Introduction Maya Angelou is a Ghanaian autobiographical writer and poet who has gained fame over time by the publication of her many books. In her books, she plays the central character opening to the reader her world as regards her personal life. By the time of its publication, Maya’s works had appealed to a considerable size in terms of audience.
This implied that at its publication in 1986, there was already a fan base awaiting this piece of literature, further catapulting Angelou to fame. Other books published by the author by then include: ‘And still I rise’, published in 1978 and ‘Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water ‘fore I Dixie’ which is mainly a collection of poems. This volume came to publication in 1971.
One unique aspect about her publications is that they are, in a big way a buildup of her precedents. This means that the books are successive, building on what are in the preview books. This makes it a little difficult to explain one single theme without touching on other publications for clarification (Angelou 4).
Her autobiographies have shown willingness on her part to interact with her audience honestly as regards the more negative traits of her behavior and choices as an individual. Through this however, she has come to be recognized, famed by her work and appraised by everybody in the literary world. This has given her recognition and respectability as a champion for the blacks, especially women.
The paper will also attempt to explain the themes of magical realism and submersion as they occur in the book.
Background to the book According to the author, the title of this book is derived from the Negro concept of spiritualism. The maxim “All God’s Chillun Got Wings” has been cleverly coined to purpose in the book, bringing to light an internal quest to settle somewhere she would call home. This is despite of the fact that at the back of her mind she is accustomed to the home she knew and grew up in – Africa. This depicts the sense of religion, belonging and acceptance to a given clique of people or society. Others find the use of the word travelling strategically because much of or a big portion of the novel involves transition from segment to the next. As such, the title has about it the suspense and toggles the curiosity of the leader. It goes a long way to shape the plot of the book and, consequently the impact of the themes therein.
The plot summary This book is much less a succession of its predecessor- ‘the heart of a woman’. Heart of a woman ends with a serious motor accident her son, Guy, is involved. This happened in the backdrop of them travelling back to Ghana to enroll him in University, three days after they got into the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It took Guy four years to recuperate during which they stayed in Ghana. She details Guy’s recovery that forced her into depression. Her friend Julian Mayfied introduces her to Efua Sutherland, they become close friends and she offers Maya a shoulder to lean on (Angelou 54).
With time, she secured a job with the University, got used to the people and eventually fell in love with the country. She speaks of them in the book as constant reminders of the friends she had back in California and Kansas. As her son grew up, she has to learn to respect him as his own person and tries to relate differently with the son by not letting him take a center stage in her life.
She bonds even more with the continent of Africa after travelling through the villages of Ghana, interacting with the people and their cultures, forming relationships with the people and even getting romantically involved with a few Africans. She also broadens her social network by interacting with tribal leaders such as Nana Nketsia and another poet Kwesi Brew.
Thousands of miles away back in the United States, the struggle for black liberation is on and she thinks of Martin Luther’s non-violent approach to the issue as cynical. They organize a non-parallel match in Ghana in 1963 coinciding with the one organized back in the States. Sometimes she relates with Malcolm X who convinces her to go back home and join the liberation struggles.
In the book, she conflicts on many occasions with her son on matters to do with his independence, the choices he makes daily and the rift that is growing between them because of his maturing. In the book there are also scenes of several journeys- thematic of a journey within a journey. This is in respect to when she got in theater. She also travels to Berlin where she shares a meal with a German family, which though rich, is racist (Angelou 39).
At the end of the book “she travels back home, relating this departure with how her ancestors ended up abroad through forced slavery” (Angelou 41). Her departure from Guy also wears her down.
Themes on African culture Motherhood
This is the major theme in the book. It is represented by Maya’s relationship with her son, his growth and the complexities that arise thereabout; she has to sacrifice her dominance over his choices. They confront each other on several occasions where they contrast in choice and opinion and, this depicts a relationship between a mother and the son.
We will write a custom Essay on Angelou Maya’s Presentation on the African Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Identity
Her journey to Africa connects her present to the past, and she goes back home relating better with the people having understood her background. She also joins the liberations with a deep sense of belonging that is embedded in her and her confidence grows (Angelou 17).
Her interaction with the people in Africa exposed her to the practices and notions of Africans. Her journeys through the villages to the East of Ghana led her to a path of discovery of cultures that utilize magic and invoke the intervention of the gods and ancestors. This is a major theme drawn from the villages.
This involves interaction with people and being a part of them. She does this all over the book in that when she comes to Africa, she joins the theater and interacts with the people as they travel abroad. In Germany, she gets to interact with a racist family. She interacts well with Africans and falls in love with Ghana as a nation.
Africans are practicing polygamy, and unlike in the United States they do not care much about the opinion of their first wives. It is embedded in the African culture to marry several wives, a case in point is when she interact with an African romantically and the person wants to make her a second wife provided she follows African customs (Angelou 81).
Work Cited Angelou, Maya. All God’s Children Need Traveling Shoes, New York: Random House, 1986. Print.
Quaker Oats Company Competitive Advantages Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Quaker Oats Company
Introduction Quaker Oats Company is the leading supplier of food and breakfast cereal products in the US. The company has a long history, dating back to as far as 1901. In the current competitive markets, market segmentation is one of the strategies which can ensure that the company positions itself well so that it improves its level of profitability. This paper analyzes how market segmentation can give competitive advantage to Quaker Oats Company.
Quaker Oats Company Business organizations aim to make a profit and increase their share of the market by making quality goods and services and by ensuring product availability to customers. Quaker Oats Company is not an exception; making a profit, and increasing the share of the market remains the company primary objective.
To make a profit, Quaker Oats Company aims to satisfy market demand by employing skilled people to make quality goods. Reference for Business (2012), states “we plan to do this by making Quaker Oats a winning company, a place where talented people have opportunities” (para. 1). It is not enough to make quality products, consumers must access products where they live and work.
In addition, Quaker Oat Company must make products for which consumers desire to buy (Reference for Business, 2012, para. 1). Looking at the future, Quaker Oats Company, must define its current market, cultivate future consumers, make quality products, and carry out an aggressive campaign to market its products.
Market segmentation The first step at increasing market share involves determining the market segment to target and focus resources to that market. Business Dictionary (2012) defines market segmentation as “the process of defining and subdividing a large, homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics” (para. 1).
The market appears homogenous, but when studied differences emerge based on age, consumer preference, location and income. For Quaker to succeed, it must segment the market and focus at satisfying the need of the market it chooses. Segmenting a market has the advantage of enabling an organization to satisfy consumers’ needs, and a result, develop a competitive advantage.
Based on the nature of products manufactured and sold by Quakers Oat Company, its management must segment the market in three ways based on income, family type, and lifestyle. Income determines a person spending power; it enables marketers to determine the people to target.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, income segmentation affords Quaker Company to price and package its products in sizes attractive to a target market. When segmenting the market for housing, clothing, automobiles, and food marketers must use income segmentation as a tool to determine potential consumers (Lamb, Hair,
Assesing marketing opportunities Essay a level english language essay help
The marketing strategies used by an organization play a pivotal role towards determining the success or failure of the organization. In order for an organization to market its products and services successfully, it must research and understand the needs of the consumers, and use this information to develop products and services that satisfactorily address those needs.
One way of achieving this aim is by developing models that evaluate the consumer buying behavior within a given market. This paper shall describe the steps followed by consumers in the process of buying oatmeal manufactured by Quaker Oats Company. The cultural factors that influence consumers to buy this product shall also be discussed.
There are five steps that consumers take in order to make a conclusive purchasing decision. The rate at which consumers pass through these stages depends on the price, place, promotion and product being sold. Below is a graphical representation of the consumer buying behavior:
Figure 1: Consumer Buying Behavior Model
In regard to the selected product (Oatmeal), the consumers recognizes the need or problem. This can be triggered by an internal stimuli (hunger), which drives the consumer towards buying this product. After identifying the need or desire, the consumer may or may not look for information about the product.
If the consumer has used the product before, he/she may buy the product again. However, if the consumer has not yet used the product, he/she may obtain the information about this product from personal or commercial sources. For the oatmeal, commercial sources such as advertisements, packaging and dealers could be useful for potential consumers.
The information gathered gives consumers a set of brand choices. In order to select the preferred brand, consumer compare and contrast the brand from a logical or evaluative processes. Some may use calculations (price and content preferences) or choose the product brand on impulse or intuition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After evaluating the alternatives, the consumer ranks the brands and decides which one to buy. The purchase decision is based on the price, income and expected benefits of the product. As such, the consumers may buy the oatmeal as a result of its competitive price, its health benefits and its impact on the consumer’s pocket.
The post purchase behavior of consumers refers to the attitude and perceptions the consumers have in regard to the product’s ability to satisfy the identified need. During this step, consumers weigh their expectations against the performance of the product. If the gap between these two factors is large, the consumers will be disappointed, but if the gap is small, the consumers will be satisfied and delighted with the product.
Cultural influences on consumers Buying Behavior According to Sheth (2011), cultural factors have a significant impact on a consumer’s buying behaviors. Cultural factors largely influence the wants and behaviors of an individual in regard to value systems, perceptions, material comfort and practicality among others (Sheth, 2011). In order to sell the oatmeal profitably, due consideration should be given to the culture, subculture and social classes within a given market.
Marketers should do research in order to ascertain the income levels of the selected market segment, the value system of the consumers and the impact family and friends have on an individual’s purchasing process. Understanding how the aforementioned cultural factors impact buying behaviors will enable marketers to come up with a price and product that meets the consumer’s cultural expectations.
In addition, such an understanding will enable marketers to promote the product in a manner that guarantees success. Failure to consider these factors may lead to dissatisfaction among the consumers, and losses to the manufacturers.
Reference Sheth, J. (2011). Models of Buyers Behavior: Conceptual, Quantitative and Empirical. Illinois: Marketing Classics Press.
Concept of the Ancient Artwork: Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Artwork is any form of art that communicates a message to the audience or one developed with a purpose. This includes paintings, sculpture, photography and collages. There is a lot of development in artwork, in the contemporary world, and most of the developments are just transformations of ancient artwork.
Most of the pieces of art can be found in museums and art galleries. This paper outlines information about The Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity, found in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This brings out a comprehensive understanding of the two pieces of art.
Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity The artworks represented in this article take similar forms. They are sculptures. The Metropolitan Museum houses the two pieces of artwork (Metropolitan Museum of Art). The Seated Goddess with a Child is a three-dimension piece of art made through the lost-wax technique around the 13th and 15th centuries. It has epic and pastoral styles. The winged deity is a three-dimension of work made with the Hittites style (Beckman, 1989).
The Seated Goddess with a Child is a perfect result of cutting and twisting gold. The Winged Deity is a result of casting bronze and gold. The Seated Goddess with a child has a golden colour which is bright enough to characterize a goddess associated with illumination. It also depicts a peaceful mood and creates a high level of unity.
On the other hand, the Winged Deity has grey and yellow colours, which bring out a sombre mood. The artists used contour lines to show the faces, horizontal and vertical lines to show the other body parts, and an outline to enclose the images. The image looks smooth and balanced. There is a balance in the work since images cover the entire space. The goddess image has a value of light due to the vibrant colour employed in the artwork.
The Winged Deity has curved lines shaping the wings and the arms. There is a visual appearance of roughness and a value of darkness, as well as symmetrical balance. Both artists have an aspect of the Hittite Empire period, a period whose information is not widely known.
The Seated Goddess with a Child depicts a woman adorned with a headdress which is extremely bright. This brightness represents the glamour and illumination that comes from the sun. Therefore, this is Arinna, the sun goddess. The chair on which the statue sits has lion caws.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This shows bravery. The child shows simplicity and humility. The long gown has an association with modesty of women. The two loopholes suggest that the figure is a pendant. The loop earrings and a necklace, indicate beauty of Hittite women (Beckman, 1989). The work has a substantial influence in contemporary societies. It challenges modern artists to make sculptures which are symbols of creativity and imagination.
The Winged Deity represents a god of the Hittites. He is most likely the Prinki, a god of Ishtar, made around the 13th century (Metropolitan Museum of Art). The deity has a circular cap around his head, a gold leaf as well as a kilt. He has a rod on his right arm representing the protection that gods offered to the Hittites. He has two wings in the shape of a sickle, and the left wing is incomplete. The wings show the possibility of flying and signify that god could go to any place unusually fast to offer aid. The sculpture helps to reconstruct the history of Hittite culture (Beckman, 1989). The artist has the ability to use a traditional style (Hittite style) with creativity. The work has also influenced modern sculptors. They are trying to make replicas of the sculpture, and sculptures which have similar features to those on the Winged Deity.
In essence, ancient artworks have significant influence to the modern artworks. This is evident in the modern artworks displayed in the art galleries of modern museums. Therefore, the impact of ancient art on contemporary artworks cannot be underrated.
References Beckman, G. (1989). The Religion of the Hittites. The Biblical Archaeologist 52 (2/3):98-108.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. (n.d). The Seated Goddess with a Child and the Winged Deity. Retrieved from https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/30006127
Nelson Mandela’s Use of Power Essay college essay help
The dark struggle in South Africa saw many black people suffer at the hands of the immigrants—white settlers. In order to combat the situation and forge the path to freedom, majority of native South Africans came together to form an organization known as the African National Congress (ANC). ANC became the vehicle of promoting the interests of black South Africans who felt that the white populations had leaped more than what they sowed.
Additionally, the architects of ANC thought that this was the weapon to combat apartheid and bring civility in the new administration of South Africa. In 1944, Nelson Mandela joined ANC and started participating in its activities. He endured many torrid moments including being imprisoned for almost 27 years. However, in 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. This article discusses Nelson Mandela’s use of power.
During all his struggles, Nelson Mandela understood very well the needs and desires of the people. He believed in the ideology that all men are equal and should not be discriminated against any form. This was the main reason why he always refused to abandon his political beliefs for political freedom.
Not even prison would stop Nelson Mandela from achieving his ambitions. Today, Nelson Mandela is known across the globe for his struggle, and what he did during the apartheid era in South Africa. The man who spent his entire life fighting for the rights of his people became the symbol of struggle not only to black South Africans, but also the entire world. The use of his power is also another thing that has caught the attention of the world (Guiloineau, 2002, pp. 10-26).
Nelson Mandela was the unifying factor in the post-apartheid era pitting black South Africans and the white populations. Although many white populations feared that Nelson Mandela would retaliate against them, he chose otherwise.
He promised to uphold the constitution—something he did. Nelson Mandela did not use his power to benefit himself; instead, he devoted his presidency in serving the republic of South Africa and its citizens. Apartheid became a thing of the past even, as the black South Africans became free in their own country. It is true that Nelson Mandela suffered so much in the hands of the white minority rule, but after becoming president, transformative power, reconciliation, and tolerance became the pillars of his administration.
He was a man who understood what power means, and he always devoted his time to ensure peaceful coexistence among all South Africans. He taught the world the meaning of humanity, by besieging people to live and see each other as equals. In fact, Nelson Mandela used his power to show the world how justice and tolerance overpowers even the greatest of cruelties.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He used his power to combat racism and other racial related vices that had taken roots in South Africa. Mandela knew very well that by eliminating such vices, people will live harmoniously thereafter. Indeed, this was a show of humility, resilience and tolerance. Mandela led sustained movements in order to promote and protect the rights of all South Africans. Consequently, many South Africans felt secure in an equal society. He took various strides to eliminate discrimination and set the path of justice and equality.
Through his presidency, discrimination of the base of ethnicity, race and even sexual orientation, all became a thing of the past. He used his power to promote education for all, cultural exchanges, ambient public service, and many more fundamental freedoms. Just like Nelson Mandela, many of the current world leaders can lead sustained efforts to promote cohesion; tolerance, equality, and justice for all just like what Mandela did (Mandela, 1996, pp. 23-47).
References Guiloineau, J., Rowe, J. (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. Berkeley, California. North Atlantic Books.
Mandela, N. (1996). The Illustrated Long Walk to Freedom. Paul Duncan (abridgement and picture editing). Boston: Little Brown and Company.
The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Geographical Impacts of Coca Eradication
Political Impacts of Coca Eradication
Regional and Agricultural Changes due to Coca Eradication
Introduction Bolivia and Colombia are located in South America. One of the major economic activities in these two countries is the cultivation of coca. The coca plant has thin leaves which are oval and opaque. Hence, it resembles a blackthorn bush. Coca is a major cash crop in both Colombia and Bolivia. These countries have been the major suppliers of coca since 1980.
The coca plant is used as a raw material in the manufacture of cocaine and soft drinks like coca-cola. Coca is also used as a medicine and for religious, as well as, cultural purposes. The United States of America is a major market for cocaine which is manufactured in Bolivia and Colombia.
The cultivation of coca has adversely affected the Bolivian and Colombian populations. Consequently, the Colombian and Bolivian governments have collaborated with the United States of America in an attempt to impede the cultivation of coca. This paper examines the geographical and political impacts of coca eradication in Colombia and Bolivia. It also analyzes the regional and agricultural changes that are associated with coca eradication.
Geographical Impacts of Coca Eradication In 2000, the Colombian government signed Plan Colombia in collaboration with the United States of America. This was an initiative to eradicate the cultivation of coca. The signing of Plan Colombia led to adoption of aerial spraying of the coca plantations using glyphosate herbicide which kills the coca plants. Aerial spraying of coca plantations is conducted using airplanes or helicopters. When glyphosate is sprayed on a target plant, it is absorbed into the plant’s leaves.
Once the glyphosate herbicide has been absorbed into a plant’s leaves, it hinders the production of protein in the plant. Consequently, the plant’s growth is inhibited. Initially, glyphosate was considered to be less harmful to the environment because it is water soluble. However, according to a recent research which was carried out by the United States Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, aerial spraying of glyphosate has the potential of causing instant negative and long term environmental effects.
First, indiscriminate spraying of coca plantations has led to the destruction of some food crops like yucca and the loss of soil fertility (Jackiewicz and Bosco 123-124). Once a field is sprayed, its chances of yielding crops are reduced. Aerial spraying of glyphosate has also led to the damage of plants which are used for medicinal purposes by the local population. Second, spraying of glyphosate herbicide on coca plantations has caused contamination in water bodies like rivers.
This has led to the death of aquatic animals. Concisely, once the chemical is released into a water body, it inhibits the growth of water plants and causes the death of different species of aquatic animals. Consumption of water from the contaminated rivers has led to the death of both wild and domestic animals. Third, aerial spraying of coca plantations has caused air pollution. Consequently, a number of people have been reported to have respiratory problems, dizziness, skin infections and burning eyes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aerial spraying of coca plantation has also contributed to further deforestation. Most of the peasant coca farmers have moved deeper into the Amazon rainforest in order to acquire new land for coca cultivation (Jackiewicz and Bosco 116-118). In this process of migration, most parts of the Amazon rainforest have been cleared and burnt.
Political Impacts of Coca Eradication Most Bolivians and Colombians have been against coca eradication. They consider coca growing as part of their culture and a means to economic survival. Due to this reason, the process of coca eradication has been greatly opposed by the indigenous populations of Bolivia and Colombia.
Protests against coca eradication have posed a major threat to Bolivia’s political stability. For example, Evo Morales who was the coca union leader almost took over the government in 2002 because he promised the Bolivian population that he would allow coca cultivation in his regime.
In Colombia, a number of cartels have been formed due to the high income from coca. Medellin was one of the major cartels which strongly opposed the coca eradication process. The cartel was headed by Pablo Escobar who was highly recognized by the indigenous population.
Pablo Escobar sought political power within Colombia, but he never succeeded. His defeat resulted into a war between the Colombian government and the Medellin cartel. This led to a state of political instability in Colombia which was characterized by “extreme violence in the form of assassinations and indiscriminate bomb attacks” (Fukumi 137-138). The war between the Colombian government and the coca cartels created a serious political and economic crisis in the country.
Regional and Agricultural Changes due to Coca Eradication New set of crops have been introduced in Bolivia and Colombia because of coca eradication. The initiative is meant to enable the farmers whose coca plantations are destroyed through aerial spraying to be in a position to earn a living by growing licit crops. Some of the new crops which have been introduced include pineapples and passion fruits.
However, many farmers lack the skills to cultivate the new set of crops. Additionally, these crops take quite a long time before they are harvested as compared to coca. For instance, pineapples and passion fruits take not less than two and eight years respectively to bare fruits.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, most farmers have been negatively affected by the substitution of crops. Majority of the farmers lack the means of survival. This has led to an increase in malnutrition in the country. “The rapid pace of the Bolivian government’s eradication campaign has created gaps between eradication and alternative development assistance that can leave peasant farmers without livelihoods” (Shutz and Draper 237-239).
The Bolivian peasant farmers have made attempts to request USAID to allow them to cultivate a variety of crops in addition to some coca. However, these attempts have not achieved their objectives. One of USAID’s requirements is that the farmers must completely destroy their coca plantations in order to receive any form of assistance from it.
Despite the fact that farmers have embraced the licit crops, they are still facing transportation challenges. Most of the markets are distant. Therefore, farmers have to incur a lot of expenses in transporting their produce to the markets where legal agricultural products are sold. As a result of this challenge, returns from legal agricultural products have become unpredictable.
The price of coffee which is one of Colombia’s major agricultural products has remained unpredictable. This volatility can be attributed to low consumption and oversupply of coffee in the international market which has led to low coffee prices. Therefore, Colombia’s revenue from coffee has reduced by 50% as from 1992. Consequently, most of Colombian farmers have migrated from coffee plantations to regions which are more stable economically.
However, coca eradication has led to some developments in Colombia and Bolivia. For instance, infrastructure has been improved in the region as an attempt to enable farmers to have access to markets. Most of the projects have been funded by USAID and the World Bank.
Through the funding by USAID, “a 40 mile paved road connecting parts of Chapare to a regional market in Santa Cruz, as well as, expanding Santa Cruz airport, significantly improved access to markets” (Preston 157). Therefore, development of infrastructure has improved communication and coordination in the region.
Leaders’ Stance There have been attempts by leaders from Bolivia and Colombia to help in the process of coca eradication. For instance, in 1998 president Hugo Banzer introduced Plan Dignidad (Plan Dignity). In this plan, he aimed at totally eliminating coca. This plan succeeded to some extent in Chapare which has major coca plantations in Bolivia.
Presently, leaders from Colombia and Bolivia continue to fight the cultivation of coca in collaboration with international bodies and nations such as the United States of America. The leaders are trying to develop alternative ways of eradicating coca.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Coca Eradication in Colombia and Bolivia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, the process of coca eradication has posed adverse impacts on Bolivia and Colombia. These impacts have been witnessed in almost all sectors of the two economies. Therefore, the Bolivian and Colombian governments should adopt alternative ways or methods of eradicating coca plantations in order to avert the increase in political, as well as, economic instability.
Works Cited Fukumi, Sayaka. Cocaine Trafficking in Latin America. New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2008. Print.
Jackiewicz, Edward and Fernando Bosco. Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012. Print.
Preston, David. Latin American Development: Geographical Perspectives. New York: Longman, 2000. Print.
Shutz, Jim and Melissa Draper. Dignity and Defiance: Stories from Bolivia’s Challenge to Globolization. Carlifornia: University of California, 2008. Print.
Georgiana as a Perfect Woman in the Contemporary Society Essay online essay help: online essay help
Three Works Depicting a Contemporary Woman Contemporary western society is seen as a terrain where women have acquired quite many liberties and opportunities. Women occupy highest posts in countries and this can be regarded as a complete victory of feminists. Nonetheless, works by Woolf and Brownmiller, which were written in the twentieth century, verify that all those ‘victories’ are nothing more than a pleasing diversity for men who are still in power.
The two essays reveal the essence of gender roles in the contemporary society. The two works depict women as dependant on men. The authors also explain this dependency stating that women were bred to fit the world of men during centuries. It is possible to think of a variety of examples that confirm ideas provided by Woolf and Brownmiller.
However, it is also possible to think of a conspicuous example of gender roles which is represented by Georgiana, the main character of Hawthorne’s short story “The Birthmark”. Georgiana is a specific example of the women in the twenty-first century who are eager to please the men without even knowing it, the women who see themselves as empathetic, supportive and selfless creatures destined to be disintegrated in the universe of the men.
Woolf’s and Brownmiller’s Suggestions on Women’s Status in the Society Sympathy
According to Brownmiller and Woolf, women are expected to be sympathetic, submissive and pleasing. Moreover, being sympathetic is regarded as one of the major virtues of the woman. The two authors note that women are meant to admit men’s superiority and take it for granted. Thus, masculinity is a purely male virtue, while sympathy is a purely female virtue. Men are seen as strong and decisive creatures who are responsible for decision making, and women are seen as those who create comfortable atmosphere for the decision makers.
Importantly, the contemporary society heavily relies on religious conventions which, in their turn, support the societal order where females are inferior to males. The Bible brings discredit on women depicting the very first woman as a former part of the first man. Moreover, the woman made a very wrong decision (concerning the apple) and was deprived of the ability to make any other ‘erroneous’ decisions in the future.
Brownmiller claims that women have quite a restricted responsibility, i.e. to run the household and create comfortable atmosphere for the man. According to the writers, women cannot even have an opinion of their own. A woman’s viewpoint can be accepted in the contemporary society if it goes along with the male’s opinion. Female have no right to contradict. In this case, women will simply be ignored. However, if they express ideas that support existing (male) concepts, these opinions can even be praised.
Finally, the two works also reveal one more aspect defining the role of a woman. The writers suggest that beauty is one of the major tools women can use to please men. Brownmiller states that females were ‘allowed’ to wear make-up and revealing outfits to please males, not to enjoy their basic rights to choose outfits they want. Again, women’s beauty is considered to be another virtue assigned to females. Strengths and decisiveness of men and beauty and sympathy of women are the principles reigning in the contemporary society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Georgiana as an Example of the Major Characteristics of the Woman Sympathy
Georgiana is depicted as a perfect woman as she is sympathetic and supportive. She admires her husband and keeps saying about her admiration. However conspicuous her words of admiration are, her husband’s remarks prove the suggestions of Woolf and Brownmiller. The two writers stress that submissiveness is one of the major virtues assigned to women. Thus, when Georgiana says she worships her husband, he replies:
Ah! wait for this one success . then worship me if you will. I shall deem myself hardly unworthy of it . I have sought you for the luxury of your voice. (Hawthorne 7)
The man humbly says he is unworthy of the woman’s admiration. Nonetheless, it is obvious that he does not really think so. He believes he is to be worshiped and he is pleased to be flattered. He never stops his experiments even though they are failures. He does not say his attempts are unsuccessful and he does not want to see how painful it is for his wife. He seeks for comfort. He wants to listen to his wife’s singing even though she is hardly able to perform as she is exhausted by the experiments.
Georgiana has to endure painful experiments and she stresses that her husband is the great decision maker as she notes, “fear not that I shall shrink, for my share in it is far less than your own” (Hawthorne 7). On one hand, Georgiana accepts her husband’s superiority and keeps saying about it.
On the other hand, she is very supportive and is ready to help him no matter what. She understands the danger of those trials. However, she is too concerned with pleasing her husband and supporting him in his efforts to achieve his aims. She notes, “I shall quaff whatever draught you bring me . a dose of poison, if offered by your hand” (Hawthorne 7). She is submissive and supportive as she loves her husband and, being a perfect woman, she is eager to please him.
Georgiana is eager to accept her husband’s viewpoint. Her attitude towards the birthmark illustrates her readiness to skip from decision making. Thus, she has never thought of her birthmark as an imperfection as “it has been so often called a charm” and lots of “desperate” swains “would have risked life for the privilege of pressing lips to the mysterious hand” (Hawthorne 1).
Nonetheless, her husband realizes that the ‘hideous’ imperfection of his wife’s face cannot be tolerable. He starts gazing at her face and she understands her birthmark disgusts him.
We will write a custom Essay on Georgiana as a Perfect Woman in the Contemporary Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She is eager to please her husband and she simply grants him the right to make the decision. She declares, “I joyfully stake all upon your word” (Hawthorne 8). What is more, she starts believing she hates the birthmark. This illustrates Woolf’s and Brownmiller’s suggestions that women are bred in accordance with existing rules.
Some women understand they have to express ideas supporting men’s beliefs. However, some, like Georgiana, adopt male’s concept without even knowing it, “Not even Aylmer now hated it so much as she” (Hawthorne 6). Thus, the young and beautiful woman starts begging her husband to do what he (not she) wants to do. The woman has no will of her own anymore.
Brownmiller notes that women are expected to be charming and beautiful to delight men’s eyes. Georgiana’s husband is the embodiment of the concept. It is he who decides what is beautiful and what is imperfect. It is he who sees the birthmark as a hideous sign of the evil. Woolf and Brownmiller note that religious concepts put a kind of vicious mark on all women who are regarded as sinful and somewhat unworthy creatures. Many women are bred in terms of these conventions and, as a result, they start believing it in the course of time.
Georgiana exclaims, “There is but one danger – that this horrible stigma shall be left upon my cheek” (Hawthorne 7). Therefore, women are conditioned to feel inferior to men as even their bodies do not truly belong to them. Women are ready to change their appearance only to please males.
Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the three works discussed can be regarded as a certain reflection of gender roles existing in the contemporary world. Woolf and Brownmiller define major characteristic features of the woman in the modern society, while Hawthorne provides a story that illustrates the concepts revealed. The three sources depict the woman as a supportive, submissive, indecisive, but beautiful and charming creature that is assigned to please the man.
Moreover, according to the three texts women are conditioned to believe they are really inferior to man as they are brought up in terms of a variety of conventions that support the society as it is. Of course, some women understand that those are conventions that make them play roles assigned. For instance, they know that to be heard they need to say things that go along with men’s ideas.
However, some women do not even think about such things. Thus, the works discussed may be the necessary stimuli for women to start a new order and to make men as well as women see that such concept as equality is much more important than doubtful superiority.
Ethnicity and race in the USA Essay essay help online
America has in the past had immigrations that brought about the various ethnic groups that exist in the vast country. The existence of different ethnic groups here has since impacted on its racial relations. Race may be defined as a biological variance between two groups of people.
The phenotypic racial difference is characterized by physical appearances while the genotypic racial difference is determined by variance in genetic makeup. There are quite a number of racial groups in the USA. They include the whites, blacks, Asians and Indians. Additionally, there are other groups of Americans who are not recognized in any of these racial categories. These are Hispanics, Asian Indians, Arab Americans and Bi-racial persons.
While races can be differentiated on a phenotypic (physical appearance) basis, they cannot be differentiated on a genotypic basis (genetic makeup). This is because people from different races can be identified by their complexion and other physical and cultural perceptions but their genetic makeup remains more or less the same.
This is because of the fact that they belong to the same species. Researches indicate that humans have a tiny genetic variation of about 0.5%; inconsiderate of their physical differences. This difference is too small to give rice to a considerable variation on ability or innate intelligence.
This implies that the difference in genetic composition of humans may only be used to establish human physical appearance as opposed to determining ability. However, this has given rise to a number of debates as to why some racial groups are comparably better at carrying out some activities than others.
Every racial group is characterized by its unique and distinct cultural beliefs and practices. The distinction in cultural beliefs and practices has brought about the perception of some social groups as superior and others inferior. This is a justification of social disparities and exploitation of groups perceived as inferior by their superior counterparts. It is important to note that this is also the cause of racisms that is a menace in America. Racism is a belief of instinctive inferiority of a cluster of races as a result of their biological disparities.
Ethnicity, on the other hand, incorporates race as its component. People of the same ethnic group share universal cultural and racial ancestry. Therefore, the membership of a person in an ethnic group is innate and based on birth and hence cannot be altered. However, there have been arguments that ethnicity can be altered as dictated by social circumstances of an individual or situation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is still subject to a lot of debates since ethnicity has always been perceived as the ancestral origin to which someone or a group of people can be traced or identified with. Owing to the fact that some ethnic clusters are smaller in terms of numbers as compared to others, there is bound to be ethnic prejudice. The smaller ethnic groups are discriminated against by the bigger groups because of their inability to be heard.
Ethnic prejudice is the negative perception or beliefs people may have on others. Ethnic discrimination, on the other hand, is the actual manifestation of ethnic prejudice in terms of actions. This is, in most occasions, exhibited through unequal treatment. Ethnic minority may come as a result of indigenous inhabitants of a given geographical location being dominated over by immigrants who may be larger in number.
Additionally, it may come about when a small group of immigrants are dominated over by indigenous inhabitants. In the USA, for instance, the helm of ethical superiority is dominated by the whites and their black counterparts come at the bottom of the hierarchy ladder. Other ethnic clusters are positioned in between.
The Influence of Computer on the Living Standards of People All Over the World Essay essay help free: essay help free
A computer is an electronic device applied in general and arithmetic functions. A computer comprises a processing unit and a memory store. The processing unit performs arithmetic and logic operations based on the information stored.
All the processes in a computer rely on both the hardware and software. Hardware comprise of tangible elements like a mouse, keyboard, monitor and the central processing unit. Software comprise of various programs and languages used by a computer. People use computers in most activities and it would be unimaginable how life would be if there were no computers.
In the past, people considered computers to be a reserve for scientist, engineers, the army and the government. However, that has changed already as computers are now in several workstations, schools and homes. The efficiency, accuracy and ability to accomplish numerous tasks have endeared computers to people and slowly becoming a need rather than a want. Ability to access internet through computers has enhanced research and innovation.
Computers touch on every aspect of modern living. The influence of computer on the living standards of people all over the world is unmatched. Banks use computers for purposes of storing information and arithmetic functions. They also use computers for speed, expediency and safety measures.
Communication has been escalating since the innovation and introduction of computers. Through emails and virtual worlds in the internet, people are now communicating effectively and in a speedy manner. Computers can qualify as business tools.
Computers are integral in the corporate world for they ensure easy transaction of business activities, record keeping and arithmetic functions like preparing a balance sheet. Today computers have enhanced business through online trading, settling of outstanding bills and the stock market.
Use of computers in medical science exhibits their abilities and effectiveness. Diagnosis of diseases improves with the use of computers. Computers have enhanced development of the best cure for various diseases through research. Computer technology applies in various medical practices such as surgery and scanning of body organs. The role of computers in education lacks an equal among other assistive technologies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Learning today revolves around computers as teachers use them for instruction and preparing teaching materials. Students use computers to carry out research and writing their assignments. Introduction of e learning in various learning centers around the world requires continued use of computers by the instructors and students. Knowledge of computers is mandatory for young people aiming to meet both their education and career goals.
Media is a field that has demonstrated the quality and value of computers. Computer software and technologies apply in media to generate both audio and visual compositions. The technology applied in producing animation and three-dimensional visuals relies heavily on computers.
Some of the effects executed in films and movies develop from computer technology. All these activities and actions demonstrate the value of computers in the entertainment industry all over the world. Other fields that have exhibited the importance of computers through their use include the transport industry, metrological departments and the sports industry. Computers apply in plane and train reservations in countries with developed economies.
Weather predictions apply distinctive types of computers that analyze data and make appropriate predictions. Computers have enhanced the study of body development through sports by using specially created programs. These programs monitor the behavior of various body organs and muscles during an active session with the body. Sport technologies have influenced the development and steady growth of sport science and sport nutrition.
In almost every aspect of life, we operate an electronic device generated and developed using computer technology. I believe that computers are playing a crucial role in human wellbeing. We are at a stage in human development that we cannot afford to imagine life without computers.
Its is hard to imagine having to do things like washing clothes, arithmetic work as well as storing information into files and books manually. That would is stressful and may result in slow human development. Computers have added efficiency, speed, effectiveness and creativity into human activities. I believe that it is essential to get training on computers because they dominate nearly every element of modern life.
For example, a student who conducts manual research and writing of term papers is at a disadvantage in various aspects compared to a student who uses a computer to perform all this tasks. The aspects that come into focus in this scenario are time, quality, amount of workload and effectiveness of the overall process. A student who uses a computer spends little time on assignments, gets quality work with few mistakes and does little work compared to a student who applies manual means.
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of Computer on the Living Standards of People All Over the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is right to conclude that human beings are dependent on computers today. People will do exceedingly little if someone takes computers away from them. Despite computers coming with challenges such as high cost of purchasing and power consumption, people have done their best to utilize technology to improve their wellbeing.
I believe that the invention and development of computers was a stage in the evolution of humankind into a complete creature. It is easy to imagine a virtually crippled humankind if all the computers and technologies developed using computers stop functioning today.
Nature verses Nurture Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature: genetic influence on personal development
Behavior genetic studies and nature
Nurture: Environment and personal development
Behavior Genetics Studies and Nurture
Complications between nature and nurture
Introduction Human growth and development is an important aspect in human life. Conventionally, it describes the physical, emotional, or psychological and cognitive transformation in human life. In addition, it is a complicated process controlled by both environmental and genetic aspects (Bronfenbrenner 3).
Throughout human history, research has continually debated on several aspects of human life and development aiming at identifying the influence of genetics and the impact of environment on personal human development bringing nature and nurture terms into regular controversies.
According to McGue and Bouchard, adoption and twin studies have significantly indicated that behavioral traits are transmissible (1). On the other hand, Bouchard argues that environmental factors have also been influential in the development of humans, though such factors are most effective in individual intelligence quotient (148). However, both are essential.
These endless debates on human development have important inferences on theories and researches that are encompassed in psychological studies with human behavioral traits becoming the focus. Therefore, this essay seeks to examine whether human development and behavior are due to nature or nurture.
Nature: genetic influence on personal development Nature has dominated several prospective studies on its influence on human growth and development. In this context, the word nature simply stands for the ways in which biological phenomena influence personal development and behavior (Gottesman and Hanson 10.6). Hereditary aspects of human beings are associated with behavioral characteristics in human beings.
Heredity simply describes how individuals acquire characteristics through a biological process involving genes. Different projects, including the Human Genome Project, demonstrate that DNA components found in human beings are identical to all humans with an estimated percentage of 9.9 percent resemblance. Gottesman and Hanson assert, “Factors that influence DNA methylation are huge and include such things as developmental processes, diet, and viral infections” (10.5).
Due to this DNA sharing aspect, biological studies, including famous theories conducted on evolutionary propositions have some evidence that almost all animals share similar characteristics with their respective ancestors. With studies and theories carried out to examine the impact of nature on the personal development and personality traits, heredity is an important factor in the development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Behavior genetic studies and nature In several occasions, human biology and psychologists have concentrated on what aspects allow human beings to have similar characteristics. Based on the focus of this study, gene, which is a biological component of growth, influences behavioral characteristics in human beings. In specific attention to genetics perspective, genes are natural elements that shape hereditary.
Genes pass on from one generation to another, with the likelihood of offsprings adopting traits embedded in their blood relation (Bouchard 149). Scientifically, genetic influences on personal traits and development resulted from studies of two twins, commonly known as behavior genetic studies. Behavior genetic studies were initiated by Jim Springer and involved separation of two twins, namely Jim and Lewis after five weeks of their age for a considerable number of years.
Thereafter, Springer reunited the boys after thirty years of their separation. However, during the course of their observation, the twins had similar behavioral mannerisms ranging from their hobbies, emotions, thinking and even dislikes. This study concluded that nature is automatic and biological phenomena influence behavioral traits.
Several years ago, behavioral genetic studies conducted by Tyron in the year 1940 also formed the basis of discussion of the influence of biological phenomenon on behavior. Tyron took an approach of selective breeding animals. The researcher identified two rats with certain similarities coupled with their performance on maize (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 34). Tyron mated the rats according to their brightness in color with the bright mating the bright and the dull, vice versa.
After repetitively carrying out this procedure for at least twenty-one generations, Tyron had two rats so different from each other. Tyron later tested their performance on maize and realized that their performance was similar to their initial offsprings. The science of Tyron can be significant in explaining how human beings adopt some behavioral characteristics from their parents (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 34).
Based on several observations made on the academic performance of pupils compared to that of their parents, it is clear that genetics influence the growth and behaviors of individuals. Under these practical behavior genetics studies, biological phenomena affect the development and consequent behavior of beings, which are human beings.
Studying family traits and behaviors is also a common way of identifying how genetics affects the behavioral traits of individuals or population. In family studies, researchers attempt to estimate generic impacts between individuals by comparing close relatives to examine how they resemble each other on particular distinctiveness. According to Gottesman and Hanson (10.7), through studying families, researchers have concluded that there are certain traits that are eminent in families.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Nature verses Nurture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Estimates reveal that about 25 percent of the grandchildren examined in studies have traits resembling those of their grandparents. In their research, Lenroot et al. assert that, to examine the relationship between genetics and behavioral traits, “quantification is possible by examining covariance patterns between family members of different levels of genetic relatedness” (164).
Through family studies, genetic influence on personality traits is eminent in talents and abilities possessed by individuals. In several cases, there are possibilities of offspring sharing similar human skills, including artistic or musical talents and sportsmanship.
Genetic influence in is also commonly examined in hereditary factors that are passed through DNA sequences. Scientist has studied several hereditary diseases and concluded that genetics consequently influence personal behavior traits. Psychologists have also studied this relation and identified that generic influence on behavior traits account to about 40-50 percent through heritability.
Bouchard asserts, “Schizophrenia is the most extensively studied psychiatric illness, and the findings consistently suggest a very high degree of genetic influence (heritability of about 80), mostly additive genetic influence, with no shared environmental influence” (149). Apart from schizophrenia, hereditary factors of genetic are also eminent in diseases such as phobias, panic disorders, depression, heart diseases, and even cancer.
Thompson, Cannon, and Toga assert, “Heritable diseases and behavioral traits arise from DNA variations passed on from parents to their offspring” (524). Therefore, by studying hereditary diseases, evidence-based research depicts that genetics influences human behavior bypassing behavior traits from one generation to another in close blood relationships.
In a bid to delve further into the nature issue, the twin studies comprehensively used to examine how heredity and environment affects human development play essential roles. According to Gottesman and Hanson (10.13), genetically tested experiments and data analysis of twins brought up together in a similar environment give an important view on the impact of nurturing on personal development and behavioral characteristics.
Twins’ studies, which are commonly referred as Minnesota personality studies, examined over 217 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, meaning that the twins resulted from an ovum fertilized from one sperm cell and about 114 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins, meaning that they were born of separate sperms fertilizing separate eggs, grew together.
On the other hand, 44 MZ and another 27 DZ pairs grew separately (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga). Researchers on this study observed that heritability in these twins provides an average of almost 48 percent. After undergoing several discussions and argument, this study concluded that genetic factors contribute significantly to people within a given group
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nature verses Nurture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nurture: Environment and personal development Nurturing or fostering affects personal development and behavioral traits. How a person grows through different experiences consequently determines the outcome of personal behavior. According to Bouchard (148), behavioral interconnections are eminent within societies or communities with environmental connections among individuals, families, or even groups, particularly in political influence and economic power.
Nurturing as used in several kinds of literature denotes a process by which individuals grow. Behavioral traits found in parents are most likely to be eminent in children through adoption. Cultural aspect is among the many ways through which researchers conclude that nature affects an individual’s behavior.
Culture has significant power to determine a person’s behavior depending on the parental influence and extent of their adoption to culture. Taking an example of a community that strictly observes religion or certain rituals, offsprings in this society are likely to adopt the culture and the sequence continues. Bouchard asserts, “Membership in a specific religious denomination is largely due to environmental factors” (151).
Environment has been so influential in personal traits and development. However, in most cases, environment influences an individual’s life in the early ages up to almost 20 years. Factors including cultural backgrounds, social affiliations, and physical environment become important aspects that help in examining the impact of environment on personal behaviors.
In the study undertaken by Lenroot et al., “environmental factors may be causes of downstream behavioral and cognitive function and may become more prominent relative to genetic factors as socioeconomic conditions worsen” (170). As human beings develop, they expose themselves to different environmental factors that tend to impact on their behavioral traits.
According to Emde and Hewitt, this scenario is quite eminent in children who adopt behaviors found in their parents (23). It is common to find children taking alcohol due to the influence of their family members/parents or close relatives having the tendency of alcohol taking and very common to find children becoming religious following their parental roots.
Behavior Genetics Studies and Nurture In the context of nurture, the twin’s studies contain a vital but hidden massage that researchers normally ignore. According to McGue and Bouchard, data acquired from this study provides significant evidence in the impact of environment on personal development and behavior traits (10).
The pro-nurture conclusion hinges on two main observations. Despite carrying out several studies with regard to hereditary impact on personal development and personal traits, researchers have not considered the fact that genetic differences contribute to about 50 percent or even less. This aspect automatically implies that environmental factors are entirely responsible for the remaining percentage. On the same note, it is possible to find family members having different traits, despite coming from the same blood.
Researchers commonly observe this aspect in some children who grow together and possess extremely different characteristics. Based on the evidence drawn from this argument, it is common that regardless of their relationship, there are no possibilities that two siblings live together throughout their lifetime.
Therefore, in the process of separating and living in different environments, people’s surroundings are most likely to be responsible for their differences in their behaviors.
However, culture is a powerful aspect in determining growth and development; thus if brought up under the same environment sharing the same culture, they are most likely to have similar traits (Lenroot et al. 165). Probably, siblings living together in a shared environment including having the same parents, attending the same schools, living in the same home, taking the same meals, and even attending similar functions possess different traits.
On the other hand, siblings might live in a non-shared environment including being raised differently by their parents, occupying different environments, or even having different sportsmanship and finally differ in their behavior traits (Bouchard 149). This scenario definitely explains how the impact of the environment to human behavior is unique with people adopting different traits based on their environmental experiences.
Complications between nature and nurture As researchers struggle to identify the transparency between nature and nurture, the complication between the two aspects still exists. Several prospective studies carried out on the subject are making the complication worse. Contrary to other studies carried out, Urie Bronfenbrenner and his colleague Stephen, in the year 1994, proposed a bio-ecological model to stretch the argument on the aspects of nature and nurture.
According to Bronfenbrenner, at birth, mothers bestow newborns with genetic predispositions (6). The predispositions only have the ability of influencing the behaviors of the children later in their old age with life experiences playing an important role on the behaviors at that age.
These predispositions have a component of intelligence. Taking into account the realities of life, some children are raised in poor families and thus, they undergo stress and frustrations, which might limit them from realizing their potential. On the other, hand some children are raised in stress-free homes with many opportunities to explore their abilities. Finally, one only wonders how these predispositions can prove genetic influence on human behavior.
Conclusion The nature vs. nurture debate has been unique in its arguments between natural development and environmental influence on human development and personality traits. However, both nature and nurture have a portion to share in human development, especially in determining personal traits of individuals, though studies reveal that their influences are non-independent (McGue and Bouchard 6).
Based on nature, scientists and psychologists have continually examined the influence of genetic factors on the development. Scientifically, genetic influences on personal traits and development resulted from studies of two twins.
The studies provided a significant proof about the hereditary factor with the possibility that offsprings adopt behavioral traits from their parents naturally (Thompson, Cannon, and Toga 523). On the other hand, scientists, philosophers, and psychologists still argue that environment or nurturing aspect has a greater influence in development of human behavior characteristics.
The argument on nurturing aspect is that, if all genetics prove that it is responsible for human behavior, then why does it only cover 48 percent on genetic influences. Family studies propose that there exist possibilities that children can never live together in their entire life, and thus changes observed in them is due to environmental influences. However, as prospective research continues to dominate, probably controversies between the two aspects might never end.
Works Cited Bouchard, Thomas. “Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits.” American Psychological Society 13.4 (2004): 148-151. Print.
Bronfenbrenner, Urie. Making Human Beings Human: Bio-ecological Perspectives on Human Development. New York: Sage Publishers, 2004. Print.
Emde, Robert, and John Hewitt. Infancy to Early Childhood: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Gottesman, Irving, and Daniel Hanson. “Human Development: Biological and Genetic Processes.” Annu. Rev. Psychol 56 .1 (2005): 10.1–10.24. Print.
Lenroot, Rhoshel, James Schmitt, Sara Ordaz, Gregory Wallace, Michael Neale,
Jason Lerch, Kenneth Kendler, Alan Evans, and Jay Giedd. “Differences in Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Human Cerebral Cortex Associated with Development during Childhood and Adolescence.” Human Brain Mapping 30.1 (2009): 163–174. Print.
McGue, Matt, and Thomas Bouchard. “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Behavioral Differences.” Annu. Rev. Neurosci 21.1 (1998): 1–24. Print.
Thompson Paul, Tyrone Cannon, and Arthur Toga. “Mapping genetic influences on human brain structure.” Annals of Medicine 34.8 (2002): 523- 536. Print.
Habit 3 Put First Things First Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The 2 X 2 Matrix
Introduction Highly effective people are known to focus on discovering opportunities around them. They then utilize these opportunities to their advantage keenly taking into consideration their principles and values. They do this in order to achieve personal or organizational goals (Hergenhahn, 2005).
The decisions they make are centered and focused on already defined mission statements. For one to benefit fully from concepts of Habit 2 Put First Things First, one needs to have thoroughly understood and internalized Habit 1 and Habit 2. Habit 1 focuses on the individual’s character development (pro-activity).
It is through the character that one develops in this stage that he or she is able to refrain from activities that do not contribute towards the achievement of the defined goals. Habit 2 begins with “an end” in mind. Stephen Covey (2004) emphasizes on creating a clear vision of one’s objective. This has to start with analyzing one’s current situation in order to know one’s position. It is by so doing that one is able to come up with a personal or organizational constitution.
The latter draws clear guidelines and regulations towards achieving the short term and long term goals. The said goals converge to form the mission statement. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze the ideas and concepts of Habit 3 Put First Things First. The study reveals how this habit may be applied in the real world through use of practical examples. A look at the 2 X 2 matrix, delegation and recommendations will help to exemplify better the concepts of Habit 3 Put First Things First.
The 2 X 2 Matrix Highly effective people recognize the activities that are important to them and those that are not important (Gazzaniga, 2010). With the use of 2 X 2 Matrix, Stephen Covey (2004) classifies the day to day activities into four categories;
-Pressing matters 1
-Deadline driven activities
– Prevention Not Urgent
– Implementing systems
-Planning and preparations
-Improving professional knowledge
– Telephone Calls.
– Interruptions; a colleague walking in to the office
– Unplanned meeting
– Trivial 4
– Busy Work
1. Important and urgent are classified as Quadrant 1. 2. Important and not urgent are classified as Quadrant 2. 3. Urgent and not important are classified as Quadrant 3. 4. Not important and not urgent are classified as Quadrant 4. For effective management, Quadrant 1 activities should be given preference.
All tasks should be evaluated to determine the important activities and their urgencies. It is good to deal with all important and urgent matters first. Deadline driven projects should be given priority too. Crisis matters and pressing problems should be considered first as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To manage your life effectively based on the principles and values outlined in your mission statement, you have to focus on activities of Quadrant 2 especially the important activities which are not urgent. This works a long way towards improving your production capacity. For example, instead of embarking on planning each day at a time, it could be ideal for you to focus on weekly activities that are inline with the accomplishment of your personal goals and roles.
For instance, a person who intends to reduce 10 kilograms of his or her body weight in one month can come up with a whole week schedule that outlines the activities he or she will undertake each day in order to reduce the desired weight. In the weekly plan, he or she can specify the diet to take each day taking into consideration the amount of calories his or her body requires and adjust his or her meals to suit the required calories.
He or she can also plan for the exercises to undertake each day of the week. He or she may allocate two days for jogging and three days for indoor gym activities. Another important aspect of Quadrant 2 involves preparation. A student who wishes to excel in his or her exams must do certain things that may enhance the chances of academic excellence for the particular student.
This would involve studying all the course materials exhaustively and ensuring that he or she has covered the entire syllabus. He or she should embark on thorough revision of the entire course work. He or she can engage other students in discussions on the different topics in the course outline. A review of past exams would help him or her in understanding how the questions in the exams are set.
The same case would apply to an engineer who wishes to be highly effective in his career. The engineer may consider enrolling for an advanced course in his profession. This would help him or her sharpen his professional skills and knowledge. He or she would also actively participate in seminars and workshops with an aim of boosting his or her professional attributes. Sometimes people engage themselves in activities that take a lot of their time.
Those activities may not be necessarily important to the fulfillment of their goals. These are activities of Quadrant 3 which comprise urgent activities but which may not be very important or necessary. These activities are portrayed as urgent because they involve other people who may be important to people’s lives like friends and relatives. Activities of Quadrant 3 may have nothing to do with the realization of people’s personal goals. Sometimes these activities may be depicted as important.
They may persuade many people to put more time and energy on them. They may not be as important as perceived. For example, in an office setup, a colleague may come to your office to make an acquaintance. A small discussion may ensue and without both of you noticing, a substantial amount of time may eventually be wasted which would have otherwise been spent working towards the accomplishment of your organizational goals. Telephone calls may be other forms of distractions.
We will write a custom Essay on Habit 3 Put First Things First specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Your callers make take a lot of your time by engaging you in conversations that may not have a productive impact on your work. It is important to know the purpose of the telephone call and assess whether it is worth giving your time to at that particular moment. It is from that point that you would be able to decide whether to take that call, postpone or ignore it. Though the internet is the greatest information tool, it has been misused in most organizations hindering the latter from achieving their goals.
In certain cases, you may find employees busy on the computers creating the impression that they are doing something substantial towards execution of the company’s mission. On the other hand, those employees may be busy chatting with their friends through the various social sites, responding to emails from their friends or surfing in the internet for materials of their personal interests.
All these things are not essential in a person’s life that is why Covey (2004) classifies them as not important. They have very little significance to the attainment of the mission of any given company. Some small issues may arise in an organization prompting concerned managers to call for the so called “urgent meetings”. In such circumstances, the meeting agendas may not be carefully drawn and the parties participating in the said meetings may not be taken into consideration.
Such meetings may not be adequately prepared for by all parties eventually leading to wastage of time by the concerned parties. These meetings may not add any value towards the fulfillment of the company’s mission. Quadrant 4 illustrates activities that are not important as well as not urgent. Certain people may give excuses of being busy with the intention of avoiding certain duties or activities given to them by their respective organizations.
One may be surprised to find out that these people may not be as busy as they may portray to be. A closer examination on the lives of the said people may reveal that they may be engaged in activities that are not so important like watching movies, reading newspapers and novels. Ideally, it is important to reduce the time taken on these activities and concentrate more on the activities that would lead one to being highly effective in realizing either one’s personal or organizational goals and objectives.
Delegation A highly effective person ought to understand that it is not possible to accomplish all the activities that will help him or her achieve the intended goals. It is therefore important that one identifies the specific activities to work on in achieving one’s goals.
One needs to realize the strengths and weaknesses of the people that one plans to work with. By so doing, one would be capable of understanding the abilities of different people. When delegating, it is important to avoid telling the persons concerned what to do. It is imperative let them know the vision and goals to attain. Let them understand the desired values. Let them realize and appreciate your principles.
A person whose goal is to cut 10 kilograms of body weight in one month can delegate his or her diet planning to a professional nutritionist. If the person is a vegetarian, he can inform the nutritionist beforehand. By so doing, he would be letting the nutritionist know his values and principles. This way, he or she would have simply delegated some part his or her goal to a professional who can better handle the given assignment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Habit 3 Put First Things First by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recommendation Proper time management is the key towards being highly effective for any one. With good time management, one may be able to effectively employ and implement Habit 3 Put First Things First.
Conclusion Proper scheduling of one’s activities is the foundation towards implementing Habit 3 put first things first (Palmer
Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Capitalism and socialism
Capitalism and socialism view of freedom
Impact of capitalism and socialism on global political climate
Introduction Inthe contemporary times, two dominant ways of life reign humanity. These two ways of life have gradually degenerated into two ideologies, viz. the Western capitalism and the Eastern socialism. Most of the Western countries embrace capitalism, which reflects liberalism, competition, and unrestrained freedom (Pejovich 71).
The states promote a competitive economic environment where individuals strive to enrich themselves. On the other hand, most of the Eastern countries embrace socialism, which challenges people’s freedom. The countries advocate for an environment where the government has full control over economic resources. In both cases, humankind is ignored as a personality, and the society is disregarded.
These two systems of political and social ideologies manifest themselves in the community. Capitalism dominates the western countries with its headquarters being the United States, while socialism dominates most of the former Soviet States and the majority of states in the Far East (Pejovich 72-75). This paper aims at comparing and contrasting the two political ideologies.
History of Capitalism and socialism In 1700s, it was cheap and easy to produce many goods at one place due to the notion of the economies of scale. Moreover, significant changes in agriculture like enclosure of lands that were once owned communally and crop rotation made it possible for landowners to accumulate stupendous wealth.
Property owners later invested in novel industries. This initial accumulation of wealth at the expense of the society marked the onset of capitalism. It displaced numerous people from their lands thus creating poverty (Pejovich 77-84). In Europe, the European capitalists perpetuated capitalism through their search for silver and gold, which they used as a form of wealth storage.
Some of the elites resisted the move to capitalism, but state laws, which promoted capitalism and harshly punished those opposed to it, suppressed any resistance. Stealing a handkerchief belonging to a “gentleman” amounted to execution upon conviction. This epoch marked the beginning of capitalist imperialism.
On the other hand, industrial revolution led to the emergence of socialism. As capitalists continued accumulating wealth through industrialization, some elites realized that the capitalists violated a number of workers’ rights. Consequently, they came up with ways through which they could help workers to overcome oppression from capitalists.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals fighting for socialism called for the state to own and control the economy rather than allowing few individuals to have control of the crucial economic resources (Pejovich 86-93). Proponents of socialism blamed capitalism for the prevailing poverty, and thus advocated for policies like egalitarian allocation of wealth and conversion of populations into numerous communities to do away with private property.
Capitalism and socialism view of freedom The triadic model views freedom as comprising of three variables, viz. a constraint variable, agent variable, and outcome variable. Max Weber posits that capitalism entails accrual of wealth by a few individuals (Galbraith 67). Consequently, capitalists view freedom in the sense of being in a position to accumulate wealth without external interference.
Capitalists or individuals supporting capitalistic ideologies act as agents, while the society or individuals opposed to capitalism stand out as constraints. Capitalism views the accumulated wealth as the outcome variable. The three elements play a significant role in ensuring the success of capitalism. Whenever capitalists accumulate wealth, they consider themselves free.
Proponents of capitalism derive the meaning of life from its ideologies. For them, life would be meaningless without wealth and property. Besides, they use it as a criterion for evaluating what is good and bad (Galbraith 73). Capitalists find communal property ownership as one of the ways that promote indolence in society. Hence, they term it awful.
They view capitalism as the ultimate way of encouraging creativity and innovativeness in the society as people compete to accumulate wealth. The fact that capitalism promotes competitiveness makes its proponents view it as the ultimate way of promoting freedom in a liberal society. Capitalism offers an identity to its proponents. Capitalists feel associated to a particular group, which acts as their identity.
People feel happy and free when associated with a particular group. The same applies to capitalists. Freedom comes when an individual can come up with a set of activities to undertake in life. Proponents of capitalism have the ultimate goal of accumulating as much wealth as they can; hence, capitalism helps them in developing a program to follow in order to achieve their dreams.
Conversely, socialism believes in centralized control of the national economy and abolition of private property (Galbraith 79). For socialists, they perceive freedom in the sense of owning property communally, thus being in a position to acquire or use any asset whenever there is a need. Socialism perceives economy as the agent of freedom while the major constraint lies in establishing ways through which the public can own the national economy.
We will write a custom Essay on Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The achievement or outcome variable in socialism is the ability to abolish private ownership of property and accumulate wealth on a communal basis. Hence, socialism views freedom as the ability to do away with individual property ownership and embrace communal property ownership.
Capitalism was associated with oppression of the poor by the rich individuals. Hence, most of the poor people found life to be a worthless venture for they had nothing to enjoy in life (Galbraith 84). In a bid to overcome this feeling, people had to look for a way that would set them free and give them a new meaning to life. Socialism turned out to be the most appropriate way since it promoted communal property ownership, thus implying that all people had equal rights to all properties.
Furthermore, socialism offered the society a platform for assessing the right and wrong social practices. For instance, socialists perceived capitalism as an unethical practice since it promoted unhealthy competition thus leading to disunity in the society. Individuals supporting socialism viewed it as the ultimate source of their identity.
They venerated the culture of communal property ownership and wished to associate with it. An ideology helps in giving its supporters a series of actions to undertake and this element applies in socialism. It helps its proponents in coming up with a set of projects that can promote social ties amongst themselves.
Impact of capitalism and socialism on global political climate Currently, capitalism is gradually becoming one of the resurgent powers. According to Dumenil and Levy (78-83), the world is encountering the emergence of a new class of capitalists.
Currently, economies of most nations are drifting towards a novel and deep-rooted class of inequality. Capitalism has not only affected the global political economy, but also the global political consciousness. Currently, countries are tolerant to inequality than ever before. In addition, the workplace culture has become parallel to neo-feudalism (Harvey 80).
On the other hand, socialism has had a significant effect on global politics. After nations realized that it was hard to achieve environmental conservation goals in a capitalistic regime, they embarked on political ideology dubbed eco-socialism. The ideology seeks to bring together all stakeholders to work as a group towards embracing environmental conservation policies.
According to Ma (341-342), states can achieve environmental conservation goals by changing from capitalists to welfarist states. Currently, most of the Asian countries are establishing self-governing systems of alliances to create ecological democracies beyond what is established by their states. For instance, India has come up with an eco-socialist movement that works under the guidelines of social justice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Ideologies: Capitalism vs. Socialism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Currently, different nations embrace one of the two distinct and opposing ways of life. While the majority of Western countries embrace capitalism, some of the Eastern countries continue exercising socialism. Capitalism emerged because of people’s undying desire become affluent.
On the other hand, socialism emerged during the epoch of the industrial revolution as a means to counter the oppression perpetrated by the rich on the disadvantaged. The two political ideologies have different perceptions about freedom. Capitalism views freedom in terms of wealth accumulation. They believe that wealth accumulation allows an individual to assume a particular identity. On the other hand, socialists perceive freedom in terms of having control over national economic wealth.
Socialists believe that people can only be free if they have the liberty to use national economic resources without restrictions. Currently, capitalism is gradually eroding the global political consciousness leading to the emergence of a class of inequality. On the other hand, socialism is leading to the establishment of eco-socialism as a policy for attaining environmental conservation.
Works Cited Dumenil, Gerard, and Dominique Levy. Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution. New York: Harvard University Press, 2004. Print.
Galbraith, James. Created Unequal: The Crisis in American Pay. New York: The Free Press, 1998. Print.
Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Ma, Zhijuan. “Eco-socialism as politics: rebuilding the basis of our modern civilization.” Environmental Politics 21.2 (2012): 341-342. Print.
Pejovich, Svetozar. “Capitalism and Socialism.” International Studies in Economics and Econometrics 33.2 (1998): 71-93. Print.
Social Networks Are no More Just Fun Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief Facts about SNSs
The Use in Business
The Use in Research and Academia
The Use in Self-Development
People Should Be Aware of New Implications
Introduction When speaking of social network sites (SNSs) people focus on communication, sharing files and making friends. These were primary goals of the first SNSs. These were major goals of such famous SNSs as MySpace, Facebook and Twitter. However, many people have found different facets of the phenomenon called social network sites.
SNSs are now regarded as a terrain for a variety of activities. Thus, people have found a lot of uses for such sites as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, etc. These sites are used in business, research and academia, and self-development. Notably, these uses are proved to be effective. Therefore, people should be aware of a variety of implications of using SNSs as spending time on chatting and sharing images is a mere waste of time in the contemporary world where people have to cope with loads of information.
Defining SNSs In the first place, it is important to define SNSs. There are quite many definitions of the phenomenon. Boyd and Ellison define SNSs as
web-based services that allow individuals to . construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system . view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. (654)
It is necessary to note that the researchers stress the use of the term “social network” as they argue that social networking sites have more to do with establishing communication between “strangers” while the term “social network sites” refers to a web-based community (Boyd
The Computational Brain Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents What can humans do that computers cannot?
What can computers do that humans cannot?
What can humans do that computers cannot? The differences between a human being and a computer can be partly explained by looking at their reaction to an external stimulus. First of all, a computer can process information from external environment only according the predetermined patterns or algorithms. In contrast, a human being can freely choose various ways or strategies of analyzing a stimulus. This is the main reasons why people are capable of independent decisions, but one cannot say the same thing about computers.
Furthermore, one should note that humans’ reaction to a stimulus is affected by their previous experience. In particular, a person can change his/her behavior if it was not successful in the past. This ability is the basis of human learning. Currently, researchers attempt to develop the algorithms for machine learning.
For instance, one can mention such a program like Deep Blue that can adjust its strategies depending upon the moves of a chess player. Nevertheless, computers are very limited in their ability to change their behavior or strategies.
Finally, one should note that humans are able to act irrationally. For instance, people can be influenced by their unique biases, prejudices, or opinions that can hardly be explained or justified through reasoning (Edgar, 2003, p. 452). This is why humans can respond to a stimulus in an unexpected way. In contrast, computers lack this ability. Certainly, irrational behavior of an individual is not always beneficial; however, this is an inherent quality of a human being.
Thus, some of the capabilities possessed by a human being cannot be easily replicated in machines. In particular, one can speak about such aspects as freedom of choice, ability to adapt one’s behavior, and irrationality. At the present moment, computer scientists attempt to address these limitations, but one cannot say to what extent their efforts will be successful.
What can computers do that humans cannot? There are several things that computers can do more effectively than humans. In this case, one can speak about specific tasks that are performed according to certain patterns (Stillings, Weisler,
Urbanization and Environment Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Urbanization is the process in which “an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities” (Wagner 24). Urbanization is considered to be one of the major outcomes of industrialization. The process of industrialization led to the use of inanimate sources of energy and new tools for production in the pre-modern world economy. Consequently, there were surpluses in the agricultural and industrial sectors of the world economy.
The producers had to look for markets to sell their surplus produce. This led to the development of marketplaces and small urban areas which eventually became centers of commerce and industrial production (Wagner 27). In this regard, urbanization can be described as the increase in human population in discrete areas, thereby causing a change in land use in favor of residential, commercial and industrial purposes. According to Warren, nearly half of the world population lived in urban areas in 2008 (105-106).
Moreover, 70% of the world population is expected to live in urban areas by the year 2050 (Warren 105-106). In the last three decades, cities and towns have become the main habitats of mankind due to social and economic changes. Even though urban centers cover less than 5% of the total land area on earth, they have significant ecological footprint (Malik and Grohmann 78).
This implies that any form of uncontrolled urbanization can have severe environmental effects. The rapid exhaustion of the world’s natural resources is mainly attributed to urban development. Thus, sustainable urbanization can only be achieved if the environmental effects of urban developed are reduced. It is against this backdrop that this paper discuses the approaches that can be used to achieve urban development with minimal harmful effects on the environment.
Causes of Urbanization Before embarking on an in-depth discussion of how urbanization can be achieved in an eco-friendly manner, a brief explanation of its causes and effects is in order. By clearly understanding the causes of urbanization, city planners and environmentalist can formulate appropriate policies to alleviate the negative effects of urban development. In this regard, the following factors are the main causes of urbanization.
First, urbanization takes place as individuals, business entities and governmental organizations attempt to reduce the time and the financial resources that are spent in order to access basic services (Malik and Grohmann 53). Most governments often promote the development of urban centers in order to enable their citizens to access basic services such as education and healthcare.
Similarly, business organizations often provide services such as banking, transportation and consultancy in urban areas. Providing these services in urban centers is often cheaper than providing them in rural areas. This is because the consumers of these services are usually located in one area in the urban centers. Thus, reaching them is easier and cheaper.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Second, urbanization normally takes place as people migrate to cities and towns in search of economic opportunities. In most countries, the rural populations often relocate to cities in order to improve their socio-economic conditions. Most businesses that create well paying jobs are often located in urban centers.
Similarly, research and development centers are usually located in large urban areas where electricity, transport infrastructure, security and water are available. Thus, cities and towns tend to have more job opportunities than rural areas (Malik and Grohmann 54).
In this context, job seekers often migrate from the rural areas to the urban centers in order to find better jobs. In emerging economies, people normally relocate to urban centers in order to start or to improve their businesses. The rationale of this move is that the demand for commodities and consumer goods is always higher in urban centers than in rural areas. Consequently, conducting business in urban centers is more profitable than in rural areas.
Third, urbanization occurs due to rapid population growth in the rural areas. In the last decade, improved healthcare and nutrition has led to high fertility rates, especially, in the least developed countries. As a result, most developing countries lack adequate land in their rural areas to support agriculture or food production. Consequently, agricultural communities have had to move to cities and towns with the aim of finding alternative economic activities (Wagner 64).
In the twenty first century, modern governments have focused on constructing new cities in order to promote efficient use of the available land. Concisely, cities cover a small land area; however, they can accommodate thousands of people. In this regard, relocating rural populations to cities enables governments to access adequate land in their rural areas for food production.
Finally, urban centers are administrative units through which governments serve their citizens (Wagner 72). Most cities in Africa and Asia began as administrative units which acted as the local headquarters of their colonial masters.
After gaining independence, most African and Asian countries focused on providing administrative services such as security and registration of persons in urban centers. This system can still be seen in the contemporary society. Nearly every country in the world has a capital city which is essentially the headquarters of its government.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Urbanization and Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental Effects of Urbanization Cities and towns contribute over 70% of the greenhouse gases that are emitted in various parts of the world (Williams 217-232). Human activities such as manufacturing goods have significantly increased air pollution through the emission of greenhouse gases.
This problem has been exacerbated by the fact that water bodies and vegetation in most cities have lost their capacity to absorb the greenhouse gases. The environmental problems in urban areas have been on the rise due to the increased use of non-renewable sources of fuel for industrial production and transportation.
Affluence and consumerism have led to a high demand for consumer products across the globe, thereby increasing environmental pressures (Williams 217-232). In least developed countries, cities are characterized by uncontrolled development and rapid population growth. Consequently, the demand for housing and consumer goods has tremendously increased in these countries. Construction of new houses often leads to the destruction of the vegetation which is expected to absorb the greenhouse gases.
These gases are responsible for the climate changes that have been witnessed in different parts of the world. For example, natural calamities such as floods and landslides regularly occur in most cities. Apart from air pollution, most urban areas are characterized by high noise levels. The main sources of noise in these areas include aircrafts, industrial production and construction activities. The effects of high noise levels on city residents include sleep disturbance, stress, loss of hearing and increased anxiety.
Energy consumption in urban areas is one of the major causes of heat islands. Heat islands occur due to the fact that the rate at which rural areas radiate heat into the atmosphere is at least twice as high as the rate in cities (Warren 105-106). Thus, cities are warmer than rural areas because they are associated with high energy consumption and low heat radiation. The use of energy for purposes such as cooking, transportation and generation of electricity in urban areas is much higher than in rural areas.
For example, the per capita consumption of coal in Chinese cities is at least three times more than the consumption in rural areas (Li, Liu and McKinnell 354-364). Heat islands usually trap atmospheric pollutants, thereby causing cloudiness and fog. It also causes high precipitation, thunderstorms and hailstorms in cities. Empirical studies show that city residents are increasingly becoming vulnerable to disasters such as floods and landslides due to climate change.
Urban development also causes water pollution. Waste management is normally a serious challenge in large cities, especially, in the least developed countries. In these cities, untreated solid wastes are often disposed in dumpsites. Eventually, these wastes contaminate groundwater sources.
In some cases, industrial wastes are discharged directly into water bodies such as rivers and lakes. These pollutants normally contaminate water, thereby causing the death of aquatic animals such as fish (Williams 217-232). The use of water from the contaminated water bodies often cause diseases such as diarrhea in cities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Urbanization and Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, urban development usually interferes with the course of rivers and streams. Real estate developers prefer to construct houses along the coastline or river banks. These areas are attractive to most real estate developers due to their scenic features.
However, urban developments in these areas usually lead to the destruction of riparian vegetation and alteration of stream channels (Suileman, Aguda and Farinde 213-216). For example, the construction of a dam to supply water in an urban area can alter the hydrology of a river and cause destruction to physical habitats. The environmental effects of urbanization are expected to increase if remedial measures are not taken at the right time.
Urban Development and Environmental Conservation The discussion on the causes and the effects of urbanization reveals two facts. First, urbanization is a very important phenomenon in the contemporary world because it drives economic development. In a nutshell, urban areas are characterized with better living conditions and economic opportunities than rural areas.
Second, urbanization is associated with severe environmental effects which threaten its sustainability. Consequently, city planners and environmentalists must formulate and implement policies that can facilitate sustainable urban development. In this regard, the following measures can be adopted in order to achieve sustainable urban development and to protect the environment.
Land Use Planning Land use planning helps in determining present and future land use patterns in urban areas. The main role of land use planning is to facilitate sustainable consumption of environmental resources, development of infrastructure and maintenance of public health and safety (Suileman, Aguda and Farinde 213-216). In this context, development of infrastructure refers to the construction of facilities such as roads, schools and hospitals, as well as, the process of creating jobs.
Environmental resources include parks, watersheds, wetlands and rivers among others. Maintaining pubic health and safety involves taking measures that can help us to cope with the effects of natural disasters such as floods and tropical storms. Urban planners must give priority to the protection and sustainable exploitation of the available environmental resources. Protection of these resources must be given priority due to the following reasons.
First, the process of developing infrastructure and ensuring public health and safety mainly depends on the quality and accessibility of the available natural resources. Second, long term damage to the natural environment has already occurred due to past land use decisions. Additionally, these effects are likely to increase in the future (Simonis 919-928). Finally, the implementation of undesirable land use decisions will lead to more environmental damages.
The resulting imbalance in the ecosystem and loss of natural resources will pose a serious threat to human civilization. Environmental resources can be protected through the ‘how to’ and the ‘where to’ strategies. The use of these strategies is based on the premise that ecological vision must be incorporated in future development plans in order to achieve sustainable urbanization. The two strategies can be explained as follows.
The ‘Where to’ Strategy This strategy is essentially a selection process that enables urban planners to choose the best land for development (Simonis 919-928). This process ensures that areas of ecological importance are protected from urban development. The areas of ecological importance are essentially the places where the environmental resources that support various ecosystems are found.
The main objective of the ‘where to’ strategy is to enable urban planners, developers and governmental agencies to identify the important environmental resources that require protection from development (Simonis 919-928). The resources can be identified through the acquisition of knowledge about the environmental conditions of the areas in which urban development is expected to take place.
A variety of ecosystems can be found in different urban areas. The land use decisions that are made in such areas determine the ability of various ecosystems to provide the goods and services that are needed by the human population. Thus, the need to acquire adequate information about the environmental resources in a place becomes apparent.
Such information can help urban planners to make the right decisions in regard to land use and development. The environmental information should describe the topography, geology, vegetation and the wildlife of the area (Malik and Grohmann 235). In order to understand this information, a comprehensive environmental inventory must be created.
This inventory is essentially a collection of data that highlights the attributes of the environmental resources that can be found in an area that is being considered for urban development. The information that is contained in this inventory must be taken into account when land use decisions are being made. For instance, real estate development or industrial operations must be prohibited in important areas such as watersheds.
The ‘How to’ Strategy The ‘how to’ strategy is implemented after the ideal land for development has been identified. It helps planners and developers to identify the best approaches to urban development. The first step of this strategy is concerned with the identification of the measures that must be taken in order to protect essential environmental resources.
The second step is concerned with the identification of the “types of developments on the available land that respect ecological diversity, environmental security, economic viability, human creativity and the sense of community” (Simonis 919-928). In this stage, urban planners, developers and designers are expected to use different planning approaches and sustainability standards such as smart growth and new urbanism in order to achieve sustainable urbanization.
Protecting Environmental Resources Environmental resources must be protected from development. The characteristics of the resources determine the measures that can be applied to protect them. Thus, development can be prohibited completely in some areas. However, controlled urban development can be allowed in some regions.
Empirical studies indicate that a slope range of between 0.05 to 3% is suitable for any type of urban development (Malik and Grohmann 315). A slope range of between 20% and 25% is suitable for the construction of houses, whereas a slope range of between 4% and 5% is ideal for road construction (Malik and Grohmann 317). Generally, a piece of land whose slope exceeds 12 degrees should not be used for urban development. This is because such pieces of land have a high risk of soil erosion.
Similarly, development should be prohibited on pieces of land that are made up of organic and clay soils due to the following reasons. First, clay soils are associated with drainage problems. Besides, rapid subsidence usually occurs in clay soils. These problems are attributed to the fact that clay soils usually shrink and swell when the soil moisture changes. Second, organic soils should not be used for development because they support various species of plants.
According to Williams, water resources such as streams and lakes can be protected through buffer requirements (217-232). A buffer refers to a “transitional land between the natural resource and the land that is subject to development” (Williams 217-232).
Generally, streams and wetlands can be adequately protected by a buffer of approximately 200 meters. However, areas that are prone to natural disasters such as floods should not be used for urban development. Similarly, areas that host endangered animal and plant species should not be used for urban development.
Types of Development The demand for environmental resources is often influenced by the lifestyle factors of the human population. In this regard, individuals should adopt lifestyles that are in harmony with the environment. In a nutshell, individuals should be aware of the environmental implications of their choices of residential areas, energy sources and production technologies.
According to Simonis, controlled development on environmentally sensitive areas should be based on an individual’s choice rather than regulation (919-928). This view is supported by Ogbonna, Amagabara and Ekere who assert that empowered and motivated communities are more likely to protect the environment than their regulated counterparts (71-88).
Resource Use in Urban Areas Constructing compact cities whose infrastructure and facilities are well designed can help in reducing energy consumption by improving efficiency in transportation and production. The heat island effect is one of the major outcomes of high energy consumption in urban areas. There are several measures that can be used to control urban warming. Heat radiation in urban areas can be improved by changing the materials that are used to construct the roofs of buildings (Warren 105-106).
In addition, radiation can be improved by changing the spatial arrangement of buildings. Changing the materials is cost effective since it can be used on existing buildings. For instance, changing the materials that were used to construct the roof a building can eliminate the cost of constructing a new building. Generally, existing roof materials should be replaced with those that have high reflectivity.
Water consumption in urban areas can be reduced through measures that encourage exploitation of alternative water sources and reduction of water pollution. For instance, peak urban runoff can be reduced by constructing water detention ponds. Warren asserts that water detention ponds are beneficial since they eliminate the need to re-engineer city drainage systems in order to manage flash floods (105-106).
Moreover, the detention ponds prevent contaminated water from entering into water bodies such as lakes and rivers. A water detention pond with a large surface area can help in reducing the urban heat island effect through evaporation. Furthermore, the water in these ponds can be used for non-domestic purposes such as irrigating flower gardens in the urban areas. This leads to clean water conservation.
Urban Development and Environmental Conservation Policies Sustainable urbanization must be based on effective policies that guide development and facilitate environmental conservation. In this regard, the government must collaborate with stakeholders such as developers, urban planners and city residents to formulate policies that guide urban development and conservation of the environment.
These policies are likely to be accepted by all stakeholders if they are formulated through consultation and consensus building initiatives. Moreover, the pubic must be sensitized on the regulations that govern urbanization in order to enhance compliance with the existing laws. The policies should specify the type and the scope of the development projects that are allowed in specific areas.
According to Warren, the type of development projects that are to be undertaken in an urban area must have the least harm on the existing ecological systems (105-106). In this regard, the choice of development projects should be informed by ethical considerations rather than pure economic rationality. Concisely, residential, commercial and industrial developments in urban areas must be regulated through policies that facilitate environmental conservation or protection.
Urban development policies must be used in conjunction with environmental conservation policies. The main objective of environmental protection policies is to control the behaviors that contribute to pollution and destruction of natural resources. Empirical studies indicate that nearly all governments have laws that promote or encourage environmental conservation.
However, most of these policies or regulations have failed to achieve their objectives. This failure is attributed to factors such as poor enforcement, loopholes in the environmental laws, ineffective judicial systems and corruption. In some cases, the high cost of monitoring the activities of urban development agencies discourages the governments from enforcing conservation laws (Sexena, Srivastava and Samaddar 308-323).
In response to this failure, Warren argues that conservation laws or policies should be based on the market system rather than government intervention (105-106). This means that the market system should give urban developers the incentive to undertake environment-friendly projects. Moreover, protecting the environment should not compromise urban development.
Thus, environmental regulation should be based on the principle that “polluters pay expenses, while cleaners make a profit” (Sexena, Srivastava and Samaddar 308-323). In this context, developers, producers and city residents are considered to be the polluters whose activities result into undesirable environmental outcomes. The cleaners, on the other hand, are the companies that are responsible for cleaning the environment in order to restore it to its pre-pollution condition.
The developers demand cleaning services such as the disposal of the debris which are produced at construction sites or treatment of industrial waste. The pollution purification services are supplied by the cleaners. The price paid by the polluters for the cleaning services is proportional to the amount of emission or waste that is released into the ambient environment.
Consequently, the market forces of demand and supply will help in setting the optimum price and level of pollution. In this case, the polluters will have the incentive to minimize pollution in order to reduce their expenditure on cleaning services. In some cases, the polluters are given the option of either cleaning the environment or paying the tax equivalent.
According to Wagner, pollution can be reduced significantly through these market based interventions (79). This premise is based on the fact that market based interventions give polluters the incentive to invest in technologies that promote efficiency and reduce pollution. Additionally, implementing them requires little intervention by the government. Thus, their implementation is cheap and easy.
Recent studies show that solid waste in urban areas can be reduced by privatizing environment-related industries. Such industries are made up of companies that engage in garbage disposal and treatment of solid wastes. Privatization helps in improving the efficiency and productivity of these companies. In developing countries where local governments and municipal authorities lack the capital to clean the environment, private companies should be allowed to provide the cleaning services (Ogbonna, Amagabara and Ekere 71-88).
Similarly, promoting foreign direct investments in the environment-related industries can facilitate improved waste management in developing countries. For instance, multinational companies that focus on energy production can transform the solid wastes into electricity. In this case, the benefit will be two fold. First, the country will benefit from a clean and reliable supply of energy. Second, the solid wastes will be eliminated in a cost effective manner.
The Role of Technology Sustainable urban development can be achieved through efficient technologies. In particular, the technologies used in construction, transportation and production must focus on efficient use of the available resources (Keirstead 6-19). Similarly, they must focus on reducing reliance on non-renewable energy sources such as oil (Song, Wang and Jie 5-14). In this regard, there should be a shift from the use of oil propelled cars to hybrid and electric cars.
Additionally, efficient trains should be used in order to reduce pollution in major cities. Advanced construction technologies should be used to build high-rise apartments in order to reduce the pressure on the land that is available for development. Furthermore, destruction of vegetation and physical habitats can be reduced by replacing bungalows with high-rise apartments.
Food consumption in urban areas tends to be higher than in rural areas. Consequently, most countries have adopted a mechanized agricultural production system in rural areas in order to meet the demand for food in their urban centers. Even though mechanization has tremendously improved food production, it has also created new challenges in the urban areas.
This is because mechanized agriculture often exacerbates the problem of unemployment in the rural areas. The surplus labor often migrates to the urban areas in order to find alternative economic activities (Malik and Grohmann 211). This form of uncontrolled rural-urban migration is one of the major causes of informal settlements in cities and towns. This problem can be addressed by promoting labor-intensive farming and food production in the rural areas (Simonis 919-928).
This policy is likely to be effective in overpopulated countries such as China and India where availability of cheap labor can facilitate high food production. Improving food production in the countryside through labor-intensive agriculture has two benefits. First, there will be adequate food for both the urban and the rural populations. Second, the quality of life will improve in the countryside. The resulting reduction in rural-urban migration will slow the rate of urbanization and its negative effects on the environment.
Conclusion Urbanization is the process through which an increasing number of a country’s citizens relocate to urban areas such as cities and towns. Urbanization has significantly increased in the last three decades due to rapid industrialization in the contemporary world economy. Generally, individuals relocate to urban areas in order to improve their standards of living. Furthermore, urban areas have become centers of commerce, industrial production and innovation (Malik and Grohmann 114).
Most governments provide their administrative services in urban areas in order to reduce costs. Despite these benefits, urbanization has caused severe environmental problems such as pollution, destruction of vegetation and depletion of natural resources. The negative effects of rapid urbanization can be addressed through policies that help us to identify the ideal places for urban development, and the type of projects that should be undertaken in the identified areas.
Furthermore, governmental agencies must formulate policies that promote urban development without jeopardizing environmental conservation efforts. In a nutshell environmental considerations must be taken into account in the process of development in order to achieve sustainable urbanization. This can be achieved by minimizing the effects of urban development on the environment.
Works Cited Keirstead, Ames. “Applying Service Niche Indicators to London’s Energy System.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 1.4 (2010): 6-19. Print.
Li, Baizhan, Meng Liu and Ken McKinnell. “Impact of Urbanization on Building Energy Consumption and the Role of BEE Design Codes in China.” Property Management 24.3 (2006): 354-364. Print.
Malik, Abdul and Elisabeth Grohmann. Environmental Protection Strategies for Sustainable Development. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008. Print.
Ogbonna, Daniel, George Amagabara and Tom Ekere. “Urban Solid Waste Generation in Port Harcourt Metropolis and its Implications for Waste Management.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 18.1 (2007): 71-88. Print.
Sexena, Susan, Richard Srivastava and Anthony Samaddar. “Towards Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management in Allahadad City.” International Journal of Environment Quality Management 21.3 (2010): 308-323. Print.
Simonis, Udo. “Greening Urban Development: on Climate Change and Climate Policy.” International Journal of Social Economics 38.11 (2011): 919-928. Print.
Song, Malin, Shuhong Wang and Yang Jie. “Will Environmental Logistics be Promoted by Changing Industrial Structure?” International Journal of Supply Chain Management 17.1 (2012): 5-14. Print.
Suileman, Abdul-Azeez, Akinola Aguda and Tajudeen Farinde. “Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth of Medium-Size and Nodal Towns for Sustainable Management.” International Journal of Environmental Quality Management 24.1 (2012): 213-216. Print.
Wagner, Luca. Urbanization: 21st Century Issues and Challenges. London: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
Warren, Clive. “Heat Islands: Understanding and Mitigating Heat in Urban Areas.” Property Management 30.1(2012): 105-106. Print.
Williams, Peter. “Managing Urbanization and Environmental Protection in Australian Cities: Approaches for Integrating Biodiversity and Urban Growth in Sydney.” International Journal of Law in the Built Environment 4.3 (2012): 217-232. Print.
Christianity in medieval civilization Essay college application essay help
Introduction Society is made up of people who have a common origin and are governed by common rules and share common beliefs. The society’s affairs are often influenced by numerous factors such as politics, religion, culture, and ideas among many others.
Many of these factors have such an influence on the peoples’ minds, that they may change the turn of events and literally create “a new society”. The term ‘western society’ is used to determine the societies of Europe, a concept that originated in Greco-Roman civilization in Europe. Handel asserts that “medieval society in Western Europe developed out of the ruins of the Roman Empire” (31).
Western society has benefited a lot from the above factors and was greatly influenced by religion, precisely Christianity. This paper, therefore, aims at viewing the western society and how it has been influenced by Europe, it also views the extent to which religion serves as a progressive and stabilizing force in the society and the way Christianity gave energy and direction to medieval civilization.
During the medieval period, the church was very influential; that influence was felt across the whole western society and every date-to-day affairs were judged by Christian measurement. According to Bredero “medieval society, in which the church occupied an important position and also obtained great and direct authority in politico-economic affairs…” (Ix). It therefore means that the church influenced every human and societal aspect.
Christianity literally shaped the western society to what it is today. Europe is civilized today because Christianity was their major inspirer. The church responded to the fundamental call for the well being of humanity; it taught a more sophisticated way of doing things than the epoch before it. For example, the monks introduced new methods of farming which improved the people’s production hence changing their lifestyle.
Great thinkers of the medieval period rose from the church and during this period, the church was trying to extend its authorities in many ways. One of the means used by the church was provision of education. Noonan claims that “cathedrals which served as evident of this Golden Age developed into the new first universities” (20).
In their schools, they taught faith, including morality which changed and shaped the peoples’ perceptions, and as a result the morality of the society improved. People began to see the meaning of respecting the rule of law and other basic human rights; the fact that brought order to the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During that time, the church was concerned with the health of the people, for example, Pope Innocent III constructed hospitals and decreed that others be built in Europe (Porter 123). There were so many researches carried and precisely in the medical field. Many diseases that had no cure before could be cured with improved medicine. This, in general, improved peoples’ lifestyle immensely which means they had time to focus on the more essential issues related to the building of the society.
Impelled by hope that the church offered by improving the society’s state of affairs, medieval Europe was more ready to face its threatening adversaries. The western society became more stable and its progress was felt in the world.
In conclusion, discoveries made by the church and its activities during the medieval period may be considered to be the backbone of the civilization we see in Europe. In its turn, Christianity, factually, is the force behind the stability and progress that western society is enjoying today.
Works Cited Bredero, H. Adriaan. Christendom and Christianity in middle Ages: The Relation between Religion, Church, and Society, 1st Ed. 1994. Michigan: Wm.B. Eerdmans Publisher. Print.
Handel, Gerald. Social Welfare in Western Society, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publisher, 2009. Print.
Noonan, T. Theresa. Document – Bases Assessment Activities for Global History Classes, UK: Waich Publishing, 1999. Print.
Porter, Dorothy. Health, Civilization, and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient, USA: Routledge, 1999. Print.
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A Family Supper Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The cultural differences that exist between Eastern and Western families, as illustrated by Ishiguro in A Family Supper, involve the following: family relationships, defined roles and responsibilities as well as values and traditions.
Reading Kazuo Ishiguro’s short story, A Family Supper gives an insight into the Japanese culture. The story describes the author coming back home to Tokyo two years after his mother’s death. Thus, the family dinner takes place on the occasion of his arrival.
This piece of literature provides us with the opportunity to see Japanese family’s dynamics and shows us how the modern aspects of Japanese family relate with its traditional aspects. Comparing the culture illustrated in this story with cultures in the Western families brings out some key differences.
One difference involves the family relationships. The relationship between the author and the parents is strained because of the author’s decision to move to California, as explained in the story where the author states, “My relationship with my parents had become somewhat strained around that period …” (Ishiguro 1).
Moving out to another country disappointed his mother; the father even alludes that it might have been the reason she died saying, “It’s my belief that your mother’s death was no accident. She had many worries. And some disappointments.” (Ishiguro 3).
The relationship between the father and the son is also strained as shown when the author remembers how the father used to beat him for ‘chattering like an old woman.’ (Ishiguro 1). In Western cultures, beating children is considered a cruel punishment to a child, while in the Eastern cultures, the same was, and sometimes still is, the common form of child’s upbringing. The father and son relationship like in other families involves respect.
The author offers his father the last piece of fish at the end of the story, thus showing respect to his father. Relationships in Japanese families are usually seen as emotionally distant. Communication is strained, and this is shown through long pauses between the author and his father. The daughter fears to communicate to the author as it may lead to awkward topics, when the father is around.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Western countries, communication is encouraged between children and their parents to lessen tension between them. In Japan, parents demand respect and obedience as seen when the author’s sister returns picture of their mother to the wall. in such a strengthen atmosphere, a fear may develop. In Western countries, children mostly respect their parents but do not fear them to the extent the Eastern children do.
Defined roles and responsibilities in the family also differ between Western and Eastern families. In the story, the father cooks for the family though he is not happy with his duty; he says he should not be burdened by such matters. He is also not happy when Kikuko suggests that he is a good cook.
He dissociates himself with the statement saying it is not a skill he is proud of and orders Kikuko to help him with the food. Cooking and household chores in the traditional Japanese and most Eastern cultures are attributed to woman’s job, and women know this, as shown in the story. In the Western cultures, women empowerment movements have achieved equal rights with males where females are encouraged to get jobs and share responsibilities with men instead of doing them all by themselves.
Lastly, there are major differences in the family values and traditions between the Eastern and Western cultures. In the story, the author’s father waits till Kikuko arrives home before eating because eating together as a family is a Japanese tradition.
In Western countries, eating together as a family is not as important as everyone has dinner when and where one feels comfortable. Family honour is very important in the Japanese and other Eastern cultures. This is shown when Wantabe commits suicide and takes his family with him because he does not wish to live with the shame of having lost his job, and he also does not want his family to have to live with his shame.
Funnily, the author’s father labels Wantabe as ‘a man of principle and honour’ (Ishiguro 1) and says that he ‘respected him very much’ showing that suicide because of shame is regarded as an honourable death according to Japanese cultural tradition (Ishiguro 1) In the Western countries, suicide is seen as a cowardly act to escape from the problems a person has faced, and such a death will only deepen the family’s problems.
In conclusion, Kazuo Ishiguro’s A Family Supper has clearly presented Japanese family culture which includes similar traditions as those in the East. However, its comparison with the Western cultures shows how contrasting the two cultures are. The Japanese are more modernized nowadays, while trying to adopt some Western cultural values and traditions. Several aspects of the traditional Japanese culture are fading away, and whether it is for better or worse is up to the Japanese to decide.
We will write a custom Essay on A Family Supper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ishiguro, Kazuo. A Family Supper. 1990. RTF file. Web.
Direct Realism Essay essay help: essay help
Realism refers to the attempts to depict reality based on different observers’ perspectives. In this regard, there are multiple means through which reality can be derived guided by the intuition and consciousness of an individual (Gram 4). Some of the theories that explain what realism are include the direct and indirect realism hypotheses. However, there are other philosophical theories that have been developed by multiple observers on the means through which the external world can be derived.
Direct realism refers to the perception that our senses relay to our brains on how the surrounding world is constructed. Essentially, the theory demonstrates the fact that the responses of our senses are exactly what we experience. For instance, the theory emphasizes that what we see is solely what is there. At the same time, it presumes that the world around us is perceived in the same manner as it is observed.
The degree of directness represented by direct realism is high since it depicts the observation based on the interpretations of our minds. Although consciousness cannot be used to distinguish reality from fantasy, the nature of perception derived from our consciousness is paramount.
Similarly, our minds guide us to counter exactly what we may perceive through our normal observation. Therefore, direct realism portrays a sense of how reality can be described with respect to human understanding. Nevertheless, there are instances when the perceptions of how reality is, from our consciousness, fail the actual outcome.
Direct realism seeks to establish the reality of different concepts, ideas, and things based on perceptual knowledge. Through the sensory responses, it is possible to describe the various circumstances that reflect the truth about the world around us. The material objects present within the surrounding describe the reality.
Therefore, statements that are formulated concerning these objects can be considered true since they are actually experienced. At the same time, the existence of material objects is true regardless of whether there is any perception or not about the same subject.
This implies that the perception of material objects through sense-experience is free of bias and not guided by fantasy. Meanwhile, the properties contained by the material objects will always describe their features and purpose for existence without basing on the notion of perception-oriented concepts. Consequently, this implies that material objects exist in our minds based on independent perceptions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The perceptions that influence the validity of the direct realism theory have a great impact on understanding the reality. Some of these perceptions include visual and speech perceptions. Through the information that is relayed from the material object to the mind through sensory nerves, one can identify the unique features of varying objects. As a result, the perception made will be ideal to describe the way situations are based on one’s observation.
Similarly, it is possible to get some important information through the concepts and ideas that are illustrated to us through speech. The case of visual perception can be derived from the color, shape, and the size of an object. The features enable us to describe issues that surround us in spite of lack of perception. For instance, a ripe orange can always be established through our senses through its features. As a result, it is essential to consider direct realist arguments since there is no mediation between features and sense-experience.
The adoption of direct realism to describe the world around us has been subjected to multiple contentions. Since this theory was initially formulated to describe the reality, there was a lack of consideration of the critical values that affect human judgment. Most philosophers have termed it as the average person theory due to lack of critical consideration of philosophical concepts.
In this case, the reliance on senses subjects the theory of weakness of senses. This implies that senses are not consistent, and alternative approaches should be adopted to support the validity of senses. For that reason, direct realism does not fully address the critical issues covered in philosophical reasoning about reality.
An important element that could interfere with the sense-experience is a hallucination and illusion. In such circumstances where illusion prevails, it is not possible to represent the validity of the sense-experience interpretation about reality. For example, it is possible to describe a straight pen that has been placed in water as being bent through the observation made.
In this regard, reality based on senses would not be valid but contradict the real experience that is witnessed within the surrounding environment. Such scenarios downplay the concepts illustrated by the direct realism since it is exposed to distortion at the initial stage of perceptions before the objectivity stage.
The utilization of the direct realism exposes one to vagueness since its concepts are based on the virtues that make up material objects. At the same time, hallucinations can expose an individual to perceive that things within one’s mind are valid. Consequently, one can realize that direct realism fails to depict reality since sense data retrieved from dreams do not depict the actual reality. In such a situation, direct realists could defend oneself by demonstrating the existence of genuine perceptions.
We will write a custom Essay on Direct Realism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the presence of images and information that we experience through dreams could be considered as valid under direct realism. Regardless of the nature of such attributes of reality, direct realism considers such information valid since it is retrieved through sense-experience. Therefore, direct realism gives a false impression of how situations can be categorized without exposing individuals to conflicts.
Direct realists refute the presence of mental images, which can be issued to describe material objects. For that reason, it can be illustrated that mental images can be formed with ease which depicts the situations that are present or not. Consequently, the occurrence of such experience makes the theory fallible by the use of senses.
Although, it is critical to establish the degree to which senses are functional and times when their perceptions are false, the challenges vulnerable to direct realism can be overcome. In this regard, other factors may distort the reality such as imaginations apart from mental images. Such a situation may occur since imaginations are experienced when individuals are sensible and conscious. However, their mental experience is not the real issues that are experienced in the normal world.
Descartes, one of the best philosophers, criticized the validity of the direct realism through the biases of dreams and imaginations (Pols 56). In his arguments, Descartes present the doubt that exists when one is observing object’s existence.
In such a scenario, it is difficult to realize when an individual is dreaming or not, and for that reason, it is impossible to identify whether what we observe is true or not. In addition, he described that direct realism is not valid since what is perceived could be controlled by virtual perception influenced by the evil being.
This implies that whatever is perceived has no relationship with the external world. Furthermore, such experience demonstrates that there is not truth about any issue that can be based on perceptions. Such a situation occurs since our brains operate independently without the influence of the sensory nerves that relay information. As a result, it indicates that sensory nerves kindle the mind to develop illusions concerning reality. Although his concept is absurd, it is extremely difficult to refute its validity.
The process of assessing direct realism seems contradictory to any philosophical reasoning. However, it is critical to realize that the theory is simple and least problematic unlike other theories of realism. In addition, the theory is practical, sensible, and appropriate for most people who value the information presented by the senses.
In this case, senses guide the manner we behave and observe issues in life. Consequently, it implies that the perceptions develop based on its sensibility and background information on the interested subjected will reveal the truth about the issue. These issues contradict the reasoning of philosophers since their minds are based on the notion of demolishing the known truth to construct the ideal truth.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Direct Realism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, the theory of direct realism covers sensible issues through which reality can be understood. This is attributed to the common and actual features of the material objects that can be sense-perceived available in the surrounding world (Neil 34). Although, there are instances where the validity of such perceptions is misleading, it is essential to establish the genuineness of any statement. This implies that the theories develop to counter the concept are valid to some degree, but also misleading in case they totally considered.
Works Cited Gram, Moltke S. Direct realism: a study of perception. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1983. Print.
Neil, Brian E. Epistemological direct realism in Descartes’ philosophy. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974. Print.
Pols, Edward. Radical realism: direct knowing in science and philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992. Print.
American High Schools and Colleges Essay online essay help
High schools in America are very similar to American colleges in general. However, there are some particular features that set them apart and make college and high school experiences quite different. Those differences touch upon such areas as financing, schedule, requirements, extracurricular activities and many others.
In this paper we are going to discuss foundational principles of the American high schools and colleges, in particular, we will discuss such areas as financing, living arrangements, class schedule, curriculum, socialization and maturity issues, physical plant, meals and dining facilities and transportation.
First of all, the administrations run the schools and colleges in different ways. High schools in America require personal finance for every student and each student should prioritize it before joining. Colleges in American are for financially stable students or students with scholarships. Colleges offer scholarship through sports and on academic basis.
In high schools, students are under the responsibility of their parents and guardians. Colleges provide students with freedom to live in hostels. Students are responsible for their own livelihood. Schools offer security and aesthetic environment. Students in colleges are given the responsibility to attend classes at their own discretion.
High school class schedule is fixed and with numerous classes. School students attend about 6 classes per day, while college students have some days with no classes and sometimes a maximum of five classes. In high schools, class work and homework are mandatory. Students are required to attend classes and complete their assignments in time.
Failure to complete assignment is sometimes punishable. In colleges, class work is a compulsory part of the school regulations. However, many high school students do not follow this. Home work is issued in form of assignment, and they are used as part of the evaluation to grade the students.
High schools in America have fewer faculty and staff compared to colleges. The teachers in high schools teach different classes at different levels on the same subject. In colleges, different teachers teach different disciplines. There are more faculties in colleges than in high schools as there is a diversity of disciplines in colleges. Colleges provide a wide range of disciplines with different units at each level. Each unit has a different teacher, whereas in high school if offers about 10 subjects with the same teachers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More High school is mostly dominated by teenagers. Teenagers in high schools are at a critical stage of development, and they display a high level of immaturity and irresponsibility. Students in high schools socialize in different groups. In colleges, young adults behave maturely and responsibly.
They socialize depending on likability and hobbies. High schools provide a variety of extracurricular activities such as soccer, football, basketball, field and ice hockey. Students in high schools are more active in participating in sports as it offers an opportunity to get a quality college scholarship. In colleges, the most popular extracurricular activities are football and lacrosse.
High schools’ Physical Plant team is responsible for operations and maintenance of high school buildings and grounds. High schools and colleges in American have a well laid physical plant plan.
The Physical Plant Division provides and maintains the physical environment for education, research and public service in colleges. Transportation in high school is provided by the school at a fee included in the total fee. This includes daily delivery to school and academic trips. In colleges, some students who stay off school own cars, which they use as a form of transportation to school.
Meals and dining facilities in high schools and colleges are almost the same. The administrations provide a balanced diet for the students. Students in high schools can bring lunch from home. Books and materials are available in the library. Library is accessible only to registered students. This applies to both high schools and colleges.
Energy efficient team project Report college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Inefficient sources of energy like coal, firewood and petroleum have been the principal causes of climate change and subsequently global warming. The probable effects of global warming are preposterous and it is, therefore, imperative that nations take quick and unequivocal measures to revolutionize their energy sources before it is too late.
The sole purpose of this paper is to promote awareness on the effects of the use of inefficient sources of energy and inappropriate consumption of energy on social development, the economy and the surrounding at large. It aims at fostering responsible activities geared towards improving the extent of energy effectiveness, both at the local and global levels.
In this assignment, we have come up with an energy efficient project that is aimed at improving Saudi Aramco including the communities of Saudi Arabia at large. The project is meant to discourage the use of inefficient sources of energy and educate the public on appropriate measures of utilizing the existing energy. The project report is subdivided in the introduction section, methodology, results, discussion and the conclusion part. It also includes the recommendation and reference sections at the end.
Problem description Research conducted in the recent years puts Saudi Arabia at the helm of petroleum production. As a matter of fact, Saudi Arabia was a leading producer and exporter of petroleum and petroleum products. As if that is not enough, the country came second after Russia in the exportation of crude oil.
The country is home to one of the biggest world oil reserve; the Ghawar field. This is an implication that it was one of the largest platforms where inefficient source of energy were used. However, this paper is meant to provide proposals to join forces in the fight against the utilization of exhaustible and hazardous sources of energy.
The local people and manufacturing plants of Saudi Arabia need to be sensitized on the importance of embracing renewable sources of energy like solar and wind. They need to understand the cost-effectiveness, safety and reliability of using these forms of energy. In addition to that, these efficient sources of energy have to be brought to their markets for easy access (Richards, 2009).
Saudi Arabia has a vast desert land that is best placed to accommodate solar arrays. For this reason, our energy efficient project is based on the most efficient ways to harness solar energy and cut on the use of energy that can be depleted. We focus on solar cells for the production of cheap and dependable electricity both for domestic and industrial uses (Sukhatme,
Alcohol Abuse and the Contribution of Economists to Solving This Issue Essay argumentative essay help
How an Economist Would Approach the Problem of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol abuse is a real disaster for any country. A lot of professionals try to deal with this specific problem and economists also can contribute to solving this issue. One of the main measures which may be takes is the price increase induced by taxation (Heien, 1995).
The research has been conducted to find out whether people are going to reduce the amount of the bought alcohol if the prices are increased. Chaloupka, Grossman, and Saffer (2002) state in their research that considerable reduction of the alcohol consumption may be observed with the increase of the taxation on alcohol which is going to lead to the price growth.
Another economic activity which may be applied to the solution of the alcohol abuse problem is the creation of the conditions when alcohol manufactures lose their income. This lost productivity theory may lead to the income reduction of many manufactures, however, this loss cannot be compared to the present situation when the whole country’s economics suffers. First of all, health care expenditures of alcohol abusers are much greater. The insurance cannot usually cover the problems which occur.
Second, the productivity of the alcohol abusers is lower as they are unable to work efficiently due to their health issues and general poor condition of their organism. Third, the general impact on the society also causes many expenses, such as motor vehicle crashes, crimes, etc. Finally, alcohol abusers negatively affect the country image and social norms (Chaloupka, Grossman, and Saffer, 2002).
How Prescription Drugs Affect the Demand and Supply of Other Products One of the main measures which are taken nowadays for the reduction of the alcohol abuse is drugs treatment. There are a lot of different medicines which promise to prevent further alcohol consumption.
Even though this measure is not really effective, many people continue applying to it when they want to stop drinking themselves or to help their friends or relatives to do it. Such combat with alcohol is really profitable for many people. First of all, it is profitable for drugs producers. The use of prescription drugs makes people consume other supportive medicine which help them cope with stress.
Alcohol abusers usually suffer from stress when they want to quit and consume drugs. Many people usually support drugs treatment with herbal remedies, or even substitute them. Traditional medicine still remains popular among people. Therefore, the suppliers of such products appear in winning position. Moreover, many people are sure that consuming drugs they are to improve their nutrition, therefore, the demand on such products as meat, fish, milk and vegetables may increase as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Elasticity of Demand and Elasticity of Supply Importance When Analyzing the Impact of a Shift in Supply and a Shift in Demand Respectively Elasticity of demand and elasticity of supply are very important aspects in economics as well as the notions of supply and demand in general. The coordination between demand and supply shows how good the economics functions.
Analyzing the impact of a shift in supply, the researcher should consider the elasticity of demand as if the demand is elastic the price may be changed depending on the number of existing products at the market. However, when the demand is inelastic a price cannot be dramatically changed due to the limited range of elasticity (Mankiw, 2008).
The examples of a shift in supply in elastic demand environment may be presented in the supply of everyday products. If one specific product appears at the market in a greater amount, the price on other similar products of other producers should be reduced in order to meet the customers’ requirements. A shift in demand should be considered by the elasticity of supply. The elasticity of supply is the reaction of the demand on the changes of price.
In case the changes of price are significant while the change of demand – the supply is elastic. If the changes of price do not effect the changes in demand, it is possible to speak about the inelasticity of supply (Mankiw, 2008). For example, having the only bakery in the region, an owner can change the process depending on personal desire – the demand is not going to change as people do not have alternatives. However, if there are alternatives, human demand may change.
Increasing-Cost Industries and a Positively Sloped Supply Curve Increasing-cost industries are such industries which costs grow with raise of the number of the similar industries in the regions. The situations when the supply curves are going to be positively sloped are characterized by the long-run activities. For example, the long-run supply curve is positively sloped for new houses, the more new houses are built, the higher price for the industry is involved.
The perfect competition is one of the main conditions for a positively sloped supply curve in increasing-cost industries. Apart from the new houses, the oil drilling may be used as one of the examples of the increasing-cost industries with a positively sloped supply curve (Burkett, 2006). These two examples perfectly meet the discussed issues as with the increase of the building new houses and with the increase of the oil drilling the cost of the activities is going to grow as well.
When a Perfectly Competitive Market Is Economically Efficient Perfect competition is possible when a company is unable to affect the prices and no one is able to enter the market and have power there. A perfectly competitive market is economically efficient in several situations. Looking at the modern market environment, it should be stated that monopoly controlled by the government is the time when perfectly competitive market is economically efficient. For example, medicine is controlled by the government.
We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Abuse and the Contribution of Economists to Solving This Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many drugs and other prescriptions are produced by the only manufactures in the regions and the entrance of the participants is impossible. The efficiency of such situation is in the inability of the chemical companies to set their own prices. Operating in the conditions of the perfect competition where no alternatives are possible, the companies still have to limit their prices to the offered frames.
Moreover, considering allocative efficiency which means a “quantity of output produced in a market” (Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets, 2012) and productive efficiency which “requires that firms produce their products at the lowest average total cost possible” (Efficiency in Perfectly Competitive Markets, 2012) as the only possible advantages of the perfect competition, it should be stated that these conditions are achieved only at the long-run periods. Even though the conditions of the perfect competition are not spread and in most cases such conditions are artificially created, such markets may be efficicent.
Reference List Burkett, J. P. (2006), Microeconomics: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior: Optimization, Experiments, and Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chaloupka, F. J., Grossman, M.,