Analysis Of The Peculiarities Of Gender Roles Within Education, Families And Student Communities Term Paper Essay Help Site:edu

Thesis: It is obvious that men and women have different social roles that influence their behavior and attitude to the process of getting the education, family relations and social life (for instance, the life within student communities).

Although some of the researchers indicate the presence of women’s violence in domestic life, the reinforced notions, domestic violence and control of the partner are peculiar to men.

Peculiarities of gender aspect within the education system and labour market

Attitude for marriage of men and women as one of the major aspects within the analysis of gender roles

Family relations as a significant ground of the different gender roles

Fraternities and sororities as the student communities where they can feel more protective and free

Grinding dance as an example of different gender roles

Analysis of gender roles is very popular nowadays. The researchers investigate this issue, analyzing the peculiarities of gender roles of men and women in the modern society. Gender roles can be investigated in different ways.

For instance, Ronen (2010) analyzes dance grinding attended campus parties with students in order to see the peculiarities of students’ behavior, being immersed into student environment. In order to explore a self-perception of the members of fraternities and their self-perception within those communities, Boswell and Spade (1996) analyze the examples of students.

Sharp and Ganong (2007) investigate the self-actualization of non-married women. Green (2010) analyzes gender peculiarities within same-sex married couples. Anderson and Umberson (2001) analyze how gender roles cause the domestic violence.

Andres and Adamuti-Trachek (2007), Foschi and Jerilee (2008) and Demaiter and Adams (2009) indicate that men and women have different responses on labour market. It is obvious that men and women have different social roles that influence their behavior and attitude to the process of getting the education, family relations and social life (for instance, the life within student communities).

Although some of the researchers indicate the presence of women’s violence in domestic life, the reinforced notions, domestic violence and control of the partner are peculiar to men.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current tendency of the education system and labour market demonstrate that although women have good educational gains, statistics show that “labour force participation by women in Canada is low at around 60 percent (compared to 73 percent for men) and the average gender pay gap remains high at 72 percent of men’s average earning” (Andres and Adamuti-Trachek 94).

Andres and Adamuti-Trachek indicate that “many of the gains in labour market participation and a reduction in the gender wage gap have been attributed to increased postsecondary participation by women in general and, specifically, to increased participation in non-traditional fields of study” (94).

The types of programs in which men and women are traditionally enrolled have the significant differences: women are overrepresented in the social sciences, household science, nursing and education and presented less in such fields as physical sciences, mathematics and engineering.

However, Pelak says that gender ideology changes and, as the result one can notice the structural transformation and “the rise of women’s participation and visibility in sports during the past 30 years” (94).

On the other hand, Demaiter and Adams (2009) say about the successful experiences of eleven women who built a good career in the male-dominated field of the information technologies. The authors indicate that “respondents have a tendency to downplay the significance of gender, even as they provide evidence that gender has shaped their careers” (Demaiter and Adams 31).

Although gender roles cause various social roles and behavior, the results of the research conducted by Kane and Kyyrö indicate that “most Americans reject strict segregation by roles (for gender) or spatially (for race)” (719). In the political fields, women also started to play more significant role, being represented in the various political structures (Paxton 2007).

However, at the same time, this statement is true with regard to the developed countries. The situation in the developing countries and, especially, in Asia is different. Foschi and Jerilee (2008) indicate that male and female candidate who applies for a job and have highly similar professional qualifications demonstrates different self-presentation styles.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Analysis of the Peculiarities of Gender Roles within Education, Families and Student Communities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, the authors emphasize that “the majority of the subjects yielded to social pressure to favor the female applicant in spite of their beliefs in men’s overall task superiority” (Foschi and Jerilee 1035).

One of the major aspects within the analysis of gender roles is attitude for marriage of men and women. Sharp and Ganong analyze the life of a woman “in her late 20s or early 30s who has never married”. The authors say about in-depth reflections of woman who demonstrate different attitude to this issue.

Thus, one of the woman interviewed within this investigation indicated that for her, “being never married as ‘‘living in the gray’’ – that is, being ‘‘in the middle’’ or like all or nothing” (Sharp and Ganong 836). Women consider this period of their life as a challenge when they have to wait what will happen.

Obviously, such position is absolutely different than man attitude to marriage in this age. Moreover, often, men want to wait more and do not get married until 30. They do not feel like they waste time, while many women suppose that they have to get married as soon as possible in order to make their life more stable. Moreover, women plane their life and career reflecting about future family.

Some of them even choose college major which can be more appropriate in the future life as a spouse and mother (Sharp and Ganong 837). However, it would be wrong to conclude that women consider their social life’s position as a lower than men’s one.

Thus, according to Green, in case of same-sex spouses, “some feminists extend this indictment to same-sex marriage, regarding it as a “sell out”, incapable of rehabilitation and unworthy of queer struggle (406). Nevertheless, in case of the same-sex marriage, men and women demonstrate similar attitude, indicating that this step can guarantee them stable life (Green 411).

Family relations are also a significant ground of the different gender roles. Exploring gender roles within the problem of domestic violence, Anderson and Umberson indicate that “men use violence to punish female partners who fail to meet their unspoken physical, sexual, or emotional needs” (359).

In this context, “masculine identities are constructed through acts of violence and through batterers’ ability to control partners as a result of their violence” (Anderson and Umberson 359). Men rather demonstrate male power and privilege, considering this as a natural and normal behavior.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of the Peculiarities of Gender Roles within Education, Families and Student Communities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, gender can be considered as a part of a system of relations that sustains heterosexual male privilege through the denigration or erasure of alternative (feminine/gay/lesbian/ bisexual) identities” (Anderson and Umberson 359). Analyzing money, gender and power in marriage, Tichenor (2005) supposes that the violent behavior toward woman can be caused by the fact that wife earns substantially more than her husband.

Fraternities and sororities play significant role in students’ life. Gathering within universities, men and women demonstrate the same positive attitude to the collective culture and principles of support and mutual aid. However, in some situations, being a member of fraternity, man feels more powerful and protective; therefore, one can do a crime, being sure of getting the protection of one’s fraternity.

Boswell and Spade analyze collegiate rape culture within fraternities and indicate that such places can be more dangerous places for women.

The physical and normative aspects of the relations between men and women cause a gender script that is based on the opinion that “sexually active men are positively reinforced by being referred to as “studs”, whereas women who are sexually active or report enjoying sex are derogatorily labeled as “sluts” (Boswell and Spade 134).

A good example of the different gender roles can be seen in dancing when both man and woman try to draw the attention of the opposite sex. Analyzing “grinding”, sexualized dance common for many students parties, Ronen indicates that “men initiated more often and more directly than women, whose behaviors were shaped by a sexual double standard and (hetero-) relational imperative” (355).

Therefore, one can notice that in this situation men demonstrate their social role of initiator and their higher status. This kind of dance is associated with club culture and demonstrates the current tendencies of gender roles among teenagers and students.

According to the researchers, grinding is more than just erotic dancing and can be considered as “a social gathering to be more than merely fun sociation” (Ronen 356). On Ronen’s opinion, “the heterosexual grinding script enacts a gendered dynamic that reproduces systematic gender inequality by limiting women’s access to sexual agency and pleasure, privileging men’s pleasure and confirming their higher status” (355).

Concluding, one can say that although men and women have the same rights, the influence of gender roles is significant. Gender has the serious impact on the behavior and attitude to the process of getting the education and choosing profession, family relations and social life.

Men demonstrate a predisposition to the violence in domestic life due to their natural will to control the situation. In this context, gender can be considered as a part of a system of relations where men are privileged.

Works Cited Anderson, Kristin L. and Debra Umberson. “Gendering Violence: Masculinity and Power in Men’s Accounts of Domestic Violence.” Gender and Society, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Jun., 2001), pp. 358-380. Print.

Andres, Lesley and Maria Adamuti-Trachek. “You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby? Persistent Gender Inequality in University Enrolment and Completion in Canada, 1979-2004.” Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Mar., 2007), pp. 93-116. Print.

Boswell, A. Ayers and Joan Z. Spade. “Fraternities and Collegiate Rape Culture: Why Are Some Fraternities More Dangerous Places for Women?” Gender and Society, Vol. 10, No. 2 (Apr., 1996), pp. 133-147. Print.

Demaiter, Erin I. and Tracey L. Adams. “I really didn’t have any problems with the male-female thing until …”: Successful Women’s Experiences in IT Organizations.” Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 34(1) (2009): 31-52. Print.

Foschi, Martha and Valenzuela Jerilee. “Selecting job applicants: Effects from gender, self-presentation, and decision type.” Social Science Research 37 (2008): 1022–1038. Print.

Green, Adam Isaiah. “Queer Unions: Same-sex Spouses Marrying Tradition and Innovation.” Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 35.3 (2010): 399-436. Print.

Kane, Emily W. and Else K. Kyyrö. “For Whom Does Education Enlighten? Race, Gender, Education, and Beliefs about SocialInequality.” Gender and Society, Vol. 15, No. 5 (Oct., 2001), pp. 710-733. Print.

Paxton, Pamela , Sheri Kunovich and Melanie M. Hughes. “Gender in Politics.” Annu. Rev. Sociol. 33 (2007): 263–84. Print.

Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio. “Women’s Collective Identity Formation in Sports: A Case Study from Women’s Ice Hockey.” Gender


The Impact of Scientific Management in the 21st Century Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Critical Analysis of Scientific Management

Fundamental principles of scientific management

Influence of scientific management in the 21st century

Application of scientific management in organizations

Limitations of scientific management in the 21st century


Reference List

Introduction According to the theory of management, scientific management refers to strategies that are used to determine how best a certain job can be performed in an organization. Scientific management can also be technically defined as management thought primarily concerned with the physical efficiency of an individual worker (Harris, 2002, p. 377).

According to Ritzer (2010, p. 22), “scientific management is a procedure aimed at production of nonhuman technology exerting control over employees or workers in an organization”. Nowadays, most organizations in the industry make use of scientific management.

Some of these organizations include hospitals, car and computer manufacturing industries, processing plants, hotels and restaurants among others. Despite many criticisms and theories that dismiss the relevance of scientific management in modern times, this paper analyses the impact of scientific management in the 21st century.

Although scientific management has a great, positive impact in the 21st century, it also has some disadvantages. This may influence of scientific management in the current work environments leading to inefficiency.

Critical Analysis of Scientific Management Taylor who is referred to as the father of scientific management developed the theory of scientific management. Before the invention of this theory, most business organizations used the rule of thumb. This is where the worker had the initiative and control.

In the application of the rule of thumb, it was the efforts of the worker which gave results of the business productivity, either a success or failure. According to Taylor (1911, p.133), “the rule of thumb is inefficient such that it cannot not give the desired results as per the industry expectations”. His aim and motion to develop the theory of scientific management was to replace the rule of thumb which was unproductive and inefficient.

Fundamental principles of scientific management There are key principles of scientific management. Some of these principles include time study, functional foremanship, and use of equipment and implements of a high standard in trading, use of standard acts of workmen, use of functions that are uniquely planned among many others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The key principle of scientific management is geared towards ensuring that employees and employers prosper to the maximum. Scientific management not only ensures large revenues to the company, but also ensuring that every branch of business has developed to its high state of excellence.

Again, scientific management does not only ensure higher wages received by the employee than the usual wage of his class, but also the development of each employee for maximum efficiency. Taylor argues that there should be a machine like operation in an organization portrayed by employees in order to ensure efficiency which is directly proportional to profitability.

Scientific management theory asserts that workers should be trained and scientifically selected. This enhances increased profitability in an organization. This is because a highly trained and qualified worker means quality production (Taylor, 1911, 133- 135).

Also, according to the theory of scientific management, the employer should ensure that there is maximum cooperation with the employee. This gives an assurance of perfection in the job. In addition, each work performed by every employee should be tested to ensure that it has utilized the best procedure. This ensures production of quality work hence high profitability (Blake


High Court of Australia Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The Australian High Court is a national monument with historic, judicial and architectural significance to both the people of Australia and scholars. Its architectural design is unique to its time of development and is especially significant as it seeks to portray the important role the judiciary plays in the lives of Australians.

This discussion will especially focus on the importance of the building’s design as well as the use of construction materials within the confines of architecture to bring forth the desired judicial posture of the Australian judiciary.

Precisely, there will be a brief look at the history of the building and as well as the location and site selection. Importantly, the discussion will focus on the Brutalist architectural style that was used to build the structure the rationale behind adoption of this style and the intricate use of materials to produce an architectural finish that reflects the overall Australian judicial aspirations.

There will be an overt emphasis on concrete which is the main building material in the building and an analysis on how concrete is used to bring out the Brutalist style of architecture. Part of the information used in this discussion was provided by an Australian High Court clerk who answered a list of pre determined questions that were asked to him through a phone interview.

High Court of Australia building


The history of the High Court building dates back to 1950 when Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies pushed through plans develop Canberra to a national city where government offices are to be located (MacMahon 2001, p. 147).

In 1972, the government through the NCDC conducted an international architectural completion for the building’s design. Out of a total of 158 designs that the NCDC received, only six made it to the final stage with a winner- Edwards Madigan Torzillo and Briggs Pty Ltd- announced in October 1973 by the Premier Whitlam.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The NCDC advertised for contractors for construction of the building with the tender awarded to PDC Constructions Pty Ltd. The Prime Minister unveiled the foundation plague in 1975 and the project was completed in April 1980. Its official opening took place on May 26th the same year.

Site and Location

The eventual location of the Australian High Court is a result of the original plans by Walter Burley Griffin’s 1911 designs that envisioned a new national capital with a section specifically meant for a group government buildings that astride the Land Axis at the lake side Water Gate.

The designers of the building were fronting for a large building that will effectively reflect the constitutional status of the High Court instead of its actual work related needs.

The Australian government decided in 1968 its decision to transfer the principle seat of the High Court to Canberra whose building was to be located next to the Parliamentary Triangle and the National Library Service. According to Edquist


The Alhambra’s Structure: Buildings and Gardens Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

The transformation of the Alhambra

The Alhambra as a metaphor of Paradise



Introduction The Alhambra is now considered to be a real masterpiece of Islamic architecture; to a great extent, it represents a conception of Paradise as it was imagined by Muslim architects of the Middle Ages. This paper is aimed at examining the structure and relations of buildings and gardens in the Alhambra.

In particular, it is necessary to show what kind of purpose various elements of this complex serve and how they complement one another. The main focus will be on such components as the use of water, the selection of plants, architecture, and decorations, especially arabesques.

Overall, it is possible to say that in the course of its history, the Alhambra transformed from an ascetic fortress into a beautiful palace and garden complex that was supposed to recreate or reflect the image of Paradise in various ways.

The transformation of the Alhambra It is worth noting there was no master plan according to which the Alhambra had to be constructed. Its construction began in the middle of the fourteenth century, but since that time this complex was redeveloped and expanded several times (Mauriers


Representation of gender in media Report (Assessment) writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Media representation

Gender and media representation

Representation of role models

Media stereotyping

Women and men representation in media


Reference List

Introduction It is amazing to note that some people spend more time feeding on media content than doing an assignment, exercising or even sleeping. While this may be a leisure activity for some people, the impact of media cannot be underestimated today (Bennett 2005, p. 12). This assessment essay focuses on the issue of gender representation in media, with regard to image, roles and stereotypes.

Media representation What is media representation? According to media theorists, representation refers to any model in any medium that defines a real aspect, say, people, events, objects, places and cultural identities among countless abstract concepts. Such representation may be written, spoken or expressed in moving pictures.

In defining media representation, the end products are also considered through the construction of one’s identity. For instance, an issue like “gaze” may consider how women look at images of women, men at women or even women at men (Bennett 2005, p. 12).

An important point to note is that all texts are always constructed irrespective of how realistic they may appear. They do not represent mere recordings or reproduction of pre-existing circumstances that are real (Briggs


The Role of Interactivity to the Success of Reality Television Shows Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction Over the years television programs were meant to inform, educate and entertain listeners. Most programs were mostly transmitted in a one direction way.

However, this has changed as most television programs nowadays continuously seek to involve the listeners either to ask questions or to give their opinions and comments concerning the program. The aim of this essay is to investigate the importance of such interactive programs to the listeners. This study is going to use two reality formats of the British television programs.

“As Seen On TV” The Celebrity Expert: How Taste is Shaped by Lifestyle Media

This was a work of art that was created by Helen Powell and Sylvie Prasad. The two have vast experiences in working with the media and are both professionals in the same field. Helen had in the past worked in the advertising industry and is currently employed by the university of East London as a senior lecturer and program leader in advertising.

On her part, Sylvie is currently lecturing media and cultural studies at the University of East London besides being a leader in media practice. The two have explicitly examined and documented the importance of the role of interactivity to the success of the reality television show (Powell


Reproductive Choices Expository Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction Anthropology of gender is a discourse that places focus on the social and the cultural construction of gender, and the ideologies surrounding the construction of gender. The field also features the flexibility of gender and the execution of the aspects of gender. Reproductive choices fall under the rights of individuals or groups, with regard to the subject of reproductive rights.

The entitlement to these rights fall under the lawful freedoms, related to the reproduction and the reproductive health of individuals. Reproductive choice, rests upon the regard, accorded to the basic rights of all individuals and couples, in the area of deciding liberally and responsibly, the timing, the number, and the spacing for the desired children.

Any individual is also entitled to the access to information, and the means necessary for their attainment of the highest possible standards of reproductive and sexual wellbeing. These choices, also guarantee that, any individual, will have full liberty to make any decisions about their reproductive nature, without the influence of discrimination, violence or coercion.

Some of the choices accorded, under the bracket of reproductive rights, include the choice to do a safe and legal abortion; the right to use birth control means; the right to receive superior reproductive health services; and the entitlement to access education; so as to reach informed reproductive choices.

Reproductive choices, also give individuals, the entitlement to information on STIs, contraceptives, and freedom from coerced sterilization. Reproductive choices, which fall under reproductive rights, began to be recognized as a subject under the human rights bracket, at the 1968 UN global conference on human rights (Edmeades et al., 2010; Gutmann, 1996).

Discussion The area of reproductive choices is a central area in the study of gender anthropology, mainly because men are key contributors to the reproductive choices available to them, and their women. They also form a substantial aspect of the reproductive choice statistics.

Demonstratively, men’s reproductive health, has become a central area for development and population programs. Further, understanding the reproductive health of men, requires a clear evaluation of the biological and the cultural aspects surrounding the case.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, there is an intersection between masculinity and health; as well as the availability of reproductive choices to women, with reference to their male partners.

For instance, different studies have portrayed a larger proportion of women, as not able to dictate the usage of contraceptives during lovemaking. In such cases, many of the women will cooperate with the demands of the men, though it may be putting their reproductive health on the line (La Font, 2003; Nyblade, Jeffreym,


Affect and emotions in consumer decisions Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Introduction What is the difference between the two words, affect and effect? The difference is that effect is used when a causative agent is involved. In psychological realms, it is used in the technical sense of it, e.g., in explaining why a wall has collapsed. An explosion caused by dynamite can be said to be the cause of the collapse (Shapiro and Emde, 1992).

Affect is not easily substantiated as opposed to an effect. It is among the top-notch senses in the human psychology. Affect is a sense found in humans but not in any way affected by pheromones such as smell or taste. It is from the subconscious part of the brain where the affect action takes place.

A person who does something that is attributed to affect only realizes the probable consequence of the action after its execution. Affect does not just represent a feeling; it also encompasses the interaction of the individual with the surrounding environment. This is referred to as cognition in psychology.

Thrift explains that affect is a product of the events that people experience. There exist four approaches used in describing affect. The first one (which was first done by Darwin) includes the study of emotions. This approach has a short coming; it does not include the effect, which is a result of communication. The second one uses a psychoanalytical approach, with an emphasis on the psychological processes of the brain.

It is more biological and revolves around issues such as the desire for something and sexual libido. The third approach uses of an individual’s physical state of mind; it also uses emotional and psychological aspects. Finally, the fourth approach looks at how affect influences other people around it, for instance people and animals (Shapiro et al. 1992).

Among the things that can influence the decisions that an individual makes is emotional status; the emotions that people exhibit are in some way related to what has just been explained as, affect. Emotions give way to the making of a choice by identifying and knowing the cause of a given occurrence. An example could be when a person is angered by a thing, person or situation for being offensive.

Affect does not imply the reverse of human cognitive ability neither is it an irrational way of making decisions (though it may be easily confused for this). It is another way of choosing between the different options that are presented to an individual. Affect and the cognitive ability of the humans have got some influence on each other (Redding 1999). Affect is devoid of any consciousness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Are there roles that affect plays in the making of decisions? An individual who has to make a decision about walking a tight rope for instance will have to undergo two processes before making this decision. The first part is the reflection on the essential requirement of walking on a tight rope, which is the ability to balance.

There is thought by the visceral side which may raise fears about the consequence of falling down. The ability to rationalize consciously will only take place after there has been some fear on the person due to affect. There is then the preparation of the body by emotions that prepare for anything that could happen.

We can also say that affect happens to people as a result of their interaction with others, or other beings in their environment. It is thus an occurrence between more than one thing and person. Brennan explains that there is an atmosphere that can be described as coming from affect.

That is to say the occurrences outside ones’ body can interfere with the occurrences inside. Affect has got a strong influence on the feelings of a person. This often brings out emotions (Redding 1999).

A feeling can be regarded as a sensation within one self. It could be that of happiness or sadness or even of fear. Emotion can be termed as an exhibition of what one feels, for example, laughing as a result of happiness or shaking as a result of being afraid.

The expression of emotions could either be genuine, or not (Preece and Keller 1990). Whenever people want a product and go for it, the expression of emotion cannot be a result of pretence, in almost all the cases because it costs them. What then is the influence of the two instances affect and emotions in designing of a product with the user in mind?

This can be done by creating need-fulfilling products and services; these have to consider the influence of affect and emotions in their choice in the way that consumers make their choices on the products to buy or use. There are a number of hormones that are involved in the process of decision making by consumers.

We will write a custom Essay on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is from these considerations by designers of products and services that the science of affective computing came into being. Its emphasis was in the link between emotions, and the ability of individuals to make decisions as they learn. Another bit was the incorporation of some functions of the memory.

It was around this time that people with disorders of the mind and those who could not express their emotions were found to be unable to make decisions. Affect has been noted to lack the human mental ability of recognition; it is this property that can be said to be critical as people make decisions about the things that they want (Preece et al. 1990).

In the designing of products, there is the incorporation of a number of aspects; affect being one of them. For instance, the ease of use by the consumer and any form of beautification that can complement this is factored into the design.

It is this beautification that stimulates the senses of the potential consumer as he makes a decision concerning the product, e.g. the design of glasses used in drinking wine and the design of auto teller machines. Other than this, the beauty of any product has to be oriented towards its use. The use of the product should be considered by manufacturers in designing its beauty.

Emotions and affect (which is a form of sense) have to be related to the way an individual is expected use the product. The design of a product or a brand is considered to be a success if it has an effective appeal to the buyers. Product designers have to incorporate another aspect of the human mind as they strive to achieve sales.

These are the emotions that can lead to a reduction in the cognitive capabilities of the human mind. They include fear and anxiety. It is thus necessary for the designer of any product to consider some of the feelings that can be aroused as a result of the design of a product.

For example, when the product is a gadget, for example, a computer and is not easy to use. The design should capitalize on possible emotions as a result of well designed products that may translate to increased uptake by consumers.

An example of such an emotion could be happiness or arousal of the user as a result of the experience of using the product. In short, products should be fun to use (Shanahan, Qu and Wiebe, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Affect and emotions in consumer decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Norman (who has written a lot about affect) asserts that products designed in a way making them attractive to people bring about a relaxed feeling and an increased level of creativity to those who use them. The consideration of affect and emotions is not to be limited to the designing of products only, but also to the creating of names that buyers of the products will use in identifying them.

As a result of the appeal to the user or buyer of a product, the name brings the two closer together based om emotions. The trend nowadays among the makers of a commodity is to create a relationship with the buyers of that product that is built on passion and affect.

This is how; companies have been able to exploit the affect of their consumers in order to achieve sales. One of the ways that have been used to achieve this is via the increase in contact between companies and buyers (Shanahan et al. 2006). How this is increased contact achieved?

The increased contact between the two can be achieved through a design of the products that factor in sensory aspects of the human being. For example, fragrance has been used by laptop makers in order to make them smell in a way that is attractive and appealing to consumers.

The other human senses can also be incorporated into the designs, for example, attractive colors, or even cars that are designed in a sexy way. It is these senses that lead to an emotional contact between the consumer and the product. A further explanation on this (i.e., affect and emotion) is that affect can be used in designing a product to make it appealing to the customers.

It is also important to look at the Tardeshian theory in order to understand this further. This theory states that passions are passed on through media unknowingly to people. This can be attributed to cultural interaction and how people have been created biologically (Shanahan et al. 2006).

Both of these can be manipulated. This is useful in the strategic decisions that are used in politics and business. For example, politicians in the United States of America use empathy in their efforts to align their policies with what the majority of the population desire. In this way, they manage to gain substantial amounts of support. It is this strategy that designers of products use when making products.

It is essential to mention that there are emotions that are involved in most potential customer’s decision making. One of them is the emotion that relates to how and what people think. The other is when a person feels satisfied while using a purchased product.

The manufacturers of products have the obligation of making sure that their products will satisfy customers. Users of products in this way get some emotional experience. This is a crude way of one learning about the way he, or she acts as a result of his or her emotions. These people may notice changes in their physiological processes which act as indicators of various emotions.

They may be going through some of these as they make critical decisions on the products that they are to buy. Consumers think that they have a feeling in their gut that directs them to choosing a given product, as opposed to the other. This is based entirely on the emotional value of the product. Little do consumers know that they only choose a product that adds emotional value to their lives (Preece et al. 1990).

Conclusion Clearly, there is an influence of a psychological kind on how people choose the experience to undertake. Moreover, this applies to the choices that they make on the products and services that they buy or use. The psychological influences could be attributed to affect and emotions. These have made consumers have some influence in the design of a product.

Product designers and branding managers have a duty to ensure that their products will arouse an emotional feeling to the end user. Consumers only buy a product based on their emotional experiences with it, and only when its previous use was satisfying.

This is not in the literal sense of it but in the way that those products are in sync with their emotions and affect. Emotions and effect are very crucial in the study of consumer behavior.

References Preece, J and Keller ,L 1990, Human-computer interaction, Prentice Hall in association with Open University,New York.

Redding, P 1999, The logic of affect,Cornell University Press, New York.

Shanahan, J ,Qu,Y and Wiebe,M 2006,Computing attitude and affect in text: theory and applications, Springer,New York.

Shapiro, T and Emde,R 1992, Affect: psychoanalytic perspectives, International Universities Press,Detroit.


The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Increase in the speed of internet

Transformation of media business to digital form

Media globalization

Enhanced innovation

Age and privacy based content restrictions



Introduction A lot has changed in the world of mass media since the introduction of the internet technology. In every step of the internet evolution comes a corresponding change in mass media owing to the fact that most people consider the internet to be the best source of information as the prerogative goes ‘if it is not in the internet it does not exist’.

This means that many people rely on the internet for information and since information provision is the highest mandate of mass media, they have to be at the same level with their audiences.

Convergence in relation to mass media is defined by Benkler (2006, p. 33) as “the interrelationship that has occurred in the development of the internet as a result of association between communication networks, ICT facilities and the media”. This is believed to have played a major role in the recent developments in the media industry as far as communication and broadcasting are concerned.

The concept of convergence is better understood when it is dissected into four subsections. The first is in the view of technology which in the words of Benkler (2006, p. 49) involves “the combination of computing, communications and content around networked digital media platforms”.

Second is the industrial view of convergence which involves the growth and development of digital media space that has allowed online companies to flourish, some of which include Microsoft, Google among others. The third view is social based which involves the evolution of the social network characterized by the coming up of social media of the likes of YouTube, Facebook and Twitter.

Finally is the textual view of convergence which involves the reproduction of media into what is commonly referred to as transmedia. This according to Benkler (2006, p.50) is a platform where “stories and media content such as sounds, images, written text and so on are dispersed across multiple media platforms”.

From this it is clear that the internet evolution has played an explicit role in the development of convergence media in a number of ways as explained in the paragraphs that follow.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increase in the speed of internet Research findings conducted by Lister (2006, p.125) and documented in his book The Wealth of Networks: How social production transforms markets and freedoms, indicate that “as of December 2010, there were 10.45 million active internet subscribers in Australia, of which 8.15 million were household subscribers and 2.3 million were business and government subscribers”.

This figure is considered to be a 17% growth from the previous years’ figure of 8.95 million. Besides, it was discovered that more than 3 million people above the age of 14 used their mobile handsets to access the internet in December 2010, and this is considered to be a rise compared to the previous years’ 1.9 million.

From this we can deduce that households which were the highest targets for the mass media have now found another source of information and entertainment which is the internet.

These statistics also indicate that in the recent past, the number of internet users has increased partly due to the universal availability, convenience and high speeds. The availability of the internet through mobile devices, specifically phones, has played a major role in the development of convergent media.

Most people can now access the internet in the comfort of their homes unlike earlier on when internet services were only available in cyber cafes. The internet speeds have also increased incredibly and the cost reduced to make it even more convenient for households.

People are able to get information real time while travelling or when they are in the comfort of their homes. As a result, it has dawned on the media personnel that the best way to transfer information to the public is through the internet, mostly on social networks.

This explains why platforms such as twitter broadcast breaking news and it reaches the world over in a matter of seconds after the occurrence. Before it would take a number of hours before the journalists themselves get the information so that they can relay to the public within their region.

We will write a custom Essay on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For news and information to reach people across boundaries, it would take days and at times even fail to reach owing to logistical complications. From this, it is clear that the internet has played a major role in media convergence and in the alteration of the core tendencies in the mass media business.

Transformation of media business to digital form The incredible increase in internet usage among the masses has seen to it that the most valuable and believed information is what is obtained from the internet. Most people seek information concerning various subjects on the internet and they take what they get as the gospel truth.

Examples of the most commonly sought information includes slimming tips, body building and exercising tips, ideas on nutrition, medical advice and information on various diseases and health conditions and so on.

Earlier on, this information was being sought from magazines and those people offering these services would buy into the advertising space. This however changed with the evolution of the internet; hence indicating that print media is almost becoming a forgotten thing.

Digitalization of the media has provided a more convenient platform for obtaining information, since it is just a matter a click and one gets all the information they need. Video platforms such as YouTube ensure that video adverts and other information presented in visual form can be accessed as well.

It is even possible to stream television programs from the internet, hence rendering TV’s obsolete as well. The internet in this case is considered more convenient owing to portability and reliability.

This is what fits into the lifestyles of most people nowadays: characterized by more things to do and less time to do them. This means that most people are unable to sit down and catch up on the evening news, hence preferring the best alternative, the internet, which they can access while on the move.

Media globalization In the recent years, the wave of globalization has been experienced in the world over and this credit is owed to the internet. It is now possible to catch up on the happenings in other continents across the oceans with just a click. Globalization has also encouraged the businesses to be conducted globally, from a focal point.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Internet altered the core tendencies in mass media businesses in any part of the convergent media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While carrying out businesses in different parts of the world, it is no longer necessary to make the frequent travels to these regions, thanks to the internet. Conferences are conducted across continents through teleconferencing facilities, orders are made through the electronic mails services and payments made through e-payment platforms such as PayPal.

The entertainment industry, particularly, has benefitted from the whole concept of globalization since they are now able to reach the entire world in a matter of seconds. This industry is considered as the backbone of mass media since people are in constant search for relaxation and fun.

Recently, mobile devices which allow users to watch movies online and stream music from various radio stations across the continent have been developed. As a result of this, competition in the media industry is no longer local but international.

This has led to the increasing rate of international broadcasts as opposed to the local broadcasts done before. In order for the media houses to obtain this information that they need from other regions, they need the internet so that they can be in correspondence with their agents around the globe.

This explains the rise and growth of international media houses such as CNN and BBC whose success is greatly owed to the internet innovations. These media houses rely on satellite technology to send and receive information real time such that it can be viewed in many other parts of the world just like it is being viewed at home.

In other words, a person watching CNN news from the United States is watching the same thing with someone else in another continent; say Africa, all owed to the internet technology.

Enhanced innovation The other way in which the internet has contributed to the development of media convergence is by increasing the rate of innovation. With the introduction of the internet, it is now possible to develop products and test them in a matter of days. Software developers are always coming up with programs to be used in different industries to ease the process of production.

The media industry is no exception in this. Earlier on, obtaining information especially in visual form required a travel to where the information is being obtained from.

This has however changed since pictures and videos are being posted on the internet in a matter of seconds. These contents are used to make news even on print media, since all there is to do is to obtain permission from the owner and publish the information from the internet.

The media is also widely known for using the social network as a broadcasting tool. This is one innovation that has proved successful as far as communication is concerned. Events all over the world are made known to the entire world in seconds.

Intellectual property is becoming more and more famous with most countries being forced to adapt to the rules governing this kinds of property.

In the bid to explain the extent to which the internet has contributed to media convergence as far as innovations are concerned, Benkler (2006 p. 137) asserted that “there is an interrelationship between developments which include the growing share of intangible capital, growing speed and intensity of innovation and the increasing diversity of sources of innovation, the ICT revolution and the rise of knowledge based communities and global knowledge networks”.

All these have contributed to the media evolution over the years and still remain to be the highest ranked drivers to innovation in the media industry.

Age and privacy based content restrictions In the earlier years, it was possible for the media people to conceal some information for the sake of underage audiences as well as information that was considered discrete for privacy purposes. This was mostly done by airing adult programs late at night or giving a disclaimer before the program begins and leaving it upon the parents to enforce the rules.

This however changed with the internet era since everything on the TV can also be viewed through the internet and even worse, teenagers no longer wait for their parents to go to bed before they sneak into the living room to watch pornographic videos.

They have this at their disposal wherever they are with their mobile phone devices, not only for viewing but also sending to other people. This means that the media efforts of maintaining morality in the society have been rendered useless.

In the history of the media, there has existed a tighter regulation regarding the widely used media such as television, cinema and video as compared to print media. This is owing to the fact that the latter is more discrete and concise in the information presented therein.

As a result, changes related to convergence have affected the former to great extents. In fact a report presented by Lister (2003, p. 78) in his book New Media: A critical introduction book observed that “the public own the airwaves; and since frequencies are scarce, and the broadcast media are influential, to grant a broadcast license is to bestow a privilege.

This privilege carries with it an obligation to provide the public with programs which meet the standards it expects”. Since a majority of the viewers are young people in their teens and early twenties, the same generation greatly influenced by the internet technology, the media houses have to be at par with the information available on the internet.

The internet in this case might work for them or against them. It works for them in the sense that they are able to get updated information from all over the world promptly. It can however work against them in the event where their potential audience obtains all the information they need from the internet and this can happen if the media proves to be an unreliable source of information.

Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that the major changes experienced in the mass media industry have been as a result of the internet evolution. The internet has influenced the media in both negative and positive ways and despite the damage brought about by this; it has proved difficult to control.

The internet is open to the public and most attempts to privatize information on the internet normally prove futile due to the existence of hackers. It is also not possible to have a viewers’ discretion policy since it is mostly controlled by a series of systems unlike human control.

The only place where this can be possible is in the cyber cafes which are also becoming irrelevant with the advent of mobile devices. Most homes today are connected to the internet and it has also been proved that people spend more time on the internet than watching their favorite programs on TV.

This has therefore forced the media personalities to up their strategies and use the internet for their good before it down plays the industry completely.

References Benkler, Y 2006, The wealth of networks: how social production transforms markets and freedom, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Lister, M 2003, New media: a critical introduction. Routledge, London.


Program Planning and Evaluation Proposal custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Program Description

Needs Assessment and Rationale

Program Goals and Objectives

Program Implementation

Program Evaluation


Introduction Program planning is an indispensable responsibility of field workers. Program planners not only plan but also implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of their programs.

According to Waterston, (1965), program development is viewed as an ongoing process that consist of a study of the situation, thinking about long range and immediate objectives and choosing learning experiences that would be constructive as far as the target audience is concerned.

On his part, Kettner, Moroney and Martin (2008) viewed program planning as the process of constructing various actions to shed light to community development. Blair (1998) does not divert from the views of Kettner, Moroney and Martin since he defines program planning as a set or a number of related events that portray some needed actions aimed at achieving certain objectives over a specified time.

In his view, objectives show what are to be attained. The same objectives can be revised as new knowledge is generated. Knepper (2010)argues that there are a number of factors that must be considered when designing a program. Firstly, the planner must work with the lay advisory committee.

Again, the program planner should explore and describe the general situation of communities being planned for. Other factors include identification of problem areas and their prioritization, stating of objectives, preparation of a program document including work plans and finally monitoring and evaluation of the program.

From the above information, it is evident that a good program requires careful planning whereby the planner should set goals and objectives, evaluate the effectiveness of the program, implement its tenets and monitor the implementation process.

Program planning is not an easy task hence it is imperative for a project planner to come up with various techniques that would help him or her counter the challenges associated with implementation. In this paper, the planner would wish to introduce an online help center where clients could acquire information pertaining to community services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Program Description With the emerging technologies the world, Skype has turned out to be a new phenomenon in the cyber world. In fact, it is almost a necessity, just like the email address. In this proposal, the planner intends to use the tool in relaying information to the locals as regards to health, especially mental health.

The planner would set up the Skype center so that people with mental problems can easily seek for advises. The service is very efficient since it permits the planner to communicate with the locals without any difficulty. It has an advantage over the local phones since it transmits both analog and digital information without any interruptions.

For this reason, the planner will have to register an account with the service provider in order to make calls with other registered users. For this case, community members would be encouraged to open accounts with the service provider for easier communication (Glauser, 2011). The service has one more advantage, which is related to the cost.

It is relatively cheap as compared to other means of communication. This would suit the wishes of the planner since this program suffers from funding. The terms of payment for Skype service is friendly to the user since an individual goes for the one that best suits him or her.

Community members would be comfortable reporting their health problems without necessary using many resources. The transportation costs would be reduces since the community members use money to seek advisory services regarding their health.

However, the planner would need initial capital to put up structures that would house employees. Communication equipments would also be installed.

Needs Assessment and Rationale There are two concepts that are central in the process of planning. These include planning and projects. In the preparatory phase of any project, the planner aspires to establish various stages that are critical in the project planning. Each stage has its own importance. Stage one entails a decision to adopt planning. The planner needs to establish this in advance before proceeding to fulfill any other task.

We will write a custom Proposal on Program Planning and Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The subsequent stage is the organization for planning stage. This stage is only arrived at after the planner has adopted the program. In the second stage, the planner would consider coming up with a program that would suit the demands of the audience, which is provision of information regarding health and mental awareness information.

For this to happen, the planner establishes the work force and determines how much resources are available to accomplish the task. For the Skype program, the planner would need adequate resources for financing website formation and advertising the same site through the social media such as yahoo and twitter.

The third stage in need assessment and rationale would be setting goals, objectives and targets. The performance of the program is measured in terms of its ability to achieve goals and objectives that are set for it. Goals are abstract and specify what planning should ideally achieve in the medium and long term.

Based on the Skype program, goals would be both short-term and long-term. On the other side, objectives are more precise implying that they are operational statements that represent specific steps necessary in attaining chosen goals. They are different from goals since they are specifically achieved in a shorter period.

Progress toward their attainment can be measured and evaluated. Targets are least specific since they are clear statements about what should be achieved over a given time period. It should be noted that in advance that goals, objectives and targets change, especially in the medium to long-term.

As implementation, monitoring and evaluation go on; they generate new lessons that help in changing these stages in the planning cycle. At the third stage, the planner needs to assess various variables that may affect project implementation. Each goal and objective should be rationalized, implying that a sensible reason should be given for its existence (Celotta,


Hudson’s Alpine Furniture Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Technical Analysis

Problem definition

Daily operational issues

Organizational issues


References List

Introduction The following analysis explores the production and operations management approaches employed Hudson’s Alpine Furniture. This critical evaluation would give some detailed account on some of the production and operation management issues that adversely affected the profitability of Hudson’s.

Therefore, it could be argued that the company made serious management strategy of adopting its new line of furniture business. Though, the sales were increasing the costs of holding stock rose to a bigger margin. The applicable approach to this case analysis is the use of theory of constraints, which is very critical in the production and operations management of Hudson Alpine Furniture Company (Steyn 2000 p.363).

The constraints theory is relevant in the production and operations management of this company since it would help in solving the issues witnessed in adopting the new commercial furniture deal. Under this theoretical approach, Hudson’s performance could be evaluated based on its production output in terms of sales revenue earned, inventory, and operational costs.

The variations in these three measures would be critical in assessing the performance of the company. The incorporation of this theory of constraints would be important in assessing the rate at which the company is capable of generating money through its furniture sales against the amount of money invested in producing the furniture inventory and the operational expenses.

These theoretical approaches to the production and operation management principles are essential in determining the necessary conditions, which ought to be reached first. In this case, it can be ascertained that its goal is that of making profit, which is the necessary condition (Steyn 2000, p.367).

Therefore, it is important to understand the most applicable procedures that are necessary in making the best financial decisions, which are based on the sales revenue earnings, operating expenses as well as the inventory (Schragenheim, Dettmer


Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes Analytical Essay essay help online

Introduction Several incidents concerning medical waste being spotted on public and private beaches have drawn a lot of public attention on the issue of management of medical waste. One such incident happened back in June 1987, when in Indiana polis, twelve children were found playing with blood vials that they had picked from a bin placed outside an HMO medical office.

Two of these vials were infected with the AIDS virus (10). These issues and others raise concerns on how medical waste is handled, treated and disposed.

Medical waste can be defined as all the waste that is generated by health facilities and other sources such as funeral homes, research laboratories, doctor’s clinic funeral homes, nursing homes and veterinary facilities.

These wastes consists the hazardous (radioactive materials), infectious also referred to as red bag waste and any other waste generated within the facility (4). Medical waste although not voluminous, is infectious and toxic and leads to serious environmental pollution (1).

Background Information According to Environmental protection Agency (EPA), hospitals generate around 3.2 million tons of medical wastes per annum. (10). 10 to 15 0percent of this medical waste generated is infectious. In most hospitals, the non infectious waste is land filled while the infectious one is incinerated.

Medical waste requires proper handling, disposal and treatment to minimize the environmental and health risks associated with it. Illegal or careless disposal of medical waste not only creates an aesthetic and health problem, but also increases public apprehension on the existing medical waste management methods.

Due to the liabilities and the safety related concerns, some municipals refuse or ban any medical waste from their incinerators and landfills. Various states have prohibited all un-sterilized infectious waste from the municipal landfills.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The states have also banned construction of commercial incinerators handling medical waste. These afro mentioned bans, have made it increasingly difficult for medical facilities and hospitals in the country to properly manage medical waste (3).

This situation is further complicated by the lack of clear and concise regulatory climate. These inconsistencies are present in the Federal guidelines laid down by the States with regards to the definition of medical waste and the management options available for handling, transporting, treating and disposing medical waste (5).

The current situation can only change if the Congress adopts bills relating to medical waste management. In the meantime, most states have been mandated to devise their own plans and programs of managing the medical waste generated. This means that there are a lot of variations between different states and local requirements.

This paper aims at looking at the disposal problems posed by medical waste for both the local government and hospitals, the methods used in disposing medical waste, the long term implications medical waste has on the environment and the conclusions drawn from the discussion (2).

Classification of Medical Wastes Medical waste is heterogeneous in nature as it comprises a variety of materials ranging from general waste such as food, office waste and non-infectious waste from patients. It also includes infectious waste e.g. contaminated sharps and blood products, hazardous waste generated from pharmaceuticals, cytotoxic chemicals from chemotherapy, mercury as well as radioactive wastes.

Classifying infectious waste has proved difficult due to the variations resulting from different State regulations (10). These different classifications lead to inconsistency in storage, disposal and treatment practices across different states. The variations also influence the preferred treatment methods, cost of management and eventually, the possible environment and health hazards created by these wastes.

Around 10 to 15 percent of all medical waste is infectious but this percentage can differ from 3 to 90 percent, depending on the definition and procedure adopted (10). The state entities, EPA and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have all tried to find the proper definition of infectious waste based on the characteristics of the waste.

We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to EPA, infectious waste is any waste with the possibility of causing an infectious disease. EPA has broadened its category of infectious waste compared to CDC. This has led to the adoption of EPA instead of CDC guidelines, in hospitals and other areas that generate medical waste, helping in minimizing potential environmental and health risks (4).

Another concern is whether to classify infectious waste as hazardous which will increase the cost of managing it due the construction of special facilities. Such a move would improve the management of medical waste, but lead strict regulations and prosecution of illegal dumpers.

Some of the wastes recommended to be included in the infectious category are waste from dialysis, stocks and cultures with infectious agents, blood products and human blood, contaminated sharps, soiled dressings, surgical gloves sponges and other surgical waste (6).

Varied definition of infectious and hazardous medical waste has led to the public being exposed to this hazardous waste that poses a health risk. For example, the public was barred from accessing beaches in the East coast after bloody bandages, sutures and needles were found in the shores.

Infectious waste is sent to the incinerators, thus if the category was broadened as discussed above, such waste would not have ended up in the beaches (10).

Handling of Medical Waste There are various occupational hazards associated with handling medical waste. Waste handlers and health workers are primarily exposed to this type of risk as they more than often handle this waste. Handling hospital waste include packing, storing and transporting it properly to avoid any contamination and littering as discussed below;

Packaging- before packaging any medical waste, it must be sorted into different categories and packed accordingly. This is a time consuming activity and quite risky to the handler. Bulk waste is put in polythene bags and colors used in differentiating different categories of wastes. Infectious waste is placed in red bags and all the waste is securely closed in readiness for storage or transportation. Sharps are put in puncture proof containers due to their infectious capability and also due to their prick injuries (7).

Storage- hospitals must designate special areas for storing the waste before it is transported or disposed. The area must be regularly disinfected and kept at the right temperature. According to EPA, storage areas must have the bio-hazard symbol and sufficient packaging to prevent vermin’s and rodents from accessing the area. The waste must also be stored for the shortest period possible, although EPA does not give the stipulated period, leading to a State disparity in specified temperatures and times. Lack of uniformity in regulating storage temperature and time can sometimes lead to increased rates of putrefaction and microbial growth (8).

Transportation- EPA guidelines address the movement of infectious of waste on-site briefly, and provide limited information on how to move this waste off-site. Such recommendations involve using leak proof and rigid containers to move the waste and not using mechanical loading devices that can rapture packed waste. There are no guidelines on how to handle and transfer medical waste off-site. Although EPA, recommends that hazard labels be put on all medical waste in accordance to Federal, State and municipal regulations, the energy and transport department limit the use of this label, confusing commercial waste handlers (10).

Varied definition of infectious waste across different states complicates the matters and increases the likelihood of improper disposal and potential exposure to the public.

For example, if a state does not classify bloodied sutures and bandages as infectious waste, it can dispose this waste from another state in the municipal landfill. However, such waste can be washed by storm water to the beaches and pose a health risk (9).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental Impact of Medical Wastes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Methods Used In Disposing Medical Waste Incineration

As hospitals generate a lot of waste, both non-infectious and infectious wastes are incinerated together. There is no data on the exact waste incinerated in hospitals or information on the number of current medical incinerators available.

Municipal incinerators burn a large volume of waste compared to hospital ones. However, hospital incinerators are situated in highly populated regions, leading to a greater probability of public exposure to toxic fumes and air pollutants.

These small incinerators emit higher levels of pollutants, although few risk assessments are carried out, making it impossible to evaluate the risks emanating from these incinerators in comparison to other sources e.g. the municipal incinerators (10).

Moreover, the short stacks in hospital incinerators might permit emissions from the incinerators to go into the hospitals via windows and air-conditioning ducts. Hospitals in US use three types of incinerators namely: rotary kiln models, multiple chamber air and controlled air.

Most medical waste incinerators are closed air, since they are associated with lower costs and lesser pollution. The advantage associated incinerators is that they can reduce large volumes of waste, sterilize it, and make it possible for it to be disposed traditionally through landfills. Secondly, modern incinerators harness the heat created during the process and use it to power generators within the facility (8).


Autoclaving uses steam sterilization in treating wastes before they are sent off to the landfills. Autoclaving is done in closed compartments, where pressure and heat are applied generating steam, within a given length of time so as to sterilize medical apparatus.

All microorganisms found in the medical waste are destroyed by the steam generated and then disposed off disposed in landfills. After autoclaving medical waste, it undergoes compaction through shredding so that it is not used for any other purposes and then later on disposed in the landfills.

However, autoclaving is not recommended for pathological waste due to the presence of low levels of radiation. The advantage of this method is that it can be used in processing 90 percent of medical waste and compaction reduces the volume of waste after (7).

Long term Environmental Implications of Medical Waste Improper disposal of medical waste have far reaching environment impacts. Disposal of medical waste in oceans or other water bodies can lead to contamination of water by the pathogens found in this waste. Medical wastes such as soiled bandages or plastic gloves destroy the aesthetic appearance of the environment when they litter the beach or other places.

On the other hand, the disposal methods used in getting rid of the medical waste causes serious air pollution. According to a JAMA study carried out in 2009, the health sector accounts for 8 percent carbon emission (8). Most of the medical waste is plastic that produces furans and dioxins during combustion.

Most old medical incinerators have no equipment for controlling pollution. The incinerator ash generated from combusting contaminated waste may contain potentially toxic chemicals that will end up in the landfill and cause environmental pollution.

When autoclaving is used in disposal, the waste might not completely sterilized since the density and volume of material being sterilized determine the effectiveness of the process (7). There is a possibility of incomplete sterilization if the autoclave is overloaded and these pathogens will end up in the landfill, polluting the environment and posing a health risk to the public.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that poor regulatory framework has hindered proper management of medical waste disposal. Medical waste is disposed through incineration and autoclaving, but both methods cause environmental pollution and pose a risk to the public health.

Incineration releases toxic gases, while in autoclaving there is the risk of incomplete sterilization, transferring pathogens to the landfills. It is important for medical facilities to adopt new technology in waste disposal to reduce the environmental pollution.

References Landrum, VJ. Medical waste management and disposal. California:William Andrew; 1991.

NBCE. Medical, municipal and plastic waste management handbook. New Delhi: National Institute of Industrial Re; 2007.

Office of technology Assessment. Finding the Rx for managing medical wastes. Washington DC: Diane Publishing; 1990.

Friedman, M M and Rhinehart, E. Infection Control in Home Care. Sudbury: Jones


Sustainability project – Amcor site best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Murray Basin River

The AMCOR housing and parking project

Differences in the two projects

Scale and other aspects


Reference List

Introduction Climate science is an area of science where virtual methods are widespread and the political stakes are high, because climate change as a result of emission of anthropogenic GHGs seems to demand a cessation of fossil fuel combustion and the use of alternative energy sources so dear to environmentalists.

It is important to note that climate change is an area of science where models inevitably play an important role (Kellow 2007). Environmental conservation for sustainability is an important aspect in the day to day activities on the globe.

This paper discusses environmental conservation for sustainable management of resources. It utilizes the examples of the Murray River water conservation project and the AMCOR housing and parking project. The two projects differ in different aspects that include scale and sustainability.

The Murray Basin River The Murray Basin River is composed of a large area that is estimated at approximately 1,000,000 KM2. It is approximately one-seventh of the total land mass of Australia. A large part of the basin is flat with extensive plains that are less than 200M in altitude above sea level.

The basin has been transformed by major constructions of water storage facilities along the river system. The water storage facilities are meant to regulate the flow of water, conserve water and also for hydro-electric power generation. The major storages include Dartmouth and Lake Victoria.

Hume and the Menindee Lake are also other major water storage facilities that regulate the water flow. These structures make it possible for water to be stored during the wet periods. This water is later released during the dry season (Haisman, 2004). There have also bee important development in agriculture due to these facilities.

Natural inflows in the reservoirs vary from seasons to season especially in the Hume reservoir. Thus, the Northern darling System flows generously throughout the summer while the Southern Murray system is actually a winter rainfall system.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to facilitate all these, the Commonwealth Government has set aside funds that are distributed throughout the territories. The funds are distributed on the basis of progress of implementation of reforms. The council of Australian governments predates the national competition policy in that there is close interaction between the states that aim at achieving the goals of sustainable and efficiency of the rural and urban industries in Australia.

The council of Australian governments has enacted policies that control the water pricing system, ecological conservation, and enactment of comprehensive systems of water allocation. The council is also charged with the mandate of water allocation, trading and cross border sales of water, and separation of resource management from water service provision.

The AMCOR housing and parking project The Amcor site is housing and parking project that is predominantly a residential community project that will involve several aspects of environmental conservation for sustainability. The achievements of the project are meant to show how ecological sustainability and environmental management can cause sustainability of the environment.

The project is also meant to interface with the Yarra River corridor. This will act as a refuge from the built environment thereby buffering the indigenous vegetation and wildlife. The project also incorporates convenience retailing services and community facilities within walking distance of homes.

This will also create employment opportunities along the Heidelberg Road. It is also important to note that the project will restrict space that is paved for roads and parking. This will maximize the availability of land so that the remaining land can be used for other productive activities.

It will also make sure that cars do not dominate the roads in the area thereby reducing traffic and creating a safe haven for children. It is also meant to make walking around the place a pleasant experience. At the end of the project there will be homes for a diversity of households including some affordable housing.

There will also be respect among the existing neighborhood character whereby there will be cohesiveness in the community across south Alphington and south Fairfield (Australian Government. 2011).

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Cause and Effect of Poverty Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Effects of poverty on health

Effects of poverty on educational attainment

Effects of poverty on migration patterns

Works Cited

Poverty can be described in a number of ways. For example, the disparities in income and wealth are considered as a sign of poverty since the state is related to issues of scarcity and allocation of resources and influence.

Although poverty is most prominent among developing countries, studies indicate that the condition is also noticeable among the developed countries. Poverty may also be defined as the combined status of poor individuals (John


Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy Essay college essay help

Introduction At the moment, the business environment is characterized by a high rate of dynamism as a result of technological advancement, coupled with a high rate of globalization. To survive in such an environment, firms operating in different economic sectors are increasingly considering ways through which they can develop a competitive advantage in the facing of the mounting competition.

A firm only attains a competitive advantage over its rivals after the implementation of a unique competitive strategy. A competitive strategy refers to the decision regarding how a firm intends to establish itself in a certain domain. The competitive strategy entails both offensive and defensive mechanisms which are aimed at dealing with the five competitive forces (Vallabhaneni, 2009, p. 15).

These forces include barrier to entry, rivalry from firms in the industry, the threat of substitute, supplier bargaining power and lastly, buyer bargaining power. There are a wide range of competitive strategies that firms may decide to incorporate in their daily operations. The main strategies include cost leadership, differentiation strategy, cost focus, broad differentiation, and low cost strategy (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.223).

Firms adopt different competitive strategies depending prevailing environment in the market. For example, Fiat Motor Company integrated a broad-line competitive strategy in its operations. This competitive strategy means that the car manufacturer is a regional producer of a wide range of automobiles.

Through an effective implementation of a competitive strategy, a firm is able to create value for its products. The resultant effect is that the firm attains a high competitive edge over its rivals in the market. On the other hand, to survive in the long run, it is important for firms to ensure that they implement a sustainable competitive advantage.

In the 21st century, the purchasing behavior of consumer has undergone a major change and if at all firms do not keep pace with these changes, they are likely to lose a large share of their market to their dynamic rival companies that have embrace the changes.

The change in the purchasing behavior of consumers is worsened by the increase in the degree of complexity within the business environment as a result of technological advancement arising from innovation and the high rate of globalization (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To attain a high competitive edge, firms have deemed it appropriate to adopt the integrated cost and differentiation strategy. The research paper endeavors to examine whether or not it is suitable for forms to implement integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy in an effort to attain competitive advantage.

Arguments for integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy According to Hoskisson, Hitt and Ireland (2009, p.147), a firm which has adopted integrated cost and differentiation strategy is more efficient in its operations compared to a firm that has incorporated only one business-level strategy.

For example, a firm that has incorporated an integrated strategy is able to respond to the changes in the business environment more effectively. This is due to the fact that the firm is not constrained in the implementation of its strategy. However, the firm can easily change its competitive strategy depending on the prevailing business conditions.

An integrated cost and differentiation strategy also provides a firm with an opportunity to enhance its human capital. For example, the firm’s employees can easily learn new skills. According to Ogbor (2009, p.254), developing the skills of a firm’s employees play a vital role in the firm’s efforts to attaining a competitive advantage in the market.

Alternatively, a firm can also easily take advantage of technological advancement in the industry. The acquisition of current technologies and new skills means that there is a high probability for firms to advance in their core competences.

The result is that the firms will be able to produce highly differentiated products that add value to the customers. Currently, consumers are increasingly demanding differentiated products and services at low prices (Manning 2001, p. 32).

Further, the integration of new technology may result in a firm undertaking its production cost effectively. Consequently, the firm in question is better placed to attain competitiveness owing to the low cost of its products.

We will write a custom Essay on Suitability of an Integrated Cost and Differentiation Competitive Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Integrated cost and differentiation competitive strategy greatly enhances the attainment of competitive advantage through low pricing and ensuring that customers attain value for their money (Hoskisson, et al., 2008, p.121). For example, the differentiation strategy can enable a firm to adopt an integrated premium pricing strategy.

On the other hand, the cost leadership contributes towards a firm being effective in its pricing strategy. For example, a firm can be able to set the price of its products at a relatively low point compared to its competitors. This may culminate into an increment in the firm’s sales revenue considering that consumers are price sensitive in their purchasing patterns (Viney, Winchester


Ethical Concepts in Business Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical Concepts

Ethical Philosophy

Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities


Works Cited

Introduction Ethics is a term used to refer to something that is beneficial to people. In other words, it creates a notion of doing the right thing. In business field, ethics entails adopting values that are beneficial to the business as well as the society. Ethical principles should therefore be based on human respect, integrity, being compassionate, caring and honesty. This means that individuals and businesses should be involved in promoting and protecting human rights. In addition, it calls for responsible citizenship (Chun 281).

Ethical Concepts The ethics of virtue is one of the concepts that relate to hiring of people with disabilities. It argues that human acts are observed intentionally. They are not achieved as result of chance. It entails application of good values such as tolerance and understanding. In other words, business ethics concepts revolve around virtues.

Fairness, honesty and integrity are among them. Fairness as the ethical concept has a big influence in this case. The computer technology industry goes against the ethical concept by not hiring disabled veterans. The concept puts it clearly that all businesses should treat all people equally in any commercial dealings and especially during recruitment.

Ethical Philosophy Research has shown that disabled veterans are best employees. They are not expensive to employ and maintain. For example they are cheaper in terms of insurance and safety. Moreover, accommodations provided are cost neutral because they act as morale to workers hence high productivity (Barclay and Markel 338).

Disabled veterans are also beneficial to the business. They have ability to learn given a new environment. This is due to their previous exposure and experience, they can adapt to the new environment fast. Their diversity and flexibility to work as team or as individuals allows them to be a mark higher than the ordinary workers. In addition, being veterans is a clear indication that they uphold integrity and thus the best in today’s business industry.

Accommodations for Workers with Disabilities Hiring veterans with disabilities requires a given organization to provide certain reasonable accommodations. This is because their conditions are demanding and the organizations must put that into consideration for them to be productive.

Providing reasonable accommodation to veterans with disabilities is beneficial to the business. This is because their skills, experiences and educational qualifications are actively utilized by the organization in order to realize its goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just like the other employees, disabled veterans exhibit reliability and trustworthiness and acceptable business ethics. In addition, they portray positive values such as being passionate about what they do with a positive mind as well as going extra mile.

Ethical approaches can be employed to realize Advancement in the workplace of workers with disabilities. For example when businesses uphold integrity, fairness and honesty, it means that they have respect for both humans and the environment.

They will therefore assume the social responsibility as it is required. For disabled persons, the business will provide the necessary accommodations in order to make the maximum profits. Various accommodations in this case include transport, availing necessary facilities, flexible time schedules and modifying the work environment in general.

Conclusion In business ethics it is unethical to discriminate workers on basis of their disabilities. In fact, any business practicing such as in the case of computer technology industry mentioned above, can act as tool to bring it down. Hiring veterans with disabilities exhibit acceptable business ethics and can be used to improve an image of a given business.

Veterans with disabilities are potential workers with skills and experience just like other people. They should therefore not be discriminated at all cost. Instead, they should be provided with favorable accommodations that will enable them to be productive.

Works Cited Barclay, L. and Markel, K. “Ethical Fairness and Human Rights: The Treatment of Employees with Disabilities.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2009: 333-345.

Chun, R. “Ethical Character and Virtue of Organizations: An Empirical Assessment and Strategic Implications.” Journal of Business Ethics. 2005: 269-284.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Concepts in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


American Government’s War on Drugs Essay a level english language essay help

History of war on drugs The issue of drug usage and supply has dominated the public domain throughout the 20th century. This was mainly because the drug market was purely unregulated. As a result, accessing drugs and substances containing derivatives of various drugs was also easy, including medical prescriptions that contained cocaine and heroin.1

During early years of the 20th century, legislation played a major role in regulating the use of drugs in the United States and all over the world.

For instance, the Pure Food and Drug Act, adopted in the year 1906 was to guard the society against poisonous drugs before it was amended in 1912 to address the issue of drugs carrying wrong labels. In 1914, the Harrison Tax Act was passed to prohibit the sale of heroin and cocaine.

By the mid of 1930s, the Marihuana Tax Act was adopted and aimed at imposing taxes on marihuana. Although this drug was considered to be safe, law enforcers believed that if allowed to be supplied freely, it would become a gateway for other drugs like heroin.

It was during the tenure of President Dwight D. Eisenhower that the war against drugs began, with the Narcotic Control of 1956 heightening the penalties associated with supply and usage of drugs. In 1954, the president called for a national war on drugs.

Similarly, President Nixon’s regime demonstrated the willingness to fight drugs by ending the importation of marijuana from Mexico through tight cross-border security measures. Additionally, the formation of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 was a milestone in strengthening the war as it gave federal government an upper hand in fighting drug abuse.

In 1971, President Nixon declared that drug abuse was “the number-one public enemy,” and stepped up efforts directed on fighting the scourge. Besides enforcement of the law, the president emphasized the need to treat drug addicts.2 He also engaged celebrities in spreading the news about the negative effects of drugs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970s, drug abuse was considered by many as a law enforcement problem that required criminal-justice strategies to fight. The inclusion of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) into the federal law equally boosted efforts to save the society from the dangers of drug abuse.3

Nancy Reagan is also remembered for her campaigns in schools, teaching students about the effects of drug abuse. Her activism drew huge attention and became the core of the anti drug war. By focusing on the impact of drug abuse on children, it was easy for anti drug administration to formulate stronger legislation that would protect existing and future generations.

During that time, cocaine was th most abused drug followed by heroin, which usage was rampant among African-Americans. The popularity of cocaine continued to grow among middle-class Americans as it was processed into smaller blocks to enhance easy acquisition by people from different social classes.

As a result, the Antidrug Act of 1986 was established to discourage the use of “crack” by introducing the 100:1 ratio, which meant that a person found with 50g of crack would be imprisoned for ten years, an equivalent sentence for being in possession of 5000g of the powered “yuppie.”4

The war on drugs has continued to intensify in recent decades, and leaders of that war adopted better rules and ways of dealing with the problem. For instance, Joe Biden’s 1994 Omnibus Crime Bill allowed the death penalty, symbolizing the seriousness of the war, comparing its victims to other offenders like murderers and rapists.5

Additionally, the arising confusion between the definition of legal and illegal drugs became evident in the implementation of the drug policy legislation. For example, the law recognized narcotics as illegal, unless they were medically processed and prescribed.

Importantly, not all prescribed drugs were safe. Illegal narcotics are those used without professional prescription. Despite the existence of this unstable definition, the issue has not been confusing. The only confusing thing in this scenario is the government legalizing the use of a particular drug and goes ahead to hunt its users.

We will write a custom Essay on American Government’s War on Drugs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This occurred in 1996 when marijuana usage had been authorized in California before successive American government arrested several marijuana distributors in the same state.

In his first term, President Barrack Obama continued with the war on drugs, with his drug policy coordinator suggesting the rebranding of the war as harm-reduction strategies. This is believed to have been based on the need to rehabilitate addicts and manage complications associated with drug abuse.

In general, the Obama administration has not deviated from the Bush administration even though the war remained a rhetorical convention with regard to the view of enforcing the country’s drug policy enforcement. Nevertheless, rebranding of the policy as harm-reduction strategies has been viewed as a step forward in managing drug abuse.

Success of the war on drugs Analyzing the success of the war on drugs in the society, it is important to understand the drug control rhetoric, which is aimed at realizing a drug-free society. Based on this analogy, it is believed that the war on drugs has not been successful since a democratic society cannot be 100% drug-free.6

This argument affirms that the campaign lacks practicality in addressing complex issues surrounding drug usage. Additionally, the use of illegal drugs has far-reaching implications besides the mere usage. For instance, consumption of alcohol and tobacco by underage children, and unlawful use of prescribed drugs has become a burden to the society.7

Although many people are not aware of it, the cost of cocaine exceeds that of the combination of other drugs. In this view, the war with this social problem is interpreted as an application for general illegal drugs.

Goals The war on drugs has mainly been led by the national drug control which strategies have not been changed significantly since 1989, when it issued its initial annual strategy volume.8

The initial strategies of the NDC were aimed at controlling the overall usage of drugs, initiation reduction and management at every level, including casual users and addicts. In addition, the agency was aimed at the reduction of hospital admissions by addressing import availability and local production of drugs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American Government’s War on Drugs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In 1990s, NDC simplified its goals and targeted the reduction of drug usage considering the consequences that were related to the use of drugs. Nevertheless, today the administration puts more weight on measures that target usage of these drugs.

Unlike previous strategies, the current blueprint incorporates the need for education, treatment and disruption of the market through national policies. In its application, the current national drug control is principally motivated by the desire to reduce the impact of drug abuse on the society.9

Nevertheless, no explicit efforts have been witnessed to handle other consequences like overdose, HIV infection, and lost productivity. As a result, there is a difficulty in accounting against broader objectives of the NDC.

It is important to reaffirm that the national strategy towards winning the war on drugs is by reducing drug abuse consequences. In this approach, success with light users is more likely than with addicts.

It, therefore, follows that the progress towards the use-reduction goal may not necessarily indicate a similar change in a consequence reduction mode.10 This is to say that, reduction of casual marijuana users may not show a decrease in drug use consequences.

Consequences of war on drugs The war on drugs has been conducted for more than fifty years, without focusing on ways of establishing long-term strategies of dealing with drug usage and supply. Besides this has seen a failure, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime observes that there is a host of negative effects, which have been precipitated by this war on drugs.11

These consequences are based on a punitive approach that has allowed criminal gangs to be in-charge of the trade and criminalized several drug users. The following points are considered to be major effects of drug abuse.

National development Since its launch several decades ago, the war on drugs has continuously undermined development and security in most parts of the world. It has been found that drug traffickers can have a reliable supply of illegal drugs if honest politicians, government employees and security agents like armies are not involved.

Additionally, this can be achieved if farmers have a limited access to money to acquire enough farm inputs like fertilizers.12

Traffickers, therefore, thrive in cases where there is little governance or presence of poor infrastructure. As a result, they target at weak countries, which are easy to manipulate. With this target, they are able to equip private armies, merge and fund revolts, and corrupt police, government officials and politicians.

Examples of such countries, which have been affected by drug traffickers, are Afghanistan and Colombia among others.13 After destabilizing a country, they disrupt the operations of international and non-governmental organizations and divert resources and aid into enforcement.

The same consequences are replicated during the shipment of other drugs like heroin, undermining governance, security and economic development of the country.

Human rights It is doubtless that human rights of most drug users and farmers who plant these crops are rarely addressed by the United Nations or at the local level during the fight against drug abuse. As a result, this war is always characterized by serious violation of human rights, including but not limited to mass incarceration, torture, inhumane treatment, extrajudicial killings and denial of basic health services.14

Most of these policies further discriminate people, who use drugs. As a result, they impede them from access to drugs, harm prevention, and HIV treatment.

It is important to mention that young children have also been exposed to these human rights costs. Moreover, local communities involved in drug-producing usually receive cruel treatment during the process of eradicating the crops from farms.

Stigma and discrimination Like with any other form of war in the world, the negative effects of the war on drugs are mainly felt by marginalized, vulnerable and those that are excluded from the society. Children and young people are always placed on the frontline by individuals or groups of people dealing with drugs.

Amazingly, most of these children are forced into the business because of poverty, drug war casualties or as a result of being orphaned, due to incarceration of parents.15 Women equally suffer from exploitation by the drug business. Women with young babies are usually separated from their children, especially when they are put in prison. This detachment may affect the child due to limited resources for him or her.

Drug enforcement has also promoted social prejudice, where some minority groups of people are targeted and punished for being stereotypically labeled as drug users or distributors.

Threat to public health Historically, the war on drugs has been perceived to protect health of people by limiting the accessibility and usage of illegal drugs. However, research has revealed that this target has not been met, based on the increasing number of drug users and the existence of market that allows individuals to purchase the drugs cheaply.16

Additionally, the policy has increased the risk associated with the use of drugs through exposure to contaminants and risky behaviors like injection.

As a result, drug users are exposed to overdoses, blood-borne diseases and poisonings among others. To a worse extreme, some victims have contracted HIV via the above-mentioned health risks. 17

Increased crime Instead of eliminating crime, drug control policies have promoted the establishment of a drug market, which was estimated in the year 2005 to register a turnover of $300 billion in a year.18 The truth behind this is the fact that all the profit and wealth derived from these sales is enjoyed by drug traffickers and kingpins.

Consequently, producing countries may become unstable and corrupt while consuming states may experience an increase in gangsters and drug addicts.

Additionally, the expansion of the market contributes to the destabilization of the world financial system through money laundering and overstretching the criminal-justice system, emanating from an exponential increase in the number of criminals to be sent to prisons.

Biblical approach Based on the analysis presented earlier in this paper, it is evident that the war on drugs has not been successful. From the increasing prison population to the immense cost and implication of the war both to the society and economy, there is a need for a better solution to be considered.

This is important in reassuring people that it is not “war” as perceived but strategies to avoid initiation into drug usage and rehabilitation programs to help the addicts.19 Nevertheless, this has to be coupled with other institutions like criminal justice, in achieving a safe living environment that has minimum risks.

In addressing the question of drug abuse from a biblical and ethical perspectives, it is paramount to ask ourselves the morality of drug abuse and the ethical implications of the war. Can Christians be drug addicts?

Does the biblical approach support or oppose the war on drugs? One of the main facts about the bible is that becoming a Christian does not automatically shield an individual from danger and tribulations.

In other words, a Christian can suffer a worse tragedy similar to non-Christians. Unlike other people, the bible guarantees Christians a path to be taken in order to avoid temptations, sin and criminal behavior.20 It advocates for obedience, respect to authority and law and doing what is right in the presence of God.

According to David, a major character in the bible, who is believed to be an ancestor of Jesus, God created human beings in their natural state that allows natural functioning of the body without use of artificial substances like drugs.

In doing so, God knew that men would live a full life without finding satisfaction in drugs and related behavior in the society. We are therefore supposed to avoid conforming to the patterns of the world because of the natural state of our creation.21

According to the bible, men and women are controlled by God every time because He is all-knowing and omnipresent. Importantly, God does not spy on human beings but gives them free will to decide on what is right and what is wrong.

As stated in the bible, God considers our bodies as His dwelling places that are supposed to remain clean and well nourished. At this point, we need to ask ourselves how marijuana, nicotine, cocaine or heroin nourish our bodies in preparing a “fit dwelling” for Him. Does the use of these substances make us better or worse than before? If human bodies are God’s temple, can he cohabit with drugs?

One of the ways through which drugs operate is the way they alter the normal functioning of the body, by affecting the manner in which a person thinks and behaves, sometimes in a dangerous way that threatens an individual or a group of people.

It should be understood that the bible does recognize the medical use of drugs in restoring the normal status of a person promptly. This, therefore, supports the use of prescribed drugs with a prescription from a professional medical doctor. Besides this authorization, these drugs are to be used responsibly without sharing with friends or family members.

Another biblical aspect is that human bodies are created as a unity of body, soul and mind.22 The existence of the three aspects of the human body defines the functional ability of a person, although normalcy is only enjoyed when the three are in sound states.

The implication if this formation is that disruption of a single segment of the body that affects normal performance of the body as a whole. Additionally, the bible teaches about self-control and the need for human beings to take control of themselves.23 This virtue is completely uninstalled whenever a person is under the influence of drugs, due to distortion of the mind.

Besides the bodily make-up, the bible equally emphasizes on godly behavior and the need for one to maintain good behavior. Definitely, drug abuse cannot fall under good behavior. This kind of behavior mentioned in the bible benefits individuals and those around.

The bible, therefore, advocates for role models in the society to shape morality, set standards and correct those who stray from desirable ways of God.24

As such, Christians are called upon not to be stumbling blocks to other people in the society but to behave responsibly. With regard to the use of drugs and its “unsuccessful” war, one needs to think of the effects of abusing drugs before going for them.

How then does the bible view the war on drugs? Basically, this is seen as a way of restoring sanity and morality in the society. From this perspective, drug abuse alters the normal body operation of an individual, rendering him/her unfit to belong to the family of God.25

Drug users and addicts gain a state that does not accommodate God as his temple through contamination and infections. Based on this interplay between the teachings of the bible and the war on drugs, it is important to mention that drug abuse has an array of negative effects and needs to be curbed to save humanity.

By the fact that God appoints leaders into authority, they ought to use wisdom from God to lay down workable, human and achievable strategies to drive the agenda of fighting drugs in the country.26 This is necessary in eliminating loopholes in the current war plan, that have given the opponents of this idea a platform to prophesy doom over the initiative launched several decades ago.

Contrary to this perspective, it has been argued that there are more than enough reasons drawn from the bible, which condemn and oppose the war on drugs. This is not only on the manner in which the strategy has failed but also about the lack of biblical background.

According to Laurence M. Vance, a U.S. theologian, the use of alcohol is the only condemned thing by the New Testament and not all the drugs which are listed as illegal. Vance notes that the bible does not allow excess consumption of alcohol but instead recommends that one should be filled with the Holy Spirit.27

Despite this biblical recognition of alcohol, it has been branded and treated like other drugs. He further argues that not all crimes are sins and that the war on drugs criminalizes every act of drug abuse. As a result, he believes that Christians ought to oppose the war on drugs.

Bibliography Caulkins, Jonathan. “How Goes the War on Drugs.” RAND. Web.

Gospel Way. “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety.” Gospel Way. Web.

Hagen, Bernhard. The War on Drugs. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004.

Hartstein, Max. The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All. Indiana: iUniverse, 2003.

Lyman, Michael, and Gary Potter. Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010.

Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia, and Sarah Gallagher. War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights. New York City: IDEA, 2004.

Mauer, Marc. “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs.” The Sentencing Project. Web.

Rowe, Thomas. Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole. London: Routledge, 2006.

Thomas, Kelly. “A Model for Success in the Drug War.” The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 8 (80): 1-31.

Vance, Laurence. “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs.” LewRockwell. Web.

Watton. “The Biblical View.” Watton. Web.

Footnotes 1 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 4.

2 Ibid.

3 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 88.

4 Bernhard Hagen, The War on Drugs (Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2004), 5.

5 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 92.

6 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Sarah Gallagher, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.

7 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 88.

8 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.

9 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.

10 Jonathan Caulkins, “How Goes the War on Drugs” RAND.

11 Thomas Rowe, Federal Narcotics Laws and the War on Drugs: Money Down a Rat Hole (London: Routledge, 2006), 96.

12 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 10.

13 Ibid.

14 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 77.

15 Marc Mauer, “The Changing Racial Dynamics of the War on Drugs,” The Sentencing Project.

16 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 3.

17 Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch and Gallagher Sarah, War on Drugs, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights (New York City: IDEA, 2004), 60.

18 Michael Lyman and Gary Potter, Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts and Control (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010), 11.

19 Max Hartstein, The War on Drugs The Worst Addiction of All (Indiana: iUniverse, 2003), 53.

20 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.

21 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.

22 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.

23 Gospel Way, “Drug Abuse and the Bible: Intoxication, Addiction, and Sobriety,” Gospel Way.

24 Ibid.

25 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.

26 Watton, “The Biblical View,” Watton.

27 Laurence Vance, “Should Christians Support the War on Drugs,” LewRockwell.