Analysis Of Hugo Chavez And Muamar Gaddafi’s Reign Through Machiavelli’s Eye Research Paper Writing Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Problem statement

Methods and materials

Literature review

Data analysis: Hugo Chavez

Data analysis: Muammar Gaddafi



Introduction Even after independence, the negative authority still exists in various states. Political leaders have replaced foreign rules by native dictatorship (Weisberg, 2007). Those in power have misused their power by creating hierarchies, structures, and models that were used during colonialism (Ascher and Mirovit︠s︡kai︠a︡, 2012). Due to such leadership behaviors, political scientists such as Machiavelli have tried to redefine politics.

He, therefore, came up with the characteristics of a true politician (Baumgartner and Leech, 2012). According to him, politicians should protect people’s rights without discrimination or favor.

This has been in direct conflict with the current status in politicsthe and ethics hence calling current leaders into question. This research focuses on two former heads of state; Hugo Chavez and Muammar Gaddafi. In order to know what is so scientific about political science, this study analyzes the reign of the two leaders by investigating their relationship with the people.

Problem statement The last days of Muamur Gaddafi in office was marked with hostility and frequent revolutions. His relation with the western world was also poor thereby making his country to suffer from economic seclusions and sanctions. It was so sad that the same African hero who embraced panafricanism and even chaired African Union later died in the hands of rebels who had for years sought to remove him from power.

Hugo Chavez, on the other hand, is a Latin American president who went through the challenges of political leadership and emerged victorious all through his tenure. His people loved his leadership and even wished he never died. When one country celebrates the death of its president and another cries and wishes the president was alive, questions of leadership traits arise.

It was due to such happenings that the two regimes were scrutinized and observations of the variations made. By comparing these two leaders to Machiavellian prince and how they tend to behave in their natural environment, the research was expected to yield positive results.

Methods and materials In the research model to test for the hypothesis, the dependent variable was incumbent presidents while various phenomena that had an effect on the dependent variable such as unemployment rate formed independent variable (Caterino and Schram, 2006). By collecting data on unemployment rate and comparing it with reelection of the incumbent, the two relationships are easily compared.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Libya for instance, dependent variables included inflation. Among the materials used in this research was hardware that was used to store a number of data for analysis. Some interviews were also recorded on tape to save time and to ensure accurate information was stored.

Interviews were also conducted both in the cities and villages of the two sample countries where each individual was allowed to express their opinion and views on what they exactly felt about these politicians. The interviews were conducted during the president’s reign and after their tenor in order to identify the difference between the two incumbents. In the cities, questionnaires were also given to individuals because of the population.

The questionnaires were structured depending on the sample population. In Libya, for instance, the Muslim communities were provided with different questionnaires because there was a feeling that there were divergent views due to religious difference.

This information was meant to help know how these two religious groups felt about their leaders. There was need to reach out to a large number of people and this could only happen with the help of questionnaires. After gathering secondary data from demographics, the data was thoroughly scrutinized in order to prepare it for analysis.

Sources of the secondary data included government printouts, ministerial reports and journals and articles in the journals where various activists express their opinions. Reports were also provided by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America. Other background information from the media on historical injustices in these countries was also taken into consideration.

During Gaddafi’s reign, several cases of injustices and human right infringement were reported. In order to confirm such claims, emphasis was placed on the various cases so as to find the truth. The manner in which these injustices were handled by the leaders during their reign was another area of concern. This led to using reports on the decided court cases as sources of secondary information.

Literature review Politics is always related to leadership and management which should be the case. However, every individual has tried to define politics according to the way politicians behave and the response of their subjects towards their action. While management deals with effective decision making, politicians are charged with the responsibility of making or influencing decisions in their respective positions (Baumgartner and Leech, 2012).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Analysis of Hugo Chavez and Muamar Gaddafi’s Reign Through Machiavelli’s Eye specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When they fail do perform such functions, their subjects develop hatred towards them and always try to find opportunities to stop their reign. Various leadership traits are common with politicians. They are communists, nationalists, and majorly ideologists.

In most countries of the world, removing an incumbent president has is has been long lost battle since colonialism. In Africa, for instance, leaders have not matured politically and people always want to use power to oppress their subjects. The incumbent heads of state always reward those who become loyal to them and threaten to kill those who oppose their governments and claim that their democratic rights are infringed.

Poor leadership leads to poor economy and weak ties. In his inaugural speech, the president of the United States, Barack Obama stated that if people are created equal then the love they show should be equal as well.

A president takes an oath to serve a nation without fear or favor and to respect the rule of law but such promises are never fulfilled once he takes office. A behavioral human relation plays an important role in the way a politician rules a nation (Great Britain, 2012).

There are various politicians who have the belief that the end always justifies the means. Such politicians never have their subjects at heart. It is called the politics of exclusion where decisions are made at higher levels without the concerns of the electorate. The politicians only involve their subjects in their campaigns; merely using them to gain power

Politics has been perceived as a dirty game where people struggle to survive. As it is in most cases, politics is a continuous struggle of who gets what, how and when. This struggle can sometimes be as modest as different groups competing for control over a municipal budge (Clarke and Primo, 2012). However, the struggle can also be as overwhelming as military stand-off between superpowers.

Such struggles have led to violence hence making politics a fodder that feeds writers articles. Political specialists such as Machiavelli have learnt these types of struggles, both large and small, in a bid to come up with general theories and ideologies about the way most world leaders conduct themselves (Farr, 1993).

Political hypothesis analyzes politics and its primary perceptions such as democratic systems, power and the association between individuals and the state.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Hugo Chavez and Muamar Gaddafi’s Reign Through Machiavelli’s Eye by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Data analysis: Hugo Chavez In his essay on whether Fidel Castro qualifies as a Machiavellian prince, Professor Alfred G. Cuzan explains how a place of birth is significant in molding someone’s character (Cuzán, 2004). Hugo Chavez and Machiavelli have so many common tendencies. Hugo Chavez was born in 1954 in Venezuela’s remote province called Sabaneta.

Such a humble background helped him grow in politics with a view of respecting his subjects and treating them with the dignity they deserved (Corrales and Penfold, 2011).

It was until his graduation from Venezuelan Academy of Military science that he became a renowned leader and demanded so much attention due to the military appointments. This, however, did not take his humility away. This humble background can be compared to the one the Machiavellian Prince had until he later rose to glory.

The former Venezuela’s president studied history and came up with his own left wing political ideology known as Chavism. Unlike Machiavelli’s Prince, he was his own mentor and even named his ideologies after himself. In early 1980s, he came up with the idea of Bolivarianism (Ellner and Tinker, 2006). In this ideology, Hugo Chavez focused on implementing social reforms with the idea of Bolivarian revolution.

It was this idea that gave the Venezuelan citizens a new constitution. With new laws governing the Latin American state, a good democratic environment was able to develop. The new constitution also altered the structure of Venezuelan government. This move played a significant role in his re-election in 2000 as the president of Venezuela.

Due to his career as a military officer, he had enough practical knowledge of terrain. Hugo Chaves served in the military for seventeen years which was long enough for him to familiarize with the terrain. The military is always a disciplined force where characters and conceptual skills are developed (Gettell, 2000).

This is the reason why he grew up developing admirable quality skills of leadership. He was not just a president but also a manager. This was due to the leadership roles he had while serving his nation as a soldier. Every individual is obliged to love such a leader.

The Machiavellian people, on the other hand, hated their Prince because he oppressed them by his poor leadership skills. In his reign, he created a strong army that he solemnly relied on as a source of protection both for the country and himself (Levin, 2007). This security also motivated the citizen and created peace between them and their neighbors.

In his second term, Hugo Chavez tried to avoid contempt by alleviating poverty. His Bolivarian revolution ideology enabled nationalization of industries, increased government funding of healthcare and education hence he significantly reduced poverty. Hugo Chavez introduced worker-managed cooperatives were individuals were to be their own managers.

Chavez was doing this to avoid the blames that were increasing on the government regarding fundings (Marcano, Barrera and Cordero, 2007). He also made this move in order help people improve the savings and investments in Venezuela. This was, however, contrary to the Machiavellian Prince’s tendency of creating wealth for self gain which was literally referred to as greed by the people.

Hugo Chavez was loved by his subjects because of his quest to improve Venezuela’s quality of life. The respondents here expressed their love for this leader with some stating that he came up with much awaited land reforms showing his respect for the property of subjects (Kozloff, 2007).

The record from United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America also shows that poverty rate in 2002 was 48.6% but it later went down to 29.5% in 2011. Further analysis of the 2012 election report also showed that people preferred Chaves as their president because he improved their living standards. He was a courageous anti-imperialist and a vocal critic of neoliberalism.

Hugo Chaves was also highly controversial, strong and divisive (Young, 2007). Instead of seeking support from great nations, he criticized their heads of states. He wanted his nation to stand out in Latin America and show other states the importance of being an independent state that has self reliance (Jacobsen and Lipman, 2009).

The results from a research on United States media sources showed that Chaves had one time compared president George W Bush to a donkey and the devil. He had also been saying that United States of America undermined his government.

Even with such challenges in international relations, Hugo Chaves did not give up on his allies contrary to Machiavellian’s Prince (Mansfield, 2000). He maintained ties with this super-power but criticized some of their ideas and philosophies.

Data analysis: Muammar Gaddafi Nicole Machiavelli suggested in his book, The Prince that a successful prince must maintain occasional cruelty to keep subjects faithful and obedient. Murmur Gaddafi showed his capacity to be cruel when he allowed arbitrary arrests. Sources from Libyan media prove that Gaddafi broadcasted recordings of mutilations of political opponents on state television (Roberts, 2013).

He was using this tactic to create fear among his subjects. Machiavelli may have applauded these ruthful leadership criteria. Moreover, his attempt to create Pan-Arab union which according to Machiavelli was an effort to strengthen his reputation was admired by the people. Although his reign was full of cruelty, Gaddafi was still held in high regard by his populace

While his brutal approach may be considered consistent with Machiavelli’s idea that “the end justifies the means”, there were a lot of questions one could ask about Gaddafi regarding his goals and motivations (Ruffo-Fiore, 2009).

Holding on to power seemed to be his motivation and the reason for oppressive policies. Gaddafi showed another prince’s dictum which denies that subjects can both love and fear their leaders. In such a case, a Machiavellian Prince prefers being feared.

According to Machiavelli, “a wise ruler will seek to ensure that his citizens, no matter what the circumstance, have an interest in preserving both him and his authority” (Mansfield, 2009). However, Gaddafi failed to meet this criterion towards the end of his reign. His army was slaughtering and bombing the Libyan people making him intensely unpopular.

Cuzan wondered why the Cuban people derived vicarious pleasure from Fidel Castro’s glory when he confiscated property and rendered everyone insecure (Cuzán, 2004). Perhaps Libya also had peculiar people who loved shrewd leadership. Gaddafi used the revenues from Libyan oil to enrich himself and build himself a strong military base and still received support from loyal friends. He never cared about the increasing inflation rate in the country. He is remembered for his investments in African countries due to his overwhelming oil business. Just as Chavez, Gaddafi also nationalized oil in Libya in order to increase revenue. He even privatized the economy in 1999 (Sullivan, 2009). However, contrary to Machiavelli’s Prince, he did not have the interest of Libyans at heart during his dealings. He also used the increased revenue to bolster Libyan military which he solemnly relied upon. Gaddafi had enough practical knowledge of military skills because he had served in the military in his early days.

When Libyan situation resulted in a full-blown civil war, his superior fire power gave him an upper hand. He had however lost allies and friends outside Libya contrary to Machiavelli’s advice due to his brutal killing of protesters (Sullivan, 2009). In 2011, the United Nations voted to declare Libya a no-fly zone.

The air strike did not even stop his ungovernable pride. Gaddafi instead remained defiant as the hatred of his people gave him only one choice, to flee the country. He was at the mercies of his people as in the case of Mussolini, a Machiavelli’s countryman who was killed by his people because of maltreatment (Mansfield, 2009).

Conclusion When dealing with human beings, politicians must understand that their subjects are not creatures of logic but creatures of emotions. Politicians are expected to treat people with respect and the dignity that they deserve.

Although both Muammar Gaddafi and Hugo Chavez match Machiavellian Prince in various respects, the former Libyan president is fundamentally different from him. The Libyan people were sole victims of Gaddafi’s tyranny which was contrary to the ancient understanding of Machiavelli’s prince. He is not a tyrant.

References Ascher, W.,


Using a “Peripheral” Workforce: For and Against Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Body: The case for and against using “peripheral” workforce




Introduction The flexibility of work is a comparatively complicated issue integrating the peripheral and core workforces that carry with them several consequences. The model of work flexibility is commonly used in many organizations, as it is healthy for the individual standards of living (CIPD, 2013). Flexible working tries to view the associations amid practical and statistical flexibility.

In fact, the procedure involved in flexible working tries to elucidate on how an organization can concomitantly acquire flexibility. The situation of practical and statistical flexibility as realized by core and periphery model can generate additional advantages in corporate competitiveness.

The peripheral workforces entail employees having casual occupation affiliation while core labor forces are linked to better engagement terms and regular working conditions ( Ltd, 2012). The two kinds of work flexibility that is core and periphery, spell out the implementation of the diverse labor market viewpoints.

Flexible materialize to have numerous benefits and demerits. For instance, 66.0% admit that flexible working is helpful (Croucher


The Debate on Gun Control Essay essay help online free

The debate on gun control is a controversial topic in United States politics. The debate has spanned for decades as opposing sides argue about the right to have guns and restriction of the same. The side that supports the right to own guns consider it a right to defend oneself. The gun culture is embedded in the the American culture as many people owned guns to protect themselves from the early times of the nation’s history.

Moreover, the guns were used for hunting and today hunting with guns as a sport is common. Guns are a symbol of power and many consider owning a gun as an American identity. On the other hand, owning guns has led to violent gun crimes and thousands of innocent Americans have lost their lives.

The gun violence has led to the debate on gun control and the recent incident at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut that saw the death of 26 children has reignited the debate and President Obama is leading the campaign to pass stringent laws on gun control to prevent the occurrence of such incidences of gun violence in the future.

Many attempts to pass the gun control laws have failed especially with the influence of the National Rifle Association and I think politicians should use emotionally charged events to ensure that the laws are passed.

Politicians can use emotionally charged events to advance political agendas that have been difficult to through the use of intellectual debates. The gun control debate and passing of relevant laws to do a background check on any person that wants to buy a gun and restrictions of assault rifle sales to the public have been slow in passing. The Politicians should use the recent massacre of 26 children in Connecticut to appeal to the quick passing of the laws.

Otherwise, many people will continue to die at the hands of people that own guns and are not fit. Doing a background check on an individual before they buy a gun will reduce the probability of a gun falling into wrong hands. Moreover, the ban of assault rifle sale will help in protecting the lives of many innocent Americans that would fall, victim, if an individual with an assault rifle runs berserk and opens fire randomly.

Furthermore, the appearance of children with President Obama as he announced the executive orders on gun violence is good because it will appeal to the urgency of passing the gun control laws to protect the innocent children and other citizens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The emotional appeal by the president to the lawmakers to remember the children that died at Sandy Hook Elementary may work by reminding them not to forget those innocent children who died because a gun was in the hands of a wrong individual.

He used emotional appeal and told the lawmakers to remember how the nation felt on that fateful day. He also told the citizens to continue talking and making their voices heard to the lawmakers so that they can pass the gun laws that are necessary to prevent more gun violence in America.

In conclusion, the use of emotions can help pass a political agenda and politicians should use every resource at their disposal to pass laws for the good of the people.

The passing of gun control laws is slow as the camp that opposes them works very hard to ensure they are not passed as they say that they will infringe on the rights of law-abiding citizens’ right to own a gun. However, if using emotionally charged events to pass the gun laws is what it will take I support the use because even if only one innocent death is prevented in the future it will be worth the effort.


Toyota Company’s Sustainable Product Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Toyota Australia produces high-quality vehicles and engines at the plant located in Altona. To improve the production process and respond to the principles of sustainability and environmental protection, it is necessary to implement the new technology to save the water used in the technological process.

The project is developed to demonstrate the advantages of the new water cycling technology with references to the specifics of the process and aspects of its successful implementation at the Altona plant. In 2011/2012, 355,611 kL of water was used at the plant with the minimal utilization of the recycled water (Toyota Australia Sustainability Report 2012).

The new water cycling technology allows the implementation of the non-waster process when 100% of recycled water are utilized in manufacturing. To implement the technology, the microfiltration system, several reverse osmosis systems, and the industrial storage tank is necessary.

To guarantee the space and costs savings, the location of the system should be determined. The practical value of the project’s development and implementation is in decreasing the costs, savings the water and energy resources, and protecting the environment.

Background Information Toyota Australia focuses on the sustainable production meeting the main concepts and ideas of the corporate social responsibility. Nevertheless, to improve the manufacturing process and contribute to the reduction of water resources usage, it is necessary to implement the new water cycling technology.

355,611 kg of water was used at the Altona plant in 2011/2012, and it is possible to operate this number as the average amount of water which will be saved with the usage of the new technology (Toyota Australia Sustainability Report 2012).

The implementation of production based on the 100% water cycling process is the effective strategy to save the company’s costs and operate according to the ideas of the organization’s corporate social responsibility while preserving the water and energy resources (Dissolved metals removal from wastewater 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The new technology is based on the pattern of the electric’s membrane separation method of recycling water used at the plants of Mitsubishi (Mitsubishi Electric: a practical water recycling solution 2013). The usage of the technology guarantees the 100% reuse of water with diminishing the environmental risks and increasing the company’s profits.

The wastewater treatment system allows the regulation of microfiltration the heavy metals removal process with minimal risks for the environment. It is necessary to use reverse osmosis technology in order to achieve higher results and control the water purity completely.

If the previously used systems contributed only to save 30% of all the water used in the technological process with its further recycling, now the other 70% will be saved with the help of the technology (Commercial water tanks 2013; Reverse Osmosis Unit 2010).

As a result, the technology meets the requirements of the company’s environmentally responsible strategy and meets the interests of the community, saving the water resources (Toyota Sustainability Report 2012).

The successful implementation of the new technology in the production process requires the effective and cooperative work of the whole organization’s structure.

The main focus is usually on the work of the engineering department, manufacturing department, information systems department, and distribution systems center which should work cooperatively to implement the new technology during the shortest period of time. The business initiative leads to the creation of the effective cooperative environment within the company oriented to the principles of social responsibility.

References Commercial water tanks 2013, viewed 16 April 2013, .

We will write a custom Essay on Toyota Company’s Sustainable Product specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dissolved metals removal from wastewater 2011, viewed 16 April 2013, .

Mitsubishi Electric: a practical water recycling solution 2013, viewed 16 April 2013, .

Reverse Osmosis Unit 2010, viewed 16 April 2013, .

Toyota Australia Sustainability Report 2012, viewed 16 April 2013, .

Toyota Sustainability Report 2012, viewed 16 April 2013, .


Economic Growth by David Weil Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Facts to be explained

A framework for analysis

Population and economic growth

Human capital

Facts to be explained In this introductory chapter, Weil discusses the aim of the book as well as the important questions that the book answers. The main aim of this chapter is to help the reader to acquaint himself or herself with the topics that the author discusses in the subsequent chapters of the book as well as get the basic flow of the authors works. This part is important, especially for someone with little or no prior knowledge of what development economics entails.

The chapter introduces topics such as the reasons why some countries are richer or poorer than others are. According to the author, this aspect depends on several concepts. For instance, he explains that wealth is a relative term that is definable in various ways. Wealth can be explained from various perspectives including the population point of view, a country’s gross domestic product (GDP), and the military ability.

A country can rank high if the factor under consideration is the gross domestic product and rank lower in the event that the factor in consideration changes to military ability. The author gives an illustration of data from the year 2005 where the United States ranks as the top country out of eleven countries chosen in terms of their GDP. When the variable changes to population, China takes the lead instead.

Weil also states that the difference in the level of income among countries is a factor that contributes greatly as one of the reasons why some countries are richer than others, which he attributes to various reasons. One such reason is the historical factors present in a given country.

Countries that had higher economic growth during the years that followed the Second World War mostly retained this growth, thus ranking better than those that did poorly during the same period. This observation makes sense for the developmental changes that took place during that specific period were different for different countries.

However, some countries such as Japan and other countries that were poor and experienced drastic developmental changes also moved up a few ranks higher than other countries that were previously at the same level.

Another factor the author explains in a more in-depth manner in the book is the method of the comparison made in the determination of the level of economic growth. He states that there is a considerable difference when the basis of determination of economic growth is the total gross domestic product as opposed to a scenario where the determinant factor is the gross domestic product per capita.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main difference between these two is that the GDP per capita is the gross domestic income calculated yearly. The Total GDP is calculated cumulatively over the determinant period, which is usually more than a year, but sometimes less. The difference in the rate of income growth among countries also plays a significant role in the determination of why countries are richer than others are.

For instance, although the economic growth of the United States was slower during the recession, it was still higher than India’s economic growth during a boom. Various factors determine such difference in growth rates that the author explains in subsequent chapters of the book.

When working with growth rates, Weil suggests that using data from recent decades is a good way of doing it. He gives examples of comparisons done between the growth rates of several countries before the year 1820 and those from subsequent years, after 1820.

A framework for analysis This chapter underscores the importance of data analysis in the determination of economic growth as well as the determination of various other factors that contribute to economic growth. Weil indicates that data assist in the accurate determination of variables that affect economic growth and thus aids in the formation of appropriate economic policies, both in microeconomics and macroeconomics.

To start with, he gives a parable of two states, viz. Sylvania and Freedonia. Freedonia produces 36,000 bags of potatoes and 18,000 bags of tea. In contrast, its neighbor, Sylvania, produces 18,000 bags of potatoes and 36,000 bags of potatoes for its consumption. The question that the author poses is what both states would have if Freedonia traded its Potatoes to Sylvania and Sylvania traded all its tea to Freedonia.

The answer is that Freedonia would have 36,000 bags of tea as well as potatoes and Sylvania would have the same. The part that makes it a parable is the fact that each state would seem to have an extra 18,000 bags of either tea or potatoes that do not participate in the trade. In explaining this, the author makes it clear that there needs to be an amount left for consumption and trade within each country.

In practice, this parable is applicable to choices that countries have to make in determining what to produce and trade in the endeavor to grow their economies. He goes further to explain that the best choice for both countries would be to focus on what they produce most and sell it. That way, the two countries benefit without the danger of ending up with more than they need. The aim of this move is to reduce the input and maximize the output.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Growth by David Weil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weil also expounds the importance of data in the creation of accurately efficient policies by using two examples of data processing methods, viz. scatter plots and correlations, and randomized controlled trials. Scatter plots are large bodies of data that resemble regular line graphs in their format. They show how different variables relate to each other and the effect that one variable can have to another.

The way each variable relates to the other is via correlation. The closer the data points come to making a straight line, the higher the correlation meaning that both variables have a big effect on each other. This aspect is helpful in the determination of what variables to keep constant and the ones to adjust. The variables can be any aspect of the economy from population to unemployment.

Randomized controlled trials usually occur in medical research. They involve the random experimentation of various forms of treatment on groups of individuals with exactly the same qualifications and in the same conditions. Control groups are groups of individuals used in experiments.

A comparison between these two methods reveals that although they are both effective, the randomized controlled trials seem more speculative, while the scatter plots are more factual and specific. The randomized controlled trials also generally take longer that the scatter plots in data analysis.

Weil adds that data collected in the past is usable in the present by assessing it for patterns, which makes it easier to make decisions that impart a sense of urgency. For instance, data collected during the great depression could have been usable in evaluating the economic crisis that occurred in 2007/2008.

Population and economic growth The population of a country has an important role to play in the economic growth of a country. In this chapter, Weil explains the connection between population and economic growth. He explains how the rate of growth of the population affects economic growth. He also explores some of the factors that affect population growth and how they result in a variation in the growth of the economy.

There is no clear way of establishing whether growth in population leads to a growth in the economy or not. For this reason, various quantitative methods have been set up over the years to be in a position to bring a sense of predictability to the situation. This move is mainly for the purposes of policy making by governments. The author explains two different modules, viz. the Malthusian model and the Solow model.

The Solow module was the earliest attempt to try to model long-term economic growth in an analytical manner. The module was the work of Robert Solow and Trevor swan. The model mainly exhibits the connection between several factors namely capital goods, labor, investment, and the resultant output.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Growth by David Weil by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In essence, higher population growth would cause a dilution in the applicable capital input. The model is a series of equations that the two scholars first used in the 1950s. However, when using it, Weil advises that it is best to use data as recent as possible in order to achieve desirable results.

The Malthusian Model was developed during the industrial revolution era, after World War 2. It worked on the premise that technological growth led to a growth in the population. However, other factors such as food supply and the availability of other resources balanced this growth. These factors had the effect of reducing per capita income. The result was a stagnation that was eventually broken by the industrial revolution.

Innovations that formed the basis of the industrial revolution had the effect of increasing the economic growth way above population growth. The input was much less than the output thus creating favorable conditions for economic growth. Weil also explains population growth by looking at the factors that contribute to its growth namely fertility and mortality rates.

The mortality rate is a calculation of the life expectancy of a given population. A high mortality rate means that the life expectancy is low, and vice versa. Usually, this factor is calculated using the number of births put against the number of deaths that occur in a population. The result is an expression of the number of years on average that a person should expect to live.

Low mortality rates mean that on average, every person has high chances of living longer. This aspect also means fewer deaths hence a higher growth in population. The author also infers that higher economic growth results in lower fertility for many people choose to work as opposed to giving birth and taking care of children.

This aspect is a matter of quality against quantity. Although the situation leads to the birth of fewer children, the children get better quality lives. These children tend to get a better education and do better in the labor market, thus causing an increase in economic growth. Fewer children mean a decrease in human capital (in the form of education and healthcare services) and a better output due to quality education, thus growth in the economy.

Technology also plays a vital part as far as fertility is concerned. The development of various birth control options leads to a variety of options for women of childbearing age in a given population to choose. It also gives them control over the time they want to have children.

As a result, a country may experience higher population growth in some years and lower growth in others. The result of this scenario is an erratic system that makes it hard to estimate the rate of population growth and consequently the economic growth rate. The government thus has to collect independent data every year in order to make calculations on such estimates.

Human capital The author explains human capital to be the input that the government has to apply to improve the quality of the people that contribute to the economy, which is, in essence, the entire population. The government has to invest in the betterment of the population to obtain the best in terms of labor and consequently the best quality output over the result.

In this chapter, Weil gives some of the forms of human capital that governments invest in during their operations. Health is one of the forms that he mentions as crucial investments for the government. He explains that a healthier work force is more likely to give a better output and grow the economy because people will not spend the precious working time visiting healthcare facilities or lying on beds back at home due to sicknesses.

Countries with poor healthcare may have large workforces but produce little output, and as Weil explains, this assertion holds for a quality labor force produces quality output that is larger in quantity. For example, India’s population is one of the largest populations across the world, which means that compared to the United States, it has a greater work force.

However, due to the state of healthcare, the workforce in India is of inferior quality as compared to that in the United States. The result is that the output in the United States is greater and thus the economic growth is higher.

Another form of human capital that the author mentions is education. He gives a description of the effect that education has on economic growth. According to Weil, the better quality in education has the effect of raising the level of economic growth for it improves the quality of labor available in the country. He adds that human capital in the form of education costs less in comparison to the lack of such an investment.

Any excess in the good quality labor force is also advantageous to the country as the excess labor force is easy to export when it is of good quality.

Therefore, even though in some instances high populations seem to lower economic growth by causing a high input-low output situation (like the example of India given earlier), this scenario is reversible by looking at the high population in terms of a trade commodity. The country can export excess labor as a means of increasing the gross domestic product and consequently the level of economic growth.