Among School Children Essay College Essay Help

‘Among School Children’ is a poem written by William Butler Yeats; it is among the highly rated poems globally. It has eight stanzas. The poem discusses various themes; the major theme being aging. Some of the other themes that are discussed in the poem are hoplessness and education.

Throughout the poem, William Butler acknowledges the aging process but does not appreciate it. When he looks at some situations in life, he points out that all the joys in life would be unnecessary, if the fact that all persons would eventually die and decay is put into consideration. The thought of aging and eventually dying makes the little joys of life redundant. According to the poem, aging is unavoidable to all men but the process is appalling and it makes life meaningless (Yeats, “Selected Poetry” 76).

The first stanza of the poem is set in a classroom where William, a member of the Senate, has gone to evaluate the new school curriculum (Yeats, “Autobiography” 45). He takes this chance when he is among the children, to evaluate his life. He clearly sees himself for who he is, “sixty-year-old smiling public man” (Yeats and Richard 54). He evaluates his life’s accomplishments and feels that at sixty, he has not done enough. He feels like life has passed him by.

He reviews his own education and wonders whether the knowledge was helpful; he wonders whether what the children are being taught will be useful to the children in their later years. At this point, he realizes that the knowledge required to guide one through life is not obtained from school. The fact that school knowledge will not be useful in life and one will eventually grow old and face death, the aim of going to school looses meaning.

William turns to Greek mythology to emphasize the eventual aging and loss of youth. In Greek mythology, Leda was raped by the god, Zeus. From this single incident, all the youthful glory that Leda held vanished. Leda seemed to increase in knowledge after her innocence was taken by Zeus; the same will happen to the children.

As they grow older, they will realize the truths of life and learn various life lessons; they will become wiser but at the same time, older and closer to death.

At one point, William gets saddened by the aging of the girl he loved when he was still a child. He describes her as very beautiful; likening her to Hellen of Troy, who is considered to be the most attractive woman on earth. He says Maude Gonne, his love, had swan like beauty when she was young, she was perfect. He however gets sad when he realizes that that beauty faded as Gonne aged.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He compares her beautiful cheek to the wind. He uses the wind to portray just how life and beauty are short lived (Jones 78). He also realizes at this time that if Gonne has aged, so has he. Trying to recover from his thoughts, he smiles “…show there is a comfortable kind of old scare crow” (Yeats and Richard 54). This is just a cover up since he is not comfortable in his aging (Yeats, “Selected Poetry” 76).

William Yeats further looks into the issue of aging in the fifth stanza. He considers the anxiety a woman goes through while in the process of giving birth to a son. He wonders whether all that anxiety is worth it if the mother looked into the future and saw how her son would degenerate into old age just like everybody else.

During this time, he wonders what the meaning of life really is, if everything eventually ends at death and everything looses meaning. He likens his sixty years in life with sixty winters. He uses winter at this point to show that all through life, everything is a struggle, life is hard yet we work so hard but eventually age and die (Jones 78). To further show how worthless life is, William Yeats looks into the works of great men of the world.

First, he looks at Plato, the great philosopher. He demeans Plato’s theory by presenting it as a shadow of the real life. Aristotle’s theories were also degraded; he says that Aristotle “played the taws upon the bottom of a King of Kings” (Yeats and Richard 54). Pythagoras theorem did not make sense to Yeats; it was like he “fingered upon a fiddle-stick or strings” (Yeats and Richard 54).

Looking at all the works of these great men of the world, while considering that despite their great works they aged and died, their works seem meaningless to Yeats. Yeats at this point looses all meaning of all his worldly achievements since he had proven that what a man produces lasts longer than the man himself.

Due to the eventual demise of all men, Yeats finds it unnecessary to have high hopes in regards to anything. He uses the figure of a mother and her great hopes and dreams for her son.

All the time, when a mother has hope in her son, she gets disappointed for lack of the fulfillment of her hopes. Similarly, a nun’s worship becomes meaningless when one day, she gets disappointed in her unfulfilled expectations from God. Yeats points out that we should live a life of little or no expectations since all expectations lead to the same thing, disappointment.

We will write a custom Essay on Among School Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is disappointment in a man’s own expectations of himself; as seen earlier in the poem, Yeats feels discontented with his achievements. From a lay man’s point of view, Yeats had achieved a lot, him being a member of the senate was a great accomplishment in itself but he was disappointed with his life (Yeats, “Autobiography” 45). Everyone expects a lot but no one gets what they expect, no matter how much effort is put into the realization of the expectations.

Conclusion Throughout the poem, Yeats realizes that life as we know it is meaningless. A mothers’ anxiety for her coming son is meaningless when you consider that the son ages and dies eventually. The mother’s expectations of her son even when he is alive never come true. Beauty, no matter how much, fades; education does not teach you the important lessons you need to go through life. Yeats’ poem clearly shows the reader that life, and all that you do in it, is meaningless.

Works Cited Jones, Peter. Imagism Poetry. London: Penguin Books, 1972. Print.

Yeats, William Butler. The Autobiography of William Butler Yeats. London: Macmillan, 1986. Print.

Yeats, William Butler. Yeats: Selected Poetry. London: Macmillan, 1968. Print.

Yeats, William Butler and Richard J. Finneran. The Collected Poems of W.B. Yeats. New York: Simon


Compare and contrast Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization and Abraham Joshua Heschel’s the Sabbath Essay best essay help: best essay help

Modern civilization Mordecai Kaplan and Abraham Joshua Heschel are Jewish theologians who are the authors of several books that have been read and are still read by many people including the Jewish.

Among the books they have written, there are the Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization and Abraham Joshua Heschel’s The Sabbath. Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization focuses on the reconstruction of the American-Jewish life that would help the Jewish to change their traditional way of life through incorporations of the modern way of life, philosophy, religion and science as it develops in the U.S.

On the other hand, Abraham Joshua Heschel’s The Sabbath mainly focuses on the traditional way of life of the Jewish and Judaism and puts more emphasis on the Sabbath. Abraham Joshua views Judaism as a religion of time, which makes him focus on the past rather than the future.

Kaplan in Judaism as a Civilization views Judaism as a religion that is evolved from the traditional world to the modern world. He refers to the Judaism as a religion that has been undergoing cultural differences depending on the times that we are living. He believed in Judaism but felt that it was necessary for the Judaism to unite with other religions to form a common religion that was civilized. On the other hand, Abraham Joshua laid more emphasis on the traditional mode of life for the Jewish.

He claimed that the traditional mode of life in Judaism made the religion more spiritual and right with their God. In addition, he dealt with the traditional problems that were faced by the Judaism that he sought to find solutions. Abraham Joshua in his efforts to find solutions to the problems associated the problems faced by the Judaism with the modern life. This is a clear evidence that Abraham Joshua was against modernization.

Further, Kaplan rejected various traditions that the Jewish practiced. He found that the practices that the Jewish had were outdated. He concentrated more on the issues that would help the Jewish realize their religion and the status of life in which they were living. He further believed that some of the aspects that were inherent in Judaism were wrong and needed to be changed. In his writing, Kaplan disagreed with the Jewish category of Closeness that made them feel more superior to other religions.

In addition, Kaplan called for democracy in the synagogue, highly recommended membership to be voluntary, reconstruction of procedure of electing leaders and the individuals’ religion options respect. Kaplan believed in the time when individuals joined religion depending on their race and ancestral religion’s belief by force. On the contrary, Abraham Joshua having conservatism of the tradition, believed that the Judaism religion and culture was to remain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He embraced and emphasized on the Jewish to maintain their status quo. Abraham Joshua believed that religion was an answer to human ultimate questions and thus religion had to be fully respected. He found that the alienation of modern man to religion was putting man into more threats. He therefore emphasized that the Jewish should leave modernity and embrace traditions that would make them more religious.

Although they had differences, there were a few similarities. They both encouraged the unity of the Jewish and encouraged them to embrace each other as brothers and sisters. They further encouraged the Jewish to have Judaism as their religion and to have faith in God. In addition, the two emphasized on prayer, as they believed that it connects man to God.

Views on Modern Society Kaplan’s concept of civilization was optimistic about the modern society. He believed that modern society including the Jewish had a future if only they would embrace civilization. He encouraged the Jewish to be patient and work towards meeting their goals as the Americans used to do.

This gave the Jewish who read his books the ideology of the Americans who believed in hard work. Kaplan believed that with the improvement in science and technology, philosophy and culture, man had a chance to grow depending on the level of civilization he embraces.

On the other hand, Heschel’s views on civilization were pessimistic. He viewed civilization, as a way to alienate modern man from religion that he believed was the answer to all human ultimate questions. He believed civilization of man would make him more venerable to threats that made him to oppose civilization in religion.

Conclusion Judaism is a religion associated with the Jewish’s who have origin in Israel. Their belief in God is strong and its what makes them more concrete with Him. Judaism as a religion embraces unity and peace but there are splits in relation to modernity.

These kinds of differences have caused splits in other religions. The views between the two theologians negate each other and none can be used to complement the other as they have several differences based on civilization. However, on their reference to God the two views can supplement each other.

We will write a custom Essay on Compare and contrast Mordecai Kaplan’s Judaism as a Civilization and Abraham Joshua Heschel’s the Sabbath specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The Era of Liberal Consensus Essay college essay help near me

Liberalism in the United States was founded in the political ideals of the Enlightment with no monarchy, no hereditary aristocracy and no established religion (Googleberg 204). American classical liberalism promotes free market economy. In this sense the government should not interfere with trade transactions. According to the classical liberalists, wealth occurs when the market is left to the natural state of supply and demand, liberated from government interventions.

However modern liberalism opposes this concept and promoted the need of federal government involvement to improve the economy. During the Great Depression after 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt used the New Deal, a series of economic programs to provide relief to the unemployed and poor, recover the US economy to its normal state and reform financial systems and prevent them to repeat another depression (Sitkoff).

Among the most notable policies FDR implemented during his time were the Social Security act from his relief program group which provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation from recovery which aided state and local governments in making loans to banks, railroads, and other businesses and Securities Exchange Act from the reform program group which regulated the Wall Street. In 1945, Harry Truman succeeded to the presidency when FDR died. He advocated the Fair Deal which is used to describe President Truman’s domestic reform agenda (

Successful programs of the Truman’s Fair Deal include the improvement of the social welfare system extending the Social security coverage to 10 million Americans (Donovan) and war veterans benefits such as the Veterans’ Emergency Housing Act 1946 which encouraged the construction of housing for returning soldiers (Beyer).

When republican Dwight Eisenhower succeeded the presidency, he continued the New Deal policies, enlarging the scope of the Social Security and promoted the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 which authorized the construction of the Interstate Highway System which was designed to evacuate civilians and allow the military to move in if ever cities were attacked during the Cold War (

The landslide victory of Lyndon Johnsons illustrated the dominance of liberalism in the 1950s. Johnson had been a New Deal Democrat and had designed the Great Society which upheld his War on Poverty platform, to break from the New Deal ideas.

He endorsed racial and economic liberalism making his policies the sphere of influence in Republican president Nixon’s policies in the 1960s. Education was the top priority of Johnson with emphasis in helping poor children thus creating the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which funds primary and secondary education. Richard Nixon’s most famous policy was Environmental Protection Agency which showed the political dominance of the liberal consensus in those years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During his presidency the liberal consensus began to fall apart. In the period of civil rights association with the white Southern Democrats had been gone and planned labour was no longer the central issue. Ronald Regan promoted his Reganomics which decreased tax rates to stimulated economic growth, lessened inflation, and deregulation of the economy and trimmed down government spending.

Regan supported the Economic Recovery Tax act of 1981 which lowered tax brackets and the Job Training Partnership act of 1982 which was a job creation program in the United States. The consensus of liberalism ended during the time of President Regan who implemented policies basing on his own classical belief and understanding of the economy.

Works Cited Beyer, Glenn. Housing and Society. New York: Macmillan, 1969. Print.

Googleberg, Doctor. The American Revolution. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Create Space, 2011. Print.

Donovan, Robert. Tumultuous Years: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman, 1949-1953. Boston: Norton, 1982. Print.

“First Deal.”, 2003. Web.

“Jean Kirkpatrick, academic and ambassador, died on December 7th, aged 80.” The Economist., 19 Dec. 2006. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The Era of Liberal Consensus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sitkoff, Harvard. Fifty Years Later: The New Deal Evaluated. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1985. Print.


Cancer treatment by Nanotechnology Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents First Draft (Introduction)

Second Draft (Cancer Treatment Using Nanotechnology)



First Draft (Introduction) Cancer is among the greatest killer diseases of the 21st century. Several factors cause cancer infection. A range of these factors either falls within the category of hormonal factors or behavioral factors. Hormonal factors include genetic mutations and somatic mutations while behavioral factors include smoking and lack of nutrition (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291).

Genetic mutations cause cancer because a range of genetic errors causes the rapid multiplication of cells, which eventually lead to the formation of cancer. For instance, for liver cancer, a perfectly healthy liver may experience excessive injuries to cells because of genetic mutations (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). Consequently, genetic errors are bound to accumulate and unhealthy cells may rapidly multiply to cause the disorganization of cells. This cell disorganization causes cancerous cells (Gold, Slone, Manley and Ames, 2002).

Somatic mutations are notorious in damaging normal cells. Cell damage leads to cancer formation. Somatic mutations work by altering body cells to cause cancer and other diseases (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). The theory behind the causes of cancer (through mutation) has been existent for the past 50 years.

This theory notes that cancer primarily develops from a single somatic mutation cell, which has undergone years of DNA mutation (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). Its link with cancer therefore emanates from the fact that cancer is a disease of cell mutations, which affect the cell cycle, thereby causing the disease. Somatic mutation is at the center of the alterations in cell cycles (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 292).

Behaviorally, around the world, smoking has been singled out as the most notorious behavioral cause of cancer (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). For instance, a fifth of all cancer cases in the world are attributed to smoking (Gold et al., 2002). The most common form of cancer (attributed to smoking) is lung cancer because about four in five lung cancer cases are caused by smoking (Gold et al., 2002).

The link between smoking and cancer can be traced to research studies, which affirm that tobacco smoke (for example) consists of more than 80 cancerous substances (Gold et al., 2002). Nonetheless, proper nutrition is synonymous with good health. In fact, proper nutritional diets do not only help fight cancers; they also help in fighting other diseases as well.

The link between cancer and nutrition is observed from the fact that some types of foods increases one’s risk of developing cancer, while other types of foods support the body in fighting cancer by boosting the immunity (Gold et al., 2002). The lack of certain types of foods may also increase one’s risk of developing cancer. For instance, patients are often advised to take plant-based foods to manage cancer (Gold et al., 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cancer treatment methods have changed over the years. Old methods of treating cancer include drug administration, radiation and surgery. However, a newer method of cancer treatment includes nanotechnology (and other transitional drug treatment methods).

This paper elaborates on the usefulness of using nanotechnology in the treatment of cancer in Saudi Arabia. To do this, an explanation of the advantages of nanotechnology over other cancer treatment methods will be evaluated. These advantages will be highlighted by explaining how nanotechnology works and how it is fast and efficient in treating cancer.

The latter segment constitutes an explanation of how nanotechnology reduces the side effects of treating cancer and how it facilitates the easy adoption of drugs into the cancerous cells. Consequently, a comprehensive overview of how nanotechnology helps in treating cancer will be explained.

Second Draft (Cancer Treatment Using Nanotechnology) Saudi Arabia has a relatively lower incidence of cancer when compared to other gulf countries. However, cancer treatment and care in Saudi Arabia is normally different from other countries. The difference emanates from the fact that there is a clash between acceptable and unacceptable cancer treatment methods in the Kingdom.

This difference also stretches to the way cancer education is administered, and the manner cancer patients receive care. Similar to the history of cancer in the US, most cancer cases in Saudi Arabia are diagnosed at a late stage. Often, this problem is influenced by late detection and the use of inefficient and old methods of cancer treatment.

Cancer treatment methods are normally diverse and applicable in different types of situations. Conventional cancer treatment methods include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Surgery works by removing cancerous tumors (surgically) as much as possible (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). Usually, surgery is used to prevent, treat and diagnose cancer, but ordinarily, during treatment, it is combined with radiation and chemotherapy as auxiliary cancer treatment methods (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291).

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment method for treating cancer but unlike other drug treatment methods, it affects the entire human body. Like other surgery treatment methods, chemotherapy may be used alongside other cancer treatment methods (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291). Lastly, radiation works by killing cancerous cells and shrinking certain types of tumors. Similarly, radiation also works by destroying the DNA of cancerous cells thereby causing their inactivity.

We will write a custom Report on Cancer treatment by Nanotechnology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the inefficiencies associated with the above methods of cancer treatment in Saudi Arabia, it is crucial to adopt newer methods of cancer treatment. Nanotechnology is one such method.

Saudi Arabia reports increased causes of cancer every year. For instance, 7,000 new cancer cases are reported every year and it is estimated that in 15 years, the kingdom will report more than 30,000 new cancer cases annually (Gold et al., 2002). These statistics abound, the future of cancer care and treatment in Saudi Arabia rests with nanotechnology.

From an electromagnetic point of view, the adoption of nanotechnology in Saudi Arabia includes the understanding of Paclitaxel-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles, Light Absorption by Gold Nanoparticles and Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Methods as the main forms of cancer treatment.

Paclitaxel-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles is a constituent of electromagnetic cancer treatment method (in nanotechnology), which is commonly used in the treatment of intravesical bladder cancer (Gold et al., 2002). In a study to test the efficiency and use of Paclitaxel-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles in treating bladder cancer, it was established that “Paclitaxel-loaded gelatin nanoparticles represent a rapid release, biologically active paclitaxel formulation that can be used for intravesical bladder cancer therapy” (Torchilin, 2007, p. 128).

Its efficacy is therefore undisputed. Gold nanoparticles are exclusive components of cancer treatment using electromagnetic nanotechnology treatment methods. Gold nanoparticles are normally finer than dust particles (Gold et al., 2002). These particles normally contain “peptide” which draws nanospehers directly to the cancerous cells and destroying them (Huang, Jain, El-Sayed and El-Sayed, 2007, p. 681).

Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia method is normally used in the early detection of cancer because it is ordinarily contrasted with MRI imaging. The magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia method works by producing nanoparticle suspensions that are highly effective in the early detection of tumors (Prijic and Sersa, 2011, p. 1). The magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia method will be useful in the early detection of cancer because most cancer cases in Saudi Arabia are diagnosed late.

Nanotechnology will offer several advantages to the diagnosis, treatment and care of cancer patients in Saudi Arabia. Among the greatest advantages of nanotechnology over other cancer treatment methods is its early detection of cancer. This advantage emanates from the fact that, nanotechnology has a stronger accuracy and precision than conventional cancer detection methods (Mansoori et al, 2007, p. 226).

Precisely, electromagnetic technology aids in detecting DNA alterations at a very early stage in the development of cancer. In fact, advanced electromagnetic technology in cancer treatment helps in exclusively binding cancer cells and isolating normal cells (Mansoori et al, 2007, p. 226).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cancer treatment by Nanotechnology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The second greatest advantage of nanotechnology is its accuracy in treating cancer because it has a stronger sense of precision and thoroughness when compared to conventional cancer treatment methods in Saudi Arabia (Mansoori et al, 2007, p. 226). In fact, the greatest promise that nanotechnology offers in cancer treatment is the fact that, it can destroy dangerous cancer cells, which have been normally resistant to conventional treatment methods.

Advanced electromagnetic nanotechnology is often combined with radiation therapy to focus cancer treatment on the specific cancer cells using laser light technology to destroy the cancer cells from within (Mansoori et al, 2007, p. 226). This treatment method improves cancer treatment.

It is through this technology that nanotechnology helps to focus drug treatment methods on the cancer cells. Future nanotechnology guarantees the alteration of cancer DNA, returning them back to normal cells. The above advantages will significantly improve the diagnosis, treatment and care of cancer patients in Saudi Arabia.

Conclusion Though there are few statistics regarding the use of nanotechnology cancer treatment in Saudi Arabia, this paper highlights the use of nanotechnology as the future of cancer treatment, diagnosis and care in Saudi Arabia. Weighing the functionality of nanotechnology and its contribution to cancer treatment, we can establish that nanotechnology will greatly improve the efficiency and precision of cancer treatment in Saudi Arabia.

From a broader point of view, nanotechnology brings immense hope in the treatment of cancer such that if a person were diagnosed with cancer, this diagnosis should not amount to an automatic death sentence. However, the use of nanotechnology in Saudi Arabia needs to be understood from the understanding of paclitaxel-loaded gelatin nanoparticles, light absorption by gold nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia methods as the main forms of cancer treatment.

Since nanotechnology is more efficient and fast in treating cancer, the future of cancer treatment in Saudi Arabia is expected to change dramatically. Among the greatest advantages of nanotechnology treatment in Saudi Arabia, which is identified in this paper, is the efficiency associated with nanotechnology (Frank and Nowak, 2004, p. 291).

In fact, conventional cancer treatment methods (such as chemotherapy and radiation) are synonymous to cancer resurfacing, thereby warranting the use of higher dosages of cancer treatment drugs in the management of the disease. Nanotechnology eliminates the possibility of cancer resurfacing by making the entire treatment process more efficient.

References Frank, S. A.


The Economic History of the United States of America Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Economic Trends

The great depression


List of References

Introduction The United State of America has had a great trend in its economy. There have been depressions and recessions in the economy. 13 small group of farming economies joined in 1776 to form a large United States of America.

This resulted to a huge growth of the United States and it made a quarter of the world’s economy. The growth of the economy received a great boost from the political system, availability of natural resources and agricultural land that was very productive. The citizens had a big impact also since they were very innovative and entrepreneurial.

This attracted so many people from all over the world to came and settle in the United States and made the human resources available. The arrival of Europeans in the United States led to alteration of the economy since the people had to adopt the European way of life. The American Revolution led to war as the Americans were fighting for their rights and it affected the economy. The American Revolution started from 1775 to 1783.

Economic Trends The United States of America faced recessions and depressions in its economy that affected the economy of the whole world. War has been one of the major causes of recession in the United States. In 1953, the rate of unemployment was at 5%.

This was caused by the country trying to recover from the war. The unemployment levels went higher year by year and in 1957, it was at 6.2 %. The Federal Reserve used the money supply policy, which reduced the amount of money for businesses to expand, and as a result, there were no new job opportunities created.

In 1961, the level of unemployment reduced by 1% because of president Kennedy’s effort to increase the government expenditure. This came at a time when people had lacked confidence in the government as many banks were running out of money and many of them were closed. The most severe recession was experienced in 1973-75 were the rate of inflation was very high and adversely affected the whole GDP. The Vietnam War and the oil crisis caused this.

The oil embargo announced by the organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) affected the production of goods and services in the U.S (Taylor 2009, p. 45). By this time, much of the world was dependent on oil for everyday life and business function. The prices of oil escalated and it was followed by the lack of sufficient supply and this affected the American economy. The GDP dropped by 3.2 percent and the unemployment rate was very high that it hit 9% with the recession ending in March 1975.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1979, the oil prices were sharply increased all over the world due to the Iranian revolution. Izurieta (2003, p. 15) argues that the Iran’s new regime exported the oils in small volumes at very high prices and the supply was not constant. This contributed to businesses operating at high operational cost that they were declared bankrupt in 1982. As a result, many people were left unemployed with unemployment rising 10.8 percent.

During this period, the American Federal Reserve was using a very tight monetary policy in order to control inflation, which had contributed to the high level of unemployment. From 1980, the United State had adopted an economic expansion policy that affected the economy negatively since it raised the level of inflation. Between 1986 and 1989, the Federal Reserve increased the interest rates.

These reduced the amount of cash flowing in the market since the borrowing power of people was affected by that move. In 1990, the price of oil went up again because of Gulf war. In addition, it caused the people to loose confidence with their government.

The debts accumulated, consumer pessimists continued and savings and borrowing habits of the consumers changed (Izurieta 2003, p. 12). This led to another recession in 1990. In 2001 there was approximately of 10% decline in the volume of exports of both goods and services. This recession was also attributed to the sudden drop in housing investment, which was caused by the rise in the interest rates.

The rates on mortgage rose from 6.75 % in 1998 to 8.5% in April 2000. This period is when the federal government was using the contractionary monetary policy, which increased its fund from 4.75 to 6.50 percent. The fall of dot-com bubble stocks and the cases of accounting scandal and fraud at Enron and other big companies was also one of the many causes of this recession (Izurieta 2003, p. 110).

The great depression This was the biggest economic depression felt in the United States of America. Producers and sellers realized that their commodities were not bought and they decided to reduce their levels of production and all this resulted to the fall of aggregate demand. The reduction of the production rate was being caused by the invention of American contractionary monetary policy. The policy had an aim of limiting the stock market speculation.

The gold standard system spread the depression all over the world. High stock prices in 1928 and 1929 forced the Federal Reserve to increase the interest rates to control the prices. The construction and the automobile sector reduced spending due to the increase of the interest rates. Many investors in 1930 lost confidence in the commercial banks and they started demanding their money that they had deposited (Cooper 2008, p.7).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economic History of the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This forced banks to liquidate the loans with an aim of raising money to pay their customers. This whole process lasted for 2 years and caused a fifth of the banks to close. According to some economists, lack of confidence by the investors was caused by bad U.S. economic policies coupled with the debts during the 1920. They also argued that the Federal Reserve reduced the money supply, which was in favor of the gold standard policy.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt who was the president at this moment relied much on the policies made by the eclectic group of advisers and refused to take ideas from an economist John Maynard Keynes who had proposed deficit spending to reduce the level of inflation. Another economist by the name Robert whales also criticized the need deal policy that was introduced by the eclectic group of advisors. He argued that the new deal programs increased the period of depression although Erick Rauchway differed with him.

Tight policies of the Federal Reserve were to blame for them ensuring that there was less money supply in the economy, which boosted the level of unemployment. An economist Jonathan Catalan blamed the government for failing to correct the action against the expansion of the level of money supply until it affected the economy largely (Cooper 2008, p. 28).

During the time of the depression, all the performance determinants declined greatly. They included the production level, tax revenues and profits and wages levels among others. The reduction of all this factors resulted to a serious financial crises in the whole world. Some of these financial crises were caused by the Federal Reserve policies.

Mr. Mariner Eccles who was the chair of the Federal Reserve in 1939 introduced a policy that would have introduced when the crisis was over but he never waited for that. He failed to understand that the policy that he introduced was supposed to be for a stable economy like the way the American economy is like right now. He needed to increase the level of money supply to create employment opportunities and stimulate investment.

The government should have also increased there level of spending in the economy and this would have increased the job opportunities. The policy that he introduced that needed the commercial banks to keep 50% only of all deposit and to give the rest 50% to the federal resulted to the crises. This policy reduced the level of borrowing and consequently the banks raised the interest rates and reduced the economy (Krugman 2009, p. 8).

The economic crises were also caused by the poor performance of large companies especially those who had invested in the internet industry. Later, the industry started to face instabilities, which led to the firms that had invested in them to collapse.

The United States internal policies were the major cause of the financial crises. Today, president Barrack Obama the president of the United States of America has formed financial and microeconomic policies that are aimed at reducing the financial crises all over the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic History of the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The microeconomic policies involve reforming the health sector, making the transition to greener economy, increasing labor and the bargaining power among others. The other policies are the financial which includes, transforming financial firm incentive structure that induce excessive risk taking, extend regulatory oversight to the shadow banking system, restrict or eliminate off balance sheet vehicles (Krugman 2009, p. 23).

To implement a financial pre-cautionary principle is among the financial policies that president Obama’s administration has prepared. This will be implemented for commodities and services to check whether they should in market.

All these reforms are to reduce the excessive debt growth in the boom period. The administration also wants to introduce a policy that restricts the growth of debt through cyclical capital requirement. It will control the expansion rate of financial assets.

The move by the president of the United States to introduce those policies is to deal with the financial problems experienced in the world. All these economic crises have strengthened the radical forces to implementation of economic measures that will lead to long term and sustainable growth (Taylor 2009, p. 144). The united state of America follows a capitalist economic system that was first put forward by Adam Smith.

Through the system, the free hand that implies the forces of demand and supply control the market and are necessary for the attainment of market equilibrium. Prices and quantities of products that are sold in the U.S economy are determined by the demand and supply of similar goods within the market. In addition to the capitalist system, the U.S. economy utilizes the Keynesian theory and economics that relies on increased savings and investments in order to create wealth.

During the great depression, many investors were forced to hoard their money and therefore went against the theory. This is what made the economy to stand still according to this philosopher. During that period of depression, he urged the government to increase its spending or increase the money supply in order to hold up the economy.

Today his theory still holds since he warns against too much savings and the habit of under spending because these habits affects the process of distribution of wealth. The Federal Reserve should promote the monetary policy in order to reduce the level of inflation.

This policy seeks to promote effectively the goals of maximum sustainable output growth and employment and set moderate interest rates. They should also form policies to deal with financial disruption and prevent them from affecting other non-financial sectors and finally they should stabilize the exchange rate of the dollar to reduce its effect on the international markets (Federal Reserve 2011, p. 7).

Conclusion The United States has faced by many economic phases as the rest of the world. Introduction of measures to deal with the economic crises will affect the whole world as has already been experienced because of the high oil prices. The biggest effect of the depression was on the level of unemployment.

This is because it affected the businesses and the production firms there fore reducing the employment opportunities. The banks raising the interest rates also resulted to these. The level of unemployment rose, purchasing and consumer power dropped and the housing prices declined. The implementation of the economic regulation policies will reduce the impact these factors will have on the economy of the United States.

List of References Cooper, G 2008, The origins of financial crisis: Central Banks, Credit bubbles, and the efficient market fallacy, Vintage Publishing, New York.

Federal Reserve, 2011, ‘Monetary Policy and the Economy’. Web.

Izurieta, A, 2003, ‘Economic slowdown in the U.S: Rehabilitation of fiscal policy and the case for a co-ordinated global reflation’. Web.

Krugman, M 2009, ‘The great recession versus the great depression’, New York Times. Web.

Taylor D 2009, Soul of a people: The WPA writers’ project uncovers depression America, McGraw Hill, New York.


Anne Truitt: The Columnist Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Background


Truitt as an Unconventional Artist

Influence in Modern Art




Background Anne Truitt was an American minimalist sculptor and color field artist. She was born, Anne Dean on March 16, 1921 in Baltimore, Maryland. She graduated from Bryn Mawr College with a degree in psychology.[1] Anne married journalist James Truitt in 1947 and they moved to Washington DC where Anne studied sculpture at the Institute of Contemporary Art and at the Dallas Museum of Fine Art. Truitt became a full time artist in the 1950s working with clays casted and wrapped in cement.

In the 1960s Truitt began to experiment painting multiple layers of colors on her sculptures which she was later became known for. She once wrote in 1965, “What is important to me in not geometrical shape per se, or color per se, but to make a relationship between shape and color which feels to me like my experience. To make what feels to me like reality”.[2] Anne Truitt’s masterpieces include not only sculptures which she is famous for but also parvas, paintings, piths and other works on paper her artistic mind can create.

Works Anne Truitt’s artistic self was awakened when she and her husband visited New York in 1961. When she was viewing the works of Ad Reinhardt, Barnett Newman and Nassos Daphinis in the exhibit “American Abstract Expressionists and Imaginists” at the Guggenheim Museum.

Examining Dahnis’ work, Truitt was reminded of how much she liked wood and the multitude of color by Newman’s art made a great impact on Truitt’s works. In her third published journal, Prospect, Anne wrote the works“Reverse(d) my whole way of thinking about how to make art”.[3] She realized her passion in making art herself and taking control of materials to use in solidifying her own ideas and creativity. In Prospect she wrote of that afternoon:

“Combined these three works exploded to reverse my whole way of thinking about how to make art. Until that afternoon, I had thought, had initially been trained to think and had continued dumbly to think, that art was somehow intrinsic to material, immanent in it. That if I applied certain techniques to material will due respect for its nature, art would emerge out of it rather inevitably”.[4]

That night Truitt could not sleep with her desire to create something of her own. She wrote:

“And suddenly, the whole landscape of my childhood flooded into inner eye: plain white clapboard fences and houses, barns, solitary trees in flat fields, all set in the wide, widening tidewaters around Easton.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At one stroke, the yearning to express myself transformed into a yearning to express what this landscape meant to me, not for my own emotional release but for the release of a radiance illuminating it behind and beyond appearance. I saw that I could trust that radiance could rely on its presence even in the humblest object. Before I went to sleep, finally spent, I decided to start making a white picket fence”.[5]

After she was struck by artistic inspiration, that year, Anne Truitt made the white picket fence inspired, wooden sculpture, First. Examining First, incongruities are revealed in that, it has only three (3) pickets and they are of different heights and widths are not evenly spaced. The center picket was the tallest and widest one and all the tops of the pickets are tilted at different pitches.

Carol Diehl in her article compared these pitches to the roofs of neighbouring houses and added that “there is something cathedral like in the upward motion of the trinity of slats to a triangular peak that presages the slightly ecclesiastical aura”[6].

To some First can also be interpreted as a loss of innocence in the anticipation of life being organized with the flawed version of Truitt’s picket fence. Curator Kirsten Hileman interpreted the sculptor as the artist’s relation to her siblings. Hileman wrote:

“the unexpected heighlights of the sculpture’s pickets, one (1) tall and two (2) shorter, expand the work from the concept of boundaries to a depiction of three joined but distinct entities, perhaps not without parallels in the relationships among Truitt and her two (2) siblings”.[7]

Continuing her artistic drive, the following year, 1962, Anne Truitt continued to produce more sculptures but she abandoned remaining references from First and created a great amount of significantly simplified, solely abstract work. During this time she had developed a procedure of coating acrylic paint in several layers, polishing between applications to generate a smooth surface and mixing her own colors. In her journal, Prospect, she wrote:

“I was in an exalted state of mind, possessed…and remember thinking that no matter what the things I was making looked like, I would make them anyway…The sculptures had become what I have been making ever since: proportions of structural form counter-pointed by proportions of metaphorical color-essential paintings in three dimensions”.[8]

We will write a custom Research Paper on Anne Truitt: The Columnist specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As time passed by Anne Truitt started creating more abstract, vertical wooden columns painted in layers of acrylic paint. Her first show was at New York in 1963 at the Andre Emerich Gallery where Clement Greenberg, an art critic, considered her a precursor of the Minimalist movement together with Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland.

Curtor Kristin Hileman defined Truitt’s work as otherwise stating that “minimalist artists sought to purge their work of meaning and strip their work down to its most fundamental features while Truitt tried to fill her work with meaning and trigger emotional associations in viewers”.[9]

Reacting to such comments of her work being minimalist, Anne Truitt commented: “I have never allowed myself, in my own hearing, to be called a minimalist. Because minimal art is characterized by nonreferentiality. And that’s not what I am characterized by. My work is totally referential. I’ve struggled all my life to get maximum meaning in the simplest possible form.”[10]

She produced Hardcastle in 1962 which is an undifferentiated black rectangle about more than eight (8) feet high. It was supported on the back by bright red buttresses. Truitt’s sculptures are metonyms to a multifaceted of relations.[11] Most of her works were associated with Easton, Maryland, her home town and her love of Greek and Roman classical literature. In 1962, Truitt made Ship-lap which was inspired by the Third Haven Friends’ Meetinghouse in Easton Maryland. Built in 1682 – 1684, the house has an early frame arrangement.

The outside has a unique asymmetric geometry while its raw ship-lap wood inner walls and ceiling was held by thick, rustic square columns. Also during that year she made Platte, which was inspired by Teotihuacan and Tula’s four-sided Atlantean pillars and Watauga which resembles a memorial plaque and was painted half black and half purple. The latter seemed shocking when it is applied to a condensed form that implicit Brancusi-like seriousness of purpose.[12]

Truitt’s Morning Choice sculpture made in 1968 is a six (6) foot tall column painted in uneven segments with apple green, navy blue and bright pink with a strip of orange was very intense especially in contrast to its bleak shape. In 1974, Truitt displayed her play in color with the 17th summer sculpture.

Truitt painted the yellow green sculpture purple at the bottom. In her View made in 1999, she painted stripes in vertical form which are irregular and illustrating a more complexities with strips of light colors blue and yellow adjoined darker ones at the column’s edge. Truitt explained this radicalism in her journal:

“What I’m trying to do is lift the color up and set it free in three dimensions…I am trying to move it out into space…magnetized to the line of gravity just as we are (so that) it becomes flesh, it becomes human, it becomes emotion, it becomes alive and it vibrates. And since I don’t let it lie down on the sculpture, it goes around the corners…so it has to move. Sculptors are supposed to be interested in weights and balances, but i am not. I am only interested in the line holding it, the gravity. And the only reason I need the gravity is to set the color so it will move the way we do on our feet”[13]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Anne Truitt: The Columnist by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of Anne Truitt’s popular exhibitions was in Danese Gallery, New York in 2011 which featured thirteen (13) of her sculptures. With her signature style of wood column about five (5) to seven (7) foot tall and layered with acrylic paint, the sculptures are monochrome but some have vertical stripes which appears to be lifted off the floor because of the different color painted on the end of the column touching the floor.

Among the works showcased were Sound created in 1999 which is a two (2) sculpted cube painted in blue-green. Twinning Court I made in 2001 is a deep and rich like lacquer ware is “as dignified as sentry, sudden as an electric shock”. Lastly Cambria dated 2002 is painted in maroon giving its viewers the feeling of secrecy and tranquillity perceiving to slumber.

Anne Truitt’s works reveal her personal life as a controversial female artist in the 1960s, author, mother of three (3) and grandmother. Each of her sculptures is a tribute to a specific event or relationship in her life with First (1961) depicting her relationships with her two (2) siblings and the loss of innocence, Creswell (1980) which was attributed to her daughter and her marriage, Sorcerer’s Summer (1991) when she was unfairly demoralized by people in the Washington art scene and Tribute (1997), which marked the beginning of calmness and acceptance in Truitt’s life, honest and forthright without revealing anything.[14]

Truitt as an Unconventional Artist Anne Truitt was different from other artists in a sense that she was an introvert compared to other artist. Photographer John Gossage described Truitt as someone who didn’t fit in with the bohemian art bar world. He depicted her as more of an art historian with her “old-school, Bryn Mawr manners”.[15] In an interview regarding her balancing of time in her art and family Truitt said: “It’s very difficult to do. It’s difficult to hold the line and it’s difficult to stay true, true in very many ways.

True to yourself, true to your experience so you don’t lie about it, don’t fudge it. … It’s extremely difficult and you have to make sacrifices. …You can’t have it all. You can’t. In a way, you can’t have much of a personality or anything because everything has to go into your work. So often you just look dull”.[16] According to curator Kirsten Hileman, Truitt’s importance lies in the fact that she had created art that echoes the movements in American art. Truitt provides the artistic scene “an alternative kind of minimal abstraction”.[17]

For Truitt’s former students, Tim Gunn, Chief Creative Officer of Liz Claiborn and Project Runway co-host, and filmmaker and photographer, Jem Cohen, aside from Truitt’s artistic discipline, her honesty and courage made her undeniable, rich and overdue.[18]

Truitt’s aim was to get maximum meaning into the simplest possible form. Later she realized that she was the one in control of the meaning of her works thus she created sculptures which mirrored the events and relationships in her life as artist, author, mother and later grandmother.

Influence in Modern Art Anne Truitt was associated both the minimalist and Color Field movement together with Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. Her works of wooden columns with acrylic paints inspired artists in examining layers of paint to produce an array of color which may deem extreme and radical during her time.

Truitt’s intricacy with the minimalist’s rigid assertion on primary structures was reduced to their formal and material essence when Clement Greenberg contrasted her. According to Greenberg, Truitt’s work was new art and that “seriously new art doesn’t ordinarily win acceptance that fast” (Clement Greenberg Changer Anne Truitt). He regarded Truitt as the artist who made the first serious venture into minimalism with her First (1961) and later on Hardcastle (1962) and other “box-like objects of wood and aluminium”.

Conclusion Anne Truitt was an American artist based on Washington DC. She was widely associated with the minimalist and color field movement despite her strong reactions towards such relations to her art. Truitt was famous for her wooden columns painted with acrylic. Her works of art depict her sentiments and relationships during times in her life. She was widely criticized as an artist because unlike others she was very plain and boring as she would say.

She never mingled in the artistic bar scene instead during her free time she spent her time with her family. She distanced herself from the then key social scene at Max’s Kansas City. It is believed that the isolation gave Truitt the courage and freedom to follow and dictate her own path. As Greenberg once wrote “She certainly does not belong. But then how could a housewife with three (3) children, living in Washington belong? How could such a person fit into the role of pioneer of far-out art?”[19]

Bibliography Diehl, Carol. “Anne Truitt: The Columnist.” Art in America, March 2010.

Finch, Charlie. “Mother-in-Law,” Artnet, 2011. Web.

Greenberg, Clement. The Collected Essays and Criticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Hileman, Kirsten. “Anne Truitt: Perception and Reflection.” Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, January 2010.

“Introduction.” Anne Truitt Biography. Web.

June-Friesen, Katy. “Anne Truitt’s Artistic Journey: Balancing the two loves of a Washington, D.C. sculptor – 1950s hostess and emergent artist,” Smithsonian Media, September 30, 2009. Web.

Truitt, Anne. Daybook: The Journey of an Artist. New York: Penguin Books, 1984.

Truitt, Anne. Prospect: Journal of an Artist. New York: Penguin Books, 1996.

Wilson, Meagan and Miller, Talea. “Beloved Sculptor Anne Truitt Gets Her Du.,” Art Beat, 2009. Web.

Footnotes “Introduction.” Anne Truitt Biography.

Anne Truitt, Daybook: The Journey of an Artist. (New York: Penguin Books, 1984), 20.

Anne Truitt, Prospect: Journal of an Artist. (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), 19.

Ibid., 20.


Carol Diehl, “Anne Truitt: The Columnist,” Art in America, March 2010, 136.

Kirsten Hileman, “Anne Truitt: Perception and Reflection,” Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, January 2010, 14.

Anne Truitt, Prospect: Journal of an Artist. (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), 23.

Katy June-Friesen, “Anne Truitt’s Artistic Journey: Balancing the two loves of a Washington, D.C. sculptor – 1950s hostess and emergent artist,” Smithsonian Media.


Kirsten Hileman, “Anne Truitt: Perception and Reflection,” Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, January 2010, 72.

Carol Diehl, “Anne Truitt: The Columnist,” Art in America, March 2010, 141.

Anne Truitt, Prospect: Journal of an Artist. (New York: Penguin Books, 1996), 35.

Charlie Finch, “Mother-in-Law,” Artnet, 2011.

Katy June-Friesen, “Anne Truitt’s Artistic Journey: Balancing the two loves of a Washington, D.C. sculptor – 1950s hostess and emergent artist,” Smithsonian Media.


Meagan Wilson and Talea Miller, “Beloved Sculptor Anne Truitt Gets Her Due,” Art Beat.


Clement, Greenberg, The Collected Essays and Criticism. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1988), 288.


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Healthcare professionals often work rotating shifts. Why is this problematic? What can be done to deal with potential problems?
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How is narcolepsy with cataplexy similar to and different from REM sleep?


High power DVDs Essay (Article) essay help: essay help

Our new system is certainly the solution to all your entertainment needs. If you have been looking for a stylish way of enjoying yourself, you have just made the right choice by purchasing our new, stylish high power DVD meant for multi-purpose entertainment use. This Stylish High Power DVD System comes with a combination of a DivX® Ultra Playback, Bluetooth options and a ready Progressive Scan, among various other exclusive features.

Product Description GMR OX8SW 200W DVD and CD Micro Component unit is made into special features which are certain to make a difference in your entertainment options (Fenner 12). Among other significant components, the system features Bluetooth options, Progressive system scan, DivX® ultra system play back and a three-USB input host bearing music and sound recording adjustment. All these wonderful features makes the system an exceptional choice for lovers of entertainment.

Other exciting features of GMR OX8SW 200W DVD and CD Micro Component unit include a 4×45 high power Amplifier, double cassette decks and a 50-station memory FM/AM Tuner. The unit’s sound system includes a 9mode Sound field control, Dolby Digital Decoder, MP3 Expander and a Bass X-Boom.

Incase the 3 USB ports were not enough for your entertainment needs, you can always find happiness in our additional terminal extensions which include a Component Video Out, a Composite Video Out, AUX in, headphone input plus a two-way Karaoke microphone input system. Another outstanding feature coming with our new system is its ‘Photo Viewing’ option which enables easy viewing of images through a mini LCD screen which presents itself at the press of a button.

High Power Subwoofer and USB Direct Recording function are other exclusive pack of our High-power DVD micro system. The High Power Subwoofer will always have you daring to move closer to the beat and the vibration mode is enough to turn your house into a club.

The USB direct recording feature makes it easy for you to record music and other audio. This convenience ensures that you are closer to your favorite stuff all the time. On top of the DVD changer, movie fans can enjoy themselves to the fullest in the services of this stylish unit. USB memory devices can be plugged into the system for easy playback of video files of any format including the ones captured using the phone (Yagi 128).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More GMR OX8SW 200W DVD and CD Micro Component unit has proved to be user-friendly in all ways. The unit’s well-defined labels make it easy for anyone to operate. This excellent micro music system also comes with a remote control unit which enables users to operate the system right from the comfort of their seats.

The system is less bulky and it would fit well on top of your shelf right above your television set. Both FM and AM antennas are provided to maximize your entertainment needs. More importantly, the system also comes with an outlet for connection to a Television or computer, a feature that enables the unit to function like a typical DVD player. The system’s compatibility nature with various other electronic equipment and devices makes it a multi-purpose unit which is likely to find use in various environments.

To enjoy the exclusive services of this product, users should always follow the right channels of operation and handling of the system. Power connections and other connectivity to the unit should be done in the right manner, to avoid damage of the device. Overloading the unit with numerous activities at the same time should not be encouraged, for this can result to system’s failure.

The unit comes with a two-year warranty guarantee that gives our users an opportunity to enjoy exclusive after-sales services on our products. Incase of any mechanical problems, you should never hesitate seeking the services of our competent experts who are ever ready to serve you at fair desirable costs. Our company recognizes the value of your money, that’s why we are dedicated to giving the best of our quality products and services. Enjoy the best of our Products!

Works Cited Fenner, Kennedy. Entertainment micro system. New York: Google Patents, 2008. Print.

Yagi, Thomas. “High-power high-efficiency 660-nm laser diodes for DVD-R/RW.” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 9. 5 (2003): 126-130. Print.

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Le Corbusier’s Biography Essay essay help free: essay help free

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret was a French architect during the 20th century. He was born in Sweden in 1887 where he spent most of his early life. However, in 1930, he changed his nationality and became a French citizen. He was an urban developer, architect, writer, designer and painter (Lang, 1994).

It is through his remarkable designs that he received his nickname, Le Corbusier that was a rather annoying resemblance to his ancestor. Despite the fact that he did not like the name, Charles decided to keep his nickname. Le Corbusier career lasted five decades from the early 1900s to late 1950s. In the course of his career, he was able to design several buildings in Europe, North America, South America, India and Russia (Barnerjee, 2011). It is through his remarkable designs that many scholars refer to him as the father of modern architecture.

Throughout his career, Le Corbusier experienced a lot of achievement. Le Corbusier finished his studies just after the end of the First World War. During this time, he taught at his old school. However, he spent much of his time practicing the theory of architecture. He presented his ideas through plans and models.

Just before the onset of the first world war, he teamed up with his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret to start an architectural firm that would last up to the 1950s (Barnerjee, 2011). They also formed a studio for painting and photography in France during the early 1920s. However, Le Corbusier grand debut came about in 1922 when he presented a solution of increased number of city dwellers in the cities of France.

The French officials had for a long time experienced the problem of increased population from the individuals of the lower class. This problem had led to the growth of slums within the cities. Le Corbusier presented a model of cell like houses that could be built on top of one another to create more space. In addition, this design allowed for each cell to have a bedroom, kitchen, bathroom and living room. This allowed for more people to live decently in a small area. This design is still in use up to the present moment.

At the same, Le Corbusier presented a contemporary city model to the government of France that would accommodate approximately three million people. This model comprised of a city with huge skyscrapers covered with glass, steel-framed office building, residential areas, a transportation hub including an airport, a train station and a bus terminus, recreation facilities and many other accessories.

Although not all of these were adopted but most modern contemporary models for many other cities in the world adopted this model. It is due to these works and many others that Le Corbusier was regarded as the father of modern architecture. In 1961, he was awarded with the Frank P. Brown medal for his hard work (Moos, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to his achievements, it will be an honour to write a book on such an individual. He is the pioneer of modern architecture. Most of his styles and designs are still being used up to the present moment. The buildings that he designed are of great historical value. Some of them serve as monuments of the cities in which they are found in. It will therefore be essential for many people to have more information of the individual behind these designs and ideas. This can only be achieved by writing a book that details his life, personal life and career.

References Barnerjee, T. (2011).Companion to Urban Design. Boston: Taylor


The Tawuniya Health Insurance Company Research Paper writing essay help

Introduction It is rather interesting to note that various theories of consumer decision making processes always seem to assume that consumers pass through distinct stages/steps before, during and after the process of selecting a particular product to buy or service to utilize.

On the other hand Van der Merwe (2010) states that this may not necessarily be the case since not all consumers pass through a particular decision making process and in some instances consumers may in fact skip certain stages all together (Van der Merwe, 11 – 16). What must be understood is that an average consumer is influenced by a myriad of different factors that affect the way in which they choose to patronize a particular product or service (Sahoo, 57 – 63).

This can range from various psychological reactions such as the way in which they think and feel about different products (i.e. brand perception) to the way in which the market environment they are currently present in affects the way in which they perceive a particular product or service (i.e. local culture, their family, local media influences etc.) (Danziger, 5).

For example, the 2008 financial crisis and the subsequent financial recession we are currently experiencing have greatly affected the way in which consumers perceive particular products or services at the present.

When examining the present day consumer decision making process what is apparent is that there is not only a decision to resolve a current problem (i.e. buying food when they’re hungry or picking a particular insurance policy when it is necessary) rather what also happens is the necessity to fulfill a “higher need” in terms of what patronizing a particular product or service means to a customer.

This principle can be seen at work in the insurance industry in Riyadh wherein product choice is not governed by just price and quality but rather by the processes that go into it that consumers have increasingly been taking into consideration before patronizing a particular company.

For example, consumer satisfaction regarding health insurance can be seen as being governed not only by the inherent price of a policy but the various medical institutions that are willing to accept it, the convenience by which claims can be made, the ease of use of the process, the way in which the customer support staff handles their request and finally the readiness in which doctors are willing to assist a patient based on the use of that particular type of insurance policy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is based on this that this study will examine the Tawuniya health insurance company in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in order to determine the extent of customer satisfaction with the company’s services and to determine if the company has the proper instruments in place to fulfill the “higher need” that customers look for when patronizing the services of a particular company.

Problem Statement

Though Tawuniya is one of the leading health insurance companies within Riyadh it is unknown whether its clients are satisfied with the product itself or the added services it has. This paper will attempt to examine what drives consumer satisfaction in the case of Tawuniya and will determine whether it is based on the price of health insurance or the added services it has.

Research Questions

Do Tawuniya’s current services fulfill the “higher need” of consumers?

What affects consumer satisfaction and service patronage?

What is necessary in maintaining consumer satisfaction in a modern day era?

What tools do businesses need to have in order to stay competitive in today’s business environment?

Are Tawuniya’s consumers satisfied with the company’s current product offering?

What drives consumer satisfaction in the case of Tawuniya?

Review of Related Literature Introduction to Literature

This section reviews and evaluates literature and theories on customer satisfaction, current trends in consumer behavior as well as the evaluation of methods of ensuring product patronage.

The literature in this review is drawn from the following EBSCO databases: Academic Search Premier, MasterFILE Premier; as well as Jstore and various internet sources when applicable. Keywords used either individually or in conjunction include: customer satisfaction, consumer behavior, consumer decision making, consumption and patronage.

Theoretical Framework Theory of Consumer Behavior

The theory of consumer behavior revolves around the concept of the perceived value or satisfaction that a consumer derives from the consumption/ use of a particular commodity. In terms of actually understanding the demand side of market consumption/utilization the theory of consumer behavior uses two distinct methods of measurement, namely Total Utility (TU) and Marginal Utility (MU).

Total utility is defined by various experts in the field of consumer behavior as being the equivalent to the total level of satisfaction that a consumer can get from the use/consumption of a particular good or service. In the field of analyzing consumer behavior marginal utility is basically described as an add-on, namely it is the additional form of satisfaction that a consumer /health insurance client can get from the use/consumption of an added portion of a particular good or service.

It must be noted though that while total utility increases with the overall level of quality, at some point due to the continuous consumption of a particular product or use of a type of service the overall yield will result in smaller and smaller levels of additional utility towards the consumption. To illustrate this point one can imagine a person buying a scoop of dark chocolate ice cream at an ice cream store due to the hot and humid weather in Riyadh.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Tawuniya Health Insurance Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While initially the total utility and marginal utility are equal if the person were to go back and kept on buying the same product in order to stay cold the total utility would increase due to the consumption however the marginal utility would decrease over time as a result of the continuous consumption of the same product. This is based on notion that continuous consumption of the same product would eventually cause a person to get tired of consuming it thus the added value continues to decrease over the course of consumption.

In order to better understand how such a concept integrates itself into business planning and marketing the four fundamental concepts of consumer choice must be taken into consideration namely: rational behavior, preferences, budget constraints and prices. The concept of rational behavior assumes that all consumers are rational individuals who try to use their earned income in order to derive the greatest amount of satisfaction/ utility.

In other words consumers try to get the most out of their income through rational buying behavior which results in a maximization of total utility from the products or services used. In the case of the this paper this comes in the form of clients choosing a particular health insurance company based on their perception that they would get the most value from patronizing that company.

This rational behavior is based on the fact that consumers will act in an economically competent manner in that they will not spend too much money on irrational purchases or services. This can take the form of stockpiling unneeded products or choosing certain services that are well beyond their budgetary means.

As such the concept of rational behavior assumes all consumers engage in rational buying behaviors which becomes the basis for any future analysis of consumer patronage towards a particular type of product or utility.

For the health insurance industry this means that customers have a certain “limit” to the amount they are willing to pay on insurance premiums on a particular insurance package based on the rates that the company has allotted for them (Logie-MacIver and Piacentini, 60 – 76).

It must also be noted that the concept of preferences is based on the fact that each individual consumer has his/her own personal preference towards a particular service or product that is currently available in the market from which they are able to derive the greatest amount of total utility/ satisfaction.

Consumers are inherently aware of how much in the way of marginal utility they are able to derive from successive use/consumption of a particular product or service. It must be noted though that the amount of marginal and total utility derived from a particular product or service differs based on each individual consumer group since they all have individual tastes, preferences and ideologies. In the case of the health insurance industry in Riyadh this comes in the form of various healthcare payment packages that the companies offer customers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Tawuniya Health Insurance Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If a customer pays a lot into their health insurance package yet regularly uses their health insurance plan on a yearly basis this mean they are able to derive the greatest amount of total utility/satisfaction from patronizing that company’s services. On the other hand it must be noted that if a customer is paying a lot into a service yet doesn’t use it at all it can be stated that they are not making the most of the service and as such are not able to derive a any total utility/ satisfaction from paying into the service.

Under the concept of budget constraints each consumer is assumed to have a fixed and finite income due to the limited amount of work in exchange for income each individual consumer is capable of achieving. In this case it is assumed that there is unlimited demand for goods and services however this is offset by a limited income.

For the insurance industry in Riyadh this takes the form of having specific types of insurance packages available that take into account varying income levels instead of having fixed price packages that neglect to take into account a person’s level of income before a particular payment plan is set.

Finally, the concept of prices assumes that each individual consumer is part of the total demand in the market. Due to the limited amount of income each consumer is capable of achieving they must choose to obtain the best combination of goods that maximizes their total utility while at the same time remaining within a certain price range.

In this study the point of view of the consumer, namely consumer preference, plays an important role in determining whether the total utility of the consumer knowing that the health insurance company they are under has beneficial practices (i.e. good customer service, widespread insurance usage, online tracking of claims etc.) actually contributes to consumer patronage of that particular health insurance company.

It must be noted that while the concept of consumer preference plays an important role in the choice of a particular product or service the fact remains that the remaining concepts of rational behavior, budget constraint and price also play roles that can actually override the concept of preference.

While a consumer may prefer to use a particular health insurance company that has widespread coverage and great services, barriers to this choice in the form of higher prices which directly conflicts with a consumer’s inherent budget constraints would thus change their pattern of behavior to choose a more affordable solution in order to conform to what is rational.

On the other hand if a consumer is presented with two choices namely a health insurance company that accommodates their “higher need interests” while the other has not with both prices being similar it is likely that the consumer will choose the former choice rather than the latter.

This decision is influenced by all concepts of consumer behavior wherein preference and rational behavior for health insurance companies that have “higher need services” led the consumer to choosing the insurance company that has better services while the similar prices for each insurance company conformed to the consumer’s budget constraint thus letting the choice be left up to preference.

It must be noted that the theory of consumer behavior is basically an examination of what influences a consumer’s choice in a particular product or service. Should a consumer be presented with the same service with both being within budget constraints and prices, the choice is usually left up to consumer preference. On the other hand if a choice is beyond budget constraints, price level and is considered to be an irrational choice preference is no longer included into the decision making process.

Thus in terms of understanding consumer behavior preference should not be considered the sole deciding factor in understanding consumer behavior rather a combination of rational behavior, preference, budget constraints and price must always be taken into consideration in order to understand how consumer behavior towards a particular product or service works.

Market Trends

One of the current marketing trends in the health insurance industry has been to connect special amenities, services and exclusive offers to particular health insurance packages.

For example, in the case of Tawuniya this comes in the form of online methods of claim tracking, international insurance for people travelling to other companies, widespread acceptability of Tawuiya online eServices for individuals and corporations as well as professional customer service representatives that will handle your claim with the utmost respect and cordiality.

These aspects are the “higher need” services indicated in the beginning of this paper and as such are often connected to greater levels of customer satisfaction when it comes to using a particular type of health insurance,

Tools Necessary in Ensuring Consumer Satisfaction Information Systems

Information systems can be described as the interface between people, organizations and technology enabling the business to accomplish a specific task or action. One example of an information system are the various applications and websites utilized by Amazon in selling products, accepting client payments through credit card processing applications, contacting their warehouses and shipping bought products to the correct addresses indicated by their consumers.

While this is only a one example of the plethora of information systems out there what must be understood is that information systems act as methods of integration for a company helping to streamline specific processes so that they can be controlled, influenced and improved when necessary.

Developing proper information systems is an essential aspect for a company for without it a company will be unable to properly deal with the buying, selling and the utilization of resources across various locations in the country. Due to the varied and often complicated nature of company operations it becomes a necessity to streamline and integrate product delivery processes, methods of operation, customer service and various other operational capacities.

A company cannot just simply develop and market a product without taking into consideration how best to allocate specific resources in determining where a product needs to go, which branch needs it most, how will product returns be processed and how HR services will deal with salaries for the myriad employees within a company.

A company requires an efficient and up-to-date information system in order to integrate the factors mentioned into an efficient and effective operational strategy so as to better serve its clients.

The larger a company get the more hectic and haphazard its operations tend to become, especially in instances where its operations are located in different countries. Organizations need to understand how to properly allocate resources to specific international locations, how suppliers can be contacted, what are the limits of production on a daily basis and how will each branch location contact each other.. In other words information systems can be classified as solutions to identified problems or necessary methods of integration.

What must be understood is that while managers and CEOs are great at coming up with specific solutions to problems they are lost when it comes to implementing these particular solutions when they require computer programming as one of the factors behind the implementation. Information systems and information system specialists bridge this gap by being able to integrate the ideas of managers and CEOs into viable technological applications that can be implemented on a company wide basis.

For example, if a company is currently having problems with its archaic method of form based ordering in order to get products from the warehouse to consumers a manager or CEO would think to implement a faster and better means of getting orders to warehouses without having to rely on someone physically going there and handing them the orders.

They would of course think to apply a computer based system for this particular solution and this is where information systems come in. An information system in this particular situation becomes an applied solution where it is developed in order to help a company resolve a particular problem.

On the other hand if the company was to expand and have a more diverse array of products and factories further development of the initial information systems becomes necessary in order to adapt to the growing needs of the company. It is based on this that it can be seen that information systems act as a necessary method of process integration which enables a company to do its job better and as such it is essential to have it within a company.

Turning All Consumer Interactions into an “experience”

In a documented interview, entrepreneurs Rob and Pablo, creators of “Snog”, a U.K. based chain of yogurt outlets, state the following regarding what it takes to become a successful entrepreneur “now we are in a recession and we see businesses that are successful I think the one thing you see that they all have is the experience which is the most important part in everything so we made sure that there was an experience”.

The “experience” that Rob and Pablo refer to is not just the quality of the product itself but what customers feel when they enter into a particular establishment.

In the case of Snog, all their outlets have a warm and friendly ambiance which is not only family friendly but actually promotes, in their words, “a happy feeling” for customers. Going back to the example of Apple Inc., it can be seen that all their stores, no matter what country they are present in, have a stylish and ergonomic design that looks “clean, modern and cutting edge” which has come to exemplify the experience of buying products at an Apple store.

Based on the popularity of not only Snog but of Apple itself, it can be seen that by making their store into an “experience” rather than just a store; this helps to encourage buying behavior among their clientele and even repeat visits. As such, for any business that wants to increase their customer base, it is important to develop the experience, the business provides so as to appeal better to consumers and create repeat business.

Strategy to maintain balance between competitor and customer orientations

Businesses don’t operate within a vacuum and have to deal with intense competitive environment forces on an almost daily basis. What must be understood is that there are three components to market orientation that dictate how a company acts within a competitive environment, these are: customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination.

In the case of customer orientation a company spends what resources it has in gathering data on the needs and behaviors of various consumers, the same can be said for competitor orientation however it focuses on competitors instead.

What must be understood is that either method has a distinct weakness. Focusing too much on consumer orientation can actually blind a company to changes in the market or may actually stifle innovation since the company focuses too much on consumer satisfaction rather than changing based on trends.

Focusing too much on competitor orientation on the other hand results in too much time and capital being placed on competitive activities which results in companies at times neglecting their consumer bases and focusing too much on getting ahead of the competition. On the other hand both methods also have their own respective strengths such as the customer orientation strategy being more effective in uncertain markets whereas competitor oriented strategies become effective in fast growing markets.

The best way to maintain a balance between the orientations is to first create a market intelligence mechanism that gathers consumer information and disseminates it within the company and secondly is to encourage the free flow of information within the organization. What must be understood is that market orientations tend to become ineffective when organizations are mired in bureaucratic nuances which prevent information from being passed on quickly.

By allowing information to freely flow within an organization this increases its ability to respond to changes in the market and enables it to respond to these changes in an effective manner. One company where such strategies are evident can be seen in the case of Whole foods Inc. which combines both competitor and customer orientation strategies in its business model.

This is evident by its focus on providing consumers with cheap and healthy selections which change depending on consumer preferences within a particular location while at the same time it utilizes a competitor oriented strategy by having prices which are marginally lower than other competitors in the health food market. It must be noted though that a company’s strategies do change over time depending on changes within the market.

For example, as mentioned earlier customer orientation strategy are more effective in uncertain markets whereas competitor oriented strategies become effective in fast growing markets, the inherent problem with this is that markets tend to change over time as seen in the case of Netflix. As such when markets change this necessitates changes in orientations as well with companies at times shifting towards either customer oriented or competitor oriented strategies.

Methodology Aim

The aim of this paper is to research the current level of customer satisfaction with Tawuniya


The main research objectives of this study are the following:

To compare the level of income of Tawuniya customers have and compare it to the level of satisfaction they derive from their current insurance plan.

To examine whether “higher need” services are a necessity towards satisfaction in the case of Tawuniya

Investigate other factors that contribute towards consumer satisfaction

Survey Questions Consumer Demographic Information

Q1) your age is




□Above 30

Q2) Social status



Q3) Current Level of Income

□ Below $1,000

□$1,000 to $3,000

□Above $3,000

Services From the Company

Statement Strongly agree agree Neutral disagree Strongly disagree Do the services of the company in the form of customer service, ease of use of health insurance as well as online transaction requests factor into your satisfaction with the company? Would you consider Tawuniya’s additional services as a necessity? Do additional services influence your choice of health service provider? Does Tawuniya fulfill your service requirement needs? Financial Aspect

Statement Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Does price factor into your choice of a health insurance company? Are you satisfied with the current prices of Tawuniya? Does price affect your patronage of a health service provider? Would you say that based on a combination of price and services you are satisfied with Tawuniya? Do the number of available services in a health insurance company affect your thoughts regarding the price? Customer Service and Information Systems Aspect

Statement Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Would you say that Tawuniya’s information system is easy to use? Did the company give you an adequate experience when you went to their office? Would you consider their customer services as being adequate? Do all the previous factors affect your satisfaction with the company? If your responses had been all negative for the previous factors would you still be satisfied with the company? Would you say that the effectiveness of the company’s customer service department influences your overall satisfaction with your health insurance package? Conclusion

Statement Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Are you satisfied with Tawuniya? For you which is more important, price or the services of the company? Research Plan/Design

Surveys will be carried out for this study with a focus on the various patients within hospitals in Riyadh as well as customers of the randomly selected clinics within the city.

The survey will be in a form of questionnaires with four major areas of focus, namely: how important the interviewee thinks “higher need” services are within the health insurance industry, their level of income, the level of satisfaction derived from using the insurance services of Tawuniya and whether they think Tawuniya has adequate services. Data from the surveys will be collected and filtered based on the pre-defined criteria. The data will then be categorized and analyzed accordingly to achieve the objectives for this study.

Scope and Limitations

The study will be limited to within the city of Riyadh and will only examine confirmed members of Tawuniya’s health insurance section. The goal of this research paper is to encompass 3 local hospitals and 3 local clinics in order to determine the level of consumer satisfaction towards Tawuniya, whether price factored into their decision to choose the company and whether the company is able to administer to their “higher needs” in terms of adequate services to address their health insurance concerns.

Population and Sample

The population for this particular study will consist of 3 hospitals and 3 clinics selected at random in Riyadh. For each individual hospital, 5-10 staff members and 20-30 patients will be selected to participate in the survey. That gives a total of 150-240 potential participants.

The reason this particular type of population was used for this study is due to the experience and expertise staff members have with the consumer health industry and the fact that patients are the primary source of information needed in order to determine the level of satisfaction they derive from a particular service.

Duration of Study

The total duration of the study will last only one month; the collection of the survey results, creating the appropriate graphs, and the overall period of investigation does not entail anything particularly time consuming as such one month has been determined as being more than enough time to complete the study and present the needed results.

Procedures and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data

The data to be utilized in this study will gathered using surveys consisting of questions that will enable this study to determine what the opinion of hotel workers and guests are towards the concept of customer satisfaction and “higher need services”. The data will be collected and analyzed using the online survey tool which has a free online survey maker as well as a data analysis tool that should be more than sufficient in properly analyzing the data from the surveys.

To make sure this study attempted a minor test of the operational capacity of the site by making a small survey campaign using online social networking to get several known acquaintances of the researcher input their data on their favorite movies. After one week the data was examined and analyzed using the online tools of the website and the result was more than satisfactory in terms of data clarity and accuracy of the results.

Cost budget for the research

The overall cost of the study itself was negligible; utilizing the online free survey tool removed the need to print 200 copies of the survey questionnaire. This greatly facilitated the collection of survey results which resulted in the only cost for the study being the cost of transportation to and from the various hospitals/clinics chosen as samples to be used.

Analysis and Discussion Level of Satisfaction and “Higher Need” Services

Based on the results of the survey it was determined that consumers placed more importance on price and then “higher need” services when it came to determining what gave them the most satisfaction. For this section this paper will examine the concept of “higher need” services and then move on to the concept of price in the next section.

What must be understood is that “higher need” service encompasses not only additional amenities such as international health insurance but rather constitutes other services in relation to information systems and the “experience” of customers when dealing with a company. While it may be true that health insurance companies are more competitor driven that customer driven that fact remains that data shows customers appreciate a certain degree of additional service when the patronize a particular company.

In the case of health insurance this comes in the form of information systems which enable the customer to not only make easy payments from a variety of locations but enables them to make an immediate follow up on their claim. What must be understood is that customers are vastly different from the way they were several years ago, today things revolve around being quick, instantaneous and above all convenient.

As such the utilization of effective information systems for the benefit of consumers is a necessity in many of today’s companies. Tawuniya understands this particular aspect as evidenced by their online systems for customer support management and assistance which is considered a “higher need” service in terms of the satisfaction customers can derive from the convenience such a system provides for them. It must also be noted that consumers expect a certain “experience” when dealing with a company.

This can come in the form of either the physical aspect of a location or the psychological aspect of the customer service a company provides. Taking this into consideration it can also be seen that Tawuniya has customer service representatives that are always kind and cordial and as such contribute to a positive consumer interaction resulting in greater product satisfaction. All of these factors have actually contributed to most of the respondents being satisfied with the company’s services due to the addition of these “higher need” services.

Connection of Income Level with Decision Making Process and Customer Satisfaction

The four fundamental concepts of consumer choice must be taken into consideration namely: rational behavior, preferences, budget constraints and prices when trying to determine what drives the decision making process of consumers to choose a particular type of Health Insurance Company.

In the hospital/clinic survey four different kinds of income streams were added namely: those below $1000, $1000 – $2000, $2000 – $3000 and income streams above $3000. These levels of income were directly contrasted to decision making process of the customer. The survey revealed that the greatest factor in the decision making process for patients was the price of the insurance rates, followed by the general applicability of the insurance card in various hospitals, and finally the “higher need” services offered.

It is the assumption of this study that as income levels increase the propensity for consumers to go beyond the demographic of price and consider other factors in the decision making process such as “higher need” services increases as well. In order to prove this point the four fundamental concepts of consumer choice will be utilized in order to trace consumer behavior in this study and will attempt to explain how patients make their decisions regarding what health insurance company to patronize.

The concept of rational behavior assumes that all consumers are rational individuals who try to use their earned income in order to derive the greatest amount of satisfaction/ utility. In other words consumers try to get the most out of their income through rational buying behavior which results in a maximization of total utility from the products or services used.

For people choosing between various health insurance companies within Riyadh this means choosing the appropriate type of insurance company that is commensurate with the budget that they have. The results of the survey show that there are two particular levels of income that act as majorities in the income selection namely incomes below $1000 and incomes above $3000.

An examination of the individual surveys show that individuals with incomes below $1000 chose prices as the determining factor in choosing insurance providers while those with incomes above $3000 chose “higher need” services as the primary factors behind their decisions.

Such actions conform to the concept of preferences which is based on the fact that each individual consumer has his/her own personal preference towards a particular service or product that is currently available in the market from which they are able to derive the greatest amount of total utility/ satisfaction.

For people with health problems in Riyadh their preferences are set according to their inherent preferences which are greatly influenced by their income. Consumers with greater incomes thus have a different set of preferences as compared to those who have lower income rates.

What must be understood is that under the concept of budget constraints each consumer is assumed to have a fixed and finite income due to the limited amount of work in exchange for income each individual consumer is capable of achieving. Due to the limited amount of income each consumer is capable of achieving they must choose, under the concept of price, to obtain the best combination of goods that maximizes their total utility while at the same time remaining within a certain price range.

In this study the point of view of the consumer, namely consumer preference, plays an important role in determining whether the total utility of the consumer knowing that the health insurance company that they utilize has “higher need” services actually contributes to consumer patronage of that particular insurance company.

It must be noted that while the concept of consumer preference plays an important role in the choice of a particular product or service the fact remains that the remaining concepts of rational behavior, budget constraint and price also play roles that can actually override the concept of preference.

While a consumer may prefer to utilize a health insurance company that has “higher need” services, barriers to this choice in the form of higher prices which directly conflicts with a consumer’s inherent budget constraints would thus change their pattern of behavior to choose a more affordable solution in order to conform to what is rational.

Conclusion/Recommendation Based on the results of the survey and the concepts of rational behavior, preference, budget constraints and prices it can be said that consumer preferences in Riyadh’s health insurance industry is one determined by two factors, namely price and “higher need” services.

What must be understood is that a modern day health insurance client greatly differs from one 20 or 30 years ago. As patients become more modern and internationalized with increasing needs in the form of instantaneous assessment or the ability to check their current status at anytime they wish online comes the necessity of providing such services to them.

For a health insurance company that lacks such services this greatly affects the decision making process of consumers since it enables them to instantly know whether a particular health insurance company is bad, lacks particular amenities or is too backwards to utilize for their modern day lifestyle. This differs from past situations where consumers had to physically go to the office in order to file a claim or complete any paperwork.

When it comes to price what must be understood is that due to the current volatile economic situations around the world customers are not careless with their money as they used to be. At the present they take into account first the price of a particular insurance package and then the subsequent benefits and “higher need” services before they choose to patronize a particular company.

It is based on this that strategies involving consumer satisfaction for Tawuniya in the future should begin first with price based changes and then move on to “higher need” additions for particular insurance packages in order to not only satisfy a customer’s inherent need for affordable pricing but their desire for “higher need” services as well.

Works Cited Danziger, Shai, Aviad Israeli, and Michal Bekerman. “Investigating Pricing Decisions In The Hospitality Industry Using The Behavioral Process Method.” Journal Of Hospitality


Hamas and the US Policy Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Emergence and ideology of Hamas

The United States’ policy on Hamas


Reference List

Introduction The United States has been faced with the challenge of having to understand and deal with Islamic fundamentalism in the past decade. The US has found it difficult to come up with a comprehensive foreign policy to address the issue.

However, policymakers have been able to comprehend the ideological tenets behind these fundamental groups or at least they have been able to establish justification for the actions of these fundamental groups. Islamic fundamentalism has been referred to as the successor of the infamous Red Scare during the Cold War era.

In some quarters, this has been referred to as the Green Menace whereas some analysts have regarded these groups as social movements that emphasizes on religion. Generally, it can be agreed that the issue of Islamic fundamentalism requires special attention. This is because of the fact that these fundamentalist groups have resorted to terrorist tactics in advancing their position (Levitt and Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2006).

Hamas is regarded as one of the Islamic fundamentalist organizations which have resorted to terrorist tactics in advancing their course of action. Hamas uses child-soldiers and suicide bombers to launch attacks against their target.

The group does not have discretion for targets; it targets innocent civilians, political party members and any opposing military forces. This group has also resorted to guerilla tactics which pose a real danger to the US Homeland Security. Hamas has a strong support system from other organizations such as the Hezbollah, as well as from nations such as Iran and Lebanon.

The support system of Hamas provides financial aid and training ground to the group (Levitt and Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2006). This paper aspires to provide a detailed analysis of one of the Islamic fundamentalist group known as the Hamas. In addition, the paper will provide analyses of various United States policies towards the Hamas group and other external terrorist organizations.

The Emergence and ideology of Hamas Hamas is an Arabic word which means ‘zeal’ and is derived from the verb ‘hamisa’ which signifies the idea of supporting a cause without any reservations. The term Hamas acquired a distinctive meaning during the formative stage of the Palestinian intifada which begun in December 1987. During this time, Hamas engaged in a military activism against the Jewish state of Israel. Hamas is an acronym that stands for Harakat al-muqawama al-islamiyya which translates to mean the ‘Islamic Resistance Movement’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hamas was started in Gaza during the fall of the year 1987. The organization served as a political as well as a military arm of the group, Muslim Brotherhood Society, which had been established in 1928 in Isma’iliyya, Egypt. After its formation, the Muslim Brotherhood Society spread its influence in the Arab world establishing branches in Palestine in the period 1936-39 when the country was experiencing an uprising (Muslih, 1999).

There are various reasons which are advanced to explain the formation of Hamas. It is believed that Hamas emerged owing to the mood of active resistance that had been established by the Palestinian intifada. The group was also influenced by the success of the Iranian Islamic Revolution.

In addition, the emergence of Hamas was influenced by the loss of political initiative of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) during the Palestinian revolt of 1983-87. The military activism of the Islamic Jihad that was established in 1979, having been spearheaded by members of the Muslim Brotherhood who were disgruntled, acted to motivate the emergence of Hamas.

The Islamic Jihad group begun its activities in 1980 and was led by Fathi Shiqaqi in conjunction with Abd al-Aziz Audeh (Muslih, 1999). The 1980s saw the emergence of numerous changes in the structure and outlook of the Muslim Brotherhood society. The Muslim Brotherhood Society stressed upon reforming the society and religion together with the education morals in fighting Israel.

However, the youthful members of the society did not agree to the position adopted by the senior members of the society in dealing with Israeli occupation. These young members emphasized on the adoption of armed resistance in fighting for the rights of the Palestinians (Council on Foreign Relations, Inc, 2012).

Due to increased pressure from the young members of the society, the Muslim Brotherhood began to get involved in politics during the 1980s. At the time when Palestinians called for armed resistance against Israel in December of 1987, the society rose to the occasion through its political wing, the Hamas. Hamas carried out violence using its expansive network of mosques, students and professional organizations as well as charitable organization.

They also achieved their mission of violence through underground cells and command centers (Council on Foreign Relations, Inc, 2012). At first, Israel did not do anything to stop Islamist organizations when the Palestinian intifada was just starting. They in fact seemed to be pleased that the Palestinians were getting divided, leading to the creation of a rival rank to the Palestinian Liberation Organization. It was believed that with the emergence of the radical Hamas, the power of the PLO was going to be weakened.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Hamas and the US Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was a false move by Israel since following the outbreak of the intifada; Hamas resorted to armed violence making them to be regarded as Israeli’s fiercest enemy compared to the PLO. The Hamas group did not just threaten Israel, but also the PLO. The PLO had embraced diplomatic strategies in dealing with Israel. Hamas on the other hand embraced violence in dealing with Israel and this enhanced their popularity among the Palestinians (Council on Foreign Relations, Inc, 2012).

Hamas came up with its charter in the year 1988 which was distinctively different from the nonviolent ethos of the Muslim Brotherhood Society. The group resorted to violence against Israel and adopted terrorist strategies in fighting Israeli occupation. The maiden suicide bombing by the Hamas was executed in the year 1993. When the Hamas came up with their charter, the situation in West Bank and Gaza was ready to explode.

This is because of the despair and anger that had accumulated among residents of these regions, and Hamas brought an avenue upon which active resistance against Israel was to be carried out (Council on Foreign Relations, Inc, 2012). This section of the Palestinian territory was engulfed in a defiant mood in which civic disintegration was eminent and that Hamas members and sympathizers were very active and most warrior-like.

The Hamas group expanded to include Islamist intellectuals and members of other groups apart from those of the Islamic Brotherhood Society. In addition, Hamas spread its influence beyond the Palestinian borders to include the Arab and Islamic nations bordering them.

This necessitated the creation of two leadership organizations including qiyadat al-kharij and qiyadat al-dakhil, Qiyadat al-kharij is the leadership of Hamas in foreign countries whereas qiyadat al-dakhil is the group’s leadership within the Palestinian territory (Muslih, 1999).

Hamas has been regarded as a terrorist organization by Israel, the United States and the European Union. This has been done basing on the fact that this group is greatly involved in terrorist activities. Hamas has a paramilitary wing known as the Izz al-Din al Qassam Brigade which has launched scathing violent attacks on Israel and to some extent, within the Palestinian territories.

The group has engaged in suicide bombings which have claimed numerous lives against civilians both in Israel and Palestinian territory. In addition, Hamas uses makeshift explosives that are planted by the road side and launches rockets into the Israeli territory (Muslih, 1999).

During the 2006 legislative elections that were conducted in the Palestinian territory, Hamas emerged victorious putting an end to Fatah’s grip on the Palestinian Authority. This was a great challenge to Fatah’s leadership. Despite having been democratically elected in power, Hamas has been steadfast on renunciation of the existence of Israel and in calling for use of violence in the fight against Israeli occupation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hamas and the US Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Hamas’ charter is categorical on the use of violence in fighting against Israel occupation. Through the violence means that is common with Hamas, many civilians have been killed. This amounts to terrorism as terrorist activities can be described as those activities that result in indiscriminate murder of people.

Therefore, Hamas can rightfully be argued to be a terrorist organization. There are claims that Hamas is not a terrorist organization, and that it is a nationalist movement. However, this can be rebuked since some Hamas elements have adopted both political and violent strategies, which include terrorism, in their pursuit of their goal of ensuring the establishment of an Islamic Palestinian state (Davidson, 2006).

It has been established that Hamas is known for its countless attacks which claim innocent lives. Due to its terrorist activities, the United States has declared Hamas as a foreign terrorist organization. It is alleged that Hamas gets financial support from other countries such as Iran, Syria and Lebanon. The United States and the European Union member states vowed not to offer any financial assistance to the Hamas unless they renounce their violence approach and recognized the existence of Israel.

For a long time, Hamas has been regarded as a terrorist group; however, the 2006 election produced dramatic victory to the Hamas which broke the dominance of the PLO’s dominance in Palestinian politics. This led to western powers led by the United States and the European Union coming to an agreement that no more funding would be directed towards Hamas.

The change of political guard in the Palestinian territory is attributed to the rampant corruption within the PLO leadership. It is noted that Hamas leadership is often considered to be efficient and does not entertain corruption as the PLO. The election of Hamas to power made the group to be regarded as the most dominant in Palestinian political affairs (Levitt and Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2006).

Hamas terrorist activities are said to have led to the death of many innocent individuals. It is claimed that over 500 people have perished in more than 300 terrorist attacks that have been launched by Hamas since the early 1990s. Apart from suicide bombers, Hamas uses mortars, rockets and small arms.

When recruiting the suicide bombers, Hamas mainly targets youthful male individuals who are deeply religious. Most of these suicide bombers are not desperate individuals, and in fact, they have paying jobs. However, it can be noted that the suicide bombers have an intense hatred towards Israel and this is what drives them to volunteer as suicide bombers.

The United States’ policy on Hamas The United States has been concerned with the activities of Hamas which is adamant about its charter that emphasizes on violence in the fight against Israeli occupation. This has seen the group be regarded by the United States authority as a terrorist group which should be renounced for its activities.

Though Hamas has avoided direct confrontation with the United States, its activities against Israel are an indication that the same can happen to the United States citizens. In addition, since the United States is determined to fight terrorism on the international front, it is imperative to take measures that will enhance homeland security and combat terrorism in all its forms.

The United States has put in place various policies which are aimed at combating terrorism as well as enhancing homeland security. The immigration policy for instance is set to help in the identification of any illegal entry of terrorist and blacklist them.

On the other hand, the border security policy is aimed to enhance the country’s border security, blocking any illegal entry of terrorist elements including Hamas. The policy on combating terrorist use of explosives in the United States will prepare the government agencies on combating and identifying the types of explosives that Hamas operatives might use in attacking the United States.

The maritime security policy and aviation policy shall also protect innocent civilians from unprecedented attacks. The aviation policy shall enhance aviation security whereas the maritime security policy shall help in the identification of any illegal entry or tampering of shipping containers that might contain explosives, or even possibly ‘dirty bombs’.

The immigration policy adopted by the American government is aimed at establishing criteria of admission of aliens into the United States. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) clearly stipulates admission requirements and exclusion criteria for immigrants who come to the United States. It is stipulated that any person coming to the United States should not have any links with terrorism.

In this case, anyone who participates in terrorist activities or represents a terrorist organization or is a member of a designated foreign terrorist organization like the Hamas is not eligible to be granted permission to visit the United States. Following the September 11th attack, the INA was enhanced to include the denial of entrance of foreigners who are perceived to represent groups that endorse terrorist activities, individuals who embrace terrorism and to some extent, the close family of individuals who are associated with terrorism.

The Immigration and Nationality Act also provides ground for refusal to admit someone in the United States basing on foreign policy issues. Essentially, the INA is meant to screen foreigners who would wish to come to the United States to ensure that they do not have any association with a terrorist organization. In this way, members of foreign terrorist organizations such as Hamas are blocked from coming to the United States to accomplish their heinous terrorist activities (Garcia and Wasem, 2010).

There is no doubt that security and economic growth of the US is dependent on the aviation system in a significant way. Owing to the importance of the aviation industry in the prosperity of the United States, terrorists have identified the industry as a prime target for attack and which they can take advantage of. The case in point is the dreadful September 11th attack of 2001 and the Heathrow plot of 2006 where terrorists exploited the aviation industry to launch their attacks.

The United States president issued a directive that aimed to ensure the establishment of an accomplished National Strategy for Aviation Security which would guarantee the protection of the US and its interests from terrorist attacks in the Air Domain. The National Strategy for Aviation Security enhances the alignment of Federal government aviation security programs and initiatives to come up with an all-inclusive and consistent national security effort involving all sectors concerned with security issues.

The stakeholders in the security issues include the “Federal, local, and tribal governments and the private sector” (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007, para 3). These efforts are meant to enhance aviation security and promote the defense of the United States from terrorist activities.

The National Strategy for Aviation Security adopts a collaborative inter-agency approach and has developed various plans to counter threats and challenges facing the aviation domain. The various plans are intertwined and strengthen each other.

plans include the Aviation Transport System Security Plan; the Aviation Operation Threat Response Plan; the Aviation Transport System Recovery Plan; Air Domain Surveillance and Intelligence Integration Plan; International Aviation Threat reduction Plan; Domestic Outreach Plan; and the International Outreach Plan (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007).

The Secretary of Homeland Security has been given responsibility to ensure close coordination of the Federal government activities that encompass national aviation security programs. With the enhancement of the aviation security, terrorist organizations such as the Hamas shall be thwarted in their mission to launch attacks on the aviation industry which is vital to the American economy (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007).

As for the border and maritime security policies, the United States has taken considerable measures aimed at enhancing the protection of the United States from attacks emanating from foreign terrorist organizations.

There are various projects that have been put in place by the Department of Homeland Security to ensure maximum protection of American borders. Among these projects is the Advanced Container Security Device (ACSD) Project which is aimed at the development of an enhanced sensor system to screen the veracity of the containers in the maritime supply chain.

The ACSD devise is usually attached to one side of the container and is able to screen the container, reporting intrusions on the container as well as the availability of human cargo that may be contained in the containers. This will act to enhance security measures thereby thwarting any means that could be used by terrorist organizations such as Hamas to launch attacks in the United States (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011).

In addition, there is the Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) Project which is aimed at coming up with an automatic imagery detection ability to expose unusual content in various cargo categories. This has enhanced the American security as terrorist groups like Hamas may resort to sneak their terrorist elements disguised as cargo.

The Border Detection Grid (BDG) Project is also an essential component of security measures taken by the United States. This project is said to provide “a grid of advanced sensors and detection, classification, and localization technologies to detect and classify cross-border movement” (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011, para 5).

Such technology is set to boost border surveillance where one Border Patrol officer will have the capability of monitoring over ten miles of the border. This will enhance keeping vigil on the border to ensure that terrorist activists such as members of the Hamas group do not sneak into the United States (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011).

There is also the CanScan Project which is geared towards the development of a next generation non-intrusive inspection (NII) system that shall be used in the detection of terrorist materials and contraband goods. This project is set to enhance cargo screening to ensure that all cargo coming to the United States is free from terrorist threat posed by groups like the Hamas (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). There are other projects which include the Container Security Device (CSD) Project; the Hybrid Composite Container Project; the Marine Asset Tag Tracking System (MATTS) Project; Secure Carton Project; Secure Wrap Project; and the Sensors and Surveillance Project among many other projects. It is worth noting that the various projects aim at enhancing the security status of the American borders and waterways from foreign terrorists without affecting trade and those people who are travelling (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011).

The Department of Homeland Security has also enhanced its mission to protect the United States and its citizens from terrorist attacks. The Small Vessel Security Strategy Implementation Plan has been put in place to address risks related to the possible manipulation of small vessels by terrorists who may want to target the American maritime.

This ensures that terrorist organizations such as Hamas are blocked from advancing their attacks on the American people. The US-VISIT is known to support the Department of Homeland Security in its mission to guarantee protection to the American citizens.

To achieve this mission, the Department of Homeland Security provides biometric identification services that are critical in the identification of individuals to determine whether these individuals may present a risk to the United States. This is important as it will ensure that members of terrorist organizations such as the Hamas will not penetrate the boundaries of the United States and pose a security threat without being noticed.

Also, there is the Container Security Initiative (CSI) which focuses on the enhancement of security for container cargo that comes to the United States from around the world. The CSI is concerned with aspects of border security threats and threats to global trade from terrorist groups like Hamas which could use the maritime container in delivering a weapon (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, n.d.).

Conclusion Hamas has been known to resort to violence and terrorist tactics in its fight against Israeli occupation. Though this group does not pose a direct threat to the United States, it is has been regarded as a foreign terrorist organization by the United States.

Even after Hamas was democratically elected to provide political leadership to the Palestinian people, the group has continued with its terrorist tactics and launched attacks within the Palestinian territory and in Israel. The United States and the European Union urged the group to denounce its terrorist activities so as to continue to benefit from their financial aid all in vain.

Having recognized Hamas as a terrorist organization, the United States has put in place various policy frameworks that are aimed at thwarting any potential terrorist organization from launching its attacks on the American soil. Through the various policies, terrorist organizations such as the Hamas will find it difficult to penetrate the United States or sneak arms and explosives in the US to be used in terrorist activities.

Reference List Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. (2012). Hamas. Web.

Davidson, A. (2006). Hamas: Government or Terrorist Organization? Web.

Garcia, M. J. and Wasem, R. E. (2010). Immigration: Terrorist Grounds for Exclusion and Removal of Aliens. Web.

Levitt, M. and Washington Institute for Near East Policy. (2006). Hamas: Politics, charity, and terrorism in the service of jihad. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Muslih, M. (1999). The Foreign Policy of Hamas. “Council on Foreign Relations Press”. Web.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). Protecting America. Web.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2007). National Strategy for Aviation Security. Web.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2011). Borders and Maritime Security Projects. Web.


Project Management; computer charting Problem Solution Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Project management process


Reference List

Abstract Since modern business management requires efficient information management, healthcare providers require enhancing the management of patient information. Thus the concept of computer charting emerges. This paper identifies Charting by Exception, popularly referred to as CBE, as one of the most useful modern computer charting systems.

Implementation of CBE is a complicated process, but can be effective undertaken through a simple project management model. As such, the paper describes CBE project implementation against the 4 D project management model. This model is preferred for its simplicity as well as ability to track project progress.

Introduction Modern business management requires efficient management of information. Within the healthcare industry, the management of patient information is vital as it determines the success of healthcare provision. The need to enhance the management of information has led to the development of computer charting a concept that incorporates the use of IT based patient information management tools.

Computer charting systems have a broad based primary objective; however, the overarching aim seems to be improving efficiency in documentation of patient information. This is aimed at increasing accuracy in decision making regarding the patient care. As a result, the healthcare industry accrues numerous advantages from computer charting (Keenan, Yakel, Tschannen and Mandeville, n.d.).

The ever changing trends in healthcare information management require consistent changes to existing information management tools. While current computer charting systems ensure increased efficiency in patient information management, they are also time consuming since healthcare experts, especially nurses, spend a lot of time keying data in computer charting systems. This reduces the amount of time nurses spend with patients (Harrison, 2003; Huff, 2004).

The need for improved computer charting systems in the healthcare industry is necessitated by the desire to reduce the time spent in documentation. This translates to more time available for nurses to provide patient care. Additionally, other than reducing charting errors and omissions, the need to reduce redundancies in management of patient information necessitates systems change.

This therefore calls for the transition from the current computer charting to Charting by Exception, CBE (Jaffe, 2011). CBE is an improved version of the traditional computer charting systems already in the market. Compared to other computer charting systems, CBE offers numerous advantages to tertiary healthcare providers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other than creating a legally recognized patient data base, CBE eliminates the need for narrative documentation as it only focuses on variances or exceptional patient information. This is attained through recording information that varies from normal charting protocol. CBE uses standard information management tools such as graphs, sheets, among others.

Despite being a rather complex system to implement, CBE is recommended for tertiary healthcare institutions (Jaffe, 2011). Thus, the main objective of CBE is to increase time available for nursing care by reducing documentation time, further enhancing accuracy in decision making for tertiary healthcare providers.

As mentioned earlier, CBE provides additional advantages in the management of patient information for tertiary healthcare providers as compared to other computer charting systems available. Additionally, CBE is a complicated system. Therefore, its implementation needs a simple project management model.

There are numerous project management models, but according to Fischer (2005), 4 D models are the most preferable since they are not only simple but also help project managers verify their project plans at both the strategic and tactical level. Additionally, 4 D models enable managers to minimize and optimize risks as well as enabling managers to follow project progress while addressing emerging opportunities for change.

Project management process The 4 D model is linear and involves four sequential stages. Most projects fail due to lack of a clear project definition. As such, the 4 D model requires a clear detailed definition for the project at hand. A detailed definition for the project includes clear objectives. Additionally, project managers need to identify the desired outcomes for the projects at the definition stage (Park and Meier, 2007).

As indicated earlier, the main objective of CBE is to increase time available for nurses to provide care by reducing documentation time, while further enhancing accuracy in decision making for tertiary healthcare providers. In line with this, the desired outcome for CBE is to limit the time used by tertiary healthcare providers during documentation. Reduced documentation time implies that nurses have extra time. Additionally, CBEs main aim is to reduce errors and thus improve decision making.

To achieve the objective stipulated above requires project managers to set realizable time based goals. As such, since this involves transition to a complicated computer charting system, adequate time is needed to train nurses, manage transition, test and measure its effectiveness and correct changes before delivery. Depending on the size of institution, managers need one to two months to fully implement CBE (Jaffe, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Project Management; computer charting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most difficult stage is the designing stage. Designing largely involves planning how the objectives are to be achieved. In this case, a step by step plan seems relevant (Park and Meier, 2007). Appropriate actions which culminate in the implementation of CBE are identified. Such actions mainly focus on testing CBEs viability, evaluation and feedback reporting, as well as incorporating necessary adjustments.

To enable this, a project management checklist seems relevant. Such a list not only allows the manager to track the project progress but also record events. In the designing stage, a number of assumptions are made. For instance, the project manager assumes that the healthcare institution charting protocols meets State charting requirements. Additionally, the project manager assumes that nurses understand existing charting protocols.

To avoid any conflict with state authorities, the manager is required to consult attorneys as well as human service representatives within that State. While planning is aligned to the objective set, the project manager needs to also estimate the cost for the entire project. In this case, the cost for training nurses, the cost of the new system, materials needed, contingency plans, the cost incurred while testing and evaluation are factored in.

A project of such magnitude involves a number of risks. It is the role of the manager to identify all the possible management and systems risks. Since CBE offers legally valid patients data, there is the risk of using such data in a lawsuit against the healthcare provider. Additionally, since CBE only records variance or exceptions from the norm, it eliminates the need for narrative data, which poses future liability risks. Moreover, time and money budgeting is done on estimates, thus the risk of cost overruns (Jaffe, 2011).

Of the four stages, the actual implementation takes the longest time. The Doing it stage involves carrying out the activities according to plan (Park and Meier, 2007). This stage involves training the nurses on how to use CBE. After training, nurses gather all the standard CBE forms in a specific location. Using a CBE checklist, nurses read each of the patient notations according to the institutions charting protocol and mark against the checklist where patient data matches the existing charting protocol.

Any variances noted are recorded in narrative form and entered into the system. A resident physician is notified (Jaffe, 2011). Within the process, nurses also record the progress and challenges. Such records provide valuable feedback to the project manager. With the information provided from the feedback report, the manager leads the project management team in making a thorough review on the success of the project.

The purpose of conducting a thorough review is to identify opportunities for improvement. Adjustments are made to the systems design. This provides the manager with a system fully designed to serve the unique needs of the particular healthcare institution (Park and Meier, 2007). The system is thus ready for delivery.

The delivery stage is the final phase of the project. This stage mainly involves measuring the actual outcomes against the initial objectives. The usefulness of the products is evaluated against the previous products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management; computer charting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, the manager tests whether CBE enables nurses to reduce documentation time, and whether errors and omissions are reduced. The success of the products is determined by evaluating the extent at which CBE improves decision making regarding patients care. Additionally, managers evaluates whether the time saved is spent providing patient care (Park and Meier, 2007; Jaffe, 2011).

Conclusion Despite the fact that computer charting is not a new concept, new trends in information management require healthcare providers to constantly evaluate the usefulness of existing information management tools. Since traditional methods of computer charting fail to address the concept of efficient time management, CBE seems relevant especially for tertiary healthcare providers.

Implementation of CBE is a complicated project, but the 4 D project management model significantly simplifies the process of implementation. Despite the numerous risks associated with CBE, the system accrues numerous benefits to tertiary healthcare providers. Most significantly, the system increases time available for nurses to provide care to patients, minimize errors thus enhancing decision making.

Reference List Fischer, M. (2005). 4D Modeling: Applications and benefits. Web.

Harrison, B. (2003). Becoming familiar with computerized charting. Web.

Huff, C. (2004). Off the Chart? Web.

Jaffe, S. (2011). Nursing practice


The dark side of Dubai Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction






Introduction In response to an article written on Dubai by Jonathan Hari and published online on 07th April, 2009 by “The Independent,” Sultan Sooud Al Qassemi published a rejoinder on 10th April 2009 in which he not only disparages Hari’s style but also his professionalism and motivating factor (Qassemi, 2009).

In this essay, I will show that while the two journalists definitely have clear distinction in their approach towards influencing their readership and in their attitude towards their subject matter, certain similarities and differences can still be drawn between them and their articles.

Discussion Hari’s article seeks to portray Dubai as a city state whose size and prosperity was achieved in a period so short as to be considered unreal (Hari, 2009). He shows its growth is sustained by consumerism and unsustainable economic and environmental practices; and most importantly, he portrays it as a sweatshop whose growth relies on the exploitation of immigrants in a classic case of modern day slavery.

Qassemi, in his rejoinder, seeks to call Hari’s intentions into question and query his credibility, professionalism, honesty and fairness. Thus, he questions his alleged overgeneralization of otherwise possibly isolated cases of maltreatment of immigrant laborers; and to show that similar problems to those that Dubai face are to be found everywhere including in established western cities such as London itself.

Differences The first major difference between the works of the two journalists is that while Hari adopts a direct approach to his exploration of the dark side of Dubai, Qassemi favors a more implicit way of achieving his goals.

He hides behind the veil of a theoretical situation in order to achieve his criticism of the city of London. For instance, he starts on the many hypothetical problems he might have chosen to tarnish London which had not come to his senses by stating “say for example that I had written an article that states that, in wealthy first world Britain there are 380,000 homeless people…” (Qassemi, 2009).

This allows him to both highlight London’s problems, a city he claims to love, while portraying his sensibility in refusing to exploit them. Hari on the other hand is explicit and leaves one little doubt regarding his intentions from the outset. For instance, he writes regarding the popular notion that Dubai owes its existence to the sheikh: “but this is a lie. The sheikh did not build this city. It was built by slaves. They are building it now” (Hari, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second difference between the two writers is that while Hari leans towards the New Journalism by refusing to report impersonally and instead infusing his opinions into his work and using the opinions and emotions of his interviewees to prove his point, Qassemi tends to be more traditional especially regarding the statistical and objective nature of his sources.

For instance, Hari writes regarding a deserted hotel: “standing in the middle, there is a giant shining glass structure that looks like the intestines of every guest who has ever stayed at the Atlantis” (Hari, 2009).

This is clearly his subjective impression of the hotel. One of his interviewees, Karen, says about Dubai: “this isn’t a city; it’s a con-job. They lure you in telling you it’s one thing – a modern kind of place – but beneath the surface it’s a medieval dictatorship” (Hari, 2009).

Qassemi on the other hand tactfully chooses to use hard statistics in highlighting London’s problems. He at times goes even further to cite credible sources to aid his argument. In one apt example, he writes: “or that according to Oxfam 13.2 million people in the UK live in poverty; a staggering 20 per cent of the population in the sixth richest nation in the world” (Qassemi, 2009). In doing so, Qassemi is able to paint Hari as subjective and therefore make his proposition that Hari is sensational more plausible.

Similarities The most obvious similarity between Qassemi’s and Hari’s work regards their intentions for writing the articles. Both intended to disparage their subject matter: Hari intended to vilify Dubai in its treatment of its low cadre immigrant labor force while Qassemi’s objective was to discredit Hari along with western journalists of his ilk. Further consideration of the motivation behind these articles reveals a more fundamental similarity: that both journalists are plagued by fixed mindsets regarding their subject matter.

To begin with, Hari’s complete refusal to acknowledge the great historical feat that Dubai represents, coupled with his complete disregard of the contribution and opinion of the technicians, investors, engineers and many other technocrats who made Dubai a possibility is very obvious.

This blindness to even the slightest positive aspect to Dubai gives the reader the notion that Hari was probably incapable of perceiving any possible positivity relating to Dubai as the result of a deeply ingrained mindset regarding the city state. This is further aggravated by his tone and diction. It hints at a journalist who went into the field, not to find the truth but to prove a certain notion true. This is the reason that this article lacks balance

We will write a custom Essay on The dark side of Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Qassemi isn’t innocent of this mindset problem regarding his subject matter either. While he would like to paint Hari as quick to make generalizations, he begins his article with such a generalization himself: “I recently figured that if British journalists such as Johann Hari (Tuesday, 7 April) who come to Dubai don’t send back something sensationalist it won’t get printed and they won’t get paid. After all, sleaze sells” (Qassemi, 2009).

His mindset regards the work of western journalists. He regards them all as subjective and as motivated by a need to come with unreal sensational pieces in order to get published. He relates how he told this to a British journalist: “I’m going to write an article about London, the same way your compatriots write about Dubai” (Qassemi, 2009). His use of hard statistics notwithstanding, Qassemi still finds himself using them to validate a subjective attitude regarding western journalism.

Conclusion It is clear that while the two articles may have employed different approaches, they both were informed by similar attitudes and mindsets. This is in spite of the fact that these are the same attitudes that Qassemi wanted to bring to light.

References Hari, J. (2009). The dark side of Dubai. The Independent. Retrieved from

Qassemi, S. (2009). If you think Dubai is bad, just look at your own country. The Independent. Retrieved from


Edith Wharton Books Critical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Edith Wharton wrote several books between 1900 and 1938. Wharton travelled extensively during the World War I and assisted war victims in Paris. Her novel, The Age of Innocence won the Pulitzer price. Critics and readers considered this novel to be the best literary work of Edith Wharton.

The novel reflects the desire and betrayal in the old city of New York. Several works of Wharton show extensive use of dramatic irony. Her works reflect the lives of American upper class through the use of humor and empathy in describing their lives, and changes in New York towards the beginning of the 20th century. This essay shall analyze two short stories (Roman Fever and The Other Two) of Wharton in terms of themes and stylistic features.

Feminist critics have looked at the works of Wharton in relations to prevailing social and political circumstances with regard to acceptance of women. The social aspects focused on marital duties and responsibilities of women, particular in The Other Two and Roman Fever. Wharton looks at the social prejudice against women at her times. For instance, she discusses issues of sexual gratification men derived from women, marriages for convenience, malicious divorce, and professional working relations.

She sees sexual identity of women as suppressed by men, and women submissively accepted and internalized their roles in a patriarchal society as the other sex. Women believed lies of men in reference to their sexual and responsibilities in society. It is the social hegemony that creates the otherness in women. Feminists believe that men wish to control women because of their efforts for sexual dominance.

Wharton addresses social challenges and advantages women derive from being wives of socially and financially advanced men. Wharton shows that women value social status rather than love. In Roman Fever, Alida Slade derives her happiness from social advantages she gets from Delphin as a wife. For instance, the author notes that “It was a big drop from being the wife of Delphin Slade to being his widow.

As the wife of the famous corporation lawyer, always with an international case or two on hand, every day brought its exciting and unexpected obligation: the impromptu entertaining of eminent colleagues from abroad, the hurried dashes on legal business to London, Paris or Rome, where the entertaining was so handsomely reciprocated; the amusement of hearing in her wakes: What, that handsome woman with the good clothes and the eyes is Mrs. Slade—the Slade’s wife! Really! Generally the wives of celebrities are such frumps” (Wharton 83).

On the other hand, in The Other Two, Wharton looks at the role and status of women, challenges of married women, children and parent relationship, divorce issues and the dynamic social society with a critical perspective on love affairs outside marriage. The author notes that every woman must choose what works for her in social context.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, some women decide not to marry, but choose to face the social risk by using a temporary liaisons build on sexual desires and mutual trusts. Conversely, in Roman Fever, Mrs. Slade views marriage as a means of achieving social success. These thoughts create bitter rivals among the women fighting for the same man.

Wharton’s The Other Two demonstrates how women have used divorce and remarriage to advance themselves in the social ladder. This is what Alice Waythorn does. Alice has been able to attain and adapt to new marriages and expectations. Alice considers herself to be at the highest point of success when she is Waythorn’s wife. After the honeymoon, Mr. Waythorn must face the reality and acknowledge the fact that Alice has changed, but he must accept her the way she is.

Wharton tries to show how men have always defined women. In the eyes of men, women have always been objects of sexual gratification and possessions. At the same time, men have used women to make their social interaction easy and provide a touch of comfort to their ego and competitive instinct. Alice does not change outwardly, but in the eyes of Waythorn she goes through a series of changes. Waythorn likes the girlish traits in Alice.

This is also a trait Waythorn likes because he feels that it makes him look young. Waythorn sees Alice as having the right to divorce in both her marriages. He feels that Alice was the wronged party. During the beginning of the story, Waythorn can only see the positive sides of her lover. However, at the end of the novel, Waythorn also begins to see Alice mistakes. This creates discomfort in Waythorn, but he recognizes the fact that Alice is a mixed being just like himself.

The social world has created women into what they are. These creations and transformation of women are the products men like Waythorn desires and crave to get. Alice knows that her body is her only resource. Therefore, she must use it to her advantage. In this regard, a woman becomes a product who can only be acquired by the highest bidder.

Roman Fever looks at the illicit sexual content in society. Grace shares an illicit and secret love with Delphin Slade. Wharton notes that “Alida feels a bit remorseful for a moment, but her animosity returns when she considers that Grace harbored secret love for her husband over the years and had been living on that letter” (Wharton 86).

Therefore, to Grace, Roman Fever does not only mean catching cold, but also the burning fever of secret love at the Colosseum. Slade influences women with his possessions and wealth. On the other hand, Horace remains sterile and contributes nothing to the story. Horace also has no sexual fever to sire children. Therefore, Roman Fever becomes a symbolic way of fulfilling sexual desires.

We will write a custom Essay on Edith Wharton Books specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wharton shows that women are capable beings just like men. Women are able to adapt to any situation and progress socially. For instance, Alice is able to adapt to her divorces and move on the social ladder. Alice further fits into different situations by becoming an actress.

Wharton purposefully makes men the audience at the show. Waythorn does not like several sides of his wife, but he must accept her as a performer. Wharton reveals the negative attitude society or men have towards female performers. Men look at actresses as women of loose morals.

However, they fail to appreciate the difficult tasks of performing. Men feel that women have abandoned their privacy in order to satisfy public demands for shows. Though men are unappreciative, they must progress towards accepting diverse women’s roles in society as Waythorn does. This point enables readers to see Alice as a capable woman, gifted as an actress and able to overcome the challenges of life.

Roman Fever shows that women may reject domestic gestures, and opt for other social context in society. For instance, Grace Ansley prefers to confront others, particular Alida Slades. Alida demonstrates the resistances to male dominance that has affected women as a fever.

Grace rejects the social notions of paternity and leaves her daughter for any suitor and even hints that the two daughters (Barbara and Jenny) shall be rivals for the same love. This is a character that puts the whole idea of paternity and patriarchal in America at stake. These have been the conventional reference point for women during times of Wharton.

Social lives are full of deconstructive passions. There are passions Wharton portrays as love, vengeance, enmity, jealousy and fear. These strong passions permeate the relationship between Grace Ansley and Alida Slade. There is a strong passion growing between Grace and Delphin (Alida’s fiancé).

Consequently, fear of losing her fiancé and desire for revenge consumes Alida. She then hatches a plot to expose Grace to a chill that will make Grace sick and remain isolated from Delphin. The next twenty-five years contain growing hatred Alida has for Grace. Alida also does not like Barbara (Grace’s daughter) because she is superior to her own (Jenny). Grace must also live with a sterile Horace while Delphin, the father of her daughter, lives with Alida in the neighborhood.

Wharton is a writer gifted with the use of language in expressing the social context of Americans changing society. She uses language artistically to attack social and sexual prejudices against women. Wharton uses symbols in Roman Fever to refer to several aspects of the story. For instance, the title of the story Roman Fever shows Grace’s sexual attraction towards Delphin. This leads to siring of a love child, Barbara.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Edith Wharton Books by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This also creates hatred between Alida Slade and Grace Ansley. The knitting symbolizes the challenges joining the social and marriage lives of Grace and Alida. Crimson silk represents the passionate love Alida, and Grace probably have for Delphin. As Grace drops her knitting, a destroyed relationship comes to display between the two characters. Evening darkness shows the discovery of dark secrets between Alida and Grace.

On the other hand, The Other Two shows use of symbolism through both male and female characters. Waythorn represents male figures under the influence of patriarchal and economically depended society.

Male figures in the changing society have their eyes focused on advancing their social status in society at the expense of their marriages. Waythorn is unable to understand his wife, Alice. Wharton shows the destructive effects on wives and marriages of a society too depend on material wealth. Just like material wealth, society also sees a woman as a possession of a man.

Through the troubled and divorced marriages of Alice, Wharton shows the readers the consequences of such acts on both the wife and subsequent husbands, who fail to see any other adorable features in their wives, and concentrate on their wives past experiences with their former husbands. We must understand the psychological and social implications of divorce. Wharton offers readers various perspectives to analyze the consequences of divorce and marriages.

Wharton also presents her works through the use of irony. For instance, Alida Slade tell Grace that “I was wondering, ever so respectfully, you understand… wondering how two such exemplary characters as you and Horace had managed to produce anything quite so dynamic” (Lewis 120). Alida refers to Barbara.

Horace is sterile and incapable of fathering children. This irony confirms doubts Alida has been having regarding the paternity of Barbara. The setting of the story is a Colosseum. This is damp and cold place. Colosseum served as a fighting place for gladiators. Unknowingly, Grace and Alida have used all the tools in their lives to fight as gladiators. They have used their husbands, bodies, daughters and lives to settle twenty-five years old rivalry. They also have explored both literal and figurative means of killing each other (Killoran 98).

Conversely, The Other Two reflects instance of irony in the manner Alice relates with her daughter. The relationship between mother and daughter shows no paternity connections. Alice shows lack of concern for her sick child. Instead, she is more worried about the impending visit of her ex-husband than her daughter’s well-being.

Once the Waythorns have settled the issue, Alice relaxes, but the health condition of her daughter has not changed. During periods of Wharton, typhoid was a serious illness, which mothers could not ignore to concentrate on a visit of an ex-husband. Wharton shows that not all women can rise to the motherly roles society expected of them. This reveals a low opinion of her character, Alice as a mother.

The two stories, The Other Two and Roman Fever show that being self is weak and marriage affects everyone to the very core. When we look at the two stories together, we see that marriage is a slippery and even dangerous involvement. This is because individual characters change. This makes married couples find their lives changing beyond their control.

For instance, Waythorn wonders how Alice could adapt to three different men after divorce as Alice Haskett, Alice Varick and now Alice Waythorn. This leads him to conclude that Alice is as easy as an old shoe. She had left her a little emotion, privacy, personality and unknown self in every marriage. Divorce exposes the manners and stern attitudes that couples choose to conceal or express about the nature of their sexual affairs, both social and psychological torture, and prejudice couples endure after divorce (Haytock 133).

The Other Two gives Wharton an opportunity to present her central female character, Alice through the eyes of a man, Waythorn. She lets the readers see the mistakes of Waythorn judgment regarding her wife. Readers wonder whether Waythorn could have been able to adapt with different women as her wife did.

By choosing female characters to be the protagonists of the two stories, Wharton highlights that women are equally superior to men as their roles demand. Wharton also portrays the issues of moral standards society expects from both men and women in order to rise above the social ladder and avoid tendencies of savagery.

Wharton lets readers see a different Alice from the one Waythorn knows. Wharton shows readers the strength in women and struggle they experience in order to perform the ever-changing and difficult tasks of pleasing men.

The Other Two and Roman Fever have their secret aspects. For example, characters are in dismaying situations, particular the rivalry, marriage and divorce issues, but we must see the humorous sides of the story. These stories present no comical or tragic ending but Wharton allows the stories to social challenges in marriage and modern society.

Works Cited Haytock, Jennifer. Edith Wharton and the Conversations of Literary Modernism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.

Killoran, Helen. The Critical Reception of Edith Wharton. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2001. Print.

Lewis, Nancy. The Letters of Edith Wharton. New York: Collier Books, 1988. Print.

Wharton, Edith. Roman Fever. New York: Liberty Publishing, 1934. Print.


History of Multiculturalism Movements Essay scholarship essay help

Multiculturalism is the recognition and appreciation of various cultures. It is the integration of various cultures to ensure people live harmoniously. Multiculturalism is what enables people of different backgrounds and cultures to live together in a culturally diverse society. Multiculturalism is about reaching out to new comers and natives of an area and finding a way in which they could both participate in the enhancement of the society. (Perkins, 2011)

People who support multiculturalism argue that it allows people to express who they really are in a society. It is a more tolerant way of adapting to the diversity of various people. (Wilson, 2012)

Multiculturalism rose after the Second World War. This was when there were rapid changes in the Western societies. The fight for human rights persisted and grew as more and more peoples were advocating for equal treatment for everyone of every race and nationality.

It was during the period when the European Colonial System was collapsing as more Asian and Africa countries were fighting for their independence. In America it came with the rise of the Civil Rights Movement. In the West the whole aspect of multiculturalism at that time was seen as a way of protecting minorities from racial discrimination. (Modood, 2007)

During the postwar period, multiculturalism was one of the most important developments in American Literature. In the first two and a half century of American history the literature was not multicultural as it did not involve everyone in the society. Even though the society at the time was already diverse with peoples of various origins, the literature was still not as diverse.

First of all, the literature was not homogeneous as it was only written by men. Marginalized groups such as Women, Indians, African Americans, French Canadians in New England, Creoles and Cajuns in Louisiana, and Spaniards were doing very little writing and were represented to the public manly through the writing of others. (Perkins, 2011)

After the Second World War, most of the marginalized communities’ literature started getting their way into mainstream. Jewish American literature was becoming popular in America. This was spear headed by the two Noble price winners, Saul Bellow and Isaac Bashevis. There was also the third generation of Jewish immigrants who did very good literature. Bernard Malamud, often identified with recent immigrants, was the master of Short stories, his most famous one being The Assistant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the African Americans there were also prolific writers who caught the attention of many people. After Richard Wright there were many other good talented writers that jumped into the scene. Writers such as Ralph Ellison and James Baldwin had established good reputations in this field.

In 1946 the novel The Street which was a portrait of Harlem written by Ann Petry was the first work by an African American woman to gain a lot of critical attention. Many others followed after her and helped in presenting the African American society from their own perspective. This includes Dorothy West who wrote about the wealthy black Bostonians in her work in 1948, The Living Is Easy. Paule Marshall was another writer who wrote about the blacks in Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959) which tells of Barbadians living in Brooklyn.

Multiculturalism literature increased rapidly in the last third of the twentieth century. As this happened, people became more concerned with the American identity and forgot about the differences of race or ethnicity. This was also seen when the federal government allowed people to declare themselves ‘mixed’ during the 2000 census rather than sticking strictly to Caucasian, Native American, Black, Hispanic or Asian. (UTwatch, 2012)

After the Harlem Renaissance and the splendid writing of people like Richard Wright, Gwendolyn Brooks, Ralph Ellison, and James Baldwin the African Americans were able to inherit readership from these literacy accomplishments.

Braced by the accomplishments of the civil rights movements the writers of this period were assured of large audiences who were sympathetic. The writers were therefore able to capitalize on this and gain critical attention for their works. During this period there were a number of really good poets who were striving harder than ever to transform the best imaginings into social and political reality.

Among the poets that emerged during this period were Amiri Baraka who was a poet and a novelist, Ishmael Reed who was also a poet and a novelist; Gloria Taylor who was best known for The Women of Brewster Place (1982); Alice Walker, who wrote ‘The Color Purple, in 1982 and the author of Brothers and Keepers, John Edgar Wideman in 1982. Other writers include Charles Johnson who wrote about the slave trade in a rather new fashion in his work Middle Passage in 1990.

There was also the Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison who’s 1970 Song of Solomon propelled her to the top, to be recognized among the best of her generation. Among the best of the poets who have come into critical view from the seventies onward are Michael Harper; Rita Dove, a poet laureate of the United States; and Jay Wright, who dismantles stereotypes with his multifaceted allusions and accommodations. (UTwatch, 2012)

We will write a custom Essay on History of Multiculturalism Movements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The multiculturalism movement has mostly been promoted by the oldest inhabitants of America. The new literature of multiculturalism mostly comes from the Native Americans and the other minorities which have been underrepresented in the country over the years. Most of these people have grown rapidly in numbers over the years and are pushing more and more for their voices to be heard. They are doing this through literature and hence coming up with this new multiculturalism literature that is taking over America.

The most acclaimed American Indian writer is Louise Erdrich. She has been celebrated for her novels such as Love Medicine from 1984 which talks about the life of Indians in North Dakota. There are other Indian writers who mostly focused on fiction such as Scott Momaday who was from the earlier generation, Leslie Marmon Silko and Michael Doris. (UTwatch, 2012)

The Hispanics also had renowned writers such as Rudolfo Anaya who earned his place as a leading Chicano writer with his first novel Bless Me, Ultima (1972). There is also Nash Candelaria who wrote the Memories of the Alhambra which traced a family’s history through various generations.

Among the Asian immigrants there have been fictional works that speak about the heritage left behind and the challenges and experiences they had while adjusting to the different ways of Americans. One of the most successful writers in America with a Chinese ancestry is Maxine Hong Kingston. (Perkins, 2011)

Works Cited Modood, T. (2007). Multiculturalism: a civic idea. Cambridge: Polity.Print.

Perkins. (2011). American Literature: Civil War to Present. New York: Mcgraw Hill.Print.

UTwatch. (2012). The “Multiculturalism” Movement and the Making of a Right Wing Counterattack at UT-Austin. Web.

Wilson, K. (2012). Multicultural Education. Retrieved from

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Supply and Demand Definition Essay college essay help: college essay help

Economics lessons include both demand and supply analysis. The research focuses on the analysis of demand. The research centers on supply analysis. Price influences both supply and demand. Demand. Demand is the economic term for the quantity needed, wanted, or desired by the buyers or customers. Different persons have different supply type demands. Each individual has different supply quantity demands.

There is a direct relationship between product price and product demand (Miller, 2011). The economic demand theory states that an increase in the product’s selling price will trigger an opposite decline in the demand for the products, if all other economic factors are equal. For example, ten people have demands for product AC at $11 per unit. An increase in the selling price of product AC to $12 per unit may reduce the demand to only eight people.

A further increase in the selling price to $15 per unit may reduce the amount demanded by the current and prospective clients to only 5 people. However, a decrease in the price of product AC from $11 per unit to $8 per unit may create a 13 person demand. Likewise, a further decline in the selling price of product AC from $11 to $ 6 may create an increase in the demand for the products to 17 persons (Miller, 2011).

Supply. Supply is the economic term for the quantity of products available to the current customers. Prospective clients are eager to determine the current supply status. The quantity also refers to the quantity suppliers are willing to produce for the current and prospective clients. There is a direct economic relationship between the products’ selling price and the quantity of supplies produced (Officer, 2009).

The economic law of supply dictates that as the prices of goods and services increase, the manufacturers or suppliers increase their production outputs. An increase in selling price translates to higher supplier profits. On the other hand, a decline in the selling prices prods the suppliers to reduce their production outputs. For example, ten people demand product BD at $11 per unit. An increase in the selling price of product BD to $12 per unit will normally persuade the suppliers to increase their production output to twelve units.

A further increase in the selling price to $15 per unit will generate an increase in the quantity or products manufactured to17 units. On the other hand, a decline in the price of goods from $11 to $7 can trigger a decline in the suppliers’ production output from ten units to only six units. Another decline from $11 to $5 can reduce the supplier’s production output to two units (Officer, 2009).

Equilibrium Price. Equilibrium price is also called the agreed price. The equilibrium price is the price that both the buyer and the supplier agree in exchange for goods or services offered by the suppliers. For example, Customer A wants to buy a toy car for $ 5k from the supplier. The supplier offers the products to the customer for $ 20. To receive the offered products, the customer gives a higher $ 8 purchase price.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The supplier counters by stating the new selling price is $14 to the prospective client. The prospective client accepts the $14 per unit selling price. The $14 amount is the equilibrium price. It is the price that both the sellers and buyers agree as the exchange price for the suppliers’ goods and services.

Disequilibrium. Disequilibrium occurs when the supplier’s price is higher than the equilibrium price. Consequently, there is a lower demand for the suppliers’ products and services. Thus, there is an oversupply of the suppliers’ products. On the other hand, there is an excess demand for the company’s products if the suppliers’ price is below the equilibrium price.

There is a shortage of the supply because there are too many current and prospective clients eager to grab the suppliers’ products (Sowell, 2009). The supply and demand economy theory is important. The prospective customers will not just buy apples from a grocery store just because the store is selling apples. Likewise, the people will not enter a hamburger restaurant just because it is selling hot tasty cheeseburgers. The people will buy the hamburgers because the customers are hungry.

Likewise, the customers will buy apples because they need to fill their hungry stomachs. After eating a hamburger, the hamburger customer will have no demand for more hamburgers. In the same manner, the apple customer will not buy another apple after eating more apples. On a full stomach, the customer will not demand for another apple or another hamburger (Sowell, 2009).

Different products have different selling prices. Gold fetches a high price because of its rarity. Some universities can afford to charge higher school fees compared to other schools. Gasoline prices fluctuate depending on the global fossil fuel supply and demand activities. Chinese labor salaries are cheaper than salaries paid to California workers (Sowell, 2009). Going further, the stores would not just sell stones to residents.

The residents do not need the stones to fill their empty stomach. The stores do not just sell Eskimo clothes in California. The California residents do not need the Eskimo clothes in the hot California sunshine. The stores sell hamburgers because the competing hamburger store is selling lots of hamburgers. There is a high community demand for hamburgers. In addition, another tore is selling surfboards near a surfing beach resort.

The demand for the store’s surfboard products is flourishing because the establishment is catering to the demands of the current and prospective clients for surfboards (Sowell, 2009). Effect of economy on supply and demand. However, the effective supply and demand principle normally occurs in a laissez Faire economy. The economy is characterized by the freedom of the sellers to sell their products at any price they democratically want.

We will write a custom Essay on Supply and Demand specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Likewise, the economy includes the buyers’ right to freely buy any object or property at any price. In a monopoly, there is only one seller. Thus, the current and prospective clients are forced to buy from the lone store. The lone store has no competitors. Consequently, the lone store can raise or lower the prices of their goods and services. The buyers are at the mercy of the sellers (Rothbard, 2006). There are factors that affect the demand for goods and services.

An economic depression creates a decline for the demand for goods or services. An economic depression occurs when businesses close shop. The 2008 economic depressions triggered the bankruptcy of more than 100 business entities in the United States, including banks. The closure of the businesses triggered an increase of the unemployment lines. An increase in the United States’ unemployment rate precipitates to a decline in the average individual’s purchasing power.

The decline contributed to the reduction in the demand for products. The closure of many businesses precipitated to the reduction of the various supplies available to the current and prospective clients (Rothbard, 2006). In times of plenty, the demand for many products is high. Many companies are having abundant sales from selling more supplies.

The unemployment lines are short. More people have jobs. With more jobs, the people have higher demands for diverse supplies. Companies produce more supplies to fill the high supply demands (Rothbard, 2006). Based on the above discussion, economics topics incorporate both demand and supply analysis. The selling priced affects demand. The selling price influences supply. Indeed, price affects both supply and demand.

References Miller, R. (2011). Economics Today. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Officer, L. (2009). Everyday Economics. New York: Palgrave MacMillan Press.

Rothbard, M. (2006). Making Economics Sense. New York: Ludiwg Von Press.

Sowell, T. (2009). Economics. New York: Persus Press.

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Marketing Research: Customer Loyalty at Al-Marai Company Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Background Information

Al-Marai is the largest dairy processing plant in the Middle East. Al-Marai means green pastures in Arabic. The company came into existence in 1976 as a business partnership between three entrepreneurs. The partners were Alastair McGuckian, Paddy and HH Prince Sultan bin Mohammed bin Saud Al Kabeer.

The chairman (HH Prince Sultan bin Mohammed bin Saudi Al Kabeer) felt the need to improve the traditional farming techniques to match the needs of the domestic market which was growing very fast. The chairman supervised many agricultural activities aimed at achieving the outlined objectives. The processing of milk and laban was started and this gave rise to the modern firms envisaged.

The company merged with PepsiCo to produce high quality fruit juice. Infant formula was introduced to cater for the nursing parents’ market. The company felt the need to venture into the infant formula’s market and it therefore entered into a joint venture with Mead Johnson Nutrition. This is the world’s largest and of course leader in infant formula production.

Mead Johnson has over 70 products that are found in over 60 markets worldwide. It is the universal leader in paediatric nutrition. The mission of the company is to supply nutritional products that can offer infants and children a strong foundation in life. Mead Johnson has led the market for over 100 years. This is a long time by any standards.

The mergers between Al-Marai and other companies is perhaps one of the reasons why it has continued to attract more and more customers over the years. This is given the fact that customer loyalty is one of the features that defines this company in the market.

Problem Statement

It is noted that Al-Marai is the dominant company in the dairy market with many products from one company. One cannot help but wonder why and how Al- Marai Company commands such customer loyalty as compared to other brands which are similar. It is noted that Al-Marai has a long history in the market with more than 30 years of existence.

This probably gives it an edge over the competitors. This is because the products have been passed down from one generation of customers to the other. This means that since their childhood, most of the consumers today have experienced Al-Marai products. This in extension means that customer loyalty has been passed down from one generation to the other.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Al-Marai has expanded its operations beyond the original country making it the only company to export its products from the Gulf Cooperation Council region. The other companies such as Al-Safi, Nadec and others rarely reach outside the borders. Their consumers are concentrated in the local market. Such companies experience unstable market shares given that Al-Marai is dominating the whole region.

The Al-Marai uses various strategies to win over its customers. This study is going to look at some of these strategies. The reasons why the company is still dominating the market after many years will also be analyzed including the importance of competition in the market.

The whole study will revolve around customer loyalty as far as Al-Marai is concerned. The issues mentioned above will be discussed within the customer loyalty context. The study will take the form of a ranking survey. Al-Marai will be compared to Al-Safi and Nadec Dairy Companies as far as customer loyalty is concerned. The researcher settled on the two companies given that they offer products that are similar to those of Al-Marai.

The two also operate within the region where Al-Marai dominates and as such, can be considered as competitors to this company. Two physical attributes and three perceptual attributes were used to rank the three companies. The physical attributes are packaging and availability while the perceptual attributes are price, taste and texture of the products offered by the three companies.

Objectives of the Study

The study comprised of one major aim and several specific objectives. The major aim of the study was to find out why Al-Marai Company has customer loyalty which is dominant than that of other similar brands in the market. The following are the specific objectives of the study:

Identify the various strategies used by Al-Marai Company in its production and marketing processes to establish consumer loyalty

Identify and analyse the differences between Al-Marai products that make them preferred over those of Nadec and Al-Safi

Identify and analyze the differences between Al-Marai company and its competitors as far as establishing customer loyalty is concerned

Identify the relationship between Al-Marai and other companies locally and internationally as far as consumer loyalty is concerned

Analyse the various reasons why consumers are loyal to Al-Marai products as opposed to those of competitors such as Nadec and Al-Safi

Research Questions

The research is comprised of several questions that the researcher intends to answer. The questions are related to the objectives of the study. By answering the research questions, the researcher will have effectively addressed the objectives of the study. Here are the research questions:

What are the various strategies that Al-Marai is using to dominate the local and international markets?

What are the differences between Al-Marai products and those of competitors as far as customer loyalty is concerned?

What is the difference between Al-Marai and other companies in the region as far as establishing consumer loyalty is concerned?

What is the relationship between Al-Marai and other companies as far as establishing consumer loyalty in the local and international market is concerned?

Why are consumers loyal to Al-Marai products and not those of the competitors?

Significance of the Study

The findings of this research will play a significant role in the production and marketing of dairy and other related products in the region. As far as commercial and marketing principles are concerned, the findings from this research will help marketers in coming up with strategies to win over consumers. The following are the possible significant applications of the study:

We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Research: Customer Loyalty at Al-Marai Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The findings will help marketers in formulating effective strategies to cater for customers’ needs in the market

The study will identify various strategies used by Al-Marai Company and their effectiveness in production. This will help other companies in coming up with strategies that suits their production and improves the quality of their goods hence establishing loyalty amongst the customers

The findings will enable those involved in marketing to identify factors that interfere with consumer loyalty and how to overcome such challenges

The findings of the study will help the management in improving the quality of goods availed to the clients in effect sustaining consumer loyalty

Assumptions Made in the Study and Scope and Limitations

Reichheld (201) states that it is not possible for the researcher to control all the variables in a study. There are many variables at play in a given field and the researcher is able to deal with only a few of them. The other variables that the researcher is unable to control are assumed to remain constant throughout the study.

If at all there is change in the variables presumed to remain constant further assumptions are made to the effect that the changes will not interfere with the findings of the study. This is what is referred to as assumptions of the study (Reichheld 203).

This study was no different. The following are some of the assumptions made in the study together with the scope and limitations:

The study addressed itself to customers from Arabic countries only

It was assumed that the participants are familiar with Al-Marai, Al-Safi and Nadec products and they have used them in the past

The researcher assumed that the other companies in the field were fully aware of the various strategies used in establishing consumer loyalty in the dairy industry

It was assumed that the customers are fully aware of the existence of other products in the market other than those from l-Marai Company

It was assumed that factors influencing consumer loyalty in Al-Marai are largely similar to those in other companies in the dairy market

Literature Review Al-Marai Company: An Overview

Before embarking on a critical analysis of literature in this field, it is important to look at various aspects concerning Al-Marai Company. This will help the reader in relating the literature review to the Al-Marai company. The researcher will begin by looking at the various products of Al-Marai Company.

Al-Marai Products

Al- Marai is involved in the production and supply of over three dozen dairy products. From 2005, the company has increased milk production while at the same time promoting brand awareness among the consumers. For the last six years the number of dairy cows has more than doubled from 55,500 to 103,000. This resulted in increased milk production that surpassed the 674 million litres mark. This represented 60% of the total milk production in Saudi Arabia. The following are some of the products from this company:

Fresh Dairy

In the Gulf Cooperation Council region, the hot climate is taken into account when manufacturing and supplying this product. Initially, companies involved in dairy farming produced powdered and canned milk. On the contrary, Al-Marai supplies fresh products from raw milk harvested from its herd of dairy cows.

The products include laban, fresh milk, cream and yoghurt. The supply of these products is consistent and this satisfies the customers’ needs. As a result of this, Al-Marai has emerged the leader in this market segment in Saudi Arabia recording a 19% over the years.

Long-Life Dairy This dairy product can last for a long time and it is convenient for long distance transportation. This leads to lower production costs. However, it is noted that consumers prefer dairy fresh milk rather than long-life dairy milk. This challenge has been addressed by launching various brands of long-life dairy milk.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Research: Customer Loyalty at Al-Marai Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is for example the launch of the only lactose- free milk in Saudi Arabia and the surrounding regions. As a result of this diversification, the company has emerged the leader in the region and has grown by 30% from 2003 to date as far as the long-life dairy market segment is concerned (Morris 78).

Fruit Juices Al-Marai does not depend mainly on the seasonal fruits harvested in the region. On the contrary, it obtains most of the fruits from other parts of the world. The initiative was launched in 1999 to expand the company’s range of products. With the joint venture Al-Marai has entered into with International Dairy and Juice the company is expected to export its products as far as Asia.

Cheese and Butter

These products account for the second largest share of the company’s sales after milk products. The products account for 21% of total revenue in the company. Despite the fact that competitors import the product from Europe and Australia, Al-Marai provides the consumers with fresh cheese and butter. The products include spreadable cheese, slices among others. A growth of 24% in this market niche has been recorded for the past five years.


Al-Marai has also gained an upper hand in the bakery industry. This is through the establishment of Western Bakeries Limited in the year 2007. Products from this subsidiary include bread, croissants among others. The new facility which was introduced in the year 2010 has contributed significantly to the growth of bakeries. This has doubled from the initial 85,000 tonnes.

Al-Marai and Customer Loyalty

Brand loyalty is achieved given the fact that Al-Marai has consistently availed quality products to its consumers around the region and even around the world. The products have being in existence for over three decades making them famous throughout the generations. This is due to the fact that the customer is aware of the products since childhood.

The constant availability of the products cultivates customer loyalty given that the consumers find no need to try other brands in the market. Dairy products are used on a daily basis hence the customer should be familiar with the available products in the market. Al-Marai has achieved this by providing an elastic brand over the generations.

Another factor that has boosted Al-Marai’s customer loyalty is price control. This segment is very sensitive given that Al-Marai does not pass increased costs of production over to the customers. There are chances of losing customers if this is not regulated. Customers will go for those products in the market which have favourable and affordable prices.

In the past few years, Al-Marai has dominated the dairy market especially in Saudi Arabia and other regions around. For example, the company controls about 28% of the GCC market share. In the fresh milk segment, the company controls about 21% of the market share. Although Al Safi Company (one of the competitors) has managed to dominate in the flavoured UHT segment, Al-Marai has achieved tremendous growth in the segment as compared to the other players.

Dairy Products in Saudi Arabia

Demand for Dairy Products

The production and consumption of dairy products depends greatly on demographic patterns. In Saudi Arabia, the lower age group consumes more dairy products than the older generation. These are the children aged between 0 and 14 years. Saudi Arabia has a population of about 24.8 million people and about 33% of this falls under the lower age group category. Also important to note is the fact that the population growth in this country is about 2.5% annually. This means that the demand for the dairy products targeted at the lower age group is rising annually. Based on statistics, the consumption of dairy products in Saudi Arabia is much lower than in other countries around the region (Morris 122).

Price Trend and Dairy Products in Saudi Arabia

A 95% growth in this trend has been recorded in the Middle East, India, China and Pakistan. This is due to the fact that the demand is high as a result of the growing population craving for the dairy products. The change in diet as a result of new lifestyles has also contributed significantly to the increased demand for the dairy products. The increasing awareness as far as dairy products are concerned has additionally increased demand for the same.

Loyalty as a Business Strategy

The Strategy

This is a strategic business model used by the management to win customers’ and stakeholders’ loyalty in order to achieve the marketing objective (Malony 122). In simple terms, the model specifies that a product or service of high quality attracts a large number of customers while at the same time making them loyal to that product or service.

This leads to high profits in the long run. When the customer is first exposed to the product or service, they will either be satisfied of or unsatisfied. This means that the probability of the product performing better in the future will depend on a previous experience. Customer’s expectations will be high only if recent experiences supersede prior experiences (Malony 123).

A relationship is established between the consumer and the business. The strength of this relationship is determined by previous customer experiences with the service or the product offered by the company. If the level of satisfaction is low the strength of this relationship will then be affected negatively.

The bond between the business and the customer as well as level of satisfaction plays an important role in determining the kind of relationship that exists. The quality of the product and the customer’s commitment to the business also signifies tolerance. To this end, the customer can tolerate a service or product which is poor so long as they have a stronger perception of the quality (Malony 119).

According to Malony (133), there are various types of bonds that exist between the customer and the business. These include cultural bonds among others. For example, Al-Marai has a culture of promoting dairy products as part of the diet and as a lifestyle. This creates customer loyalty. There are also legal bonds whereby the customer is confined to the business by a legal contract. The business in this case has an obligation to satisfy the customer as per the contract.

Technological bonds also play a role in customer loyalty. This arises when technology is shared between the business and the client. In the case of Al-Marai, technology has been used to satisfy the needs of the clients. The joint ventures with other companies such as Mead Johnson, PepsiCo and many others are as a result of technology. Quality products were supplied as a result of merging with other companies in the same field (Morris 34).

Factors Determining Level of Loyalty

Relationship Strength This is a scenario where the customer is in a position to access the services or products without a hindrance. The product or service is available to the customer at the right time and place without compromising on the quality. Relationship may be terminated if the customers shift away from the production area. This makes the company reduce its production. Another possible way of ruining the relationship is where the customer is not in need of the product or the services any more (Malony 45).

Available Alternatives If a more suitable alternative is available, the customer tends to shift towards that company. In the case of Al-Marai, it is the only suitable company available to the customer and hence able to dominate the market.

Critical Episodes In this case, the company is expected to make some decisions which will affect its production as well as the welfare of the customer. For example, it is noted that Al-Marai does not hike its prices even after the cost of production has increased. This increases customer loyalty (Morris 39).

The Effects of Loyalty on Profits

According to Stieb (95), it is more expensive to win over a new customer than it is to maintain an existing one. He argues that if 5% of the company’s profits are used to improve the current situation of the company and to maintain the customers, a profit increase of between 25% and 85% can be realized. Here are some effects of customer loyalty on profits:

The cost of acquiring the customer is high but after some time it declines thereby increasing profits. For example, Al-Marai has been in the business for over 30 years hence several generations are familiar with the company

Customers who have a long- standing relationship with a particular company are less sensitive to a hike in prices. This will lead to stable profits in the long run

Long term customers are effective when it comes to referring new customers to the company

If the company retains a high number of customers, the work load for the employees will be reduced. A virtuous circle of satisfaction will be formed thereby increasing profits

Customers who visit the business on a regular basis are less expensive to cater for since they are acquainted with the processes of production. As such, they do not need to be inducted and at the same time cannot shift their loyalty to competitors

Methodology Research Question and Problem

The research question for this study read, “Why does Al-Marai Company have higher customer loyalty as compared to other similar brands such as Al-Safi and Nadec?” This has been tackled before but the researcher will shed more light on the question. According to Morris (201) Al-Marai has been into existence for over 30 years ago.

Research Population and Sample

Research Population

The population for this study are those individuals who consume Al-Marai products. As already noted in chapter one, the study will use the clients found in Saudi Arabia. This is despite the fact that the company has loyal clients in other parts of the world. The researcher will use participants drawn from Riyadh. It is noted that the population of this region stands at around 24 million (Malony 49). Al-Marai supplies products to over 43,500 customers on a daily basis. This is the population size for this study.

Sample Population and Sample Size

The sample population was drawn from the research population identified above. The researcher administered questionnaires on consumers who were found purchasing Al-Marai on local retail outlets. The researcher targeted 100 customers. This number was settled at after the researcher determined that it is easily manageable.

It was also assumed that not all the 100 consumers will return the completed questionnaires. It was expected that about 50 consumers will return the completed questionnaire since it was self-administered. At the end of the 7 days period, 70 questionnaires were returned. This means that the sample size for this study was 70 (N=70).

Sample Characteristics

Out of the 70 respondents, 43 were female while 27 were male. The age distribution of the respondents is as illustrated below:

Table 1: Age of Respondents

Age (Yrs) Number Below 24 24 25-45 32 Above 45 14 Total 70 Sampling Technique

The researcher used a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques to come up with the sample. Five retail outlets in Riyadh which sell Al-Marai products were randomly selected for the study.

The researcher then positioned himself along the supermarket aisle where Al-Marai products were displayed. It is noted that Al-Marai products are usually displayed alongside those of competitors notably Al-Safi and Nadec. However, the researcher concentrated on those clients who picked Al-Marai dairy products. Customers who picked Al-Marai products from the shelves and put them in their shopping baskets were approached.

The researcher then handed out questionnaires to those customers who accepted the request to participate. Twenty willing customers were selected from each of the supermarkets. To reduce cases of multiple selections of respondents, the sampling was carried out simultaneously in all the five stores. The sampling was carried out between 11 in the morning and 7 in the evening.

Data Collection


Data for this study was collected using a self-administered Likert scale questionnaire. The respondents were given the questionnaire and informed that they should complete it and return it to the supermarket within 7 days if possible. The researcher went around the five retail stores after 7 days collecting the completed questionnaires.

The questionnaire had several sections. The first section touched on background information such as the age of the participant, gender, level of education and such others. The second section addressed level of loyalty as far as Al-Marai products are concerned. In this section, the participants were required to rank Al-Marai products against those supplied or offered by Al-Safi and Nadec.

Likert Scale Questionnaire

As already indicated above, the questionnaire required the respondents to compare Al-Marai products with those of Al-Safi and Nadec. Two physical attributes and three perceptual attributes of the products were used. The respondent was required to rank the products using these attributes. The scale used to rank the products had five points. These ranged from 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). Below is an illustration of the five levels:

Very bad




Very good

Level 3 (neutral) was used to capture the opinion of those respondents who felt that there was no difference between Al-Marai products and those of Al-Safi and Nadec. The researcher opted for this scale since it was felt that it was the most effective in ranking the attitudes of the respondents towards the three brands.

Data Analysis and Presentation

The researcher analysed the data using the five attributes using in the questionnaire. First, the researcher determined how each of the 70 respondents had rated the three brands along the 1-5 scale. After this, the researcher calculated the scores of each of the three brands in the five attributes. The data was used to draw a loyalty curve for the three brands. The x-axis of the curve represented the level of each of the five attributes ranging from “very bad” to very “good”. The y-axis represented the five attributes.

Findings Scores for Each of the Five Attributes

It was found that Al-Marai brand scored the highest in all the five categories or attributes used for the study. It was followed closely by Al-Safi. The figure below (loyalty curve) is a representation of the scores of the three brands in each of the attributes:

Figure 1: Loyalty Curve

The figure above indicates that customers favour Al-Marai brands over those of Al-Safi and Nadec. It is noted that Al-Marai scored the highest in all the five categories. The brand scored the highest in the availability attribute (4.3) and lowest in the texture attribute (3.3). The table below shows the scores of the three brands in each of the five categories:

Table 2: Scores for the Five Categories

Attributes/ Brand Al-Marai Al-Safi Nadec Price 4.1 3.2 3.1 Packaging 3.9 2.9 2.3 Taste 4.2 2.8 2.7 Texture 3.3 2.9 2.6 Availability 4.3 3.8 2.9 Mean Score 3.96 3.12 2.72 The table above shows that Al-Marai commands more customer loyalty as compared to the other two brands. Nadec has the least customer loyalty (2.72 out of the possible 5.0).

Recommendations and Conclusion Recommendations

Upcoming or medium sized companies should realise that it is very important to establish customer loyalty. They should also realise that the initial cost of establishing customer loyalty is relatively high. After satisfying the needs of these customers, they need to maintain them in their business. Maintenance costs for long term customers will be low and this increases business profit.

Quality of products and consistency is paramount when a company wants to establish customer loyalty. The item or service should be availed at the right time, the right place and at the right price. If these factors are taken into consideration, customer loyalty will be established and maintained.

Conclusion It is a fact beyond doubt that Al-Marai has implemented strategies that have enabled it to dominate the market. The strategies include production of high quality goods, consistency and establishment of customer loyalty. Regular customers refer new clients to the company.

This means that the company does not have to spend much in winning over new clients. The number of customers increases annually thereby increasing profits. This study concluded that customer loyalty is an important business model that should be embraced by all businesses.

Works Cited Malony, Chris. Winning Your Customer Loyalty: The Best Tools, Techniques and Practices. San Diego: Ink Press, 2006. Print.

Morris, Charles. Al-Marai Co. Ltd.: Dairy in the Desert. New York: Wisdom Publications, 2008. Print.

Reichheld, Frank. The Loyalty Effect. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007. Print.

Stieb, James. Clearing up the Egoist Difficulty with Loyalty. London: Penguin Books, 2006. Print.


Consumer’s Utility and its Maximization Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Utility Maximization and Scarcity




Utility Maximization

List of References

Utility Maximization and Scarcity Economic concepts are usually concerned about the problem of scarcity of resources that are used to fulfill many unlimited needs of individuals. Many resources that are used to fulfill the needs of different people exist. However, they are randomly distributed throughout the world and across different countries without any formula.

The resources are limited although they are significant in fulfilling the wants that are unlimited as depicted by consumers. Due to the scarcity issues facing the resources, the demand is created. The resources provide the supply of all things that could be used to fulfill all needs. However, the needs of consumers reflect the demand. Due to many consumer needs, the demand for products is usually high and consumers have to budget their purchases based on monetary resources available (that are also limited).

Therefore, the supply of resources and products forms one force within a market while the demand forms the other force whose combined effects shape the activities taking place in the market (Kehoe


Production Possibility Frontier Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

A production possibility frontier is a curve that represents the rates of production of two commodities that use the same factors of production within a specified period (Bradford, 2007). During this period, the technology that affects the process of production is assumed to be constant.

This ensures that the rates of production of these two commodities given the available factors of production remain constant. The production possibility frontier (PPF) thus shows the production levels of commodity A that results to a specific production level of commodity B. These commodities are either goods or services. In normal practice, the PPF curve has a concave curve that bulges downwards from the origin.

However, a straight line can also be used to represent the PPF. The shape of the PPF thus depends on the factors of production that are required to manufacture the goods or produce the services in question. A production possibility Frontier can be used to represent a number of economical factors. These include efficiency, opportunity cost, marginal rate of transformation and other economic indicators (Ramsey, 2007). The graph below represents an example of a PPF for commodity A and Commodity B.

The above graph can be used to show the efficiency of production of the two products; product A and product B. As explained earlier, a PPF is used to show the possible production levels of two commodities that use the same factor of production holding all other factors constant.

This therefore means that to increase the production of one commodity, the production of the other commodity has to be reduced. This is due to the fact that these two commodities use the same factors of production. Thus to increase the production of one commodity, the production of the other commodity has to be sacrificed. This is as a result of constant technologies of production and limited factors of production that are available in the economy at a particular moment.

From the above graph, let us assume that product A is tea and product B is coffee. These are the two commodities that are produced in country X. The red line thus represents the PPF of these two commodities for a specific period holding all other factors constant. All the points that fall under the graph such as point x represent all the possible combinations that can be produced for coffee and tea in the country.

However, on this level of production, not all the resources will be utilized. This is because the level of production is not optimum with regards to these two products and the factors of production. Such a level of production is thus inefficient as some of the factors of production are not utilized (Turvey, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, points of production above the PPF cannot be attained at the present moment with the use of the available factors of production and technology. Point Y is a good example of a level of production that country X cannot attain given its factors of production and level of technology at the present moment. However, such point may be attained in future if there are technological advancements and/or an increase in the factors of production for coffee and tea (Dreze, 2004).

Finally, the points along the curve represent the optimum level of production. This includes levels of production such as A, B and C. On these levels of production, all the factors of production are used to the maximum in the production of coffee and tea in country X. This is thus the most efficient level of production for country X.

From the graph, it can be seen that if production is set at point A, more quantities of tea (product A) will be produced and less quantities of coffee (product B will be produced). On the other hand, if production is set a point C, more quantities of coffee will be produced at the expense of tea. However, if production is set at point B equal amounts of these products will be produced. PPF can therefore be used to regulate the amount of production of these two commodities with regards to their demand in the market.

A PPF can also be used to measure opportunity cost. It has been stated that a PPF represents the possible combinations of production of two products given limited resources and factors of production.

Therefore, in the process of increasing the production of one commodity, some of the factors of production that were used to manufacture the other commodity will therefore have to be sacrificed. In the case of country X for example, if the government wants to increase the production of tea, it has to sacrifice the factors of production that were used to manufacture coffee.

As a result, the level of production of coffee will decline. In this respect therefore, the number of units of coffee that will be sacrificed to increase the production of tea represent the opportunity cost. Opportunity cost can be defined as the units of a commodity that are forgone to produce an extra unit of another commodity (Debreu, 2004). The above graph can therefore be used to calculate the opportunity cost of either of the two products.

PPFs are also used to calculate the marginal rate of transformation. Marginal rate of transformation is a term that is used to describe the amount of units of product A that have to be given up to produce an extra unit of commodity B (Bradford, 2007). The slope of the PPF at any point represents the marginal rate of transformation at that point.

We will write a custom Essay on Production Possibility Frontier specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At point A for example in the above graph, the marginal rate of transformation of product A can be calculated by simply calculating the slope of the curve at that specific point. The same method can be applied to calculate the marginal rate of transformation of product B at point C on the curve.

From the above discussion, it is evident that a PPF can be applied in various sectors of the economy. A household, a production company or a government to regulate the production of two goods that utilize the same factors of production can use a PPF. For efficiency to be achieved, production should be maintained at points within the curve.

However, the profitable point of production may vary along the curve. A firm should therefore produce at the point in which it earns maximum profits. This will be regarded as the optimum level of production of the firm. A PPF is thus a powerful tool for households, production companies and governments. This is because it enables them to determine the most efficient level of production to achieve maximum profits and meet the market demand.

References Bradford, M. (2007). Optimal Departures from Marginal Costs System. American Economic Review, 6 (1), 15-22.

Debreu, F. (2004). Economics in the 21st Century. New York: Sage.

Dreze, C. (2004). Market Socialism. Boston: Long Horn Publishers.

Ramsey, L. (2007). Contribution to the Theory of Taxation. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Turvey, T. (2005). Cost Benefit Analysis. Journal of Economics, 1 (5), 41-48.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Production Possibility Frontier by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


The School Culture Descriptive Essay scholarship essay help

Describe the artifacts you find or recall that define the culture of the organization

In this paper, I will describe the culture of a school organization. Essentially, organizational culture of a school entails its personality, which includes the values, assumptions, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of the members and their behaviors. When walking across the compound of this particular school, though located in an economically depressed community, there are a well groomed green lawns and flowers that spread throughout.

The school appears clean and neat as you walk through the walkways. A school mission which is displayed on an expansive banner contains a symbolic message. As you take a trip down the hall, the kids together with the staff are taking care of actual live plants that decorate the hall. There are also some banners that contain words such as “hopefulness” perhaps to display the power of close bond between the staff and the kids, with the intention of improving the learning environment (Katz