An Action Plan Applicable To The Students’ Needs Essay Essay Help

Understanding different student needs in the teaching and learning process can be indeed helpful in determining whether the teaching and learning objectives are achieved. Different learners are blessed with different skills and abilities such that all of them need to be accommodated in the learning process and that is why an action plan needs to be formulated in order to ensure that this is achieved (Schlechty, 1997).

This action plan should be geared towards discovering each student needs and addressing these needs so as to enhance the teaching and learning process. When testing the learning process the two forms of testing that are most applicable are norm referencing and criterion referencing (Schlechty, 1997).

When a test is criterion referenced, testing is measured in terms of objectivity whereby the learner is gauged by checking whether he or she, uses an objective standard or achievement level. This entails finding out whether the learner meets the set standards so as to determine whether the learner satisfies the expectations of the education system.

Each grade or level in the education system has got its own standards which the learner has got to meet, so the test should be able to give results or the reflection of the capabilities of the learners regardless of the performance of others in the same level.

Norm referenced kind of tests are those that a student’s performance is measured in reference to the performance of a group (Miller, 1989). The composition of the norm group is usually the determinant of the performance of an individual in that group. For instance, when an individual’s performance in physics stands at the 90th percentile out of the possible 100 per cent, it is not obvious that the student is a good perform until the performance of the other norm group members is considered.

So therefore norm referencing is important because many a time it helps the teacher gauge the performance of students so as to determine the student’s abilities. Once the student’s weaknesses and strengths are identified, then both the learner and the teacher are able to know which areas to improve on.

In criterion referenced tests, the student will show his or her ability to perform in a given task at a particular level (Popham, 1971). This way, an individual performs a task and the degree of difficulty is seen and this will be in direct reference to the capabilities of the individual at a personal level and not in reference to a group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This way, the individual effort is measured not against any other student but rather individual effort is seen. The expected standards are usually set so that the student is measured and graded alongside these standards. Therefore when a test sets a goal for a student so that the student either passes or fails the test (Popham, 1971) is used basically to test the student at an individual level. Such tests are those used to grade students for graduation from one level of education to the next.

Both of these tests should measure the progress of the students towards achieving the goals of education. The skills of the learners should therefore be assessed appropriately (Popham, 1971). The learning task should at all times be viewed by the learners as a means of acquiring the necessary knowledge and skill such that when tested, they should not see this as a form of punishment.

The learners should be motivated by the tests to work hard not to satisfy the examiner and the teacher but rather to examine themselves and see whether the fruits of education are borne (Miller 1989).

References Miller, L. J. (1989). Developing Norm Referenced Standardized Tests. New York. The Haworth Press Inc.

Popham, W. J. (1971). Criterion-Referenced Measurement: An Introduction. Englewood Cliffs, Educational. Technology Publications Inc.

Schlechty, P. C (1997). Inventing better schools: an Action Plan for Educational Reform. San Francisco. Jossey – Bass Inc.

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English and Politics Research Paper online essay help

Introduction Orwell is an individual who was concerned about the correct usage of English language in politics and other areas of life. He notes with a lot of concern some very common mistakes that are made by politicians, professors and other people who use English in public. He particularly notes that most of the times, the politicians use sub standard English because they want to conceal something and therefore end up using vague language.

In an attempt to reduce and eventually eradicate the incorrect usage of English grammar in both spoken and written works, Orwell suggests some set of rules that one could use. He however states that, even with the rules, it is still possible that one can make some mistakes but the mistakes would not be very bad compared to those that were made by some people in the texts that he uses as the sample of incorrect use of English language.

Orwell’s standards In the first rule, Orwell says that one should avoid the use of common phrases for example metaphors which have been overused and other clichés. Phrases that have been used in various written works for a long time are especially discouraged. He also warns people to refrain from using long words and instead, try to look for shorter words which can serve the same purpose. The long words make the text unnecessarily complicated when it can be simplified by use of other words with the same meaning.

Another rule is that one should choose their words carefully and use only the necessary words. If a word can be left out, then one should not include it in their writings or speech. By doing so, one is able to avoid being unclear because of including such words. The other common mistake that people make in language use is overuse of foreign or scientific terms when one can get other simpler words of the same meaning in English.

Orwell says that such words should only be used when there is no other option, otherwise they should be omitted in any good specimen of English. Orwell also warns against the operators or verbal false limbs. He explains this as the unnecessary conversion of a single verb or even a conjunction to a phrase consisting of several words. It can also be used to describe the tendency to follow a certain pre-existing ending format of a sentence instead of one being creative and coming up with their original endings.

Many people make this mistake when they are writing or speaking In his last rule, he gives people the discretion to break any of his rules other than say something that will not make sense. Orwell says that if people would adhere to these rules, cases of bad language usage would reduce significantly and eventually be eradicated.

Conformity of John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech of 1960 to Orwell’s standards This is one of the speeches that have been praised by many people in history. It is particularly applauded because of its impact on the listeners and also the various artistic structures employed (Humes 207). It has bold declarations made by John F. Kennedy during his inauguration as president.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, he promises to do everything to protect the democracy of the country and also speaks several statements directed to the enemies of his country. He also calls upon the citizens to be occupied with what they can do for the country instead of just waiting for the country to do things for them. In this paper, the conformance of the speech to various rules set by Orwell meant to gauge a good piece of English text will be evaluated.

Dying metaphors The speech is characterized by the use of metaphors to create mental pictures to the listeners of what is being said. Metaphors can be categorized into different groups for example; there are metaphors which have been overused such that they no longer play the role that a metaphor should play when used and are considered as dead metaphors.

There are others considered as dying metaphors which have been overused but still have not lost their impact and finally there are those considered as living which are able to cause one to have a clear mental picture because they are fresh and probably have been used for the first time by the particular writer or speaker. According to Orwell, dead metaphors are to be avoided if the purpose for which that metaphor is being used is to be served. Dead metaphors lack the important quality of creating a mental image in the listener’s mind.

Kennedy, in his speech tries to adhere to this rule because most of the metaphors he uses are not in the category of dead ones. For example, he talks of ‘iron tyranny’ (Bartleby.com 1). Although this is not exactly in the category of a dead metaphor, it is still a common metaphor that is overused by many people in spoken and written works. The metaphor however is still able to produce the mental picture intended in the listener’s mind.

There are other metaphors too that he used effectively in conveying his message during his inauguration. In reference to the people who find themselves in danger that they could have avoided if they were wise enough, he uses the metaphor ‘riding the back of the tiger and ending up inside’ (Bartleby.com 1). He also talks of exploring the stars conquering the deserts metaphorically to pass the message to the people concerning their intention as a country to going for great things and overcoming all obstacles.

These two metaphors still are able to create images in the mind of the listeners although they are not very new and also cause them to react in certain way because of the influence of the words that have been used.

By using them, Kennedy is still on the safe side when it comes to application of Orwell’s standards because the two are not wholly in the category of dead metaphors. He also talks of assisting the people who are still ‘struggling to break the bonds of mass misery’ (Bartleby.com 1). This is a metaphor that helps the listeners create a clear mental image of what he is saying.

We will write a custom Research Paper on English and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The speech slightly deviates from the set standards because of the use of commonly used phrases like ‘friend and foe alike’ which is not recommended by Orwell (Bartleby.com 1). According to him, such overused phrases should be left out as they make one unable to be creative in speech and they can contribute to vagueness in the message that one intended to communicate

The use of active or passive voice The speech is full of sentences in active voice as compared to passive voice. Most of the sentences have a subject as opposed to passive sentences which leaves out the doer of the action.

However there is an instance where there is the use of passive, i.e., when he wants to says that the responsibility has been given to someone else, he uses the passive sentence: ‘the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans’ (Bartleby.com 1). In the rest of his speech, he uses sentences in the active voice. He commits himself to doing things that are his responsibility by using the active voice and first person singular pronoun instead of evading commitment by using passive.

He uses sentences in the active voice to show people the reality of the imminent long struggle that they are going to face as a nation despite the fact that they have just come out of a hard period characterized by cold war (Clarke 9). He does not try to give the people false hope by using passive voice which is mostly used by people who are not straightforward in what they are saying.

He also speaks to the enemies of the nation directly using the same sentence structures and points out the responsibility of both the state and the citizens directly instead of just assuming that each is aware of what is expected of them. Through the effective use of active speech, Schlesinger (165) notes that the young president, Kennedy, also commits himself to defend the country’s democracy by all means.

Pretentious diction The speech also passes the test of pretentious diction as a standard of good English specimen proposed by Orwell. This is because Kennedy uses simple everyday language as opposed to some political speeches which are full of exaggerated foreign words and other uncommon words for example scientific words.

Most of the words that he uses can be understood by ordinary people without much struggle. He uses short clear words and also sentences whose structure is simple therefore making the speech captivating and easy to understand (O’Brien 75). This has made his speech to be praised by many people and especially because of its simplicity to everyone who can understand English.

His choice of words is good as he chooses words which are able to produce certain reactions in the people. For example, he tells the people not to negotiate out of fear or fear to negotiate. Most of the text is written in simple words. It is only in the sentence where the word ‘belaboring’ is used where he seems to have used a complex word although it is possible to substitute with a more common word like ‘dwell on’ or others which are simpler and more common.

Not sure if you can write a paper on English and Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Operators or verbal false limbs Here, one tries to avoid the task of choosing appropriate parts of a speech for example the nouns of verbs and tries to simplify the task by several means e.g. transforming a lone verb to a phrase with several words. The use of conjunctions is also altered by introducing other words in addition to the conjunction to make it a phrase. Certain sentence endings are also commonly used because one does not want to think of a different way that the sentence can end and therefore opts for what is common.

The speech in question lacks such operators or verbal false limbs. Most of the verbs and conjunctions are used correctly without adding extra words to make them phrases and the sentences endings are all unique and not just following a certain copied pattern. He avoids most of the phrases, either with verbs or conjunctions as listed by Orwell, which should be avoided in a good specimen of English. He uses single verbs and conjunctions and conforms to this rule in almost the entire text.

Meaningless words Again, Kennedy’s speech avoids the use of meaningless words which at times crowd a piece of English text making it hard to understand and also unnecessarily long. The speech is relatively short and is devoid of such words which may not make any sense when used. He chooses his words carefully and joins them together in a way that they cause the reader or listener then be persuaded that he means every word he says in the speech (Wills 62).

Like many political writings, there are some areas in the speech where there is vagueness. He says, for example, that they are going to help those in poverty to get out of it. He does not say precisely what they are planning to do to help these people who he says live in abject poverty. It is also not clear the specific people he is addressing because, globally there are many people who are struggling to break free from the chains of poverty.

Also the words, ‘to convert our good words into good deeds’ (Bartleby.com 1), seem not to have a definite meaning because the word ‘good’ is relative and can mean different things. It becomes hard for anyone listening to such a speech to clearly understand what good words or good deeds the person is talking about.

Conclusion Although John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Speech breaks a few of Orwell’s rules, it is still a good specimen of English because it observes most of them as discussed in the paper. For example, the speech is devoid of foreign or scientific words which are misused in most written or spoken works.

He tries to use simple, everyday language which can be understood by many people. He puts forth his points clearly using only the relevant words and leaves out any unnecessary words. The speech also avoids the use of clichés and long words which can be replaced by shorter and more common words.

It is so easy for anyone who reads this speech to understand it. It is written in ordinary English that does not need a lot of in depth understanding of vocabulary. The ideas in it flow well. According to Giglio (2), his speech seems to represent what he truly believes in because it lacks vagueness which is mostly used by politicians who do not want to be clear in what they are saying to the public.

Such politicians use this tool to be dishonest and cause confusion among the people on what they actually intended to pass across. What he intends to do for the nation and also what is expected of the people is clearly stated. He urges the people not to focus on what they want the country to do for them but on what they too can offer to the country.

Works Cited Bartleby.com. John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address. London: Bartleby.com, 2011. Retrieved from

Clarke, Thurston. Ask Not: The Inauguration of John F. Kennedy and the Speech that Changed America. New York: Henry Holt and Co, 2004.

Giglio, James. The Presidency of John F. Kennedy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1991.

Humes, James. My Fellow Americans: Presidential Addresses That Shaped History. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

O’Brien, Michael. John F. Kennedy: A Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.

Schlesinger, Arthur. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston,MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.

Wills, Garry. The Kennedy Imprisonment: A Meditation on Power. Boston, MA: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1981.

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Air Pollution by Automobiles Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Automobile invention has continued to have profound effects in the world due to the fact that they have been owned by a large number of people, particularly in the U.S. This overreliance in automobile has generated environmental and health concerns, which trigger a number of global debates. Automobiles have a great environmental and lifestyle impact, an aspect that is attributed to the fossil fuel combustion (Wallace 138).

The extent of automobiles pollutants differs and includes toxic exhaust emissions such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, VOCs as well as particulate matters. Besides, the evaporative emissions emanate from fuel vapors that are emitted to the atmosphere, having not been fully combusted. The vapor could be managed by properly capping the fuel tanks, avoidance of having the petrol overfilled or addressing any leakages.

Automobiles also release smoke, which contains incompletely combusted byproducts that are toxic to the eyes and the respiratory system, thus detrimental to human health. This is however, dependent on the periods of exposure, age, the health status of an individual and the concentration of these fumes that one is exposed to. This paper shall address specific automobile pollutants in relation to causes and public health, to draft possible recommendations to the obstacles, in order to manage the problem.

Causes of automobile Pollution Air pollution has long been associated with motor vehicles as they are operated, fueled, manufactured and even when they are disposed. Moreover, pollution occurs at the time of distributing and refining of the fuels. With urbanization, many people have owned vehicles that have continued to cause heavy traffics leading to increased pollution.

The automobiles are related to primary as well as secondary pollution. Primary pollution occurs when there are direct emissions into the atmosphere while secondary pollution is incurred when there are chemical reactions for the emitted pollutants with the atmosphere itself.

Specific Pollutants and Health Effects Particulate Matter

The main motor vehicle pollutants include, particulate matter, which are particles containing metal and soot and make smog to become murky. The particles are so fine and pose as a great danger to human health, as they are inhaled to damage the respiratory system. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides as well as hydrocarbons are emitted together with the particles and therefore, are enhanced as secondary pollutants.

Particulate matter contains particles close to a diameter of ten micrometers in the atmosphere. Larger particles contain smoke as well as soot that have been incompletely combusted especially from diesel. PM has been pointed out as the most hazardous constituent of automobile exhaust (CTA 9).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They infiltrate the respiratory system building up to become irritants and leads to nasal congestion, sinusitis and asthma. Exposure to PM is directly linked with asthma and subsequent hospitalizations. According to International Centre for Technology Assessment (CTA), “ for every 10 micrograms/meter3 increase in PM exposure, hospital admissions rose by 7% for patients with respiratory disease, 3.5% for patients with acute respiratory illnesses, and 3% for patients with cardiovascular disease” (9).

On the same note, California EPA maintains that for each “10 micrograms/meter3 increase in PM exposure level to 2.5% cause increase in emergency room visits and 1% increase in mortality for people with pneumonia” (CTA 9). Besides, many Americans end up having premature deaths due to PM exposure. Exposure to PM for instance may lead to irritations in the respiratory system, which leads to cognitive complications as well as depression.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

VOCs are as well referred to as aromatic hydrocarbons and are emitted when burning or on vaporizing fossil fuels. They include benzene, toluene, and formaldehydes among others (Krzyżanowski et al. 55).

They are detrimental environmentally and adversely affect human health, having been identified as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). For instance, 1, 3-butadiene and benzene have been identified as being carcinogenic and are attributed to cause breast cancer. These carcinogens affect an individual with increased exposure while inhaled benzene has been linked with leukemia (CTA 13).

It may also cause mutations and changes in bone marrow and blood cells. A separate study reflects that ethyl benzene has been attributed to tumor growth while exposure to benzene by females leads to menstrual abnormalities as well as atrophied ovaries and infertilities (CTA 13). Exposure to 1, 3-butadine affects the respiratory system and skeletal deformities while inhaled toluene causes lung irritations, CNS disorders and spontaneous abortions.

Carbon Monoxide

CO is released as gaseous byproduct when gasoline and diesel burns incompletely. According to CTA, “ a newer model, properly maintained car, emits about 420 pounds of CO each year, while a newer model, properly maintained SUV, emits 547 pounds over the same period” (23).

As a result, poorly maintained old automobiles, which have faulty emission control systems, lead to more emissions of carbon monoxide. Besides, a cold Engine releases more carbon monoxide as compared to a warmer one. Hence, the emission of this gas in cities is notably more during winter as compared to summer. In general 60 percent of carbon monoxide emission is from automobiles, but in cities it is emitted by up to 95 percent due to traffic jams (CTA 23).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Air Pollution by Automobiles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chemical substance released is the carbon monoxide, which is highly toxic and is emitted during the burning of gasoline. After it is inhaled, it interferes with oxygen circulation in the body’s vital organs such as the brain and heart through combining with hemoglobin. This may not only accelerate the already present illnesses within the body, but also could lead to death.

When oxygen brain supply diminishes, this may affect cognitive function of a person. CO toxicity is fatal and is attributed to over ten thousand hospitalizations annually in the U.S. It is also attributed to suicidal deaths where individuals intoxicate themselves from the exhaust content.

Accidental fatalities in the U.S since 1977 to 1988 were over one thousand one hundred individuals, who died while riding in these automobiles (CTA 23). Acute intoxication with carbon monoxide causes inadequate oxygen supply in vital organs, which adversely affect vulnerable groups such as the elderly and individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

The California Air Resource Board (CARB) conducted tests during onrush and off- rush hours and noted that “average in-car CO levels ranged from 3.5 ppm in the freeway carpool lanes to 5.1 ppm in regular freeway lanes during rush hour.

The average peak CO concentrations in the lead test car during the freeway rush hour runs were 34.0 ppm. Compared to 26.5 ppm for freeway non rush hour runs, and 9.0 ppm for freeway carpool lane runs” (CTA 27). This was attributed to traffics jam where large trucks emit more CO and intoxicate the rest vehicles.

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen Oxides not only causes ground-level ozone but is also is attributed to the formation of acid rain. As a result, respiratory irritation occurs that could deteriorate related illnesses such as asthma. It results to a reduced lung capacity and therefore, one becomes prone to infections resulting to asthma influenza and also pneumonia. If exposure does not exceed 30 ppb, hypersensitivity of airways occurs while 15 ppb results to irritations.

Over 80 ppb leads to respiratory diseases (CTA 32). Nitrogen oxides that are emitted by automobiles irritate the lungs weakening the immunity against respiratory infections like influenza and pneumonia. Nitrogen oxides also are attributed to the formation of particulate matter as well as ozone near the ground (Sevigny 1).

Ozone

Ozone at ground level is detrimental to human health resulting from smog, which is usually great in summer. Ozone is not only caustic but is attributed to lung damage and respiratory illnesses such as asthma. It also causes irritation on reduced exposure but more exposure is linked to hospitalizations as reflected from a met analysis study, which indicate that “asthma, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increase by 6% for every 50 ppb increase in peak ozone exposure” (CTA 33).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Air Pollution by Automobiles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This affects especially children and old people, exacerbates asthma and results to fatalities for persons over the age of sixty five. However, ozone is formed as a result of a chemical reaction from automobile pollutants and sunlight (Frumkin 202).

Hydrocarbons, Sulfur dioxide and Lead

Yet another component of automobile pollutants is the hydrocarbons. They undergo a reaction with nitrogen oxides under solar energy to comprise the ozone which is usually at a ground level to result to smog. Ozone is very essential when it in the upper atmosphere but when it’s near the ground, it is attributed to respiratory system irritation leading to coughs, chocks, as well as a declined lung capacity.

Sulfur dioxide on the other hand is released by motor vehicle after combustion of fuels comprising sulfur such as diesels (Krzyżanowski et al. 37). It is known to react with the atmosphere to result to substances that are dangerous to the newborns and the people who have asthma. Other toxic chemical substances emitted by automobiles have been associated with defective births, cancer as well as other diseases.

They especially have been directly linked with the rise in global fatalities, and such emissions include lead. Leaded gasoline has long been causing lead pollution until it was banned in the U.S but it is still in use in other parts of the world. Lead for instance, is known as a cumulative toxin, which defects the brain development especially in small children and most importantly, has been linked with hypertension and related fatalities.

Lead exposure is mostly achieved from leaded gasoline. It impairs the central nervous system thus deteriorates the mental function, resulting to memory and learning impairment. Lead causes neurological dysfunction and results to psychological anguish that may deteriorate the mental state of a person. Lead exposure results to neurotoxicity, which impairs cognitive functions

Efforts to Curb Automobile Pollution

Automobile pollution not only causes health concerns such as lung cancers, but also has secondary effects when emitted to the atmosphere.

This has raised the concern of the government and various environmental agencies in the U.S. Since 1970s, air quality has been pursued by the United States government through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Sevigny 1). The passage of Motor Vehicle Air pollution Control Act of 1965 by the federal government had to review level of automobile emission to set the appropriate standards (Jacobson 211).

The Nixon Administration tried to manage pollution from automobile as one of its many objectives when it passed the Clean Air Act in 1965 (Bates

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The California’s Budget Process Qualitative Research Essay cheap essay help

Introduction The budgeting process of any given state is an arduous task since it involves a number of active processes. A budget of a country is reviewed annually in order to determine the expenditures within that fiscal financial year.

The California budget process is a dynamic process which requires regular reviews in forms and procedures, law, descriptions and instructions among other factors. The process involves the combination of the country’s assembly phases which includes the executive, legislature and the governor’s. These assembly phases (executive, legislature, and governor) work integrally and are directly coordinated with the public input, the economy, federal and local governments, initiatives and legislation, legal issues and the natural events.

By embracing literature review, this case study will look at the California budget, how it works, how and where they get their money, the problems the system face. Besides, the paper will address the available alternatives ways of solving these problems. Consequently, the paper will point out the recommendations available to these problems.

Background of the study This case study identifies the California’s budget process and how its budget process works to effectively manage the expenditures of California’s annual fiscal year. The analysis will focus on the stages involved from the initial design process to the final implementation process of the budget process of the California state.

The study will also focus on the financiers of the budgeting process and the different criteria employed by the government of the California state to facilitate the smooth funding operations of the budget process to ensure efficiency. The study will also analyze the various challenges or problems faced by the California state with the budget process.

The study will identify these problems and elaborate on them and look at the causes of these problems. The study will determine the possible solutions to the present problems and draw up recommendations to be taken.

Literature review California budget process

According to Department of Finance (2011), The California budget process is formulated by the assembly that draws out a simultaneous budget resolution annually. The house lays out a long-term plan (usually five years) of the California state deficit targets, revenues and the overall total expenditures. The president’s signature and the influence of law are omitted by the congress during the process of the budget resolution, hence, neither the president nor the force of law possess the right to reject the proposed budget resolution by the congress.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The initial process in the budget resolution involves the formulation of a strategy to allocate the gross total expenditures among the key departments of the government such as health, transportation, defense among others. The way the money should be spent is determined by the senate and the house committees to the appropriate individual congressional committees and their subcommittees (Department of Finance, 2011).

The independent congressional committee then carefully analyses the budget for consistency with the aggregate targets, properly analyzing program by program and check on the consistency of the details of the budget (Anagnoson, 48). The overall and the concluding debate on the budget resolution focus on the budgets of the individual programs and their implications.

The congress committee seeks technical advices on matters pertaining to the budget in a non- partisan way through the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). The house and senate committees ensure that all the bills which pass through, its structure are attached with a CBO cost estimate. The purpose of the attached CBO cost appraisal document is to establish consistency between the proposed spending and the budget resolution’s targets.

According to Edmund G. Brown (2011), the governor appoints the director of finance who also serves as the chief financial policy advisor. The director of finance apart from being the senior staff, he is also a member of the Governor’s cabinet.

The financial process is very dynamic since new laws are enacted regularly, available resources increases or decreases continuously, priorities change regularly. Administration changes constantly and new regulations are adopted regularly. The government Code Section 13070 grants the general authority to the department of finance. This section also grants the Department of Finance the mandate to oversee all business and financial policies of the state.

The director of finance is responsible for various state activities which include saving of the state funds through pooling money under the investment board, overseeing the capital expenditure projects for the public works board, investment of the state teacher’s retirement funds, hearing and deciding on the state mandate commission and distributes school construction funds through the state allocation board.

The legislature liaises with the Department of Finance through a number of reporting requirements such as testifying and analyzing on the legislation which appears before the legislature, defending the governor’s budget and presenting the governor’s budget (Anagnoson, 97).

We will write a custom Essay on The California’s Budget Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other state departments are constantly interacting and communicating with the Department of Finance through various activities such as establishing of the accounting systems, communicating the governor’s fiscal policy, reviewing of the fiscal proposals, administering and enacting of the budget process, analyzing legislation and auditing department expenditures.

According to Ana (2011), the California budget process is a dynamic process which involves the combination of three phases which are, the executive budgets, the legislature’s budget and the governors’ budget, with the influences of the public, the economy, legal issues, political interactions, initiatives and legislation, and the correlation between the local and the federal governments. The complexity and the size of the California state results to in variances in maintaining and establishing an orderly process.

The budget development stage initializes with the submission of the budget to the legislation by the governor. The budget is generally supposed to be submitted by January 10 of every year (Anagnoson, 125). In cases of the proposed expenditures exceeding the estimated revenues, the governor is expected to endorse the possible sources for the additional funding.

The governor’s chief financial advisor who is also the director of finance oversees the preparation of the governor’s budget, by issuing directives to be enacted in the preparation approach to his subordinates primarily the departments and agencies. The current basic strategy utilized by the California state is incremental budgeting, but previously the state adopted approaches such as the total quality management, management by objectives and the zero- based budgeting (Edmund G. Brown, 2011).

The increment plan of the budget method employs the use of Budget Change Plan (BCP), a deed which proposes variations from the existing budget. The finance unit then evaluates and assesses the BCPs. Contrary, the finance department heads, handles the proposals of the non-agency departments. In cases of unresolved issues which the finance staff and departments are unable to resolve, they are handed over to the director of finance for further and detail discussions.

The governor is the only person with the mandate to handle the very sensitive issues. The finance unit harmonizes the publication of various reports consisting, the package of the governor’s budget and upon accomplishment of all departmental major decisions.

Besides, the governor’s budget, salaries and wages supplement, governor’s forecast summary and the governor’s budget highlights also included in the publication. The final ratification of unveiling the budget lies on the governor who does so at an official press meeting. Among the governor’s, key speeches are the general arrangement for management’s budget priorities and policies.

The constitution requires that the budget bill must accompany the governor’s budget listing recommendations for the new expenditures to be debated upon (Ana, 2011). The committees involved in the budget bill is varied, but mainly composed of; the congress budget team, the financial evaluation team and the senate budget team.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The California’s Budget Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These committees role includes allocation of the budget bills to various subcommittees which responsible for the budget hearings, which normally takes place in late February after the issuance of the ‘analysis of the budget bill’. The common statutory budget team employs the legislative specialists together with other departmental personnel’s so as to provide a clear and precise to approvals at sub-committee stage, however, their recommendation can necessitate adjustment in the governor’s budget scheme, if a need arises.

The public and lobby groups are also open to express their views at the hearings. In cases of any occurring adjustments, the department of finance proposes through the documents commonly known as the ‘finance letters’. By April 1, the legislature should be in possession of all proposed documents, such as the May Revision and the Capital Outlay.

By May 14, the traditional May Revision adjustments are appropriate whereas, the Capital Outlay adjustments are due by May 1. The final budget decisions on major programs such as Human Services, Health, Corrections and Education can only be made after the May Revision has been updated (Ana, 2011).

A subcommittee relays its findings to the entire committee members, upon completion of its activities. After adopting the budget by the relevant committee, recommendations are outlined which forms a basis for the voting procedure. The ability of the bill to be passed depends on the majority vote system which is the two-thirds vote. Consequently, the passing of the budget bill allows the Assembly and Senate version of the bill to be analyzed and adjusted during the budget conference committee in readiness for approval in the house.

In case, a consensus in not reached within the conference committee, the unresolved issues are dealt with by the Big 5 who includes the President, the Governor, Pro Tempore, minority leaders of both houses and the Speaker of the National Assembly (Ana, 2011). Receivership of a two-thirds vote of each house validates the passage of the budget bill to the governor, who may reduce an item of appropriation.

Once the budget bill has been enacted, the department of finance publishes these three documents: final change book, final budget summary and the California state budget highlights.

In cases of changes in the budget which may be proposed by the legislature or the governor, separate bills (trailer bills) are launched to promote the changes and are heard simultaneously with the budget bill. February 1 is the date when all proposed constitutional changes which facilitates the implementation of the budget bill due (Edmund G. Brown, 2011).

The primary source for any misuse is the budget act and the expense authority is also provided by the special legislation and the constant constitutional appropriations. Departments and state agencies must work within the stipulated budget plans and must also comply with the preset standards of the legislature.

The legislature has established some flexibility measures in the budget expenditure to cope with unexpected emergencies such as natural disasters. Also, there are provisions in the legislature for budget adjustments in the budget act, which requires the consent of the Director of Finance.

Provisions which necessitate adjustment involve; variations in compensation, deficiencies, modifications to federal funding stages, and intra-item handovers. Executive orders, budget revisions and letters, are the medium through which budget changes is approved by the Department of Finance (Ana, 2011). The changes are then sent to the state controller’s office to include in its records for accounting. The governor can adjust the spending plan in-cases of emergencies but not to alter appropriations.

California state financier

The government is responsible for promoting the resources needed to facilitate the orderly process of the budget process. The government funds the budget process through the use of the state’s annual financial reservoirs. The government allocates the funds from the pooled money investment board with a key mandate of investing in the state funds.

The state allocation board is responsible for the allocation of funds for schools developments and constructions (Edmund G. Brown, 2011). The state teacher’s retirement system is mandated to infuse the system’s fund and the provision of the surveillance capital outlay projects are facilitated by the public works board.

California’s problems with the budget

According to Yeh (2010), the increase in the critical domestic economic crisis has led to major unprecedented budget, shortfall in the state of California. Each and every department and area of the California state has been crashed by this financial crisis. The increase in the deepening effect of the global recession has greatly attributed to the deteriorating state of the California economy, increasing the deficit set to high figures above $ 26 billion (Yeh, 2010).

Recommendations for solutions to California’s budget problems The legislature was submitted by the department a set of savings scheme which targeted, to deliver $334 million in General Fund savings in the financial year 2009-2010. Among the key areas that the savings plan would affect includes the following ten areas among numerous others (Yeh, 2010):

Federal funding, the federal funding system, will have to be expanded to increase the money received by the California state. The anticipated funding estimate is $78.8 million, and the department will be in partnership with the Medicaid services, federal centers for Medicare, and Medicaid services and the department of health care services (Department of Finance, 2011).

Adding of regional center operations, the overall operations of the regional center can be reduced by reducing one time regional centers, elimination of triennial quality assurance review and the elimination of the eligibility criteria for early start children.

Merging of the quality assurance studies, an improved unified quality assurance system will be enacted. The quality assurance consolidation estimates to $2.0 million.

Elimination of early start programs, an alternate program, will be established to swap for services and eligibility for early start programs.

Introduction of new services for seniors, new services which cater for, the needs of the aging consumers should be designed. Consumers who fall over the 50 age group mark to select preferred option (Department of Finance, 2011).

Reforms in the transportation sector, the regional centers to come up with alternatives to cheaper transportation solutions that are affordable to the consumers.

Works Cited Ana, J Matosantos. Department of Finance. 2008. Web.

Anagnoson, J Theodore, Bonetto, Gerald, Buck, Vincent J, Deleon, Richard, E

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The Problem of Obesity in Childhood Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Obesity is a serious disorder that must be prevented since prevention is better than cure. This is one of the most prevalent diseases in children in the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. In prevention of this disorder, physical exercises should be enhanced in small children. In both countries, seriousness in controlling this devastating calamity should be enhanced to ensure that by 2015, the affected number is decreasing instead of rising.

Every individual should be in a position of trying to control the disease. It has also been revealed that the disorder is affecting people of other ages. Proper and optimistic strategies have to be laid down to curb the problem and to save the generations to come. The health sectors in these two countries should be on the front line in controlling this epidemic and educating people (Kopelman, 2005).

After the research was conducted, effective measures in controlling this disorder were found to be optimistic if followed to the latter. If applied it will control the problem and save future generations. One of the ways is to ensure that newborns are breastfed as per the guidelines of doctors. This will help in controlling occurrence of obesity in days to come. In addition to breastfeeding, parents and children should be educated on nutritive and healthy diets (Dietz

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International Marketing Plan for Tata Nano Quantitative Research Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The aim of this case study is to develop an international marketing plan for ‘Tata Nano’ the world’s lowest price car with lowest fuel consumption produced by the Tata Motors of India. To carry out the marketing plan, this report will provide historical background and cultural background of host country and give a brief overview of the company and economic analysis of home country India including an export diagnosis of the company.

Background of the Company TSL (2011) reported that the Tata group stated it journey in 1868 and now operating in eighty countries with ninety different subsidiaries with a market capitalization of US$ 100.39 billion while its 57% of the revenue comes from export. Donlan (2005) mentioned that in 2003, the hundred and forty years old group of companies announced in the Geneva Motor Show that Tata Motors would produce world’s cheapest car ’Tata- Nano’.

In 2006, Tata Motors started to establish its Nano plant at Singur of West Bengal in India by accruing 1,000 acres of land, which was disturbed by the political violence of farmers who were not willing to give agricultural land for Nano plant. After trilateral negotiation with the government political parties and entrepreneurs Tata Nano successfully came in the market in March 2009 and the market response were more than expectation due to the world’s cheapest car with highest energy efficiency both in home and abroad.

However, this brand is popularly known as a raise- engine, cheap, four- passenger city automobile and it is generally a silver bodied car. Some common features of this product include single windscreen wiper, three pull nets on wheels, single mirror without CD player or radio along with airbags and power steering and 623cc engine, etc.

The Nano has three basic models offering distinct patterns of additional values regarding without additional benefits, with air condition and with power windows along with air condition. According to the annual report 2010 of this company, its outer layout has designed by Italian Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering, and its engine configurations involve 2 cylinder petrol, value of Motronic engine, 35 PS power, 48 N.m Torque and the compression ratio of 9:5:1.

Regarding suspension, brakes and tires, the car has 180 mm of front and 180 mm of rear brake, 1315 mm of rear and 1325 mm of from track and finally, McPherson strut of front and free coil spring of rear suspension while its wheels are sized as 12 inches.

It has the average speed of 60 km/h with the maximum limit of 105 km/h a full efficiency is 23.6 km per liter; however, it is a rear wheel drive car that has 4 speeds manual spreads with automatic rack and pinion steering with 4 meters of revolving radius. Various entities supply its multiple parts among them some are Bosch, Caparo, Delphi, Ficosa, GKN, Mahle, TRW, Visteon and AG etc. (Tata Nano, 2011)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PEST analysis The PEST analysis of Tata Nano for US market is shown below-

Political factors: USA is the country that has relatively stable government with specific and advantageous business policies for foreign companies, like- Tata. Also the country’s local government already has several trading relations with various Indian vendors which would leverage the introduction of Nano into that country (USA Forum, 2011).

Economic factors: The overall economic condition of USA is very well and for this, it is considered the strongest economy in the world. Thus, Tata needs to consider a number of integral factors, like- interest rates, inflation and unemployment level and GDP etc. because those factors can positively or negatively affect the sales and profitability from the product (USA Forum, 2011).

Socio- cultural factors: It incorporates prime religion, local attitude towards imported products, projected influence of language, recreation and leisure pattern of people, environmental concern and the practice of green marketing, family pattern and life cycle etc. (USA Forum, 2011).

Technological factors: One of the prime characteristics of US consumers is that they are highly technologically advanced than many other consumers of other parts of the world. So, this factor includes customer affordability to enjoy new technology, habituation of using online distribution channel and the potential to use technology more than product differentiation as providing customer service or promotion (USA Forum, 2011).

Relevant History

Library of Congress (2004) pointed out that India is one of the Asian emerging economies that became independent in 1947 coming out from British colonial rule more than a two centuries, the country upholds multi party federal democratic system based on secularism and social justice. In context of population, India is the world’s prevalent democratic country that has successfully evidenced balance of power between the central and state government with rich diversity of nations while the country huge political unrest with a number of isolation movements.

Kujur (2008) mentioned that the remarkable political and social unrest of India has aligned with underground political organizations like Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of India, People’s War Group, Maoist Communist Centre and Naxal Movement all these go with arms straggle that seriously hampered the smooth investment environment of country.

We will write a custom Essay on International Marketing Plan for Tata Nano specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government and law enforcement agencies have to engage special effort for the unification of the country and to protect terrorist trends of communist groups and liberation activists. The major political parties who are in democratic practice are Congress- that carried out independence, BJP and Left Alliances though there are dozens of regional parties in every state with strong institutional infrastructure to protect isolation or so called liberation movement.

With far above the ground religion diversity such as Hindu, Muslim, Buddha, and Christen, Indian political system has ensured human right, freedom of speech, liberty of media, and nourishing scholars to face the challenger of globalization though there are enough evidence of emergency and presidential rule in some provinces.

In the province West Bengal where the Tata Nano plant situated, has ruled by left alliance under the leadership of communist party for more than four decades, and the Tata Motors has to face serious political disturbance with its Nano project though the government has strong support for Tata.

Population

IndexMundi (2011) forecasted that the total population of India is approximately 1,189,172,906 in 2011 while it was 1,173,108,018 in 2010. Initially, the population growth rate was high, but not this rate is reducing dramatically, for instance, in 2004 and 2007, it was 2.91 % and 3.15% approximately and now the growth rate is 1.39%.

Figure 1: Total population of India from 2003 to 2011

Source: IndexMundi (2011)

Legal System

India is a promising market to the present corporate houses and the legal system of India is very flexible to the multinationals and new entrants as the government tries to ensure the highest possible business-friendly environment to the firms, as a result, the policy makers support to increase Foreign Direct Investments.

However, it is notable that commercial legislation regarding labor and environmental concerns are theoretically very strong, but practically practice of labor law and ethical codes is not too standard in terms of remuneration, workplace safety and compensation issues.

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For distributing Nano in the USA, the marketer can import the ‘easy- to- assemble’ kits from their home country and then the products should assemble at certain locations. After that, the company should redistribute the finished cars to the various showrooms throughout the country and fifty sales centers can be opened for this purpose (TNN, 2011).

Gross National Product (GNP) of India:

ICAI (2008) pointed out that Indian GNP[1] calculated by adding net factor incomes from foreign counties with GDP[2] and subtracting the foreigners income from India while it is equated as GNP = GDP NFIA [3]; NFIA indicates the balance of export earning and import spending.

In this process, service rendered for free of cost are not taken into account of GNP, at the same time capital gains and losses are also dropped from this calculation as they are not the consequence of concurrent economic activities of that year. During the 10th five years plan India targeted 8% GNP growth but in practically the country has gained 7.6 % while the country pointed to gain 8.5 %.

Zaman et al (2008) added that there is no particular standard to identify the gross national income in India, it has incorporated a number of factors, while the economic growth of the country are benchmarking with GNP growth, per capita income, renovation with multidimensional course of action connecting the restructuring and progress of entire economy with social systems.

At the same time in Indian, the improvements of incomes and outputs are characteristically engross with fundamental changes in institutional infrastructure, education, social and political alignments, different ethic groups along with administrative structure.

The export data of Indian statistically demonstrates noteworthy positive signs and its export are in intensifying with upper trend that point toward potency of the economy while the FDI[4] inflow in the country is a vital concern of the economy that has presented statistically momentous progress. The Indian GNP from 1990 to 2006 has demonstrated in the following table as follow-

Figure 2: Indian GNP Table 1970 – 2006

Source: Zaman et al (2008)

WUSTL (2011) pointed out that the Indian economy is the world’s eleventh largest economy with GNP of US$ 2400 billion in context of purchasing power parity while the agriculture sector contributes 25.3 %, industrial production donates 26.2 %, manufacturing segment produces 15.1 %, and rest 33.4 % contributed by the service sector.

For the country has been progressing in its GNP growth at a targeted growth of 8 % and the driving force laid behind for such achievement are the democratic society with low cost labor, vibrant capital market, and liberalized capital market and open window for foreign direct investment.

Principal Industrial Sector of India

The raising sectors of India those are aimed to compete in the global market are as biotechnology, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, iron, steel, chemicals, vehicles, entertainment, alternative energy resources, software, and information technology and the country already proved its successful footstep for IT industry while major multinational companies are deeply concerned with the Indian market.

WUSTL (2011) also added that the major growth driver of Indian economy and the biggest asset for future growth is its competent people while the population of the country has been growing at 1.8% per year with increasing education rate and the domestic customer market is growing 5 to 10 percent per annum.

Principal Exports

Johansson (2008) stated that exporting means the promotion and direct sells of locally manufactured products in the foreign market and it is a well-developed and conventional form of strategy to capture international markets.

As a result, export is the core basis of revenue for the India’s financial system because it generates huge amount of money from this segment and earning from exports is increasing per year, for instance, India’s net exports earning was approximately $168.2 billion in 2010 whereas economists estimate $201 billion in current year (IndexMundi, 2010). However, the following figure demonstrates the actual figure of exports from 2003 to 2011 –

Fiscal Year Total Imports ($billion) Rank 2003 44.50 32 2004 57.24 31 2005 69.18 33 2006 76.23 33 2007 112.00 29 2008 151.30 25 2009 176.40 25 2010 168.20 21 2011 201.00 22 Figure 3: Net Exports

Source: IndexMundi (2011)

Trade Deficits

Library of Congress (2004) India’s negative trade balance has grown gradually from last three decades such as in 2010 exports were $168.20 billion and imports were $253.90 billion, resultant Trade Deficits were of $85.7 billion whereas Indexmundi (2011) estimated that this negative balance of trade would be more than $126 billion.

Figure 4: Surplus or Trade Deficits

Source: Trading Economics (2011)

Cultural Analysis Education and literacy rates:

The US government is basically responsible for providing education with three sectors of funds as state, federal and local. More than 77% people have completed their educational life from kindergarten to graduation level. Among the adults, more than 85% have finished their high school level and 27% have completed bachelor’s degree or more.

This sophisticated educational background of the country is an optimistic factor for Nano since education assists knowledge and such knowledge would help US customers to understand the technical and general superiority of the car. For example, the white color car purchasers would be highly conscious about the safety issue of a car rather than any other configurations. In this regard, Nano would be able to gain much of their attention because of its careful safety arrangements (USA Forum, 2011).

Social classes

In USA, social class is a mixture of educational achievement, occupational and income sovereignty that influences its culture highly. In general, there are three layers of social classes as high, medium and low. The upper section involves in luxury consumptions and leisure. The middle class is commonly identified as the educated class having some key values.

Although their budget is limited, they often have more opportunity to enjoy more travels and vacation. They want to have such consumptions which can be obtained at lowest price and yield in highest return. They are not at economy level but they are to maintain economy at their living. The working class is the top sufferer of economic vulnerability.

This class and many middle class individuals frequently face job downsize. Moreover, the US workforce is highly productive as the average per week working hour is above 40 hours (USA Forum, 2011). In these circumstances, the Nano can be offered for the middle and especially the low class segment of US society.

Since the car is positioned as an affordable item for all, this segment can easily find it suitable for both purchase and usage. The middle class would also prefer it by considering the economy along with the competitive advantages offered by the Nano (USA Forum, 2011).

Belief system

Most of the Americans commonly believe in equal opportunity for all in the society. Here, the concept of individuality and self- expression are highly emphasized. Competition is also a common thought which is practiced by progressive attitude for improvement. For them, tradition is less valuable as they trust in rationality rather than emotion for taking any decision.

This attitude is motivating for Nano as if they find it better than other American cars; they would be interested for buying this car. The integral parts and other value added features of Nano would be able to attract the rational sense of satisfaction of local customers (Virtual USA, 2011).

Language

Above 97% of Americans speak in English although there are above 300 native languages. Some other commonly used native languages are Spanish, Indo- European, Pacific Islander and Asian languages etc. The American dialect is called American English which has 4 major divisions involving south, north- eastern, mid- western and inland north.

Both local and immigrants use English as a common language that acts as the symbol of cultural integration and can also influence the performance of Nano. Language can act as common form of promotional device for Nano. For example, one customer can express his/ her positive feeling about the car to another one by using language and thus form viral marketing (USA Forum, 2011).

Living conditions and leisure

Housing is a prime factor of living conditions. In urban areas of USA, most of the families live in semi- attached houses and apartments. Existence of dwelling houses, business units, shopping malls and educational institutes as a single unit is also common here. Urban dwellers also need to have more travel by mass transportation while children are familiar for walking or driving bicycle than rural areas.

Life is comparatively busy and hasty in urban areas rather than rural ones. Thus, the small, city car image of Nano would be highly meaningful for accelerating such pattern of busy life. Since having a personal transport is very essential regarding the American living standard, the evolvement of Nano can satisfy such requirement with its size, engine and speed etc. (Virtual USA, 2011).

The Americans undertake a number of activities during their weekly holidays and vacations. Around the year, outdoor is the most common form of enjoying leisure. Some other forms of holiday activities are hiking, sailing, skiing, camping and mount riding etc. Participation of professional and non- professional sports is equally well- known there. The role of a private car is significant for enjoying that different types of leisure tasks, especially for outdoor.

For many small families having the maximum members of 4 and single college or university students who want to spend their weekend at hill top, river side or jungle camp, Tata Nano would be the perfect choice regarding the overall size, passenger capacity and longevity of the car. Its 4 wheel driving condition would also be preferred by those who want to pass their vacation on rough hilly areas (USA Forum, 2011).

Music and folklore

Among a number of versions, American young generations and teens basically prefer rocking and cheerful music. This is particularly true when they go for a long drive alone or accompanied by some friends or simply enjoy a party.

Folklore has also various dimensions regarding patriotism or fascination for cultural values which can be a symbol of expressive culture. Since the choice of music and orientation of folklore can significantly affect customer’s preference and attitude towards a product, both those factors would be notable for the US market expression of Nano (Virtual USA, 2011).

Others

There are some other cultural elements that should be considered for Tata Nano in USA. Such as-

Family patterns: Divorce is a common phenomenon of American culture. Almost all the Americans commonly face this incident at least once in their life. For this, the trend of living in a single father or single mother family is increasing. Many also remarry; having kids and then continues a nuclear family. Thus, the specialization and features of Nano are adjustable for meeting the need of such families. Moreover, its low price offer would also be attractive towards those families (USA Forum, 2011).

Fashion: Americans believe in flexibility and informality as a part of their fashion whether it is for clothing, eating, traveling or driving. This simplicity would be effective for expanding the market of Nano as the car integrates most of the mandatory parts and eliminates several common but less necessary items, like- CD player (Virtual USA, 2011).

Culture of automobiles: In USA, the evolvement of sub- urban areas and the need of working class for communicating with cities are accelerating the need of having a private car. In almost all the states of USA, people have their own automobiles whether the brand or price would be. So, in this situation, the Nano poses a wide market potential since the car can be offered for a larger group of people for whom it is one of their primary needs (USA Forum, 2011).

Evaluation of the Possible Success of Product

The growth rate of the world economy declined from 5.2% in 2007 to 3.2% in 2008 because of global financial downturn and this crisis has started from the US market. The impact of this economic downturn was severe in this market as many companies has collapsed or insolvent due to liquidity crisis of Banks, corporate frauds or other financial management problems.

On the other hand, Banks had not interested to provide car loan because of increasing number of unemployment rate and unstable market condition, which increased the risk of failure to pay back. As a result, it was difficult for the middle class people to purchase large and luxuries cars within their budget and this force creates the opportunity for the small car manufactures to enter the developed countries with their low cost products.

However, Ruddick (2009) in The Telegraph reported that the largest automobile market has fallen dramatically due to recessionary pressure regarding unstable oil prices and lower employment ratio. In addition, market leader General Motors has also experienced unfortunate loss as in 2009, GM’s sales have been lowered by 30% than 2008 and this company had fired international white- collar payroll from 73000 to 63000 with downsizing of 3400 US employees (General Motors, 2010).

However, the market position of GM has declined with the overall market demand after 2008, but it is important to mention that Toyota and other companies have already stared to manufacture small cars in order to create market demand for small sized products and the customers have showed positive response.

On the other hand, IFC (2011) reported that the government of US is not interested to establish foreign companies by FDI, but this crisis must influence the government to reduce tax for foreign companies and flexible entry requirements. As a result, it can assume that the market would be profitable for Tata Nano as the market share of these Japanese companies is increasing in this market.

Characteristics of the Possible Market

The new entrants enjoy huge facilities and greater flexibility in this market because it is the greatest and most technologically dominant economy in the globe.

According to the report of IFC (2011) and Indexmundi (2011), this is the right place for developing products or expanding existing business though newcomers have to face high competition with other entry barriers, but the per capita GDP US$47,400 would minimize these risks. Indexmundi (2011) estimated that more that 12% people of US below poverty line and more than 4.43% Asian migrants who have straggle to sustain in this country.

They also need transportation facilities, but they have not enough money to fulfill their demand, so, they can purchase Tata Nano as it is a comfortable, safe, well-weathered, low emission, and high fuel efficient model. On the other hand, Indexmundi (2011) reported that the unemployment rate is increasing day-by-day, for instance, present unemployment rate of the US is 9.3%, which was 5.8% in 2003.

However, increase rate of unemployment influences the current market position and purchasing power of customers in many ways, such as, bank would not ensure large fund for car. At the same time, middle class and higher class people would like to purchase luxury cars, but there are many small families and single person who also buy small car for their regular uses or reduce fuel costs.

However, there are many companies (like McDonalds, KFC, Fedex, and so on) those offer home delivery services and these companies require transportation system, therefore, local multinational companies can be potential target market of Tata Nano.

Description and Characteristics of Competition

Tata Motors has to compete with numerous direct and indirect auto manufacturers though it is one of the most prominent and the largest markets in the world. However, this company may face hard competition from some other alternative transportation besides large and small, for instance, a significant part of the community use public transportation like bus, railways, trams and so on.

According to the annual report 2010 of Tata, international business of the company had adversely affected by the financial crisis in the main markets, but its’ integrate market share of small vehicle sector has increased by 13.3% and developed brand image in global market.

However, this brand has to face instance competition in local market as many companies like Maruti Suzuki Ltd and Bajaj Auto produce small cars, but Tata Nano has to compete with other multinational like General Motors, Hyundai, and Toyota, which are now manufacturing small cars to compete with Nano to attract middle class customers (Tata Nano, 2011).

Tata Nano’s Distribution in the US Market

Noronha (2005) pointed out that Tata Group has long integration with US market from early 1900s with a huge segment of product and services while the company has enlisted in the New York Stock Exchange with eighty offices all over the USA with ten thousand employments, thus Tata Motors would get some competitive advantage to establish distribution channel for Tata Nano.

Tata Nano being the world’s lowest price car, has a great market demand in rural and urban low-income level people under the current recessionary economy, thus it would be suitable for the company to adopt free distribution channel rather than engaging territorial distributor. The company would first establish at least five sales and service centre covering the US market and all car distributors of US market arte entitled to collect Tata Nano from these points for their customers.

Every distributor would facilitate with handsome commission package depending on their sales volume. The Economic Times (2011) reported that the Tata Motors has already gained a good customer base by purchasing British Auto Company for its Jaguar Land Rover that has an existing market in the US territory.

To distributing Tata Nano, the company has the opportunity to involve the distribution channel of Jaguar Land Rover that would provide a strong distribution with less effort. It has predicted from the car dealer study that such a low price car with low fuels consumption – 54 miles for each gallon of gas would be preferable for the US market even if the price stands at US$ 10,000 and a large number of dealers are interested to act as Tata Nano’s distributor.

Advertising, Promotion and Media used to communicate Product

Tata Motors Ltd is going to undertake several strategic methods in order to boost its sales-configuration in existing market as well as to aware people of prospective market about the features of the products. However, its advertising strategies are now focusing on gratifying and impressing the people who put across abhorrence over Tata’ cars, but the advertising policy for the US market should different from existing market to create market demand with strong market position.

Therefore, the marketer of Tata Nano Brand should consider effective media and promotional strategies to communicate with the customers to develop loyal customer base in the US small car market. However, the marketer will arrange integrated marketing communications (IMC) campaign to aware people about the advantage of this brand to save the environment from air pollution and to get economic benefit in this recessionary period.

As the promotional strategy of the Tata Motors varies in accordance with changing consumer attitudes, demands, and other external factors, the marketer should mainly consider the environmental, socio-cultural and economical factors of the US market in order to arrange IMC campaign and other promotional activities.

Media Plan Key Features Web site Initially, the marketers of Tata Nano will require to find out the web designers or programmers to design an excellent Website with integration of latest software because the US customer mostly collect information from the web content and they also ask feedback by using the company’s website. As a result, they will highlight the main features of the model, key advantage to purchase this car, environmental concern, materials, safety measures and so on; You Tube Nowadays, TV. YouTube was launched in the year of 2005 as a video sharing website which allows users to download, upload, and view as well as share videos, but it is now the most popular and successful website of video sharing service in the cyber world. In addition, YouTube was providing over two billion videos per day, which is almost twice as many as the prime-time audience of all three main US television networks together; therefore, it could replace the traditional television and become the new television Social Networking Site As social networking sites contributed significantly over Tata’s marketing activities, it will use social networking sites like Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and Linkedin in order to attract more customers in the US zone; Billboard and Hoardings these can be every powerful media if the company can utilize this media by conducting proper market research Television Advertising is a type of communication that continuously imposes into people’s daily lives though people do not pay much attention to it, its form of persuasion, and of the extent how it manipulates the culture. At the same time, the Therefore, the marketer will use this media as one of the most effective sources to create customer attention; Radio The cost of advertisement in radio is lower than television, therefore, Tata Motors can also use this media to advertise its Tata Nano Brand Search Engine link in Google, yahoo, MSN and other sites are useful promotional tools for Tata Motors; Newspaper Advertisement in the newspaper is also effective tools Table 1: Media Plan for Tata Nano in the US market

Source: Self generated

Price Range for Competing Products

Conklin (2005) reported that the entry of Japanese auto makers like Toyota, Honda and Nisan have already reduced the market share of the General Motors, and Volkswagen by creating strong customer base in the US car market by using low cost strategies.

At the same time, Tata Nano is the cheapest car brand in the world, which has long experience to enter new market and capture large share within short period using different strategies beside pricing strategy. However, different company setup the price range considering different factors such as market competition, production costs, direct margin, purchasing power of the customers and many other factors.

As Tata Nano is marketed with lowest price structure, it can assume that it will ask cheapest price in the US market though the price would be comparatively higher than the price of other Asian countries. However, the rationale behind this pricing strategy would be included the extra costs to incorporate new features to decrease CO2 emissions and increase the safety measure in the model of Tata Nano.

According to the annual report 2010 of Tata Motors, the price of this brand is only $2500 for international market, but this price changes considering the specific requirements of the markets and external environment, such as, the price of Tata Nano is higher in EU zone. However, Ramesh (2009) reported in The Guardian that the company would develop the European Nano to fulfill the requirements of the USA market in terms of higher safety standards includes airbags and antilock brakes.

As a result, Tata Nano will set up the price of this brand considering EU market where the additional features make this brand more expensive. However, the company can ask $6,000 to $6500 to introduce this brand in the US market because Ramesh (2009) reported it has already asked more than ₤4000 in the EU market.

Market Size and Sales Estimates

According to the data of the World Street Journal, the US market is really potential to the small and Eco friendly car makers. However, WSJ (2011) reported that about 546,687 cars were sold in the US market in May 2011, among these cars 196,498 were small sized.

However, it is important to note that the prospect of small cars is better than luxury cars or large cars in this market because the auto makers aggregate sale volume was only 73,566 luxury cars and 5,962 large cars in May 2011 (WSJ, 2011). Considering this fact, it can be estimated that the annual sale of small cars would be approximately 2357616 units. However, total car market size is also depend on the

On the other hand, the customer behavior of the US market has changed due to the global financial crisis and development of the consciousness about the difficulties of large cars. The recessionary impacts derived the customers to purchase cars at low price and this force influenced small car producers to enter this market. Therefore, it would be easy to Tata Motors to capture large market share of the US car markets with their Tata Nano product.

As this company needs to invest large amount of fund to enter this market, it is important to estimate approximate sales volume in order to avoid market risks. However, this report suggests that Tata Motors should enter the US market with small sales target at the initial stage, for instance, it sales target should 10000 units per month or 120000 units per year. The actual car sales of first year will direct the company to take further step to increase sales volume in this market.

Recommendations From the above discussion, Tata Motors should enter the US market with Tata Nano brand as it has designed and manufactured in such way which assures the low budget customers to purchase a better quality, small size and fashionable car.

On the other hand, the biggest competitive advantage of Nano is its cost cutting features would help the company to create market in the post-recessionary period. Since the company is thinking to renovate the electric version of the car, it is also possible that such electric version would become the least expensive electric automobile with a range of 130 km and lithium- ion batteries.

In addition, the marketers of Tata think that the Nano is safe as the car incorporates some especial features, such as, side arm mirror for passenger, no airbags and wrinkle zone. As the US people highly concern on safety issue, all of these criteria help to have a safe driving at Nano than any other forms of two- wheel cars.

Reference List Conklin, D. C. (2005) General Motors: Acting Strategically. Ortario: Richard Ivey School of Business.

Donlan, T. (2005). Recent History of Tata Motors (TTM). Web.

General Motors (2010) Annual Report 2010 of General Motors Company. Web.

ICAI (2008) National Income India: Concept and Measurement. Web.

IFC (2011) United States: Doing Business 2011 – Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs. Web.

Indexmundi (2011) Country profile of India. Web.

Indexmundi (2011) United States Population below poverty line. Web.

Kujur, R. (2008). Naxal Movement in India: A Profile. Web.

Library of Congress (2004) Country profile India. Web.

Noronha, C. (2005) Good tidings. Web.

Ramesh, R. (2009) Tata Nano: World’s cheapest car is India’s answer for cash-strapped drivers. The Guardian.Web.

Tata Nano (2011). Annual Report 2010 of Tata Nano. Web.

The Economic Times (2011) Tata Motors puts Jaguar, Land Rover back on track. Web.

Trading Economics (2011) India Balance of Trade. Web.

TSL (2011) Leadership with trust. Web.

USA Forum. (2011). United States of America. Web.

Virtual USA. (2011). USA Culture. Web.

WSJ. (2011) Sales and Share of Total Market by Manufacturer. Web.

WUSTL. (2011). Doing Business in India – the Indian way. Web.

Zaman, K. Aman, Q.

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Why might a person need to go through significant personal changes to be an effective essay help online

A change, like a rest, stands out as one among the many inevitable things based on how it manifests itself in the field f leadership especially for those who target at becoming reliable leaders. Yes, they must make significant personal adjustments to ensure that they remain in hand towards leading that formidable unit, whose effectiveness burns down to whoever stands in the helm. There exist several reasons as to why such changes in most cases prove inevitable.

Effective leaders lead by example thus becoming the first people to set the tunes of the things they want their people to do or rather portray. For instance, if one expects his/her team to follow a specific dress code of which he/she does not adhere to, there stands a very high probability of the people he/she leads not grasping the importance of such a code.

Striking a perfect balance between compassionate and firm leadership proves inevitable for effective leaders. Effective leaders show humane concern to their teams’ problems yet remain careful not to compromise productivity.

Being approachable and accommodative are other traits common in an effective team leader (Daft, 2010, p.23). As the head, one must make sure that he/she has the ability to accommodate the different ways of doing things. For instance, some people will take longer to learn or do what others will do in a flash. It proves not the leader’s place therefore to criticize an individual’s pace or mode of learning. Instead, he/she needs a good deal of practice concerning how he/she ought to appreciate people’s discrepancies.

People expect magnanimity of everyone joining the ranks of team leadership (Mann, 1959, p.247). They will always require him/her to give credit where it stands due rewarding efforts made by individuals in his/her team. Effective leaders cultivate for and earn loyalty from their team.

He/she therefore has to modify his character to fit into the shoes of the people he/she leads in order to achieve this loyalty. Remember, the team will only stand by its leader if he/she too stands by it. Thus, the easier it is for the person to gain that dedication, trust and loyalty positively, the higher the chances of him/her becoming an effective leader.

As a result, actual changes will come in handy in the journey towards achieving the aforementioned effective leadership. For instance, a leader needs to adjust his/her actions and behaviors to conform to what he/she expects from the team. “The manager leads the group and the group agree to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal” (Burns, 1978, p.13).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rules are supposed to transcend above individuals for them to function fully. A leader ought to manifest a change concerning his/her style of dealing with people. Therefore, he/she needs to establish himself/herself, not necessarily as a leader, but as a member of the team with which he/she leads.

When conducting a team meeting, he/she should make it all-inclusive asking the team members for opinions and suggestions. “First, listen then offer solutions but when you ask for their opinions let it not just be a formality, instead dedicate yourself to working the issues out” (Stogdill, 1948, p.40).

An effective leader ought to change his/her perceptions towards giving or rewarding. He/she should view it not as a loss but an added advantage that boosts the performance as well as corporation in the team. A reliable leader should prove more approachable.

People will always come for solutions at their convenience without considering the flipside of the situation. He/she foster calmness and professionalism avoiding lashing out in frustration at his/her team members. Leadership is no doubt an art and like all arts, it requires perfection. Either way adjustments have to be made for efficiency to be achieved.

Reference List Burns, M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row Publishers Inc.

Daft, R. (2010). The Leadership Experience. Britain: Southwestern Educational Publishing.

Mann, R. (1959). A Review of the Relationship between Personality and Performance in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241-270.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Why might a person need to go through significant personal changes to be an effective team leader? What are some of the changes required? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stogdill, R. (1948). Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35-71.

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Insurance and Negligence Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

What is negligence According to insurance policy, negligence is defined as any instance that on the part of the policy holder’s that could be blamed for the incidence that occurred, when there is negligent, then the incident was not merely from an accident, but some reluctance, ignorance or anything or such manner can be proved on the part of the policy holder’s.

Depending with the insurance contact engaged, the insurer could cover the loss resulting from a negligence of the policyholder to a certain percentage or alternatively refuse to cater for any loss therein. To prove that a policyholder was negligent, there are four main elements to a negligent, they are:

Existence of a legal duty to use reasonable care The insurer must prove that the policyholder by the terms and conditions of the contract was under legal obligation to take good care of the situation or the subject matter to avoid any case of damage. When signing an insurance policy, there are some conditions that are special to a particular case, in the case that they offer some duty of care to the policyholder, then in case of an incidence that occurred from the bleach of the duty of care, then the case can be said to be a case of negligence.

Failure to perform that duty An insurance policy has some preset conditions that calls for some actions, certain behavior or certain way of handing situation on the side of the policyholder to enforce the contract. In the case that the policyholder has ignored or not performed the duty, then it can be concluded as a case of negligence and the contact can have issues in enforceability. failure to perform that duty can result to negligence and non-compensation of the policyholder.

Damages or injury to the claimant To prove a case of negligence, there must have some damages that have been suffered because of the negligence, in the case of an insurance policy, the subject matter that had been issued must have been damaged or the peril that was insured against must have occurred.

When the damage has occurred, the policyholder will be seeking to enforce the contract and get compensation that is the challenging part of the story; he suffered the damage, but the complainant (the insurance at this level) is claiming that there have been some negligence, thus the damage not enforceable. The insurer assumes that if the policyholder had taken such enough care, then the damage would not have occurred.

Proximate cause relationship between the negligent act and the infliction of damages Under this heading, the law assumes that some acts on the side of the policyholder that might have triggered another thing that is responsible for the damage. In this case, there is the inclusion of third parties or other activities to functions that might be blamed for the damage. When proving this point, the insurance body must show the cause of events and the relationship that occurred in the entire situation to have the damage occur.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The assumption of this element is that a damage can occur but there is not direct influence of the policyholder if the matters of the case are analyzed, then it can be seen that the policy holder was involved in the situation indirectly; the indirect involvement is the prove of negligence.

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United States Citizens Research Paper essay help online free

Table of Contents History of Citizenship

United States Citizenship

Mexican Immigrants

Kurds in Syria

United Arab Emirates Citizenship

Bidoun in Kuwait

Conclusion

References

Citizenship is the ability of a person to be considered a citizen of a given political and social community. Social contract theory states that when a person has a citizenship status, he is given rights and responsibilities. Active citizenship, therefore, means that all citizens are supposed to strive toward making their community better.

This can be done through activities such as active participation in economic activities, volunteer duties, and also engaging in other public duties. A person normally acquires citizenship if he or she satisfies the legal principles in a certain state or country. A citizen is expected to adhere to the laws that are practiced in his or her country and he should also defend his country against its enemies.

Citizenship generally defines how citizens should relate with their government. The concept of citizenship is treated differently in various nations. “In some countries, citizenship can mean a citizen has the right to vote, the right to hold government offices, and the right to receive certain protection from the community, as well as obligation” (Schama, 1990).

For instance, “Australia citizens are allowed to participate in voting, they can contest for public office, and they can also join the military if they are willing” (Akramov, 2009). The fact that a person is residing in a given country does not make him to be considered a citizen of that country. An individual that has migrated to another country is always considered to be an alien.

The rights and obligations of aliens are normally defined by the laws of the country where they live. For example, if an individual moves to U.S.A, he will be expected to behave like other normal U.S citizens. In this case, he will have to pay taxes, also adhere to the laws. Legal aliens may be protected by the law, and they can also acquire property and carry out business activities. However, aliens are not allowed to participate in political processes such as voting.

Citizenry refers to all categories of citizens. “In modern times, citizenship is divided between right of blood and right of soil nations” (Romero, 2005). Right of blood in this case means that a person is given citizenship on the basis of nation state concept and this is common in Europe.

For example, an individual may be considered a citizen due to his ancestral or ethnic background in that country. On the other hand, the right of soil refers to a situation in which an individual acquires citizenship by virtue of having been born in a given territory or nation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marriage is one of the ways through which an individual can acquire citizenship. Naturalization is also another process that can be used to get citizenship in some nations. “In recent years, some intergovernmental organizations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens in their constituent countries” (Akramov, 2009).

Citizenship education is today taught in many countries as part of the school syllabus. This is always meant to make citizens know what is expected of them as citizens. It also enables students to learn more about their rights and obligations. Citizenship curriculum gives students conviction and confidence in order for them to relate with others properly, and bring positive changes in their communities. Last but more importantly, it teaches students to be responsible both morally and socially.

History of Citizenship Even though historical development indicates that democracy has developed to be a fundamental spect of modern social organization, the concept of democratic citizenship has always been suppressed, in the process of developing democratic processes. Citizenship is believed to have started in ancient Greece when a constitutional government was introduced in the city states.

The concept of democratic citizenship or classic model of democracy started in Greece. It enabled citizens to participate in governing their states. “This means that governance was citizenship and citizenship was governance” (Manville, 1990). Citizenship was also seen as part of achieving maturity. It was only citizens that could be regarded as adult members of society, and people could only become adults through citizenship. Rosenberg contends that Solan is the one who introduced citizenship.

Solon stressed on equality of all members of society. He noted that the rich individuals always used their wealth to influence and dominate people. He saw democracy as the only viable means of reversing inequality. Pesistrator is another individual who improved the rights that were accorded to the ordinary man. Apart from this, he also introduced nobility which was practiced with reference to the law.

In the fourth century, Cleisthenes developed classical democracy. He achieved this by raising the number of Athenian tribes from four to ten. In this case, each tribe appointed its leader. People were also clustered into units, and this facilitated the formation of new tribes. During the practice of classic democracy, the idea of citizenship was exercised both at family and neighborhood levels. As civic institutions became prominent, citizenship became increasingly necessary.

A citizen had to be an Athenian or if an individual was an Athenian he was regarded as a citizen. The behavior of an individual also became apparent in private and public spheres. Being part of a family determined ones citizenship. Non Athenians could only be citizens if they joined a given family or tribe. Aristotle defined a citizen as a person who participated or contributed to the decisions and development of his city.

We will write a custom Research Paper on United States Citizens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to him, a citizen is one who has been born by two citizens. He also stated that a responsible citizen should be in a position to rule others, and he should also be ready to be ruled by other individuals. He considered this to be a virtue. A citizen should also engage in state politics. Democracy in Greece remained weak and incomplete until 1789.

Development of citizenship is normally classified into two phases. The first phase preceded the French Revolution, while the second one emerged after the French Revolution. In the first phase, a person was only a citizen if he participated in politics and development. In Sparta, land was not regarded as a prerequisite for acquiring citizenship. Moreover, only few people could be allowed to vote and occupy public office in Sparta.

Citizenship was also treated as a privilege in both Sparta, and Athens. The only difference was that there was a great struggle against democracy in Sparta. The Greeks also encouraged self government. Nonetheless, their democracy was not effective and it was partially practiced. Self government led to coexistence among subcultures. This form of ethnic allegiance is still manifested even today in those countries.

In 509 B.C., the people in Rome started constructing a new empire based on laws and citizenship was considered important. The introduction of the new empire brought the monarchy to an end. Despite the making of the Roman Empire a republic, they failed to practice democratic principles.

The Roman Empire was based on democratic universal citizenship of free men, and a stoic notion of the universal brother hood of mankind. “Greece provided participatory citizen democracy, while Rome provided universal citizenship” (West, 1979). This gave rise to two different concepts about citizenship, which were both adopted in U.S.A. The first set of democracy refers to citizens’ service as well as allegiance to the country.

The second one is about the rights and privileges that citizens are given. In this case, the citizens also have some obligations. For example, they can contribute in government decision making and implementation. In Rome, citizenship was not restricted to the people who were born within its territory.

However, this was not the case in Athens where citizenship was only granted to the people who were born there. The Romans allowed foreigners to acquire their citizenship. In Rome, individuals who had active citizenship were supposed to offer a service of twenty days to the government within a year.

The development and spread of Christianity in Rome also influenced citizenship. Christianity changed how the Romans perception of life, hence, it also affected their values. Christianity advocated for a different loyalty. It encouraged people to be loyal to themselves and the church rather than being loyal to the government. Civic virtue and the value of citizenship waned as the Christian values became more prminent. Nonetheless, citizenship was still able to thrive.

Not sure if you can write a paper on United States Citizens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “The second concept of citizenship was encouraged by the writings of Montaigne, Bacon, Shakespeare, Hobbes, Locke, and Franklin” (Rousseau, 1968). Citizenship was also able to develop due to economic advancement of the people in Europe. The reformation period also partly contributed to the development of citizenship.

Althusius also reinforced the idea that a person is made a citizen through the service he offers to the society. He also introduced modern federalism. Aliens became protected by the laws of England from the seventeenth century. They were allowed to acquire land, but the king still had the power to use land. This sparked protests from citizens, but the protests were not very serious.

In France, the middle ages also experienced much focus on protection of citizens in exchange for taxes. This system continued even during renaissance. For example, Montesquieu described the obligations of a citizen and he also defined citizenship in terms of liberty and equality.

Rousseau also talked about the ideas of Montesquieu and he also came up with his thoughts about the virtuous citizen. Rousseau envisaged a new society that would have equality, and civism. He also emphasized on the need for education. He felt that liberty would only thrive if people were educated. Rousseau’s emphasis on education also led to the development of republicanism.

Hobbes and Locke analyzed citizenship in terms of civic virtue of the society. Hobbes stressed on the influence of a person in the society. On the hand, Locke stressed on a person’s role acquiring resources and also assisting the government. Montesquieu believed that a good citizen is one that bides to the rules, is loyal, and also productive.

Development of liberalism led to the practice of democracy by the people in America. “Liberal concepts such as individualism, republicanism, liberty, equality, and fairness were embraced” (Hobsbawm, 1996). Dietz highlighted the liberal concepts as follows.

Liberal thinking leads to economic advancement. Society should provide an opportunity to people so that they can realize their potential. Individuals are the ones that benefit from formal right and those rights are supposed to be accessed by everyone on an equal basis. People also have the capacity to think rationally hence they have intrinsic worth. “The shortcomings of liberalism can be identified in the legal concepts of rights, interests, contracts, individualism, and negative liberty” (Anderson, 2006).

After French Revolution there was a tremendous growth of democracy and citizenship in Europe. American democracy was developed from the classic ideas of citizenship. Democracy and citizenship have to day become part of Americans’ traditions. As western civilization advanced, democracy, and citizenship were also influenced. The struggle for dominance between the church and the state also jeopardized the development of democracy and citizenship.

The monarchy also tried to sustain its power and this also frustrated citizenship and democracy. As civilization and Christianity gained popularity, the citizenship thoughts and democracy that had been initially suppressed began to thrive. The monarchy was retained in England and it ruled through parliament.

However, the idea of allegiance emerged in America, and it led to the creation of self government and democracy. Democratic government was able to flourish through the citizenship values. Today the pioneer spirit is still continuing, and the Americans still strive for more democratic space as John Dewey envisaged.

United States Citizenship In America, citizenship started during the period of colonialism. During this time, people came together to find solutions to the common challenges that they faced. Apart from this, they also actively engaged in decision making. For example, they could attend public debates where democratic issues were always discussed.

This kind of relationship was altered by some issues and one of them was the need to grow economically. Therefore, people stopped contributing toward decision making. Citizenship became more articulated in terms of rights and privileges and people no longer saw it in terms of political participation.

Citizenship in U.S enables the citizens to enjoy various opportunities which are provided to them through the rights and privileges. For example, they can get federal assistance and they also have access to services offered by the government. “Citizenship in the United States is a status given to individuals that entails specific rights, duties, privileges, and benefits between the United States and the individual” (Huntington, 2004).

The constitution has a citizenship clause that defines how a person can acquire citizen. Therefore, citizenship can be obtained through the following mechanisms. Birth right citizenship is normally offered when a child is born within the territory of U.S. This provision is found in the fourteenth amendment. This amendment states that a person an individual that is born or naturalized within the U.S is considered its citizen and he or she must respect the laws.

Children who have not attained the minimum age of eighteen years are normally not allowed to vote because they are minors. Eighteen years is the age at which children are given the right to have full citizenship. A person’s citizenship remains intact until he dies, unless it is revoked by the government through a legal procedure.

Citizenship is part of the high school course work, and it is meant prepare students to become responsible citizens. Maternity citizenship has been debated and some people consider it to be a loophole through which some people acquire citizenship. In this case, some people claim that some women normally move to U.S illegally so that they can have a chance to reproduce and claim citizenship. Illegal immigrants have increased because of maternity citizenship.

Naturalization is the second means of acquiring citizenship. In this case, a person who was born in another territory that is not part of U.S can be granted citizenship through successful application. An applicant for citizenship is supposed to meet the following conditions. First, he should be law abiding and also morally upright. Secondly, he must have stayed in the country for not less than five years. The applicant should be able to interpret the constitution.

In addition to these, he should know English. They are also supposed to do and pass a compulsory citizenship test. Immigrants who are willing to serve in the military can be allowed to be citizens. Citizens’ contribution to civic activities is not obligatory in U.S. For example, there is no need for a person to attend public gatherings. Even being a member of a certain political party is not important. Some scholars contend that such a trend is likely to affect the future of democracy.

Dual citizenship is a situation where a person legally belongs to many nations. American law enables people to acquire multiple citizenships.

In this case, if a person is a U.S citizen, he can still go to another country and acquire another citizenship. A citizen can renounce or restore his or her citizenship depending on an individual’s choice. A person who is naturalized in U.S is supposed to renounce the citizenship he had before. “However, this renunciation may not necessarily be considered effective by the country of prior citizenship” (Einstein, 2001).

Some people contend that dual citizenship affects patriotic assimilation of Americans and it may also undermine American sovereignty. Nonetheless, the effects of dual citizenship are perceived to be less pernicious by others. Dual citizenship also enables the people who have it own property and work.

Honorary citizenship can be granted in exceptional cases to specific individuals who have demonstrated outstanding services to the country. Seven citizenships of this kind have been warded. For example, Mother Teresa and Sir Winston Churchill are among the few individuals who got honorary citizenship. The relatives of non- citizen soldiers who have died fighting for U.S can be given some assistance.

American citizenship is really valued by many people especially the immigrants who really struggle to get. This is because citizens have access to so many privileges and rights that can enable them to live comfortably. Such rights may not be found in other countries and this indicates the varying nature of citizenship in different territories. Aliens normally do not benefit from some privileges. For example, they usually do not have access to better employment and government services.

Mexican Immigrants Apart from U.S citizens, there are many individuals who work and live U.S illegally. Such individuals do not have proper reasons and documentations for being in that country. They are therefore treated as illegal immigrants. “Illegal immigration has numerous and complex causes, but in general, it consists of people from poor countries seeking a better life opportunities in more developed countries” (Romero, 2005).

Illegal migrations are not allowed because they normally lead to many challenges in the countries where they move to. In U.S illegal immigrants can face many charges including deportation if they are detected by the authorities.

Mexico is the largest source of immigrants in U.S. and one fifth of the total population of legal immigrants living America, are Mexicans. Their large number is attributed to the revision of immigration acts, which have made migration to U.S quite easy. Most of the illegal immigrants in U.S are also from Mexico.

The number of illegal immigrants from Mexico is also growing very fast compared to the ones that are having proper documents. “Migration from Mexico to the United States has accelerated rapidly to the point where about nine percent of the population born in Mexico is now living in the United States” (Huntington, 2004).

This trend is not likely to reduce any soon despite economic decline and the tight security measures that have been adopted to check on illegal migrations. Most of illegal immigrants are always trying to secure better financial opportunities by looking for jobs and good social services in U.S. This is because many people in Mexico do not have access to formal employment, and decent services.

Poverty is also prevalent in Mexico, and this encourages most of them to move out of the country. When some jobs are created in their country, they can never meet the ever growing demand for employment opportunities. The jobs in Mexico are also having low payments with poor incentives.

The distance between Mexico and United States is also short and it contributes to the high rate of immigrants from Mexico. At present, Mexicans form a substantial population in U.S and they have also developed an influential social group in U.S. “Mexican American culture will continue to shape U.S. life in language, politics, food, and daily living and will help define the nation’s identity for a new century” (Huntington, 2004).

Kurds in Syria Among the minority tribes in Syria, Kurds are the largest and they occupy approximately ten percent of the population in the country. Majority of Kurds is Sunni Muslims. In addition to this, there are also Yazidi and Yarsan Kurds. A few of them are Christians. The Kurds have always faced myriad challenges due to the fact that the Syrian government discriminate them.

Most of the Kurds originally migrated from Turkey to Syria in the 1920s. Kurds are also found in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran. The Syrian government for a very long time has refused to recognize the Kurds as legal citizens of Syria. Syria lacks proper census and this makes it difficult for one to determine the exact number of Kurds in the country.

Kurds mainly stay in the North Eastern part of Syria. In 1962, about twenty percent of Kurds’ citizenships in Syria were renounced by the government. This move was, however, criticized by many activists who saw it as inhuman treatment. According to the government, the Kurds gradually migrated to Syria and settled in various cities, and they finally formed a substantial population.

It was also noted that many Kurds could use dubious methods to acquire citizenship. Most of the Kurds migrated to Syria with an aim of getting better economic opportunities. This majorly happened after the government carried out agricultural reforms. In this regard, Kurds wanted to buy property and get employment opportunities.

For along time, many Kurds living in this country have been unable to access basic social and political rights, and this has barred them from advancing economically, and politically. Since many of them have not been allowed to become citizens, they have always engaged in demonstrations in order to compel the government to register them. Out of such protests, the government finally agreed to register some of them, but they were registered separately as immigrants.

This means they are still treated like second class individuals in Syria. “With the citizenship, they move from third-class inhabitants to second-class citizens with the rest of the Kurds in Syria who are already citizens” (Davis, 1997). Nonetheless, they can now benefit from the Syrian rights. For example, they can participate in political processes through voting, and they can also own property, and get jobs in the government offices.

The Syrians only recognize the Arabs as the only original citizens. This is meant to foster unity among the Arabs by eliminating other minority tribes. This clause is actually part of their national constitution. This means that Kurds cannot have similar rights with Arabs. It is therefore impossible to change their status.

This means that Kurds are not having a chance to be treated as Kurdish citizens in that country. They should therefore stop identifying themselves as Kurdish citizens. Despite the few reforms that have been made to make the Kurds have a better life in Syria, they still face some challenges.

For example, in Syria no education is offered in Kurdish language. Secondly, they are not supposed show the Kurdish identity by any means. There is no public media that uses Kurdish language. Foreigners are also not able to claim land ownership. “From this we may conclude that part of the rationale for the census was to deprive Kurds in the area from obtaining land” (Davis, 1997). These limitations have led to the undermining of Kurds and they are only left with the option of assimilating themselves into Arab culture.

United Arab Emirates Citizenship “The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven semi-autonomous emirates, with an estimated resident population of 4.5 million, of which only 21 percent are citizens” (Arthur, 1996). The federation is under the leadership of a supreme council that acts as the executive body.

Institutions are not elected through a democratic process. Elections do exist but citizens can inform their leaders about their concerns and opinions. Citizenship is offered in the United Arab Emirates based on the constitutional guidelines. In UAE, a person is granted a citizenship status by the following processes.

First, if a person is born within this territory he can be recognized as a citizen. However, this process may in some cases not lead to automatic citizenship. Marriage also enables women whose spouses are UAE citizens to acquire citizenship. In this case, such a woman must live for more than three years within UAE. She is also expected to renounce her former citizenship. Lastly, she should also seek from the authorities.

Naturalization is also applicable in UAE, and it granted to immigrants. The conditions for naturalization vary depending on ones nationality. For example, Arab immigrants take a shorter duration to meet the naturalization requirements that other immigrants. There is no opportunity for people to have dual citizenship.

An individual can willingly renounce his or her UAE citizen citizenship and the law permits this. This is called voluntary renunciation. Besides this, an individual’s citizenship may sometimes be renounced under the following cases. First, if a person got citizenship through illegal process.

Secondly, a naturalized citizen in UAE who violates the law by committing crime can be deported. Joining a foreign army is also not allowed, and can lead to renunciation of an individual’s citizenship. Citizens of UAE have rights and obligations which are part of their national constitution. Foreigners who are working within UAE are not allowed to acquire citizenship.

Immigration laws in UAE have been reinforced in order to control the problem of human trafficking, and illegal immigrants. The manner in which democracy is perceived in the United Arab Emirates is quite different from the West. This is because Islamic faith is seen as a guiding principle that shapes other spheres of life.

Since they value their religion, naturalized citizens are not expected to criticize it, and they are also expected to be assimilated into the Muslim culture. Non Muslims in UAE might find it challenging to cope with the culture and laws of this country since they are quite rigid and discriminatory against foreigners.

Bidoun in Kuwait The Bidouns were stateless individuals who inhabited Kuwait since its independence. This people were initially considered legal citizens of Kuwait by the government. Their status differentiated them from immigrants and other stateles individuals. Their population was also included in the national statistics.

The Bidouin also had identification documents. “With the exception of voting rights they received the benefits of full citizens, including subsidized housing, education, and health services” (Akramov, 2009). However, in 1986, the government came up with restrictions on immigrants and this led the cancellation of Bidoun rights. This situation aggravated after the gulf crisis that took place in 1990.

During the gulf war, the Bidoun who went to Iraq for safety were not allowed back after the war. Most of the Bidoun who served in the government also lost their positions. From 1994, the Biduons were expected to pay for taxes and other services that were offered to the citizens freely. After some amendments on immigration laws they, can now become citizens of Kuwait through the naturalization process.

Conclusion The idea of citizenship is believed to have started in ancient Greece when a constitutional government was introduced in various Greece city states. From Greece, citizenship was spread to other territories. Many factors also influenced how citizenship and democracy developed. For example, the development and spread of Christianity in Rome influenced citizenship.

Development of citizenship is normally classified into two phases. The first phase preceded the French Revolution, while the second one took place after the revolution. After French Revolution, there was a tremendous growth of democracy and citizenship in Europe.

Citizenship is today practiced in many countries and the only difference is how it is exercised. From this discussion the rights and obligations that are offered to citizens is what determines the quality of their citizenship. Citizenship in U.S.A is well defined compared to that of Syria and Kuwait. It is the high dignity given to the Americans that makes people to crave for U.S citizenship.

References Akramov, E. (2009). Dual Nationality and the Concept of Citizenship in Politics: Comparative Analysis. London: Oxford University Press.

Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.

Arthur, G. (1996). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates. New York: Longman.

Davis, U. (1997). Citizenship and the State: A Comparative Study of Citizenship Legislation in Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon. New York: Prentice Hall.

Einstein, A. (2001). The World As I See It. New York: Citadel.

Hobsbawm, E. (1996). The Age of Revolution: 1789-1848. London: Vintage.

Huntington, S. (2004). Who Are We: The Challenges to America’s National Identity. Washington. D.C: Simon and Schuster.

Manville, P. (1990). The Origins of Citizenship in Ancient Athens. Berkley: Princeton University Press.

Romero, V. (2005). Alienated: Immigrant Rights, the Constitution, and Equality in America. New York: Wiley.

Rousseau, J.-J. (1968). The Social Contract. New York: Penguin Classics.

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