Apple’s International Retail Strategy Report Essay Help Online Free

Executive Summary Apple Inc has a long history in terms of changes in products and management team. The company has grown to be the most valuable brand in the world today. Apple has created halo effect through its brand. Today, it has a community of brand loyalists who would rather line up to get their new products than wait.

Apple retail strategy is consistent with its brand message, which is quality products, at high-end locations with premium prices supported with both promotional messages and knowledgeable retailers.

Although competition remains fierce in the technology industry, Apple has managed to develop products for its high-end target market. Today, the company offers the best customer experience in both its online and brick-and-mortar stores.

History of the Company Apple Inc was founded in the US as Apple Computer, Inc. The company has had a long history of key product development and launches, and changes in the executive management team.

Apple has grown to a multinational company that designs, develop, and sells mobile phones, personal computers, software, and other electronic products alongside related services. Apple has experienced a “significant growth since 2001 when it introduced its line of iPod and iPad products” (Berger, 2011). Today, Apple remains the most valuable brand in the world after ousting Coca-Cola (LeClaire, 2013).

What is the retailer’s mission statement? In 2013, Apple Inc changed its mission statement. It reflects the company’s products rather than a mission statement.

“Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App Store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad” (Apple Inc, 2013)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How long have they been in business and how has their business changed over the years? Apple Inc has been in business since 1976, and it has experienced changes in terms of product development, leadership, and growth. Here are brief key changes in Apple over the years (Berger, 2011).

1976: Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne, and Steve Wozniak launch Apple to sell personal computers.

1980: Apple becomes “a public company with 4.6 million shares” (Berger, 2011). The company introduces “Apple III to compete with Microsoft and IBM, but it was a disappointment” (Berger, 2011).

1982: Apple achieves annual revenue of $1 billion in sales.

1984: the company launches Macintosh, Steve Jobs’ project

1990s: mismanagement sets in at Apple and business competitive conditions change dramatically

1997: Amelio quits as the CEO and Jobs becomes the interim CEO. This sets the pace for recovery

We will write a custom Report on Apple’s International Retail Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2000: Apple introduces PowerMac Cube. Jobs confirmed as the company’s CEO

2001: Apple introduces iPod and OS X.

2002: Apple introduces iMac G4 and opens global retail outlets

2003: Jobs undergoes surgery for a pancreatic cancer

2004: Apple launches iTune store

2005: the company introduces iPod video and Nano and downloads from iTune surpasses 500 million

2006: the company introduces iMac Core Duo and Disney acquires Pixar. Apple removes most of the previous products and introduces MacBook, Mac Pro, and MacBook Pro. Apple share price surges tenfold to more than $80 per share.

2008: Apple unveils App Store, and users could use their iPod or iPhone to download the apps. The company introduces MacBook Air.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple’s International Retail Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2009: Steve Jobs takes a medical leave from the company, undergoes liver transplant, and returns to the company in the same period. The company also introduces iPhone 3GS and sales surge.

Figure 1: Steve Jobs, the innovative CEO of the time

2010: the company introduces a new iPad and claims over 80 percent of the market share

2011: iPhone becomes available via Verizon and Jobs’ prolongs his medical leave. The company launches new iPad and iPhone with sophisticated, inventive qualities and appealing designs. Sales increase within the first week of the launch

2012: Tim Cooks takes Jobs’ roles during his medical leave. The company introduces the new iPhone 5. Critics question whether Apple would be the same without its visionary and innovative founder.

2013: Apple launches new versions of iPhones, iPhone 5c, and iPhone 5s.

Figure 2: The new CEO is yet to convince critics that he can match innovative and leadership abilities of Steve Jobs

Target Market Apple never discusses its target market openly. However, it is obvious that the company’s high prices show that it cannot make products for all segments of the market. One can identify users of Apple products and describe the target markets and their demographic and psychographic characteristics as follow

Teenagers The company targets teenagers with its sleek iPods. Teenagers can use the device for socialisation, listen to music, and visit online social media. Moreover, Apple’s products have several games that appeal to teenagers. In fact, teenagers have developed such trends with Apple products.

College and University students Apple targets “students with its MacBook and Mac Pro” (Apple Inc, 2013). In fact, the company claims that, “it transforms the way students learn and teachers teach” (Apple Inc, 2013).

Moreover, there are students and teachers who use iPad and iPhones for recording their lecture notes. These products have specific apps, which facilitate learning.

Business community Most business people find sleek designs of Apple products to be intriguing. They like qualities of iPads, iPhones, MacBooks, and others. These are devices, which enhance efficiency because of their advanced features. They solve problems among business people through ease of communicating, organising, and sharing of documents.

Children Children like the touch screen of Apple products. This makes the products easy to use. Moreover, it is simple to download children’s games from App stores using these devices.

Adults Adults are also a target market for Apple products. For instance, they have found iPhones to be useful for making phone calls, finding directions, keeping documents, taking photos, and connecting to the Internet. Moreover, these devices are small to carry when moving.

Hence, one can conclude that Apple products target consumers of all ages, but not all consumers from different economic backgrounds. The product may only attract affluent and middle class consumers. Nevertheless, Apple has created a brand cult or a community from these consumers, who line up to be the first to own new Apple products.

A focus on target markets enable Apple to develop and sell unified product solutions that meet the needs of specific users. In this regard, Apple has based its target market on specific needs rather than try to sale to all consumers. The company builds products with features that appeal to a given segment of the market.

For instance, Apple reinvents its successful products with users in mind. This explains how the company has upgraded the iOS, iPhones, iPod Touch, and Mac. This is not a strategy to support the desired product prices that Apple needs but rather to meet the target market demands.

However, this does not mean that Apple is always right on its target market strategy. Overall, the company does not release products haphazardly but rather in a calculated move as its hallmark of effective target market strategy.

The retailer’s market positioning One can comprehend Apple’s market positioning strategies by focusing on the essential principles of marketing, the 4Ps.

Price Apple has priced its products as premium. The company has the highest prices in the market today. The pricing strategy helps Apple to evade price wars in the electronic business. Hence, it has focused to compete on innovation and features rather than on price.

Apple derives huge profit margins without effects on its brand because it is the most valuable brand in the world today (LeClaire, 2013). The company has no price discounts.

Products Apple sells the best products in the market, including iPhones, iPads, iPods, and iMac, and Mac among others. The company does not degrade product qualities, features, and performances. However, this does not mean Apple’s products are perfect. Instead, the company or users can notice a problem, and Apple moves promptly to correct it.

The company has often delayed product shipment in order to ensure their qualities. This positioning strategy has helped Apple to build trust among Apple consumers. Hence, the company has matched quality products with premium prices, and customers queue for such quality products irrespective of their prices.

The company also offers few variants and choices for consumers. In 2013, Apple introduced several colourful iPhones 5s and 5c for people who preferred varieties of colours, including gold. Other products are only available in black and white colours, which make it simple for consumers to purchases Apple products.

Moreover, the company has developed unique products to eliminate the need for substitute products. For instance, users who switch to other competing brands normally switch back to Apple products due to lack of positive user experiences. Hence, one can only substitute one Apple product for another Apple product or upgrade.

Figure 3: iPad Mini with Retina display

Place While many technology firms went for online stores, Apple moved in the opposite direction and established brick-and-mortar stores across the world. During this period, many competitors such as Dell closed their retail outlets in order to established online stores (Thomke and Feinberg, 2009).

Apple selectively and discriminately chooses its retail outlets and partners. The company requires all partners to meet specific demands on product display and placement.

All Apple stores are boutiques in designs, which aim to provide maximum customer experience. All Apple stores are only found in affluent retail places, which support its product quality and premium prices.

Figure 4: Apple Store in Perth City, Western Australia

Promotion The company established its promotional strategy in 1984 by using the super bowl advertisement, which remains an iconic advertisement in its history. Today, iPhones advertisements are thrilling to differentiate the company from its competitors.

The company does not offer any discounts in promotion. Instead, Apple uses product scarcity to promote its valuable products. Hence, customers can pre-order Apple products before the launch dates.

The use of 4Ps has allowed Apple to develop its brand and strategic market positioning.

One would also emphasise knowledgeable staff at Apple’s stores worldwide. The company claims that people should only buy the product from a knowledgeable team who would help with it.

Figure 5: Apple’s Business Team working with a customer to find the right solution and product

Branding Over the years, the company has established a strong brand and reputation in the PC market and lately in the smart device markets. The company’s brand falls among the most expensive brands today. Users and critics know Apple for “innovation, design, quality, and being different in terms of products and services” (Thomke and Feinberg, 2009).

The company has claimed that it would not be possible to make low priced products if they were not junks. Hence, it can only concentrate on top-notch quality products to protect its market share and brand reputation.

Innovation at Apple protects its high prices. This is a strategy of giving customer confidence that the product will solve their problems and meet their expectations.

Customers believe that such expensive products are the best. This is a typical psychology reaction of any consumers to high prices and relations with quality. Hence, if Apple starts developing low priced iPhones and other products for the mass markets, it would mean that the products are junks and would hurt its brand.

Dell lost its position as a market leader by manufacturing PC for the mass market.

Today, Apple has also positioned itself as an online retailer.

Positioning The company has positioned itself as a manufacturer of lifestyle products for the high-end markets. The products target the working middle class and professionals. Majorities yearn for Apple products, but cannot simply manage to pay for them.

The premium pricing strategy allows the company to survive economic changes, such as inflation, economic downturns, and changes in exchange rates. People who can afford the company’s products are not interested in prices because products will solve their immediate challenges.

Today, Apple still maintains its high prices, but many people can buy them as changes in incomes increase among the middle class.

Competitors or Sustainable competitive advantage Not all decisions that Apple makes are correct or successful. However, competitors in the industry have made some serious mistakes that have favoured Apple over the years. Apple competes with Dell, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, Lenovo, and other manufacturers of smart devices.

However, failures of competitors’ products have helped Apple to take their market share. For instance, Microsoft Vista was a failure, several fragmented versions of Android, Windows vulnerabilities to threats, and Symbian OS limitations have facilitated the growth of Apple.

The company invited developers to create various apps for its millions of users globally. Apple captured the music market share through iTunes. Today, it has focused on the cloud market through iCloud.

Apple must adopt some business level strategies, which will make it remain competitive and increase customer demands (Porter, 1998). In this case, it must continually increase and expand product and services innovation, introductions, and transitions.

Apple must constantly introduce “new products, services and technologies, enhance existing products and services, and effectively stimulate customer demands for new and upgraded products” (Apple Inc, 2012). This must account for timely introduction of new products in the market because of rapidly evolving technologies. However, Apple must observe that it will be difficult to determine reactions of users against its new products and services.

Apple must review its pricing strategy because of short life of its products, changes in technologies, and fierce competitions.

The company must continually invest in R

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Mattel’s China Experience: A Crisis in Toyland Case Study a level english language essay help

Company Overview of Mattel Corporation In 1945, two entrepreneurs established Mattel Corporation with small range of product line, but now, it is the largest Toy Company in the world. According to the report of Gamache, et al (2), the name of this company derived from two founders.

At the initial stage of formation, this company only manufactured picture frames and dollhouse furniture for the customer though the owner intended to diversify products and concentrated on the new products development to increase profit margin. However, the management of this company had changed its strategies over time considering the influence of pop culture on the society, and change of customer behavior.

In addition, the management team also considered the suggestion of the outside members, for instance, it had introduced three-dimensional doll “Barbie” because Elliot’s wife (one owner) suggested this idea for the development of the company and now this company generated 50% profits from this product (Gamache, et al 2).

Important Historical Milestones

The most important historical milestones has included in the following table –

Year Historical overview 1945 Harold Matson and Elliot Handler formed this company 1959 Introduction of Barbie doll in accordance with the suggestion of Ruth Handler; however, Barbie was name of her daughter 1960 Enlisted in New York Stock exchange and rapidly ranked in Fortune’s list of the 500 largest US industrial companies 1964 Mattel started its first International sales outlet in Switzerland 1968 Hot Wheels was introduced, became the second biggest hit since Barbie 1970 Mattel tried to tap into electronic games though it was not successful project because competitor’s low pricing strategy 1975 Elliot and Ruth Handler, founders of Mattel, leave this company 1977 Mattel adopted diversified strategy and penetrated the new fast growing electronics game field and introduced the Intellivision home video entertainment system 1982 Mattel’s next large “hit” product briefly assists the company balance the success of the Barbie doll with a boy’s toy 1986 This company had entered into a joint venture arrangement with Bandai, Japan’s largest toy company; in addition, it acquired Hong Kong–based ARCO Industries to gain competitive advantage 1987 Mattel developed a strategy for maximizing core brands to maintain profitability and consistent profits streams 1988 The company revived its association with the Walt Disney Company to introduce different products infant and preschool toys based on famous characters like Mickey Mouse. In addition, it Mattel agreed to buy Corolle S.A., manufacturer of collector-quality dolls based in France. 1989 It acquired Corgi Toys Ltd., a British maker of scale-model, die-cast cars 1991

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China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The UnionPay systems requirements granted the service suppliers to offer payment services using electronic cards to carry out transactions in foreign currencies. Under this system, the Chinese authority categorically stated that the devices used in payment card processes must conform to the entity systems requirements.

In addition, it was required that all the cards used in these transactions must bear the UnionPay’s logo. Another bone of contention under this electronic payment system arrangement is that the Chinese merchants were granted some exclusive rights to access the payment cards. However, the other members who were using this system of payment were meant to negotiate before they were given these access rights.

Analysis of the UnionPay case in China The US dispute on China’s UnionPay case

Under the Unionpay program, the United States of America questioned the legality on the country’s authority to issue credit card for electronic payment services. The US thought this would be a means of encouraging fraud and fraudulent activities regarding the electronic payment systems. Therefore, the US claimed that China was permitted only to use UnionPay for issuing electronic payment transactions that were mainly denominated and done in Chinese renminbi.

The United States’ cause of the rejection of the UnionPay services in China

The US never wanted to accept these UnionPay services because China was flouting the rules governing the electronic payment services. For example, the United States of America argued that China was acting inconsistently with the GATS rules, which regulate such services. The most affected sections of the GATS were the Articles XVI as well as XVII (WHO 1).

Analysis of the main idea for the case

The main idea for the UnionPay case is that it was thought by the United States of America to be contravening the established rules and measures that regulate the electronic payment services. In its defence, the US wanted to see that there was a legalized system that dealt with payment transaction services.

In fact, anything that would contravene the established GATS legal frameworks was not good to be adopted as appropriate means of payment (WHO 4). Therefore, the Chinese authority was found to be contravening the rules governing the electronic payment transactions, and the US could not definitely support such kind of a system.

UnionPay in China and its services

This organization can be regarded as the main bank card company in China, which was established in 2002. Therefore, the UnionPay refers to the banking card that is used by many consumers across the entire country.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the UnionPay services in China are also important to other foreigners such as the American merchants, owing to its ability to perform interbank transactions by connecting to other ATMs facilities in the county as well as other parts of the world. The UnionPay cards are also famous with the Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS), thus making it easier for the merchants to carry out payment transactions promptly.

Solution and Conclusion for the case

In sum, there are imminent fears and allegations attributed to the use of the UnionPay systems in China. Therefore, the best solution was found to be a legalized and harmonized framework between the two countries since it was evidenced that there was a legal conflict in the sense that the system operated under the Chinese laws and regulations, which the US thought to be contravening the established GATS rules. This solution would include sound rules and measures on administration and circulation of UnionPay cards.

Work Cited World Trade Organization (WTO) 2010, China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment Services. PDF file. Web.

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Public Health Perspectives on Tobacco Control: The Framework Convention Report college admission essay help

In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) member states successfully negotiated the organization’s first ever framework convention on tobacco control. The aim of negotiating this particular framework was with a view to ensuring global accountability in public health. This means that the Public Health Perspective on Tobacco Control is recognized and certified by the World Health Assembly (WHA). At the moment, it is made up of nearly 190 member states.

Prior to drafting of the FCTC, a number of products and services provided by individuals and corporations both locally and internationally had resulted in a lot of damage. Therefore, the FCTC was meant to address some of these issues regarding tobacco products as well as their processes. Look at from another perspective, the FCTC could be regarded as an attempt to protect and save millions of lives who have are daily exposed to the dangers of tobacco use (Hawkes

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Epidemiological studies of tuberculosis Qualitative Research Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Tuberculosis is a contagious disease, which mainly affects pulmonary system, but can affect kidneys, brain, and bones. The causative agent of tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of deaths globally because it is an infectious disease, which spreads through the air.

Epidemiological studies have revealed that tuberculosis is prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS in low-income countries because of compromised immune system and poor accessibility to healthcare services (Pang et al., 2014; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The revelation implies that immune system and accessibility of healthcare services play an important role in prevention of tuberculosis.

World Health Organization (2014) reports that tuberculosis 9 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2013 out of which 1.5 million people died (360,000 living with HIV/AIDS). These statistics indicate that tuberculosis is the leading cause of deaths globally and is prevalent among people with HIV/AIDS in epidemic regions, such as low-income countries. In this view, the essay examines global epidemiology of tuberculosis in epidemic regions such as the United States, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia.

Epidemiology The United States

The prevalence rate of tuberculosis in the United States is the lowest when compared to the prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), 10,528 cases of tuberculosis occurred in 2011, which amount to an incidence rate of 3.4 cases in every 100,000 persons.

Epidemiological statistics indicate that tuberculosis is prevalent in states such as Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii for they have incidence rates of 9.3, 9.1, and 8.9 respectively (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011; Pawlowski et al., 2012). The epidemiological statistics, therefore, indicate that prevalence of tuberculosis varies from one state to another with Alaska, District of Columbia, and Hawaii having the highest incidence rates.

In the United States, there is disproportionate prevalence of tuberculosis according to race. According to the report of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011), the incidences rates of American Asians, African Americans, and White Americans are 20.9, 6.3, and 0.8 respectively.

Epidemiological study undertaken to establish the prevalence of tuberculosis among American Indians shows that their mortality rate is 5 times that of national average (Pang et al., 2014). The incidence rates of tuberculosis among African Americans are considerably higher than that of White Americans owing to poverty (Hotez, 2008). Place of birth determine predisposition to tuberculosis in the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other epidemiological studies have indicates that children of foreign parents and foreigners have higher incidences of tuberculosis when compared the children of Americans and Americans (Pang et al., 2014). Regarding co-infections, World Health Organization (2014) holds that HIV/AIDS contributes to the occurrence of tuberculosis. Hence, it is evident that the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States varies according to race, place of birth, HIV/AIDS.

Sub-Saharan Africa

The prevalence of tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa is very high because it has predisposing factors such as HIV/AIDS and poverty. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Mali, amongst other have high incidences of tuberculosis.

Mboowa (2014) states that the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 255 cases in every 100,000 people in Sub-Saharan Africa because it has about 70% of all cases of HIV/AIDS globally. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS cases in Sub-Saharan Africa implies that a significant number of people have compromised immune system, which predispose them to tuberculosis.

A study done to reveal the association of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates that 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS, who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, develop tuberculosis in their lifetime (Adeiza, Abba,

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Assignment: Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Part 2: Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity and Professional Ethics scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Nurse-scholars have a significant obligation to their community as well. Their work must have academic and professional integrity. Their efforts are designed to add to the body of knowledge, advance the profession, and ultimately help in the care of patients. Work that lacks integrity is subject to erode quickly or worse.

Fortunately, there are strategies and tools that can help ensure integrity in academic and professional work. This Assignment asks you to consider these tools and how you might apply them to your own work.

In this Assignment you will continue developing your Academic Success and Professional Development Plan by appending the original document you began in the previous assignment.

To Prepare:

Reflect on the strategies presented in the Resources for this Module in support of academic style, integrity, and scholarly ethics.
Reflect on the connection between academic and professional integrity.
The Assignment:

Part 2, Section 1: Writing Sample: The Connection Between Academic and Professional Integrity

Using the Academic and Professional Success Development Template you began in Module 1, write a 2- to 3-paragraph analysis that includes the following:

Explanation for the relationship between academic integrity and writing
Explanation for the relationship between professional practices and scholarly ethics
Cite at least two resources that support your arguments, being sure to use proper APA formatting.
Use Grammarly and SafeAssign to improve the product.
Explain how Grammarly, Safe Assign, and paraphrasing contributes to academic integrity.
Part 2, Section 2: Strategies for Maintaining Integrity of Work
Expand on your thoughts from Section 1 by identifying and describing strategies you intend to pursue to maintain integrity and ethics of your:

academic work as a student of the MSN program and
professional work as a nurse throughout your career. Include a review of resources and approaches you propose to use as a student and a professional.
Note: Add your work for this Assignment to the original document you began in the Module 1 Assignment, which was built from the Academic Success and Professional Development Plan Template.

https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/plagiarism
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/studentaffairs/academicintegrity/safe-assign-turn-it-in
https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/grammarly

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Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report college essay help

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson

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Third-Party Intervention at Lincoln Hospital Report essay help online: essay help online

Abstract Labour turnover is one of the controllable, but unavoidable situations in any organisation. For example, where labour turnover is caused by workplace conflicts, proper management of such inconsistencies is required. If the situation is not tackled, employment turnover due to destructive workplace conflicts might have serious effects on the performance of an organisation both in the short and long-term.

High turnover in organisations leads to increased recruitment costs and the training of new employees to fill the gaps that are left by the outgoing employees. Tackling the issue proactively requires organisations to address its causations such as workplace conflicts, poor work morale, and dissatisfaction.

For Lincoln Hospital, failure to retain employees is a significant organisational problem, considering that replacing nurses in the operating rooms has proved problematic. Ensuring effective resource planning and procurement will determine the future success of the hospital.

Introduction Problem Solving

Lincoln Hospital is interested in bringing about change that can make it profitable in the end. Change management requires the development of an elaborate plan that shows how the various activities will be executed (Ledez, 2008). In this process, organisational diagnosis is important in determining problems that have to be resolved to realise the change.

When called in by Lincoln Hospital’s president to resolve its problems as described in Waddell, Cummings, and Worley’s (2011) case, it is important to implement the change by seeking mechanisms for resolving organisational conflicts. In this process, the first step entails determining the causes and parties in the conflict.

The establishment of the common conflicts of interest then follows before determining any commitment areas where parties can help each other in resolving their differences. While firing both parties that are involved in conflicts may help to resolve some challenges such as the rising turnover due to leadership disgruntlement, such differences are pivotal in enabling the organisation to identify its areas of weakness in its personnel and other resource management areas.

Hence, I will focus on resolving the conflicts by adopting the best inconsistency resolution mechanisms such as cooperation, compromise, competing, and accommodation. Conflict resolution through avoidance emphasises, leaving the conflict unaddressed (Johnson

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Theory Integration in Intelligence Expository Essay essay help

Table of Contents Rational Choice theory

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies

Conclusion

Reference List

Rational Choice theory George Homas is a sociologist who developed the rational choice theory by assuming that people make economic decisions by considering the greatest benefits and wants that will cost less for more returns. The theory is common amongst economists in cases where the majority of people want to balance less cost for greater profits.

The theory is also applicable in Intelligence Science because the presumption forms part of human behavior that is characterized by wanting greater benefits by giving less contribution. Therefore, looking for information about security threats such as terrorism becomes easier because it is assumed that terrorists or their targets are individuals who want to gain benefits by using easy ways that pose threats to a given country.

Meaning and its Application in Intelligence Studies The rational choice theory is applicable in every field because choices that free persons make are mostly for self-interest. Every person needs to gain more by contributing less. This scenario brings problems to areas such as economy and security in a country.

A country wants to sell more of its products to its neighbors,but at the same time buy less of what the neighbors are selling, thus jeopardizing international relations. It is interesting to develop a“hypothesis based on this theory in every research subject that human’s choice is relevant” (Gottschalk 2009, 35).

The greatest threat to any developed economy in the contemporary world is terrorism. Terrorism is viewed as a threat coming from religious dogmas. However, it is based on deception, which “is an aspect of human perception that is in turn shaped byobjective reality along with physiological and psychological factors” (Bell 2003, 244).There are huge investments made in the “developments of human intelligence” (Davies and Gustafson 2013, 154).

The contemporary world is incomparable with the past due to the huge developments that have been made in areas such as communications technology, weaponry, and transport developments. During the Cold War era, economic growth of developed countries stagnated due to threats, but it was easy to know every move that an enemy made due to human intelligence and undeveloped technology that was in place at the time.

However, today’s world is more dangerous than it was during the Cold War era due to the advanced technology that makes it hard for human intelligence to keep an eye on the enemy’s moves. Communication technological developments pose a threat to any country in the modern world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, there are numerous sources of threatsdue to the technological revolution; hence,highly sophisticated mechanisms of intelligence science are required to counteract the threats. However, it is very hard for any country to attain confidence in its intelligence science because the enemy knows how to camouflage in the presence of intelligence agents’ watch.

A terrorist would use technology to carry out a terror attack and an intelligent agent would use the same to keep an eye on every move made before the attack. Aware of that, a terrorist would act like a harmless person to keep off the intelligence officer. Hence, technology and huge investment on human intelligence are not anassurance of the successful fight against any threat to a country.

Conclusion The application of the rational choice theory is critical to the human intelligence developments because it requires the identification of the threats posed by human decisions and working them out. The theory depicts that human intelligence needs to find out the reasons why a person would do something that poses a security threat, and hence invest in counterattacking the threat by offering other alternatives that such a person would use to achieve a given goal.

Reference List Bell, Bowyer. 2003.“Toward a Theory of Deception.” International Journal of Intelligence and Counter Intelligence, 16, no. 1, 244–279,

Davies, Philip, and Kristian Gustafson. 2013. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage outside the Anglosphere. Washington, D.C. Georgetown University Press.

Gottschalk, Petter. 2009. Policing Financial Crime: Intelligence Strategy Implementation. Sydney: Universal-Publishers.

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