An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Employee Turnover And Work Satisfaction, Case Study: Jin Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai Scholarship Essay Help

Literature review Jin Jiang Tower Hotel enjoys high prestige among the plush hotels in Shanghai, China. It is one of the five-star luxury hotels in Shanghai set out by gardens and European-style buildings. The hotel is unique in that it is attempting to offer the western lifestyle and prestige to both international and local visitors.

Being one of the largest and most popular hotels, it receives visitors from around the world and throughout the year. Therefore, retaining its large workforce in a changing organization is a strategic issue to the hotel.

The relationship between work satisfaction and employee turnover is an issues that is directly related to the capacity of the hotel to retain the right workforce. However, there is lack of a universal agreement among researchers regarding the relationship. It appears to apply in some cultural contexts and not others.

This conflict justifies the interest in investigating the causes of work satisfactions on employee turnover of workers at Jin Jiang Tower Hotel. Indeed, not a single research has investigated this relationship in a Chinese environment that has adopted the western culture.

For many years, both researchers and business people have realized that employee retention after hiring is important for the success of businesses (Tsai, Cheng


Marketing Plan for “W Hotels” (Starwood Chain) Term Paper college admissions essay help

Marketing Strategies 1. To increase the current occupancy rate for week days by 10% and for weekend by 15% within the next year by marketing the 5 star qualities of the accommodations facilities. The hotel will renovate and expensively furnish all the luxury suites in the hotel to deliver an expensive taste.

It will provide a golf course and a state of the art spa in exclusive setting ideal for romance and parties. The hotel will train its staff to give them the capacity to deal with emerging customer requirements by anticipating them and providing them in an efficient and professional manner. The aim will be to create a W hotel experience that will make customers return to the hotel again.

2. To facilitate smooth arrivals from the Airport and essential facilities for executive business travelers. The hotels will provide a dedicated 24 hours chauffeured transport shuttle service from the airport to the hotel. The chauffeured service will be available to guests who request the service in advance when booking.

The drivers will deliver the guests to the front desk where they shall be received and directed to their luxury suites. The hotel will install high-speed wireless internet which will be available 24 hours a day with advanced conferencing and group calling features.

3. Target Markets. The W hotels will target luxury travelers from all over the world who want the very best money can buy.

This is a market segment that is not concerned with the price but rather with the quality of the service and products. It will offer exclusive services to create an individual experience to the guests which will enable them to jet in and relax for a few days with a guaranteed experience to remember.

The business travelers will be the next target. High speed internet and state of the art conference rooms equipped with video calling and group calling features will be available for their use. A dedicated high quality system will be maintained and serviced to the highest quality possible for a smoother and better experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The investment on free facilities will bring high returns because the guest will also use other facilities and services provided by the hotels providing a diverse source of revenue throughout the year (Baines et al., 2005).

The luxury accommodation industry is unaffected by economic recessions because the clientele are high end users with money to spend.Hence a guaranteed revenue all year round for the W hotels.(Kiessling, Balekjian


Lean Techniques and Tools Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

1. The goal of lean is to add value to the flow process of manufacturing. This is by adding value to the services and products created, through a continuous process. Ideally, the focus of this process is to eliminate non-value processes like downtime, inspection, re-work, and waiting.

Therefore, lean manufacturing uses lean tools to reduce activities, conditions, and behaviors that create waste in a production process. Through these lean tools, manufacturing can gain the advantage of short lead-time, less cost of storage, and less handling.

2. Lean tools and techniques increase quality management, by cutting back the cost of production, increasing the speed of assembly, improving quality of products, and thereby making a company to remain competitive.

Moreover, lean thinking allows managers to enhance company performance, save on money, and reduce wastage of time and resources. Since, lean thinking focuses on reduction of all forms of waste in an organization, effective quality management that focuses on lean techniques are able to set goals to reduce waste.

3. The kaizen concept is the building of quality services and goods and the satisfaction of consumer needs. Towards this, the concept encourages employees to be involved in the “development and implementation of improvements to systems” that affect them (Summers 358).

The concept is involved with the continuous effort to improve services and products, and reduce waste, thereby supporting quality management. This is through flow kaizen, which deals with the improvement of value stream, or process kaizen that focuses on elimination of waste.

4. “Value stream process mapping” focuses on what is vital to the consumer, makes the production process clear, identifies sources of waste, and eliminates the non-value added activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through this process map, the manufacturer can identify the value desired by client, link the desire with the appropriate process value stream, and resources through a walk-through. The purpose of the process map is to understand the information and material flow.

5. Kanban cards are identifiers found in an inventory system either in a computerized system or in a traditional filing system. The cards follow a product through the various stages of production, and include information like; name, number, instructions, date of creation, due date, and pertinent information, thereby keeping track of inventory.

6. Predictive and preventive maintenance provides production with effective and reliable equipment, through value added activities. Value added activities reduce equipment time, by reducing setup losses, idling, equipment disasters, breakdowns, unscheduled machine downtime, and unplanned downtime.

This is because, these maintenance techniques identify that equipment failure is another source of waste in a production process.

7. The production of goods in smaller batch sizes leads to short lead-times. Short-lead times occur between the production of raw materials and the moment the consumer receives the finished goods (Summers 371).

Consequently, short lead-times lead to increased number of inventory and continuous flow in production for each item. Smaller batch sizes also imply that pull systems or Kanban work well, by easily revealing problems in production.

8. Takt time refers to “how often a single part should be produced, and provides the starting point for the line balancing” (Summers 372). Takt time is “available working time per day” over “costumer demand rate per day” (Summers 373).

We will write a custom Assessment on Lean Techniques and Tools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a measure employed in the synchronization of the pace of production to the consumers’ demands. For companies to get the most effective balance line of production, they ensure that no production time is running faster than takt time.

Works Cited Summers, C. Donna. Quality Management. 2nd ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.


Thoughts on Educational Philosophy Essay online essay help

Introduction Philosophy of education is an academic field that is involved with the application of philosophies in order to define as well as explain goals and meaning of education (Noddings, 1995). It is imperative to note that education has its own challenges, goals and related theories. In this case, philosophy of education involves the study of educational process, aims, forms and methodologies of study. This field highly focuses on the process of educating individuals in various fields.

Research has revealed that philosophy of education also focuses on how learning takes place (Schunk, 1996). In addition, it exposes the theories involved in learning and the practice of teaching. Moreover, the discipline legitimizes and exposes the limits of certain educational practices and theories (Schunk, 1996). Notably, different people have various thoughts on education, the concepts of learning and truth.

It is against this scope that this paper intends to explore the meaning of truth, how it is taught and the theoretical basis of learning and teaching. Additionally, the paper will also elaborate the process of learning and effective teaching and learning strategies that can be adopted in a classroom environment. Moreover, it will also shed light on the role of schools and teachers in a multicultural society besides the integration of personal faith in philosophy of education and how it manifests itself in teaching.

What is truth?

Studies have shown that truth is one of the central aspects in philosophy (Groff, 2000). Nevertheless, the concept has various meanings. For instance, truth can be defined as the state of being in accord with reality. Moreover, the concept can also be used to mean sincerity of the matter or action (Groff, 2000).

Explain why what a person believes about truth is important

It is notable that a person believes that truth is important since it helps in understanding and accepting reality. In this case, truth helps an individual to overcome falsehood (Groff, 2000). As a matter of fact, it enables a person to work towards a particular target in accordance to reality. It is also worth noting that truth has a unifying effect since it solidifies the actual essence of reality.

What should be taught and how should it be taught?

Truth is all about reality and thus individuals should be taught about it right from childhood age (Schunk, 1996). Quite a number of persons have problems coping with reality which can only be learnt through experiences. In this case, truth should be taught in all aspects of life through formal, non-formal and informal education systems.

For instance, individuals should be taught about reality in vocational and non-vocational settings. This can be done through the use of mentors, teachers, counselors and guardians (Groff, 2000). The latter category of individuals is quite instrumental in the process of teaching.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is the theoretical basis of your personal philosophy of learning and teaching? Describe this theory or theories, including the individuals associated with these theories

In terms of John Locke’s idea on learning; I strongly believe that learning and teaching are active and two-way processes that take place between the learner and teacher. Theoretically, it is evident that learning and teaching have two phases namely sociological and psychological (Noddings, 1995).

In line with this, there are theories that can be used to support this fact. For example, we have philosophy-based and psychology-based theories that explain how learning and teaching take place. Notably, theorists have emerged in the past to explain how the process of learning takes place.

As a result, different viewpoints have been presented. Needless to say, these viewpoints have been used to explain how education and learning processes occur. It is vital to point out that the philosophy-based theory of learning was spearheaded by early philosophers and scholars such as Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato (Schunk, 1996). In this case, they argue that effective learning occurs in tandem with the desired outcomes.

Therefore, these philosophers debated on why and how people learn and eventually concluded that the desired outcomes shape both the nature and process of teaching and learning. The ancient scholars perceived learning as a training of the mind in order to make new discoveries (Frank, 2005).

Nevertheless, there are scholars who appreciate learning as vocational training through apprentice method. In this case, it is arguable that vocational training encourages inherent learning that is characterized by inquiry, reflection and discourse (Locke, 1996).

On the other hand, psychology-based theory of learning emerged in the 19th century and it is all about the scientific study of learning. Notably, scholars who proposed this theory included Descartes, Thorndike, Skinner and Kant (Schunk, 1996). Research has revealed that these scholars were influenced by the studies of Darwin.

The theorists studied how people learn and also attempted to explain the best teaching strategies. Notably, the theory addresses how a human mind is influenced by psychological and behavioral mechanisms, a factor that makes one to construct knowledge depending on stimulus derived from the environment through senses (Schunk, 1996).

We will write a custom Essay on Thoughts on Educational Philosophy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These theories derived a scientific approach to explain how the human mind develops mental connection with positive stimuli in the environment. In this case, they argue that learning occurs due to association of impression from senses with impulse action. The latter may occur either consciously or subconsciously.

How do you believe learning occurs? Describe the learning process

There are numerous processes through which learning can occur. Therefore, it is imperative to note that though quite a number of theories have emerged to explain how learning occurs, there are those that appear more precise than others (Noddings, 1995). In this respect, John Locke’s theory of learning is apparently explaining how learning occurs more effectively.

By adopting his idea, I believe that the human mind at childhood is like a blank slate or tabula rasa bearing in mind that there is nothing recorded in it. In regards to how learning occurs, experiences encountered from childhood to adulthood shape human minds (Locke, 1996).

As a matter of fact, the human mind gathers information, skills and knowledge through experiences. This enables the learner to create more complex ideas (Gutek, 2009). It is also imperative to note that education system is structured in a manner that it will provide adequate experiences to learners depending on the discipline of study.

How does this understanding of learning affect your teaching?

This understanding affects my teaching positively since I will be able to enrich learning environment with necessary resources to facilitate effective acquisition of knowledge. In my position as a teacher, I will be able to employ numerous teaching strategies in classroom in order to shape the minds of learners effectively.

Notably, this approach will also enables me to apply good moral standards since learners are likely to copy from what they encounter. Therefore, in case they observe negative aspects in classroom; they are likely to portray the same in future. Additionally, this will also help me to present the much needed information, knowledge and skills that are updated to learners. It will further ensure that they get the best form of knowledge through firsthand experience.

In line with the aforementioned elements, enhanced understanding will also affect my strategies for teaching bearing in mind that I will transform my delivery strategy from teacher-centered to learner-oriented.

In this case, my lessons will be directed to the learners in order to give them room for exploration. Consequently, the learner will be able to gather knowledge and skills from the environment. Nevertheless, it is also vital to mention that knowledge and information should be presented to the learner before experiencing the real situation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Thoughts on Educational Philosophy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What teaching and assessment strategies do you believe are effective, based upon how you believe students learn?

Empirical research studies have revealed that learning is an active process that involves both a teacher and learner. Since learners gain a lot from experience, it is essential to use numerous teaching strategies to ensure that they participate actively in classroom (Frank, 2005).

For instance, other than just using lecture method, it is important to make the process of learning to be learner-centered. Needless to say, the teacher should give learners assignments to do on their own. In line with this, group work and projects assist learners to cooperate and remain active in finding out new sources of knowledge on their own.

In terms of the above perspective, the teacher should also allocate variety of teaching materials in classroom such as books, objects and reference materials (Frank, 2005). Besides, it is essential for a teacher to employ effective assessment methods to identify how learners progress in classroom.

For instance, one of the effective assessment methods is through keen observation of learners in order to study their level of motivation and attitude toward specific concepts. For instance, according to behavioral theorists, one can be able to understand and assess learners’ ability by observing their behavioral patterns. Another effective method of assessment may entails posing questions in classroom to evaluate learners’ ability to understand and comprehend concepts that have been taught (Frank, 2005).

What is the role of the school in a multicultural society?

It is definite that school is a social institution that plays crucial role in society (Frank, 2005). It is also imperative to note that society uses the institution of school as a tool which assists children in gaining skills, knowledge, values as well as etiquettes related to life. In this regard, a school fosters socio-cultural development in the sense that it prepares learners to become reliable individuals in future.

Notably, learners who come from a multicultural society are bound under one culture at school (Smith, 2009). For instance, every school has a syllabus that is being used to guide and educate learners. Therefore, it is arguable that a school is an institution that fosters oneness in society regardless of the prevailing cultural differences.

That notwithstanding, a school establishes balance in multicultural society by enabling learners from different cultures to explore, learn, discover, create and construct new ideas from the experiences gained through education (Smith, 2009).

What is the role of a teacher in multicultural classrooms?

From a careful review of literature, it is evident that a teacher plays a crucial role in enhancing harmony and effective learning in a multicultural classroom (Frank, 2005).

For instance, a teacher often acts as a decision maker in classroom by ensures that all the activities being done in classroom are geared towards attaining major values in society such as harmony, integration and equal participation in classroom regardless of learners’ individual differences (Smith, 2009).

In addition, a teacher acts as a planner in classroom. As part and parcel of the teaching responsibility, a teacher allocates resources to learners and organizes how learning will take place (Frank, 2005). In line with this, a teacher also plays the role of a craftsman. This involves a case whereby he or she assists learners to acquire skills and attain knowledge related to life through demonstration, asking questions, motivating and guiding learners in a classroom set up.

How is your personal faith integrated into this philosophy of education? How does your faith manifest itself in your teaching?

It is essential to note that religion plays a key role in philosophy of education and hence it is an indispensable aspect in learning. Additionally, personal faith helps to instill morals and values in the learning process. Therefore, it is definite that my personal faith is very much integrated in the philosophy of education and is also manifested in various methods of teaching.

For instance, when interacting with learners, I guide them on how to apply moral virtues such as obedience and honesty in classroom. By so doing, it helps them to adhere to instructions and rules and eventually prepares their minds in readiness to learn.

References Frank, C. (2005). Teaching and Learning Theory: Who Needs It? College Quarterly, 8(2), 1-12.

Groff, R. (2000). the truth of the matter: Roy Bhaskar’s critical realism and the concept of alethic truth. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 30(3), 407-435.

Gutek, L. (2009). New Perspectives on Philosophy and Education. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Locke, J. (1996). Some Thoughts Concerning Education and Of the Conduct of the Understanding. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co, Inc.

Noddings, N. (1995). Philosophy of Education. New York: West view Press.

Schunk, H. (1996). Learning theories. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Smith, E. (2009). Approaches to Multicultural Education in Pre-service Teacher Education: Philosophical Frameworks and Models for Teaching. Multicultural Education, 16(3), 45-50.


Ratatouille 2007: Animation Accent Essay college essay help: college essay help

Disney animated films attach different accents to different characters. It remains a wonder then whether the use of various accents represents different levels of characters in these films. The question remains as to whether there is a systematic way within which accents are used to come up with different character traits?

Given that Disney animated films is an American company, the most common accent that is likely to be used is GA or General American. This accent is likely to be attributed to good characters, on the other hand English with a foreign accent and/ or RP i.e.

Received Pronunciation represents the accents that are likely to be attributed to less favorable characters. Other than looking at how accent has been used in Ratatouille to portray different stereotypical kinds of characters, this article will also look at how this compares with Rosina Lippi-Green’s work, “Teaching Children How to Discriminate”.

The assumption that social pressures to conform with stipulated modes of behavior, lifestyle and prevailing culture has had its fare share of determining how Disney use accents in its animated films cannot be far from the truth. The issue of ethnicity is reflected by allocating an accent to a character inline with his or her perceived ethnic background.

The setting of the movie also determines the accent to be allocated to characters. If the setting is in a place where use of GA is unlikely, then RP is used instead. Use of accents in animated films can help reveal societal norms by showing what accents are preferred to others.

Through the use of accents as an artistic device, the movie audience can easily infer the various characters background, intelligence, social status, race or ethnicity among other traits. Thus, accents in movies reveal stereotypes attached to different people at any given one time.

The use of accents in animated movies can be used as a way of promoting standard language ideology to children. This is easily achieved when there is a direct correlation between the character and the accent. Since animated movies are intended for children, stereotypical features are clearly defined and there is certainly no need of second guessing.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ratatouille is an animated film for children despite the fact that it has so many story strands that are related to adults. The characters in the movie use strong French accent that is quite difficult for children to figure out what is being said.

The title of the movie is derived from a French soup not to mention that it is ironical in how it sounds as the co starring in the movie is a rat named Remy who forges an alliance with Linguini the talentless chef who is about to be fired. Linguini tells Remy”Let’s think this out, you know how to cook, and I know how to…. appear human…” Remy is guided by an apparition of Auguste Gusteau that helps him to intervene through Linguini when a soup that has been tampered with is about to be served in Gusteaus’s restaurant.

Through Remy’s genius, the savor of the soup is improved and it attracts accolade that saves Linguini’s job who gets promoted instead of being fired.

Ratatouille is set in Paris, France and the dominant accent is French which suits the setting, however, the protagonist speaks GA, for instance when asking Remy a question “.Uh, whatto I do after the onions?” Therefore, a question arises as to whether the use of language is biased towards spreading a standard language ideology towards children.

The question can be best answered by noting how all chefs are denoted to speak French-accented English. Lippi-Green noted that in all French films, the prototypical French who are truly French are the characters concerned with food preparation.

This means that the setting of the movie is not the issue in allocation of French-accented English; rather, this accent is used stereotypically to represent characters that are truly French. The hero is depicted as a male and his aide a lady, chef Collette who speaks French-accented English.

She is depicted as being kind and less sophisticated i.e. when she says “What is this? Keep….your… station clear! , I’ll make this easy to remember, Keep your station clear…. or I will kill you!” Anton Ego the villain who criticizes food made by Linguini speaks French-accented English and his looks are those of an evil person.

We will write a custom Essay on Ratatouille 2007: Animation Accent specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this film, the three rats namely Remy, his brother and father and Linguini speaks GA while most of the characters speak English with French accent.

The movie setting naturally makes as presume that the characters should all speak French accented English even if they are animals, also, Linguini a human should not speak GA as he is in France and his name which means pasta does not indicate that he is an American in any way in any case he is all French just like the rest of the characters.

This bias shows that accent has been used as an artistic device to make Linguini stand out as the ideal hero. By selecting GA as the ideal accent for the protagonist, all that Disney is doing is try and conform to the expectations of the audience.

This indicates people’s attitudes towards some accents. If the hero should speak some other accent other than the GA, the audience could deem that to be improper and they could easily react negatively since such a trend is simply not right.

In Lipi Greens article “Teaching children how to discriminate”, she argues that characters in Disney films are used to teach children how to discriminate through the use of different accents. In her book, she notes that French accents are manipulated with the aim of portraying a positive stereotype but the outcome of results can be quite the opposite.

She also observed how gender is used in Disney films. Sounding white was portrayed as the best way to be desirable. Children are made to believe that the ideal male characters that are on the lookout for female companionship are those that speak United States English (Lippi-Green, 1990, 87).

In this book which looks at how Disney perpetuates stereotypes and discrimination towards gender, ethnicity, nationality etc, Lipi Green observes how French accent is manipulated to associate French characters with food and as being teasing. The name of the protagonist Linguini means pasta and name Collette means victory for the people.

Through such manipulations, children learn to associate the learned stereotypes with the French culture and nothing less. This means that despite Disney’s good intentions, the overall effect can be that of limiting children’s view of the actual nature of French people. Lipi Green cautions that Disney producers should not misuse accent to negatively stereotype people as most animated movies are watched by children.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ratatouille 2007: Animation Accent by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Lippi-Green, Rosina. Teaching Children How to Discriminate. Hampton: Hampton Bluebell, 1990. Print.


Organization behavior – Consumer decision-making is a process Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The consumer decision-making process

Need recognition – Motivation

Information search- perception

Alternative evaluation – Attitude

Purchase decision- Integration

Post purchase evaluation- satisfaction



Introduction Marketers all over the world rely upon their understanding of the consumer decision-making process to be successful in their day-to-day practices. Consumer behaviour captures all the activities of consumers that range from searching of the suitable products or services, their utility, all the way to the disposal of such products or services. Different scholars have developed models, strategies and theories that seek to clarify the consumer decision-making process.

Marketers rely upon the knowledge of this process in their identification of the most effective points of entry to influence the choices and decisions made by the various consumers to their advantage (Bettman et al. 1998, p.195). Since it is common knowledge that the consumer decision-making is a series of steps that constitute the whole process, the knowledge of what comprises each of the steps, as presented by the different models, is vital for any marketer seeking to be successful in marketing either products or services.

The marketer takes the responsibility of a guide to the consumer. Therefore, he/ she should be able to provide a good share of information about the effect of the decision that the consumer makes (Bilkey 2010, p. 20).

Successful dissemination of correct information about the important attributes of a given product, as well as its advantages in comparison to those offered by the competitors, is important in making sales and maintaining a clientele base. This paper aims at analysing the consumer decision-making process determining why it is necessary for marketers to understand the process in details to secure sales and maintain a satisfied client base.

The consumer decision-making process There are a number of models put in place by marketers to explain the consumers’ decision-making process. The most common model is an adaption of the scientific method, which comprises of five basic steps.

For the purposes of marketing, research, as well as understanding the buying patterns of different consumer segments, it is important for marketers to understand what each of the steps contain, which leads into each other (Doney,


The Questions Concerning Technology Expository Essay best essay help

Introduction Technology is an issue which Heidegger resolves to question in his article, The Question Concerning Technology. In doing this, Heidegger reminds humans to reflect on movement of thought that happens in any perplexed questioning more than the mere words that form part of the questioning. This will ensure that the context of questioning is heard and determined.

Heidegger explores an array of claims that prima facie, produces weird outcomes that hold humans, entirely making them unaware. Consequently, he explores the essence of technology in itself is not technological. Thus, this drives him to examine technology, and more fundamentally, the essence of technology.

Discussion Heidegger does not restrict certain qualms as a result of rapid expansion of technology, and with the connected speed with which the global network of technical tools are breaking up distance and condensing the once immense, mystifying and obstinate earth to a more controllable global village. However, Heidegger is dismayed to see parishes and communities being substituted by a global culture and global Gemeinschaff; for example, he cites the parish pumps politics as a remnant of the past (Kaplan 9).

Philosophical Thinking of Technology

Heidegger claims that it is not a surprise to humans that anything which is often taken for granted will become a significant basis of alarm; that is, what seems to be self-evident or unproblematic is a sache. Heidegger poises after insistent zeal.

In this context, Heidegger claims a series of conventional methods where technology is less or more harnessed to be exhaustively understood. Though, these seem ways of understanding technology, Heidegger cites some flaws on them and suggests other shortcomings such as; they fail to capture or touch on what he views as the essence of technology.

Heidegger demonstrates his mature philosophical jargon claiming his thinking is by finding a way he wishes. This is by using the unterwegs language (Kaplan 38). Heidegger explores the question concerning technology by embracing the term extraordinary. This is the thinking line in which he augments his thinking.

However, why is Heidegger using ‘extra-ordinary’ when describing technology? Heidegger wants to relay traditional approach and most endemic of human impulses, that is, the desire to question after things and to satisfy human curiosity. In a nutshell, Heidegger uses this term as a philosophical impulse to erase doubts, or interrogates the actions of what human ordinarily assume as the explanation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perhaps, Heidegger sees that humans merely amass knowledge in relation to something in which they have no prior information. By using adjectives, Heidegger provides humans with a hint to reflect.

Since humans tend to accomplish something which at one level is ordinary but another level subverts much of what they view as ordinary, thus this leads them to the “extra-ordinary” or extra-mundane. Heidegger likens the extra -ordinary actions to the old records as those encompassed in the occident of human deliberation confronting the world in which they found themselves.

Essence of Technology

In questioning technology, Heidegger develops a free relationship with it. He alleges that this relationship is free when it establishes an essence of human existence. Besides, he alleges that technology should not be mistaken as the one already meaning the essence; the essence of something is not the same thing in itself (Kaplan 56).

Heidegger offers an example of a tree to illustrate the essence of technology. He shows that in thinking of the essence of trees, what pervades every tree cannot counter all other trees among them. Hence, this is similar to technology: the essence of technology is by no means anything technological (Kaplan 10).

Heidegger claims that any disposition in regard to technology is either deceptive or inadequate. However, the inadequacy of all delusions is to embrace technology as neutral because this conception, in the present society, humans embrace homage and forget the essence of technology (Kaplan 11).

Heidegger demonstrates that humans generally believe and apprehend the essence of something by being self conscious and adhering to or retaining initial encounter from the onset. Heidegger poses the question: ‘what is it?’ This perhaps proves to be the question of all questions. Heidegger attempts to explore the question by explaining technology a means to an end, and it is a human tool.

The answers he gives seems intrinsic to each other as they illustrate the notion that technology is a tool under human disposal and it prefigures the conviction of facilitating various ends on which humans envisage or have designs. He explains that technological tools possess an equipmental directionality which is intrinsic in the manner humans envisage them. Further, these tools deliver a hand character of human quotidian world, helping them to do perfunctory tasks and routine movements.

We will write a custom Essay on The Questions Concerning Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Anthropological and instrumental view of technology

In response to the question ‘What is technology?’ Heidegger seems to exhaust blend anthropological and instrumental definitions of the concept. In his explanation Heidegger illustrates that technology is instrumental. This is because humans use different tools to advance objectives and remove all challenges (Kaplan 27). He further illustrates that it is not less than an anthropological term, because the technology denotes a network of equipments and tools at humans’ disposal and as such, it signifies a human activity in a broader sense (Kaplan 23).

These descriptions are fitting. However, Heidegger insists that they are fairly correct. The correctness of the instrumental definition of technology is more correct as to agitate humans to carefully asses it. The instrumental definition serves to obscure more than it reveals. It erases the differences that are fundamental under leveling perception of what is basically constitutive.

Heidegger claims that the difference created is the inequality between the old apparatus, conveniences of primitive handiwork and the products of modern technological age. He cites airplanes radar stations and hydroelectric plants provides “means” to “multiple” ends in this context. Heidegger obliges that they hardly guarantee pervasive assurance as they are different in the degree rather than kind from ‘the older handiwork technology” (Kaplan 15).

Heidegger alleges that in embracing modern technology as a means to an end, humans are cheated into false assumptions that it is something they can bring under their control and master as it supports their efforts to accomplish certain ends (Kaplan 16). However, this is not the case; there is possibility that technology is not something that is not of human being design and control.

Although this seems contradictory, Heidegger explains that the notion might appear to be consistent as the technology entails securing various ends through means and that it does not necessarily entail that human control or master it. The definition is fitting; however, it is not the ‘round, unvarnished,’ truth of technology (Kaplan 18).

Technology and associated devices involve human activities and is tailored to accomplish or facilitate various human desires and needs by providing means to securing both. Hence, to achieve this goal, it involves all human activities.

Heidegger implies that the implication of anthropological definition must encompass instrumental definition of technology because all human actions seem to be of the sake of something, that is, they are teleogically tilted (Kaplan 20). Hence, the prospect of tangible and controllable field of inquest lies with the concealment within the instrumental definition of technology.

Modern Technology

Heidegger suggests that modern technology is not a creation of human action established out of the autonomous. Thus, humans are accountable when it comes to the issues that manifests in technological activities leading to the “call of un-concealment” (Kaplan 58). Hence, any human action at any time in human history does not exist in a vacuum of a sham sense of sovereignty but involves human beings being directed into the unconcealed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Questions Concerning Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The un-concealment of the un-concealed has come to pass whenever it calls man forth into methods of revealing what allotted to him (Kaplan 59). Thus, if human accept this, they are obliged to view any modern activity which they would associate with present technological doings such as observing, investigating, among others that perhaps, ensnare nature as an area of its own conceiving (Kaplan 60).

Conclusion In His article, Heidegger demonstrates that technology is not the criticism of another intellectual Luddite. Heidegger, rather, shuns the lure of demonizing technology and propagates a more ominous myth. He opts to reflect on the issue and trail a contour of questioning until he understands what holds to be the source of this notion.

Heidegger views that the notion, which is omnipresent and common in everything a human being do and say, merits Sein itself; thus, it enjoys the illustrious and unmerited standing of self-evidence.

Works Cited Kaplan, David M. Readings in the Philosophy of Technology. Maryland: Rowman


Rationale Investment Portfolio Report essay help online free: essay help online free

The investment objective of this portfolio is to selectively invest in well established companies that show signs of growth within the next few years. Not only that, this investment portfolio will also invest in companies that have experienced slumps as of late due to their current market environment but do show significant potential in growing out of their current unfortunate circumstances.

Name of Company Symbol Amount of Shares Price Amount Invested Convergys CVG 652 $13.80 $9,000 Rationale behind Investment

Investing $9,000 into the Convergys (CVG) stock is based on three factors:

A relatively stable stock price that has not experienced significant dips within the past 3 years and has only dipped once to a quarter of its share price as a direct result of the 2008 financial crisis.

The company’s revenue stream is significantly bolstered by its call center facilities located in India and the Philippines

Lastly, various U.S. and European based corporation have increasingly sought to outsource various aspects of their operations to third-party operators (like Convergys) in order to reduce the cost of doing business.

It is a combination of these factors that has resulted in the company’s stock price hovering just between $10 to $15 dollars and remained at this constant interval for the past 3 years.

Other factors have also contributed to this investment, such as the company establishing 18 business processing and call centers within the Philippines, which is now considered the best location in the world for voice-based business processing services. With the current European debt crisis threatening to create further turmoil within global markets, it is expected that more companies will turn towards outsourcing as a solution to remaining operational.

Such a case was seen in the aftermath of the 2008 global economic crisis wherein U.S. based telecommunication firms such as AT


Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping, Face to Face Essay essay help online free

Introduction: Into the Background Sometimes the ways of history can surprise even the most sophisticated connoisseurs. At the first glance, there can be little to no similarities between Ho Chi Minh, an early XX century political leader of Vietnam, and Deng Xiaoping, the General Secretary of China (Goodman, 1995).

However, despite the gap in time and space, the two share certain similar features in their political approaches and leadership portraits.

Comparing and Contrasting the Leadership Style Like most leaders, Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping share certain features of their leadership style. However, there are certain differences between the strategies which they chose, as well. Analyzing their key assets, one can possibly see the specifics of both leaders.

Hence, it is clear that, unlike Ho Chi Minh, Deng Xiaoping tried to revolutionize the country and the traditional political approach, while the former put an emphasis on the traditional values.

Comparing and Contrasting the Negotiation Style Analyzing the peculiarities of the negotiation style which Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping chose to rule their country, one can possibly draw certain parallels and see the similarities between the two leaders.

Therefore, it can be concluded that there are little to no similarities between the ways in which Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping ruled their countries. Therefore, it is worth noting that Deng Xiaoping can be considered a milder political leader and a considerably less devoted Communist.

In Search from the Machiavellian Traits: The Portrait of a Leader Despite the fact that the principles established by Machiavelli in his Prince even nowadays are considered the foundation stone of a good leader who is bound to bring the country to an ultimate success, the two Asian leaders seem to have succeeded without them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ho Chi Minh, for instance, relied not on his iron grip, but on the patriotism cherished in the population of Vietnam, thus, relying rather on the power of patriotism than on his iron grip to keep the nation attached to the country and its interests.

Therefore, it can be hardly considered that Machiavellian features were evident in this leader’s portrait. As Quinn-Judge (2003) emphasized, “Both stereotypes of Ho Chi Minh – Machiavellian apparatchik or national saint – have in my view become deadweights impending the search for the historical figure” (2).

As for Deng Xiaoping, the latter, in contrast to Hop Chi Minh, had very distinct Machiavellian features, following in the footsteps of the famous political scientist.

It is quite peculiar that Xiaoping managed to comprise the subtle manner or ruling the state and pulling the social, economical and political strings, with the ability to possess powerful influence over the country. According to Wo-Lap Lam (2006), Deng Xiaoping “[…] has a Machiavellian, go-for-the-jugular streak” (27).

Conclusion: The People Who Changed the History Therefore, there can be no possible doubt that both Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping played extremely important role in the development of the country. Each of them choosing their own political strategies and developing their own specific leadership styles, the two men managed to change the history considerably.

Even though their impact on the country is undeniable, there is a huge gap between the means which they chose to rule the country and to establish the relationships with the rest of the world.

With Ho Chi Minh’s harsher ways to handle the international affairs and with Deng Xiaoping more subtle yet at the same time more revolutionizing manner of ruling the state, the world has seen how even a single person can bridge several cultures and help the country establish trustworthy links with other states.

We will write a custom Essay on Ho Chi Minh and Deng Xiaoping, Face to Face specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List DeCaro, P. A. (2003). Rhetoric of revolt: Ho Chi Minh’s discourse for revolution. Westport, CN: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Goodman, D. (1995). Deng Xiaoping and the Chinese Revolution: A political biography. New York, NY: Routledge.

Quinn-Judge, S. (2003). Ho Chi Minh: The missing years, 1919-1941. London, UK: C. Hurst


Bliss Travels Marketing Plan Report cheap essay help

Introduction The purpose of this report is to discuss the prospect of e-marketing strategy to increase the customer base and to increase profit level of Bliss Travels. However, this report will concentrate on the local competitors, the customer behaviour to select a travel agent, and related factors such as the influence of age, experience, price range and location.

In addition, this paper will focus on the advertising and strategic management system to prepare a guideline for the company to design different Web-based promotional and communication program.

On the other hand, this report will estimate the web development costs, propose website ideas for this business, and assess the performance of programmers, Internet


Collective Bargaining in Illinois Report custom essay help: custom essay help

The article is about various state boards found in Illinois, whereby the board members and the directors are seen doing very little and on the other hand, receiving a great pay. There is an example given in the article about the meeting that was held in March 17 2011 by the educational labor relations committee.

The writer of the article gives readers a clear picture of that meeting that started at 10 am and ended at 11.16 am (ISB). The board discussed few topics like the labor disputes facing various districts, the reports were read to all the members, and probably came up with the date for the next meeting.

In total, the meeting covered duration of 76 hours and each participant got approximately $7800 as the pay. In addition to such payment per meeting, these board members are also paid monthly salaries, which are accompanied by state pensions.

The writer of the article says that most of the board members rotate in the top government organizations, and some are members in more than one board (ISB). The board members who are politically connected get the best payments for the least time used in several meetings per year.

Some top governors have seen the fact of these board members receiving much money for few hours, but they received much opposition from the majority group (ISB). Some officials did not like the idea of reducing the pay for the board members for the few hours they sit for meetings. The worst part of the idea was that most of the board members are permanently employed in other sectors either public or private sectors.

As an international student and as a reader the issue of these board members receiving such big amount is controversial. Economically, this act can greatly result to unequal distribution of resources in the country (ISB). If some officials are members of more than one board, they end up getting a lot of money.

There are some people who wok hard for the full month, and the salary they receive is not worth their efforts. The people who contribute much to the economy by working long hours end up receiving less amount of money. There should be equal distribution of resources in the country to boost the low earners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, when these board members meet they discuss crucial and very sensitive matters in their meetings. Incase they mess up with such matters; they may end up paying costly for their mistakes (ISB). In connection to how sensitive their matters of discussions they are, the better their pay should be. There are activities that can be done in minutes and they are worth much money.

Most of the board meetings discuss important matters that would earn the whole nation a lot of money, and this qualifies the board members to be paid an equal amount. In the nation, such serious issues of payments should be catered for to make all the citizens enjoy their fruits of their labor accordingly.

Earning much money for some individuals while others are earning very little may widen the gap between the rich and the poor hence dragging the economy behind.

Works Cited Illinois State Boards (ISB): Little work, great pay. 2011. Web.


Marketing Plan and its Components Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Target Market

Marketing/ Sales Strategies

Competitive Analysis

SWOT Analysis



Introduction The main aim of any given business entity is to make profit from its products and services. Profits in a business can only be realized when a ready buyer buys or is served by a business thus the need of marketing plan so as to retain the customers.

Marketing plan involves the layout of how the business is going to penetrate or keep afloat in the competitive market by identifying the target market and laying down the strategies of how to venture into the identified market.

It also enables the business to identify its competitors and to cope with the needs of the customers. A business should consider the following factors when developing a marketing plan.

Target Market Target market entails segmentation of customers a business has decided to focus on for the purpose of selling goods and services. Identification of the market for a business products results to a business deciding on the method of promotion to use so as to reach the target market.

It also involves pricing and distribution channels of the business products or services so as to reach the targeted customers. Through market analysis the business is able to use more cost effective and easier methods of business promotion.

This can be in a case of home cleaning business whereby the business owner uses newspapers to advertise so as to reach the target market. To be more cost effective the same business can promote its products by directly writing mails to particular residents.

Market segmentation is normally done in order for a business to be successful in target marketing. This can be done in the following ways:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Geographical location segmentation.

Demographic segmentation which is determined by measurable statistics like income and age.

Psychographic segmentation which is based on lifestyle preferences.

A good identification of the target market will always determine how well a business can sell its products and services to its customers.

Marketing/ Sales Strategies Marketing strategy is a process that allows concentration of limited business resources on greatest opportunities so as to increase the sales and the growth of business.

The business scans internal environment such as performance analysis, marketing mix and also external market environment like target market analysis. It also involves evaluation of elements such as culture, economic and even political environments. A business comes up with all the possible means which it can enforce so as to reach the target market identified.

Competitive Analysis Competitive analysis is the assessment of the strength and weaknesses of current and potential competitors (Smith, 2005). The analysis provides both the defensive and offensive strategies through which a business can identify its strengths and weaknesses.

The business identifies the challenges in the market by identifying its competitors and their positioning in the market. Through profiling its competitors, the business reveals the weaknesses of these competitors and turns them into its strengths so as to fill the gap left by the competitors.

These weaknesses maybe manifested in form of poor customer relations, poor quality products, unsatisfactory services and so many other things which when improved may add value to attract customers. T

he proactive stance of a business also enables the business to understand how its rival may react to its planned strategies and so it should be prepared. Competitive analysis also gives a business strategic agility whereby offensive strategies can be implemented so as to maximize on the strengths while defensive strategies can be used to counter the rival.

We will write a custom Essay on Marketing Plan and its Components specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis This is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. It looks at the objective of business venture and the factors which are favorable and unfavorable to achieve the business objectives. These include:

Strength: These are characteristics of a business which makes it to perform better than its rivals by having a competitive advantage over its competitors.

Weakness: Are characteristics which work to the disadvantage of the business as compared to other competing businesses.

Opportunities: These are chances which can make a business to venture into the market unexploited opportunities making it to increase its sales.

Threats: Elements that can work against the business performance.

The strategies considered during evaluation may be limited by the SWOT analysis. Sahaf, (2007), notes that a business which uses SWOT analysis may conclude that it has done a complete job on planning and forget or ignore the business objectives.. Findings from Reynolds and Olson, (2006), have shown that SWOT analysis can harm business performance depending on how it is implemented.

Conclusion In market planning, a business has to put into consideration all the above areas as they are the driving forces that put a business on the right track towards achieving its success. Marketing and sales strategies have more weight as they are the revenue determinants and the backbone of a business performance.

The business should also concentrate in one area of target marketing so as to fully capture all the customer needs and goes a notch higher to evaluate and identify the latent needs of the customers even before they identify them.

References Doyle, P. and Stern, P. (2006). Marketing management and strategy. Upper Saddle River: Cengage.

Levinson, J., C. and Levinson A. (2007). Guerrilla marketing: easy and inexpensive strategies for making big profits from your small business. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Reynolds, T., J. and Olson, J., C. (2006). Understanding consumer decision making: the means-end approach to marketing and advertising strategy. New York: Routledge.

Sahaf, A. (2007). Strategic Marketing: Making Decisions for Strategic Advantage. Upper Saddle River: Cengage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Plan and its Components by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smith, B., (2005). Making marketing happen: how great companies make strategic marketing planning work for them. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.


Strategic Marketing Plan for Marina Bay Sands Hotel Report essay help: essay help

Executive Summary This report analyses and presents the “Strategic Marketing Plan” for “Marina Bay Sands” Hotel. This is a five-star inn located in Singapore, which has excellent leisure facilities, fashionable architecture, and offers first-rate MICE services to clients. The report highlights the overall company history in terms of hotel description, its location, services offered, its clients, owners, and basic formation.

The company’s market share and revenue is analyzed, with the significant effect of global economic crunch noted. This has affected the market capitalization over time from 2007 value of $49 billion; $140.00 per share to nearly $3 billion in 2008. There is a brief description of organizational structure and working systems within Marina, this includes the statement of the mission of the organization.

Concurrently, PESTLE analysis describes the exterior influences on the industry. An analysis of each factor is evident thus demonstrating the current position of the organization. Market analysis shows that Marina enjoys a strategic location in Singapore, South East Asia with a large customer base.

Competition is not as stiff as only one rival, GMB exist in the region. There is an analysis of the four P’s in relation to the business. Noticeably, a SWOT analysis indicates that the organization has more potency and opportunities than the limitations and threats. An outline of recommendations for future methodologies and approaches to marketing is evident in the final part of the report on the firm.

Introduction Strategic Marketing Plan

This is a vital concept in all business organizations as it forms the root for successful service launch and market performance. Macdonald (2008, p 25) argues that marketing planning helps businesses to scrutinize and direct the range of interior and peripheral influences on its competency to accomplish lucrative sales, and goals.

According to him, planning of the marketing undertakings with inclusion of all the business activities is necessary for potential growth and service to customers. This novel approach enables corporate to gain profit, which is the universal yardstick for gauging efficiency while also satisfying customer desires.

Marketing strategies in any business outline become the working targets in the marketing unit (Macdonald 2008, p 26). Williams


Advertising Proposal for EduTot Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary EduTot is a company that was started in the 1990s to provide a completely integrated education system to students through provision of toys, programs and plays that incorporate play and growth. This is an advertising plan for the company in order to increase its competitiveness in the domestic market and aid the efforts of the company to go global.

The research entails an understanding of the company’s products, the competitor and the strategies used by the company against those used by the competitors. A marketing strategy, marketing rationale and marketing objectives are also considered.

Then the advertising strategy in terms of media mix, media choice, seasonality, tone, geographical considerations and other factors are developed. The budget for the advertising is drawn on monthly basis and then the strategy, methodology and objectives of advertising evaluation determined.

Situation Analysis Current Users

This section explores the users of a company’s products. A good understanding of the users is important since it enables the company to formulate better marketing strategies that will appeal to the customers (Hackley 23).

The understanding of the customers can be achieved by looking at the demographic features of the customer such as occupation, marital status, ethnicity, education levels, income brackets, age brackets and number of children among other demographic considerations.

The psychographic features such as lifestyle of the users, tastes and preferences also provide a good understanding of the users. After this understanding, one is able to come up with a prospect definition for the customers.

1. Demographic Profile

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Occupation – the users of the products of EduTot come from various occupational backgrounds. This is because the company manufactures toys and other programs for use in teaching of young children. The customers for the products are the parents of students who come from different occupations. However, a great percentage of the users are schools and teachers thus the main occupation of the users of the products of EduTot is teachers or education specialists and specifically early childhood educationists.

Marital status – the users of the products of EduTot are married, single, divorced, separated or widowed. In other words, there is no specific target in terms of marital status for the products of the company

Ethnic background- the users of the products of EduTot are from diverse ethnic backgrounds although many users are Americans. This is because the company was started in America and that is the country of operation.

Education- the products for the company are most appropriate to teachers and educationists whose education level varies from university graduates to college graduates.

Age – the users are not of a specific age group, but the most common users who are teachers are adults.

Income – the EduTot’s products target the middle class people in the society with moderate income. There income is neither low now high.

Children – the number of children is not applicable for users of products of EduTot.

2. Psychographics/ Lifestyle

VALS in marketing stands for Values, Attitudes and Lifestyles and it is a tool used for establishing the psychographic factors of the customers (Hackley, p. 35).

People can be grouped into different VAL categories depending on things that motivate them and resources available to them. The users targeted by EduTot Company are achievers and strivers because they are teachers, parents and educational centers who strive to achieve academic excellence for their children.

3. Prospect Definition

The prospect definition is a statement that identifies potential customers to be targeted. Because EduTot Company has been successful in America, it is good for the company to explore other international markets (Sutherland and Sylvester 67). Thus, the prospect definition for the company is new customers of middle-income class in Britain and Japan.

Geographic emphasis

The products from EduTot Company do not have a strict geographical emphasis. The targeted geographical areas are the urban areas since they have high population and thus more education centers.


Seasonality refers to the occurrence of high sales and low sales in business. Seasonality is a factor to EduTot Company products. The company records high sales when schools are about to open and lower sales later. This is because when schools are about to be opened, that is when most schools, educationists and parents look for the required materials for education.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Advertising Proposal for EduTot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Product evaluation

Under the product evaluation, issues related to the products of EduTot Company will be discussed and they include history of the products; sales history, pricing and distribution channels currently employed by the company to sale its products and the brand character.

EduTot was started in the early 1990s in United States of America with the aim of providing education aids, which would ensure a completely integrated learning process in the early stages of children’s growth.

The company started producing toys, games and computer software that could provide values such as analysis skills and problem solving skills in children. Since its inception, the sales of the company have been in an upward trend and in 2009; the company recorded a record US $ 120 million.

The pricing strategy in use by the Company is cost plus pricing. The company sets a price that enables it to cover the production, services cost, and a profit margin on top of the cost of production. The distribution channels used by the company is use of wholesalers and retailers who sale the products to the consumers.

The targeted wholesalers and retailers are those who sale education materials and bookstores. This channel is more effective since it involves lower cost of distribution and it ensures high market penetration. EduTot estimates that it has made a penetration of 4% in market outlets in US.

The products are placed in shelves facing customers and places where the customers can have easy access to the products. The EduTot Company commands respect from retailers and wholesalers in the market due to quality of products and thus they readily allow space for products.

Some retailers however face out of stock problems due to distribution problems by wholesalers. EduTot highly employs the push strategy to promote goods and services since the products are still new in the market.

It is also good to evaluate the brand character of the products of EduTot limited. The current pricing is acceptable and affordable to many customers since the profit margin added is no too high. The products are of high quality since the toys are durably made of bright colors, safe for children use and they promote learning.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Advertising Proposal for EduTot by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The computers software and other learning programs are user friendly and reliable to the consumers. The packaging is also attractive protects the quality of the products. It also enhances convenience in transportation since the toys are parked in cartons.

Compared to the products of competitors, the products of EduTot Company are more reputable. The problems that the products solve are lack of an education system that promotes wholesome growth and learning. The overwhelming benefits to the users are achievement of completely integrated growth of their children while at the same time enhancing their safety.

Production of the toys, software and other education programs require creativity in order to make use of the changing technology. EduTot is thus required to continually look for ways to improve on their products in terms of technological advancements, changing education requirements and safety.

There are no notable competitors to EduTot in provision of childcare toys and education programs. The competitors are small and they are still in the infancy stages thus they command a minimal share of the market. The competitors are few in number and they target specific states in US.

Most of the competitors use the pull strategy to promote their products because they target a smaller market. They do not have good reputation with retailers and wholesalers because their products are too localized, are of low quality and high priced.

The pricing strategies used by the competitors are penetration strategies since the competitors are new in the market. The products are of poorer quality than EduTot’s products in terms of performance, durability and safety.

Their packaging is similar to that of the EduTot’s products hence it can be concluded that the products from EduTot are superior to those of competitors. The mode of advertising used by the companies is use of newspapers and posters. Their weakness is lack of appropriate slogan for their brands hence their brands are not more recognized than EduTot’s brands.

Research Objective

The research objective of this paper is to determine the advertising marketing strategies applicable to EduTot Company in order to maintain and increase their market share and enter into the global business scene.


The strategy for the advertising and product campaign is promotion of the customer benefits, increase of brand awareness and promotion of the differentiating features of the EduTot’s products. The advertising will be aimed at improving the brand image of EduTot Company.


In development of the advertising strategy and the product campaign strategy for EduTot Company, the background information about the products is sought. The product history, current marketing strategies, distribution channels and pricing strategies is provided.

In addition, an overview of the competition in terms of product quality, distribution and pricing is done. The media mix is then decided, the marketing objective or aim established and the advertising strategy developed.

Summary Of Findings

The advertising strategy more suitable for the products of EduTot Company is an aggressive campaign with a global outlook and one that makes use of a good media mix is appropriate for the products of the company.

It is also found out that the advertising strategy should be aimed at informing the customers on benefits and features of the products and changes in prices. Other needs for the advertising strategy are to persuade customers to buy the products from the company.

Problem: Opportunity Statement EduTot Company has been successful in the United States of America for over twenty years. The company has created and maintained a big market share and it has continued to recorder increasing sales.

Over the past ten years, competition has been growing in the education sector and this has been caused by introduction of small companies who provide accessories to certain states in US. This has forced the EduTot Company to formulate long-term strategies in order to maintain market share and find other markets. The company decided to embrace globalization strategy.

The research problem or opportunity statement for this paper is thus to develop an effective advertising strategy that will help EduTot Company to maintain market share as well as to get new markets internationally.

Marketing Objective The marketing objectives for EduTot Company’s products are:

To maintain market share

To get new markets in the global market

To satisfy the needs of the customers

To ensure the products are within customers’ reach

To develop affordable and quality products to consumers

Marketing Rationale The marketing rationale for this company is to identify the customer needs and satisfy those needs well than the competitors. Another rationale is to identify potential markets and penetrate into the markets. The company also seeks to create new markets through exploration of international markets.

Advertising Creative Creative advertising strategies used to promote the brand image of a product, persuade the customers to buy and use the product. It employs the use of slogans, good publicity and other sales promotion strategies. The creative advertising strategies can be weak, semi-strong or strong depending on their intensity.

The big idea is to show the main features of the products of EduTot. The support for the main idea is accessibility, durability and other features such as information on price changes. The tone used is persuasive but also aggressive in nature and the emphasis is on sampling of customers who have experienced the products.

Advertising Media Media refers to the channels that can be used to pass the information to the users. A choice of media is made depending on the target audience, coverage, marketing objective, cost and other factors.


The objective of the advertising media is to reach the target market effectively. This means that the media should pass the information without distortions and that the media should be cost effective. The target audience for EduTot Company is the elite who are involved in education sector.

A media chosen should create an appeal to the elite. Because the company has chose Britain and Japan for international business, the media should be able to cover those two markets in addition to addressing the market in America.

There is seasonality in advertising for the products of EduTot Company since the company expects to sell more when the schools are about to open. The media used should reach the targeted group but it should not be so frequent. This is to cut down on advertising costs and to avoid boredom. The media should take into consideration technological advancements and lifestyles of the targeted group of customers.


This means the media mix, types of media, geographical use and seasonality of media considerations in advertising. For EduTot, a mix of both print and electronic media is recommended. The company should advertise through newspapers, televisions, posters and most importantly, online. It should therefore develop a website for use in marketing the products.

The website should be interactive and it should allow customers and other people to contribute to the development of the product. The types of media for use are not limited. The company can use any media that has a national and international appeal.

Because of technological advancements and diversity of users, the media formats to be used are not limited (Brainmass 2). The company can use short plays, songs, pictures and other formats as long as they pass the message and appeal to the targeted customers.

The media to be used should reach the international markets (Britain and Japan) as well as all the states of US. Advertising should be continuous but its aggressiveness should vary with seasonality of demand.


The tactics to be employed by EduTot should be to for the company to identify itself with customers, make the customers believe that the company understands their needs and ensure that the message is aggressively delivered to the customers.

Multimedia recommendations Objective

Multimedia refers to use of more media to pass the same information, either at the same time or at different times. The objectives of multimedia use for EduTot Company should be:

Pass the information in a cost effective manner

Create easy understanding of the message

Well customized to address different time and place situations

Enhance quality of the message being delivered.


To enhance the choice of multimedia that addresses all the objectives above, EduTot should come up with adverts that employ the use of pictures, sound, short movies or videos as well as pictures. These will be effective since they will help the company to pass the information in a cost effective manner.


The best methodology would be to play audio adverts when the people are relatively busy, like when they are travelling or working. When the people are at home, video and music adverts will be better because people are relaxed and they have time to listen to them.

Flowcharts And Schedules The following should be the flow chart for the establishment of the advertising campaign:

Budget Advertising budget for EduTot Company

Media Cost (US $) Newspapers: Local newspapers (10 adverts per month @ $ 30,000) 300,000 International newspapers (15 Adverts @ $ 40,000) 600,000 Radio advertising (30 Runs per month @ $ 20,000) 600,000 Billboards and outdoor advertising (10 billboards @ $ 100,000) 1,000,000 Internet advertising (Creation and maintenance of website) 500,000 Fliers (10,000 @ $ 1) 10,000 Market survey and research (200 hours @ $ 20) 4,000 Advertising evaluation (200 hours @ $ 10) 1,000 Total 315,000 Campaign Evaluation/ Testing

The advertising strategy chosen should be tested, implemented, and then reviewed to know whether it is effective. The objective of campaign evaluation or testing is to ascertain the effectiveness and suitability of the chosen strategy to know whether it needs to be revised or not.

Another objective is to keep track of all the costs and schedules to ensure that everything goes according to plan. The strategy or methodology for evaluation of strategy is gathering of data regarding the expenditure and results and then comparing them with the targets. This will show the extent to which the advertising strategy has accomplished the targets hence its effectiveness.

Works Cited Brainmass. The four P’s of marketing for EduTot in Germany and Japan. 2010. June 5, 2011.

Hackley, Christopher. Advertising and Promotion: Communicating Brands. London: SAGE, 2005. Print

Sutherland, Max and Alice Sylvester. Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why. Crows Nest: Allen


The Manufacturing Industry in Qatar Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic state of Qatar

Political state in Qatar

Geography of Qatar

Natural and man- made resources in Qatar

Population, demographics and education in Qatar

Infrastructure in Qatar


Works Cited

Introduction Every one of us wishes to start and run a successful business regardless of the region, country in which the business enterprise is launched. There are some of the concepts that a business man has to look into before he or she can decide on the exact position where the business premises are going to be located.

Some of those issues include the proximity to the main road, availability of consumers, availability of raw materials in case the business is going to involve manufacturing process, security of the area and the nation at large and also the government commitment to provide secure environment to run a business.

For instance it is very difficult for an investor to start up a new business enterprise such as bottling of water in a very dry area because in such an environment, water is in scarcity and if the business is set up, the operating costs may be higher than the revenue and hence the company may end up closing down.

In addition one cannot set up a business enterprise in a place that hardly experience peace and stability. Some of these issues play a very vital role in determining whether one will invest in certain areas.

Having achieved these entire requirements then, the business can initiate its operations or decide to abandon the whole idea if some or all of the requirements are not met by both the state and the individual starting up the business.

Anderson (p 198) points out that the government should encourage more and more people to invest in the country as the investments contributes a very big share in the government revenue realized in terms of taxes charged on the profits that they make. Therefore, the more the investment, the more the governments realizes more revenue and thus the economy of such a country continues to grow year in year out.

In addition he points out that delocalization of business enterprises is very important for any country as this ensures that the whole country gains equally in the terms of development. He notes that some government have a tendency of encouraging investors to start their business in the already invested areas to enhance competition thus making other regions in the country lag behind in terms of infrastructure development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He asserts that delocalization of industries and other forms of businesses helps in the springing up of other small business enterprises around the area where the investor has initiated his business. This according to him helps in improving the lives of the people around that region in way of job opportunities and improvement of infrastructure such as roads that comes hand in hand with such investments.

In this paper we will focus on the manufacturing industry in Qatar. Owing to availability of massive deposits of oil in Qatar, manufacturing industry is likely to thrive since crude oil is a raw material for many products such as plastics, petroleum jelly, as well as tar that is used for the purposes of tarmaking the roads.

Therefore, I will look at some of the positive things that make Qatar a better place for a person to invest in and not in any other country in the entire world.

Economic state of Qatar Qatar is a country found in the Middle East. According to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Qatar is the fastest growing country with an annual economic growth of about 19 percent as at the year 2008. In Qatar petroleum is the backbone of her economy that has for a long time accounted for over seventy five percent of total government revenue.

In addition, Becker (p 278) points out that petroleum contributes more than fifty percent of the country’s gross domestic product and also holds the lion’s share of all her export income. According to him, without oil Qatar cannot be in existence.

She is currently among the world leaders in the crude oil production and also she exports the product. He points out that soon after attaining her independence from Saudi Arabia in 1971, Qatar has continued to record a continued growth in her economy except in the period between 1982 to around 1987 when her economy experienced a down turn as a result of low prices from oil sales.

For a country to continue thriving economically she needs a strong banking sector and this has been the case with Qatar. According to Meshack (p 145) the economic depression of 2008 to 2009 did not affect the Qatari banking sector.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Manufacturing Industry in Qatar specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He points out that her banking sector was among other countries of the Middle East voted the best overall in the year 2008. In 2009-2010 financial year the Qatari Investment Authority (QIA) announced that it would buy five percent stake in so that it would increase the banks strength and also increase the consumers’ confidence.

He notes that after the economic melt down in other countries, many customers lost confidence in the banking sector and therefore the government had to step in and rescue her institutions.

He adds that in order to ensure that the banks continued lending money to their customers, the government decided to buy the investment portfolios of the financial institutions and therefore this acted as measure to cushion the banks should the customers fail to repay back the loans advanced to them.

In the year 2009, World Bank valued the Doha Securities Market (DSM) at $11.5 billion. However, in the following year the value decreased by over 40 percent and as a result the government had to intervene in order to save her from decreasing further.

Oil production which as earlier stated has been the back bone of her economy, has continued to increase to a current capacity of about 85000 metric cubes. Meshack (p211) points out that expert predict that her oil reserves are going to be exhausted around the year 2023.

However, he notes that the discovery of the natural gas has boosted her export earnings by becoming the third largest producer of natural gas in the entire world after Saudi Arabia. He argues that, the government has embraced a new program dubbed Qatarization which aims at making Qatari nationals occupy the senior positions in government institution.

In order to make this program successful, the government has partnered with the United States of America government whereby Qataris get educated and then return to Qatar to assume these positions that has been for a long time been occupied by expatriates.

Anderson (p 98) has noted that the government has put up a number of industries that have played a great role in improving her economy.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Manufacturing Industry in Qatar by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He points out some of the industries that the government has started include the Industries Qatar (IQ) that are responsible for the production of petrochemicals, fertilizers and steel. According to him, industrial production constituted a significant growth in Qatar’s growth domestic product.

He has pointed out that the huge profits realized by the companies in Qatar have been used in improving the economy and also protecting it from any melt down like was the case in the United States of America and most of the European countries in 2008 to 2009.

In addition he argues that Qatar is currently creating awareness on her citizens on the importance of reducing their reliance on oil and the natural gas since they are non-renewable and instead explores other avenues that can help sustain her economy once these natural resources are exhausted.

Qatar Foundation which is the government agency to oversee how the country is improving economically has been tasked with this role so that when the oil and the natural gas are no longer there the economy would not grind to a halt.

He points out that the government is preparing itself earlier to avoid being caught unaware and thus start depending on other countries. Prior to the discovery of oil, Qatari way of life relied heavily on pearl diving, fishing and desert subsistence.

Today Qatar has now become as one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG), and envisages becoming the world’s largest producer by the year 2013. He points out that the incomes realized from the sale of oil and natural gas have taken Qatar into the ranks of the world’s richest countries.

Political state in Qatar The modern state of Qatar was formed after she gained her independence from Saudi Arabia in 1971. Since then up to now the Al Thani family has been at the throne of leadership. The head of the government and state in Qatar is referred to as Emir.

Meshack (p 119-121) argues that Emir is not answerable to any person but has to strictly adhere to the Islamic law. In order to ensure accountability and promote transparency the Emir has to rely on the advisory council that helps him in policy formulation.

Qatar has a consultative assembly that is composed of 35 members. Ferdinand (p 23) points out that the members in the assembly are handpicked since no elections are held to put them in their offices.

He claims that in the country the country has 9 municipalities that include the Umm Salal, Ad Dawhah, Madinat ash Shamal, Al Ghuwayriyah, Jarayan al Batinah, Al Jumalyliyah, Ar Rayyan, and Al Wakrah.

However, unlike other countries that allows for elected leaders to head government and other institutions like the legislature, municipalities he points out that the citizens are only allowed to vote in the municipal elections. In addition to that he claims that the elected municipal has no powers and all that the leaders can do is to offer advice to the Minister in charge.

He points out that when the current Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani took over power on 27th June 1995 he allowed women to participate in municipal elections, he allowed media freedom and facilitated the formation of Al Jazzera some of the issues that the previous rulers had denied to their subjects.

Besides the Emir, there is a Prime Minister who is always in consultation with the Emir on how best the country should be run. Because of the enormous powers bestowed on the Emir and the ruling class he has contented that Qatar is not a democratic country. However, owing to the freedom availed by the current regime many scholars have not been able to define this kind of regime.

Geography of Qatar Qatar as a country is found in the Middle East. According to Becker (p 204) she lays between latitudes 24 and 27N and longitudes 50 and 52 E. He notes that Qatar consists of a tiny peninsula projecting northward into the Persian Gulf from the larger Arabian Peninsula and that it has an area of 11,437 square kilometers (4,416 square miles), He has observed that Qatar is low lying nation that is all deserts.

He points out that she experiences a very cold winter that runs from November to around February and very hot summers in the period between May to around September.

However due to the advancement in technological know how, the subsequent governments have managed to irrigate some parts of the country and today she is able to produce a significant amount of fruits that her population depends on. He claims that average temperatures in June are 42C (108F), while during the cold season around December the temperature goes down to a low of about 15C (59F).

According to him rainfall is usually high during the winter period with certain periods the rain causing floods owing to the poor drainage system that cannot handle large volumes of water during such periods.

In addition he points out that during the summer period humidity along the coastal areas can go as higher as ninety percent.

According to him the highest point in Qatar is referred to as the Qurayn Abu al Bawl at 103 meters (338 ft) in the Jebel Dukhan.

This is the area that he has noted that contains majority of onshore oil deposits, while the natural gas is mined at the northwest of the peninsula which is located in the off shore areas

In addition he points out that the coastline of Qatar is part of a regional low of the Arabian Desert plain and it houses two natural harbors. The capes, Ra’s Rakan and Al-Mabakh, are also situated in Qatar and this gives the country an advantage. He says that there is an inlet known as Khr al-‘Udeid that has within its proximity large areas that have large areas covered by sanddunes.

Natural and man- made resources in Qatar As earlier mentioned Qatar lies in the Arabian Desert where there exist a number of natural resources as well as the man made resources. However owing to the harsh weather in the region, Anderson (p 100-109) points out that she has limited natural fresh water resources and as a result the government has been forced to introduce facilities that would make salt water consumable by the people as well as the few animals in the country.

Some of the made resources in Qatar include the harbor in Doha as well as Umm Harbor that have been created by digging channel so that the shallow areas could be deepened and therefore allow big ships dock without any problems.

Population, demographics and education in Qatar Over the years the population in Qatar has been growing in a very huge way. According to Becker (p 201) the population increase is attributed to the large number of expatriates from the developing countries of Africa and Asia.

He says that the Qatar citizens have been for a long time been known to shy away from responsibilities and therefore in order to fill up the deficit the government as well as other private companies have been forced to source for man power from other countries. He claims that as at 2008, the total number of people in Qatar stood at 1.1 million people where out of these more than three quarters were expatriates.

The total number of men has been on the rise since women have not been accorded equal opportunities compared to men. He says that Qatar is putting up modern structures now and therefore more men who can handle tough jobs are required and therefore this explains why the number of women has not matched the number of men.

With an increased investment by foreign companies, Qatar’s education sector has not been left behind and in the recent past there has been an increase in a number of foreign institutions opening up campuses in Qatar.

He says that some of the international schools in Doha include Stenden University, America School of Doha, The Gulf English School, The Cambridge School, and the International School of Choueifat. He has observed that education in Qatar is regulated and controlled by the Supreme Education Council.

He argues that the council has been mandated with controlling education from the kindergarten all the way to the University level. He points out that the regulation and control of education in Qatar is jointly shared by the Ministry of Education and the Supreme Education Council of Qatar.

He attributes this to the fact that Ministry of Education has been reducing the amount of money that they have been allocating to schools and also the fact that many schools have been put under the watchful eye of the Supreme Education Council of Qatar.

The Supreme Education Council of Qatar is endeavoring to improve the quality of secondary schools education as well as the University education by allowing Independent institutions that have been allowed to carry out their work without much interference from the government and other relevant agencies.

Infrastructure in Qatar Owing to large deposits of oil in Qatar the government has managed to initiate a number of projects that have left many people baffled. According to Becker (p 108) Qatar Airways has for instance started constructing a floating airport in the Persian Gulf. Other projects undertaken by the government include a tunnel connecting Qatar with her neighbor Bahrain.

He says that super highways are being constructed that have helped improve the way in which people move from one place to another. Skyscrapers are coming up which have made become a trademark identifying Qatar.

Based on this analysis, determine whether a substantial foreign direct investment in this country would offer a competitive advantage to a company in the student’s chosen industry.

Having looked at all those aspects in Qatar it is then possible to say that foreign direct investment would help a business thrive and prosper at all times. This is informed by the fact that the government has provided a friendly environment for businesses to grow.

In addition, the construction of roads has facilitated the movement of goods fro the harbor and the airport to the interior.

For instance, in the manufacturing industry which I have chosen, the movement of crude oil from the fields to the factories has been made possible because of pipelines that have been lain down by the government. As a result, any investor setting up a business in Qatar will have all the necessary ingredients for his or her business to grow and expand.

Conclusion It is a sole responsibility for any government to ensure that investors are protected from any thing that may hinder them from operating. This is because the investors have contributed a lot in the growth of the country’s economy.

Improvement of infrastructure is another very important thing that will invite more and more investors in a country or in a region. As Qatar has done, for a country to succeed economically more money has to be spent in rehabilitating and maintaining the existing infrastructure.

Works Cited Becker, Peter. Governments in the Middle East. New York: MacMillan, 2010

Meshack, Andrew. The Evolving Qatar. London: Routledge, 2011.

Anderson, John. Business in Qatar and Bahrain: A Comparison. Oxford: Oxford


Technology vs. Humans: Exploring the Benefits of Cursive Writing Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Summary The article under analysis is called Handwriting Rediscovered. Its main idea runs that cursive writing reflects personality, a unique record that characterizes authentically human features. The author focuses on the decreased popularity of handwriting because of the advances in technology. More and more students prefer using laptops for printing their notes and essays whereas notes made in books and sheets of paper are not in the limelight.

Technology vs. Humans: Exploring the Benefits of Cursive Writing

The fact that technological advancement has significantly changed all spheres of human activity is undeniable. People are now more likely to apply to modern methods sending letters, communicating people via cell phones, and travelling by means of plains. Even such an ancient activity as handwriting has gradually been removed by printing devices and laptops.

Teachers are more inclined to use PowerPoint presentations during lectures rather than using blackboard for making notes. However, shifting from old-fashioned manners of writing to computer print, there is something that most people might lose. They might lose their personality, their selves because handwriting mirrors personal ideas that are put between lines.

Following fashionable styles and manners is often a challenge. However, it is also a shift from obsolete techniques in carrying out specific activities. Hence, people should strike the balance between cursive writing and print writing because there a number of advantages of the handwriting. First of all, handwriting allow your understand your personality and your attitude to a topic. It is impossible to express emotion while typing down the notes to a printed text.

Second, stream of consciousness writing technique allow a person to understand how could an future essay can be constructed, as well as how certain purposes can be achieved. Finally, handwriting can be characterized in terms of nature of cursive writing. Nature of unique recording that seeks not only to render an abstract idea that is impossible to achieve by means of finger typing.

While writing and drawing every detail of a letter, one can better concentrate on the essence of future sentences. Besides, it is the best way to activate your brain activities by practicing your finger and arm muscles. What is more important is that it trains various types of memories that are helpful in certain professions.

While making notes on the sheet of papers, it is possible to recognize whether ideas are more important or not. It also contributes to greater identification of handwriting with yourself. Using less modern methods in writing texts encourage better thinking techniques and provide a wider spectrum of alternatives for structuring and writing your ideas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, printing texts on your laptop is much more productive because there are several advanced functions, such copy and paste, delete, and highlighting. Changing fonts and choosing colors has much in common with making notes, but still pen writing allows a person to work out specific skills that are necessary in writing, such patience, persistence, multidimensionality and desire to search for alternatives.

Because handwriting is a unique interpretation of personality type, it should also render specific qualities and ideas that are subjective to this personality. Such a purpose cannot be achieved by means of computerized approaches. Handwriting can also sophisticate your knowledge of grammar and spelling because it does not have function of checking spelling. It is necessary to double check the text and search for mistakes in a manual way, which trains memory and attention.

In conclusion, handwriting gains advantage over printing texts because of several substantial reasons. First of all, it allow to express your personality because handwriting is a unique and authentic recording.

Second, handwriting develops several types of memory which are impossible to develop by printing texts. Finally, it also trains such skills as attention and improves your knowledge of spelling. Like human eyes mirror your soul, handwriting rediscovers your personality.


Summary and Reflective Response to “Path Dependence, Lock-In, and History” Essay (Article) essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Topic addressed

Approach used

Methodology used in the article

Data used

Conclusion of the article

Nature of Argument

The most interesting part of the article


Introduction The purpose of this paper is to provide a written summary as well as a reflective response to the article ‘Path Dependence, Lock-in and History’ by S. J. Liebowitz. In order to do this, the paper will address several areas which will include; the topic being addressed; how the problem addressed is approached; the methodology used; the data or evidence used; conclusions of the article; the nature of argument; and the most fascinating aspect of the article.

Topic addressed In this article, the main point being addressed is path dependence. This can be extracted from the article’s statement of intent whereby it is clearly indicated that the paper aims at examining path dependence. Therefore, the article is centered on path independence as the topic.

Approach used In addressing path dependence, the author of the article makes use of a theoretical approach. From the abstract of the article, the author indicates the main point of arguments of the article. For instance, he asks himself whether economies as well as markets make errors that are remediable when it comes to choosing the products (Liebowitz, 2000).

The author further seeks to establish whether the economy lock-in to these erroneous choices despite the fact that economies and markets have the knowledge that these choices are not viable and are readily available.

The author tries to argue about the problem with support from the available literature. He seemingly argues for the topic since; according to him, indeed lock-ins and errors occur. The author uses illustrations to further support his argument. Therefore, the topic of the article can be said to have been approached theoretically (Liebowitz, 2000).

Methodology used in the article In the article, there is incorporation several economic assumptions which include the restrictive assumptions. In order to conduct analysis, the author uses illustrations whereby he examines the choice of market in video recorder formats.

Data used The author uses theoretical as well as practical data in arguing the problem out. The author makes use of theoretical data in most of the article. The practical data is used in the mathematical counterparts as well as memory in defining path dependence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author obtains the data from other literatures addressing the same topic. In addition to this, the author defines the problem through extracting data from the probability theory as used in mathematical constructs (Liebowitz, 2000).

Conclusion of the article According to the findings of the article, there is a path independence claim in that a minor or fleeting advantage results to there being some sort of technology, standard or even a product and as such, it can have essential influences, which, according to him are irreversible, on the eventual allocation of the various resources of the market irrespective of whether the environment is characterized by voluntary decisions or maximizing behavior (Liebowitz, 2000).

In addition to this, the author indicates that the literatures on path dependence behaviors are advanced with mathematical literature concerning nonlinear dynamic models acting as motivators. The author further asserts that these nonlinear dynamic models identify path dependence as a dependence on initial which is sensitive in nature (Liebowitz, 2000).

The author indicates that the lock-in by historical events exist as a path dependence property and as such, it is analogously identified as a key finding especially in those areas where the historical events are considered insignificant.

The author finds out that when such kind of a path dependence surfaces, it follows that there is a lower likelihood that the marginal adjustments of a particular agent will offer adequate assurance with regard to optimization of suboptimal end results or outcomes leading to the market failure (Liebowitz, 2000).

While the underlying normative concerns according to the author have been a prominent aspect of path dependence in literatures, not all the phenomena described as path dependence should be taken to imply failure of the market.

These findings indeed align with what has been learned concerning the topic. The findings are sufficient and therefore worthwhile according to my experience.

We will write a custom Article on Summary and Reflective Response to “Path Dependence, Lock-In, and History” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nature of Argument With regard to how the author has addressed the problem, the article is inclusive of literature review as well as illustrations and as such, the author can be said to have made good arguments in trying to address the problem sufficiently.

Further support for his good presentation of the argument can be derived from the use of economic models. Generally, the author supports his theoretical approach with mathematical models to comprehensively argue the problem out and therefore reaching valid conclusions.

The most interesting part of the article The most interesting aspect of this article is the procedure that the author follows in making the reader understand the topic. As such, the author first indicates the statement of intent and therefore, the reader is able to know where the argument is heading to. In addition to this, the author defines the important aspects as well as concepts pertaining to dependency path.

In providing the support for his discussion, the author consults literatures relating to the topic. Another interesting aspect of the article is that it uses viable economic methodologies to reach worthwhile findings and increasing authenticity.

Reference Liebowitz, S. J (2000). Path Dependence, Lock-in, and History. Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 8(2), 1-9.