arts, it requires perfection. Either way adjustments have to be made for efficiency to be achieved.

Reference List Burns, M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.

Daft, R. (2010). The Leadership Experience. Britain: Southwestern Educational Publishing.

Mann, R. (1959). A Review of the Relationship between Personality and Performance in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241-270.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Why might a person need to go through significant personal changes to be an effective team leader? What are some of the changes required? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stogdill, R. (1948). Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35-71.


Insurance and Negligence Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

What is negligence According to insurance policy, negligence is defined as any instance that on the part of the policy holder’s that could be blamed for the incidence that occurred, when there is negligent, then the incident was not merely from an accident, but some reluctance, ignorance or anything or such manner can be proved on the part of the policy holder’s.

Depending with the insurance contact engaged, the insurer could cover the loss resulting from a negligence of the policyholder to a certain percentage or alternatively refuse to cater for any loss therein. To prove that a policyholder was negligent, there are four main elements to a negligent, they are:

Existence of a legal duty to use reasonable care The insurer must prove that the policyholder by the terms and conditions of the contract was under legal obligation to take good care of the situation or the subject matter to avoid any case of damage. When signing an insurance policy, there are some conditions that are special to a particular case, in the case that they offer some duty of care to the policyholder, then in case of an incidence that occurred from the bleach of the duty of care, then the case can be said to be a case of negligence.

Failure to perform that duty An insurance policy has some preset conditions that calls for some actions, certain behavior or certain way of handing situation on the side of the policyholder to enforce the contract. In the case that the policyholder has ignored or not performed the duty, then it can be concluded as a case of negligence and the contact can have issues in enforceability. failure to perform that duty can result to negligence and non-compensation of the policyholder.

Damages or injury to the claimant To prove a case of negligence, there must have some damages that have been suffered because of the negligence, in the case of an insurance policy, the subject matter that had been issued must have been damaged or the peril that was insured against must have occurred.

When the damage has occurred, the policyholder will be seeking to enforce the contract and get compensation that is the challenging part of the story; he suffered the damage, but the complainant (the insurance at this level) is claiming that there have been some negligence, thus the damage not enforceable. The insurer assumes that if the policyholder had taken such enough care, then the damage would not have occurred.

Proximate cause relationship between the negligent act and the infliction of damages Under this heading, the law assumes that some acts on the side of the policyholder that might have triggered another thing that is responsible for the damage. In this case, there is the inclusion of third parties or other activities to functions that might be blamed for the damage. When proving this point, the insurance body must show the cause of events and the relationship that occurred in the entire situation to have the damage occur.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The assumption of this element is that a damage can occur but there is not direct influence of the policyholder if the matters of the case are analyzed, then it can be seen that the policy holder was involved in the situation indirectly; the indirect involvement is the prove of negligence.


United States Citizens Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents History of Citizenship

United States Citizenship

Mexican Immigrants

Kurds in Syria

United Arab Emirates Citizenship

Bidoun in Kuwait



Citizenship is the ability of a person to be considered a citizen of a given political and social community. Social contract theory states that when a person has a citizenship status, he is given rights and responsibilities. Active citizenship, therefore, means that all citizens are supposed to strive toward making their community better.

This can be done through activities such as active participation in economic activities, volunteer duties, and also engaging in other public duties. A person normally acquires citizenship if he or she satisfies the legal principles in a certain state or country. A citizen is expected to adhere to the laws that are practiced in his or her country and he should also defend his country against its enemies.

Citizenship generally defines how citizens should relate with their government. The concept of citizenship is treated differently in various nations. “In some countries, citizenship can mean a citizen has the right to vote, the right to hold government offices, and the right to receive certain protection from the community, as well as obligation” (Schama, 1990).

For instance, “Australia citizens are allowed to participate in voting, they can contest for public office, and they can also join the military if they are willing” (Akramov, 2009). The fact that a person is residing in a given country does not make him to be considered a citizen of that country. An individual that has migrated to another country is always considered to be an alien.

The rights and obligations of aliens are normally defined by the laws of the country where they live. For example, if an individual moves to U.S.A, he will be expected to behave like other normal U.S citizens. In this case, he will have to pay taxes, also adhere to the laws. Legal aliens may be protected by the law, and they can also acquire property and carry out business activities. However, aliens are not allowed to participate in political processes such as voting.

Citizenry refers to all categories of citizens. “In modern times, citizenship is divided between right of blood and right of soil nations” (Romero, 2005). Right of blood in this case means that a person is given citizenship on the basis of nation state concept and this is common in Europe.

For example, an individual may be considered a citizen due to his ancestral or ethnic background in that country. On the other hand, the right of soil refers to a situation in which an individual acquires citizenship by virtue of having been born in a given territory or nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage is one of the ways through which an individual can acquire citizenship. Naturalization is also another process that can be used to get citizenship in some nations. “In recent years, some intergovernmental organizations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens in their constituent countries” (Akramov, 2009).

Citizenship education is today taught in many countries as part of the school syllabus. This is always meant to make citizens know what is expected of them as citizens. It also enables students to learn more about their rights and obligations. Citizenship curriculum gives students conviction and confidence in order for them to relate with others properly, and bring positive changes in their communities. Last but more importantly, it teaches students to be responsible both morally and socially.

History of Citizenship Even though historical development indicates that democracy has developed to be a fundamental spect of modern social organization, the concept of democratic citizenship has always been suppressed, in the process of developing democratic processes. Citizenship is believed to have started in ancient Greece when a constitutional government was introduced in the city states.

The concept of democratic citizenship or classic model of democracy started in Greece. It enabled citizens to participate in governing their states. “This means that governance was citizenship and citizenship was governance” (Manville, 1990). Citizenship was also seen as part of achieving maturity. It was only citizens that could be regarded as adult members of society, and people could only become adults through citizenship. Rosenberg contends that Solan is the one who introduced citizenship.

Solon stressed on equality of all members of society. He noted that the rich individuals always used their wealth to influence and dominate people. He saw democracy as the only viable means of reversing inequality. Pesistrator is another individual who improved the rights that were accorded to the ordinary man. Apart from this, he also introduced nobility which was practiced with reference to the law.

In the fourth century, Cleisthenes developed classical democracy. He achieved this by raising the number of Athenian tribes from four to ten. In this case, each tribe appointed its leader. People were also clustered into units, and this facilitated the formation of new tribes. During the practice of classic democracy, the idea of citizenship was exercised both at family and neighborhood levels. As civic institutions became prominent, citizenship became increasingly necessary.

A citizen had to be an Athenian or if an individual was an Athenian he was regarded as a citizen. The behavior of an individual also became apparent in private and public spheres. Being part of a family determined ones citizenship. Non Athenians could only be citizens if they joined a given family or tribe. Aristotle defined a citizen as a person who participated or contributed to the decisions and development of his city.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United States Citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to him, a citizen is one who has been born by two citizens. He also stated that a responsible citizen should be in a position to rule others, and he should also be ready to be ruled by other individuals. He considered this to be a virtue. A citizen should also engage in state politics. Democracy in Greece remained weak and incomplete until 1789.

Development of citizenship is normally classified into two phases. The first phase preceded the French Revolution, while the second one emerged after the French Revolution. In the first phase, a person was only a citizen if he participated in politics and development. In Sparta, land was not regarded as a prerequisite for acquiring citizenship. Moreover, only few people could be allowed to vote and occupy public office in Sparta.

Citizenship was also treated as a privilege in both Sparta, and Athens. The only difference was that there was a great struggle against democracy in Sparta. The Greeks also encouraged self government. Nonetheless, their democracy was not effective and it was partially practiced. Self government led to coexistence among subcultures. This form of ethnic allegiance is still manifested even today in those countries.

In 509 B.C., the people in Rome started constructing a new empire based on laws and citizenship was considered important. The introduction of the new empire brought the monarchy to an end. Despite the making of the Roman Empire a republic, they failed to practice democratic principles.

The Roman Empire was based on democratic universal citizenship of free men, and a stoic notion of the universal brother hood of mankind. “Greece provided participatory citizen democracy, while Rome provided universal citizenship” (West, 1979). This gave rise to two different concepts about citizenship, which were both adopted in U.S.A. The first set of democracy refers to citizens’ service as well as allegiance to the country.

The second one is about the rights and privileges that citizens are given. In this case, the citizens also have some obligations. For example, they can contribute in government decision making and implementation. In Rome, citizenship was not restricted to the people who were born within its territory.

However, this was not the case in Athens where citizenship was only granted to the people who were born there. The Romans allowed foreigners to acquire their citizenship. In Rome, individuals who had active citizenship were supposed to offer a service of twenty days to the government within a year.

The development and spread of Christianity in Rome also influenced citizenship. Christianity changed how the Romans perception of life, hence, it also affected their values. Christianity advocated for a different loyalty. It encouraged people to be loyal to themselves and the church rather than being loyal to the government. Civic virtue and the value of citizenship waned as the Christian values became more prminent. Nonetheless, citizenship was still able to thrive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on United States Citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “The second concept of citizenship was encouraged by the writings of Montaigne, Bacon, Shakespeare, Hobbes, Locke, and Franklin” (Rousseau, 1968). Citizenship was also able to develop due to economic advancement of the people in Europe. The reformation period also partly contributed to the development of citizenship.

Althusius also reinforced the idea that a person is made a citizen through the service he offers to the society. He also introduced modern federalism. Aliens became protected by the laws of England from the seventeenth century. They were allowed to acquire land, but the king still had the power to use land. This sparked protests from citizens, but the protests were not very serious.

In France, the middle ages also experienced much focus on protection of citizens in exchange for taxes. This system continued even during renaissance. For example, Montesquieu described the obligations of a citizen and he also defined citizenship in terms of liberty and equality.

Rousseau also talked about the ideas of Montesquieu and he also came up with his thoughts about the virtuous citizen. Rousseau envisaged a new society that would have equality, and civism. He also emphasized on the need for education. He felt that liberty would only thrive if people were educated. Rousseau’s emphasis on education also led to the development of republicanism.

Hobbes and Locke analyzed citizenship in terms of civic virtue of the society. Hobbes stressed on the influence of a person in the society. On the hand, Locke stressed on a person’s role acquiring resources and also assisting the government. Montesquieu believed that a good citizen is one that bides to the rules, is loyal, and also productive.

Development of liberalism led to the practice of democracy by the people in America. “Liberal concepts such as individualism, republicanism, liberty, equality, and fairness were embraced” (Hobsbawm, 1996). Dietz highlighted the liberal concepts as follows.

Liberal thinking leads to economic advancement. Society should provide an opportunity to people so that they can realize their potential. Individuals are the ones that benefit from formal right and those rights are supposed to be accessed by everyone on an equal basis. People also have the capacity to think rationally hence they have intrinsic worth. “The shortcomings of liberalism can be identified in the legal concepts of rights, interests, contracts, individualism, and negative liberty” (Anderson, 2006).

After French Revolution there was a tremendous growth of democracy and citizenship in Europe. American democracy was developed from the classic ideas of citizenship. Democracy and citizenship have to day become part of Americans’ traditions. As western civilization advanced, democracy, and citizenship were also influenced. The struggle for dominance between the church and the state also jeopardized the development of democracy and citizenship.

The monarchy also tried to sustain its power and this also frustrated citizenship and democracy. As civilization and Christianity gained popularity, the citizenship thoughts and democracy that had been initially suppressed began to thrive. The monarchy was retained in England and it ruled through parliament.

However, the idea of allegiance emerged in America, and it led to the creation of self government and democracy. Democratic government was able to flourish through the citizenship values. Today the pioneer spirit is still continuing, and the Americans still strive for more democratic space as John Dewey envisaged.

United States Citizenship In America, citizenship started during the period of colonialism. During this time, people came together to find solutions to the common challenges that they faced. Apart from this, they also actively engaged in decision making. For example, they could attend public debates where democratic issues were always discussed.

This kind of relationship was altered by some issues and one of them was the need to grow economically. Therefore, people stopped contributing toward decision making. Citizenship became more articulated in terms of rights and privileges and people no longer saw it in terms of political participation.

Citizenship in U.S enables the citizens to enjoy various opportunities which are provided to them through the rights and privileges. For example, they can get federal assistance and they also have access to services offered by the government. “Citizenship in the United States is a status given to individuals that entails specific rights, duties, privileges, and benefits between the United States and the individual” (Huntington, 2004).

The constitution has a citizenship clause that defines how a person can acquire citizen. Therefore, citizenship can be obtained through the following mechanisms. Birth right citizenship is normally offered when a child is born within the territory of U.S. This provision is found in the fourteenth amendment. This amendment states that a person an individual that is born or naturalized within the U.S is considered its citizen and he or she must respect the laws.

Children who have not attained the minimum age of eighteen years are normally not allowed to vote because they are minors. Eighteen years is the age at which children are given the right to have full citizenship. A person’s citizenship remains intact until he dies, unless it is revoked by the government through a legal procedure.

Citizenship is part of the high school course work, and it is meant prepare students to become responsible citizens. Maternity citizenship has been debated and some people consider it to be a loophole through which some people acquire citizenship. In this case, some people claim that some women normally move to U.S illegally so that they can have a chance to reproduce and claim citizenship. Illegal immigrants have increased because of maternity citizenship.

Naturalization is the second means of acquiring citizenship. In this case, a person who was born in another territory that is not part of U.S can be granted citizenship through successful application. An applicant for citizenship is supposed to meet the following conditions. First, he should be law abiding and also morally upright. Secondly, he must have stayed in the country for not less than five years. The applicant should be able to interpret the constitution.

In addition to these, he should know English. They are also supposed to do and pass a compulsory citizenship test. Immigrants who are willing to serve in the military can be allowed to be citizens. Citizens’ contribution to civic activities is not obligatory in U.S. For example, there is no need for a person to attend public gatherings. Even being a member of a certain political party is not important. Some scholars contend that such a trend is likely to affect the future of democracy.

Dual citizenship is a situation where a person legally belongs to many nations. American law enables people to acquire multiple citizenships.

In this case, if a person is a U.S citizen, he can still go to another country and acquire another citizenship. A citizen can renounce or restore his or her citizenship depending on an individual’s choice. A person who is naturalized in U.S is supposed to renounce the citizenship he had before. “However, this renunciation may not necessarily be considered effective by the country of prior citizenship” (Einstein, 2001).

Some people contend that dual citizenship affects patriotic assimilation of Americans and it may also undermine American sovereignty. Nonetheless, the effects of dual citizenship are perceived to be less pernicious by others. Dual citizenship also enables the people who have it own property and work.

Honorary citizenship can be granted in exceptional cases to specific individuals who have demonstrated outstanding services to the country. Seven citizenships of this kind have been warded. For example, Mother Teresa and Sir Winston Churchill are among the few individuals who got honorary citizenship. The relatives of non- citizen soldiers who have died fighting for U.S can be given some assistance.

American citizenship is really valued by many people especially the immigrants who really struggle to get. This is because citizens have access to so many privileges and rights that can enable them to live comfortably. Such rights may not be found in other countries and this indicates the varying nature of citizenship in different territories. Aliens normally do not benefit from some privileges. For example, they usually do not have access to better employment and government services.

Mexican Immigrants Apart from U.S citizens, there are many individuals who work and live U.S illegally. Such individuals do not have proper reasons and documentations for being in that country. They are therefore treated as illegal immigrants. “Illegal immigration has numerous and complex causes, but in general, it consists of people from poor countries seeking a better life opportunities in more developed countries” (Romero, 2005).

Illegal migrations are not allowed because they normally lead to many challenges in the countries where they move to. In U.S illegal immigrants can face many charges including deportation if they are detected by the authorities.

Mexico is the largest source of immigrants in U.S. and one fifth of the total population of legal immigrants living America, are Mexicans. Their large number is attributed to the revision of immigration acts, which have made migration to U.S quite easy. Most of the illegal immigrants in U.S are also from Mexico.

The number of illegal immigrants from Mexico is also growing very fast compared to the ones that are having proper documents. “Migration from Mexico to the United States has accelerated rapidly to the point where about nine percent of the population born in Mexico is now living in the United States” (Huntington, 2004).

This trend is not likely to reduce any soon despite economic decline and the tight security measures that have been adopted to check on illegal migrations. Most of illegal immigrants are always trying to secure better financial opportunities by looking for jobs and good social services in U.S. This is because many people in Mexico do not have access to formal employment, and decent services.

Poverty is also prevalent in Mexico, and this encourages most of them to move out of the country. When some jobs are created in their country, they can never meet the ever growing demand for employment opportunities. The jobs in Mexico are also having low payments with poor incentives.

The distance between Mexico and United States is also short and it contributes to the high rate of immigrants from Mexico. At present, Mexicans form a substantial population in U.S and they have also developed an influential social group in U.S. “Mexican American culture will continue to shape U.S. life in language, politics, food, and daily living and will help define the nation’s identity for a new century” (Huntington, 2004).

Kurds in Syria Among the minority tribes in Syria, Kurds are the largest and they occupy approximately ten percent of the population in the country. Majority of Kurds is Sunni Muslims. In addition to this, there are also Yazidi and Yarsan Kurds. A few of them are Christians. The Kurds have always faced myriad challenges due to the fact that the Syrian government discriminate them.

Most of the Kurds originally migrated from Turkey to Syria in the 1920s. Kurds are also found in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The Syrian government for a very long time has refused to recognize the Kurds as legal citizens of Syria. Syria lacks proper census and this makes it difficult for one to determine the exact number of Kurds in the country.

Kurds mainly stay in the North Eastern part of Syria. In 1962, about twenty percent of Kurds’ citizenships in Syria were renounced by the government. This move was, however, criticized by many activists who saw it as inhuman treatment. According to the government, the Kurds gradually migrated to Syria and settled in various cities, and they finally formed a substantial population.

It was also noted that many Kurds could use dubious methods to acquire citizenship. Most of the Kurds migrated to Syria with an aim of getting better economic opportunities. This majorly happened after the government carried out agricultural reforms. In this regard, Kurds wanted to buy property and get employment opportunities.

For along time, many Kurds living in this country have been unable to access basic social and political rights, and this has barred them from advancing economically, and politically. Since many of them have not been allowed to become citizens, they have always engaged in demonstrations in order to compel the government to register them. Out of such protests, the government finally agreed to register some of them, but they were registered separately as immigrants.

This means they are still treated like second class individuals in Syria. “With the citizenship, they move from third-class inhabitants to second-class citizens with the rest of the Kurds in Syria who are already citizens” (Davis, 1997). Nonetheless, they can now benefit from the Syrian rights. For example, they can participate in political processes through voting, and they can also own property, and get jobs in the government offices.

The Syrians only recognize the Arabs as the only original citizens. This is meant to foster unity among the Arabs by eliminating other minority tribes. This clause is actually part of their national constitution. This means that Kurds cannot have similar rights with Arabs. It is therefore impossible to change their status.

This means that Kurds are not having a chance to be treated as Kurdish citizens in that country. They should therefore stop identifying themselves as Kurdish citizens. Despite the few reforms that have been made to make the Kurds have a better life in Syria, they still face some challenges.

For example, in Syria no education is offered in Kurdish language. Secondly, they are not supposed show the Kurdish identity by any means. There is no public media that uses Kurdish language. Foreigners are also not able to claim land ownership. “From this we may conclude that part of the rationale for the census was to deprive Kurds in the area from obtaining land” (Davis, 1997). These limitations have led to the undermining of Kurds and they are only left with the option of assimilating themselves into Arab culture.

United Arab Emirates Citizenship “The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven semi-autonomous emirates, with an estimated resident population of 4.5 million, of which only 21 percent are citizens” (Arthur, 1996). The federation is under the leadership of a supreme council that acts as the executive body.

Institutions are not elected through a democratic process. Elections do exist but citizens can inform their leaders about their concerns and opinions. Citizenship is offered in the United Arab Emirates based on the constitutional guidelines. In UAE, a person is granted a citizenship status by the following processes.

First, if a person is born within this territory he can be recognized as a citizen. However, this process may in some cases not lead to automatic citizenship. Marriage also enables women whose spouses are UAE citizens to acquire citizenship. In this case, such a woman must live for more than three years within UAE. She is also expected to renounce her former citizenship. Lastly, she should also seek from the authorities.

Naturalization is also applicable in UAE, and it granted to immigrants. The conditions for naturalization vary depending on ones nationality. For example, Arab immigrants take a shorter duration to meet the naturalization requirements that other immigrants. There is no opportunity for people to have dual citizenship.

An individual can willingly renounce his or her UAE citizen citizenship and the law permits this. This is called voluntary renunciation. Besides this, an individual’s citizenship may sometimes be renounced under the following cases. First, if a person got citizenship through illegal process.

Secondly, a naturalized citizen in UAE who violates the law by committing crime can be deported. Joining a foreign army is also not allowed, and can lead to renunciation of an individual’s citizenship. Citizens of UAE have rights and obligations which are part of their national constitution. Foreigners who are working within UAE are not allowed to acquire citizenship.

Immigration laws in UAE have been reinforced in order to control the problem of human trafficking, and illegal immigrants. The manner in which democracy is perceived in the United Arab Emirates is quite different from the West. This is because Islamic faith is seen as a guiding principle that shapes other spheres of life.

Since they value their religion, naturalized citizens are not expected to criticize it, and they are also expected to be assimilated into the Muslim culture. Non Muslims in UAE might find it challenging to cope with the culture and laws of this country since they are quite rigid and discriminatory against foreigners.

Bidoun in Kuwait The Bidouns were stateless individuals who inhabited Kuwait since its independence. This people were initially considered legal citizens of Kuwait by the government. Their status differentiated them from immigrants and other stateles individuals. Their population was also included in the national statistics.

The Bidouin also had identification documents. “With the exception of voting rights they received the benefits of full citizens, including subsidized housing, education, and health services” (Akramov, 2009). However, in 1986, the government came up with restrictions on immigrants and this led the cancellation of Bidoun rights. This situation aggravated after the gulf crisis that took place in 1990.

During the gulf war, the Bidoun who went to Iraq for safety were not allowed back after the war. Most of the Bidoun who served in the government also lost their positions. From 1994, the Biduons were expected to pay for taxes and other services that were offered to the citizens freely. After some amendments on immigration laws they, can now become citizens of Kuwait through the naturalization process.

Conclusion The idea of citizenship is believed to have started in ancient Greece when a constitutional government was introduced in various Greece city states. From Greece, citizenship was spread to other territories. Many factors also influenced how citizenship and democracy developed. For example, the development and spread of Christianity in Rome influenced citizenship.

Development of citizenship is normally classified into two phases. The first phase preceded the French Revolution, while the second one took place after the revolution. After French Revolution, there was a tremendous growth of democracy and citizenship in Europe.

Citizenship is today practiced in many countries and the only difference is how it is exercised. From this discussion the rights and obligations that are offered to citizens is what determines the quality of their citizenship. Citizenship in U.S.A is well defined compared to that of Syria and Kuwait. It is the high dignity given to the Americans that makes people to crave for U.S citizenship.

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