The document “Samson Occum’s Diary and the Brothertown Indians” is one of the primary sources used in the book The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America by Colin Calloway. The document offers extensive information on the history of the Americans from the beginning of the 19th century.
This book is one of the best documents about the history of America since it presents primary documents and articles written by the natives themselves (Calloway 123). The historical facts of the country form the thesis of this paper explaining how the country developed to become what it represents today.
The reason I have selected the source is that it offers useful information on the American history between the years1800 and 1900 being a primary source that gives details and ideas about the formation of the nation.
The author presents the perspectives of the Native Americans on the unique events before and after the arrival of colonial powers (Calloway 123). It also explains the encounters between the Europeans and Indians during that period.
The other reason I have chosen the document is that it analyzes the American Revolution in the most explicit, clear and detailed way. Having been set around the 19th century, the document is still a readable and informative historical piece of literature.
The document highlights the fact that the arrival of the colonialists in America resulted in physical conflicts and instability in the region making the Native Americans suffer from the intrusion thereby resulting in a new political order.
The geographical placement of the document is important because it explains the events that took place in the western areas where the Indians resided at that time (Calloway 125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It gives primary information about the native tribes and the Europeans which is significant while offering a concrete analysis of the conflict between the natives and the Europeans powers. The information and ideas presented in the document are useful historical evidences about the development of the nation.
The arrival of the Euro-American and European colonial powers in the country affected the stability of the native tribes. The newcomers attacked the natives thereby changing their social structure, economic activities, and political order. Further attacks by the colonialists affected the sovereignty of the Indians.
Different historical articles and documents support the same idea that the European powers affected the structure of the land. They introduced new rules and economic activities such as trade and agriculture. We cannot explore the history of America without looking at the role of the colonial powers (Calloway 143).
The other importance of this document is that it provides useful suggestions and ideas for further readings. The reader gets enough information about the history of the land. The document borrows first-hand information from speeches, diaries, letters and treaties written by the Native Americans.
The author has also used various articles written by the Europeans. The reader gets an opportunity to get useful information about the encounter and its subsequent impacts on the Native Americans (Calloway 128). This document points out the issue about the history of America and the obstacles the Native Indians faced.
While different documents and books have tried to explain the history of America in details, this particular book managed to examine the events and physical conflicts between the Native Americans and the Europeans powers in full. These events would eventually separate people and form a new political structure in the country.
Works Cited Calloway, Colin. The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America. Boston: Bedford Books, 1994. Print.
We will write a custom Assessment on American History From the Beginning of the 19th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
“After the Snow” Painting Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction From the Feltner collection, I was drawn to the section at the end of the museum, which only hosted works about the Civil War. After going through all the pieces, I settled on the one titled After the Snow for this analytical review.
The painting is set in the Winchester, in War period of the 1860s, and it appropriately fits in the Civil War interest of the Feltner family.
About the artist Mort Künstler is well known as a historical artist in the USA, whose main inspiration came from the American Civil War (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 1). He was born in 1931 and he attended the Brooklyn College, Pratt Institute and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), graduating in 1953.
His first job after college was in the print industry, where he provided illustrations for books and magazines (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 2). He also created posters for films like The Poseidon Adventure and The Taking of Pelham One Two Three.
In the 1970s Künstler switched focus to painting, with his initial works touching on American history, starting with life in prehistoric America to the odyssey of the space shuttle. This work attracted the interest of serious collectors, which gave him the motivation to continue painting.
In the 1980s, he started working on paintings from the American Civil War, with most of his works being done in the Oil on Canvas technique. The painting After the Snow was created in 1998, with 2750 limited edition prints released (“Mort Künstler: America’s artist” par. 5).
Description of the painting For the purpose of providing a comprehensive description of the painting, two elements of composition and two of art will be explained in regards to their relation in the artwork.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Composition
The painting After the Snow depicts activities outside the Frederick County Court House in Winchester (Künstler After the Snow 1). The date is 6 January 1862 and it is the winter time. In the painting, there are various items and characters.
First, in the foreground, there are wooden containers and casks. There are vessels on the near right corner and on the ground we can see evidence of thinning snow.
Still in the foreground, there are two policemen on the right, three boys (two in front and one behind) walking towards the centre of the foreground, and two women ahead of them. On the left of the foreground, there is a group of four people – one man and three women, appearing to be engaged in a conversation.
The middle ground is where most of the activity in the painting is. There are at least 15 horses in this particular section, with at least 12 carrying a rider.
One of the horses on the right is tied to a tram, with a lady seated on it. It has no rider and the lady appears to be waiting for the one to move her from the place. There is also a boy playing with a dog, in the centre of the middle ground.
In the background, there are buildings, one of which is the Court house, with clouds forming the extreme background. It is evening, judging from the street lights and other lights scattered around the area.
One of the key elements of composition that Künstler utilized effectively in the painting was balance. Even without giving the subject matter a critical look, one gets a general feeling of a well-structured architecture within the painting (Kiefer The Principles of Composition 1).
We will write a custom Essay on “After the Snow” Painting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the painting is split in half, from top to bottom, one can easily tell that the amount of activity on the left is almost symmetrically balanced with that on the right. However, the more realistic balance approach that the artist had in mind during the creative process was radial balance.
Each and every item on the painting appears to have been put in place in relation to the activity in the middle-ground.
Künstler intended to depict the peace and tranquility that the people were experiencing and he achieved this by making the people and the activities they were engaged in more prominent than every other item in the picture.
The foreground items appear to have been strategically scattered around the area in order to allow the viewer to notice the reducing snow thickness on the ground, giving relevance to the title of the painting.
Proportion and scale
The painting After the Snow is a realistic artwork and depicts events that possibly happened in real life. In this regard, the approach by Künstler was to make everything appear the way they as if they had a camera to document the scenery.
Everything in the painting is in the right proportion, with children and adults fitting in their respective profiles. By properly placing all the contents of the painting in their right positions and playing around with perspective, Künstler managed to get everything to fit its natural size.
By properly scaling the constituent elements of the painting to each other, the artist managed to include very many items in the artwork, hence making it interesting visually and appealing to the eye, while at the same time giving out the message that the artist intended.
Elements of art
The elements of art that have been well utilized in the painting which are shape and space. In the painting Künstler has used representational shapes to create the image of a real world. The shapes used are not standard and were created as need arose.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “After the Snow” Painting by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The human beings are presented in the realistic way as well as animals, buildings and other elements. Spaces, particularly three-dimensional spaces, have been well used in order to give the painting the photo-realistic feel that the artist had in mind.
In order for every element on the painting to attain its realistic size and appearance, Künstler had to take into consideration its interaction with other elements in the painting and their fit into the available space.
Ultimately, he had to ensure that all the items in the painting had their own unique presence and that they balanced well with all the other constituents (Kiefer The language of Form 1).
Künstler’s style of painting has been replicated throughout his work. For instance, comparing After the Snow with his other work Wayside Farewell (also in the collection) he uses both balance and proportion the same way in both paintings.
Like in After the Snow, in Wayside Farewell the foreground is very minimalistic with most of the detail set in the middle ground to offer balance (Künstler Wayside Farewell 1). Proportion has been achieved by ensuring that every item on the painting is in a realistic scale.
The same applies to the elements of art (shape and space). In both paintings, the artist puts in use representational shapes and makes sure that the spaces between elements are well presented to offer a three-dimensional feel to the paintings.
The main compositional difference between the two paintings consists in the fact that in Wayside Farewell, there is one main subject of interest, the hugging couple. In this painting there is a man and a woman hugging, as if one (most likely the man) is leaving.
It is winter and there is a thick layer of soil on the ground. Surrounded by houses and trees, the couple still commands the attention of the viewer.
Conclusion This assignment set out to provide a complete evaluation of the painting titled After the Snow, by Mort Künstler. To this end, a brief biography of the painter was provided to help further understand the origins from which the painting under study came from.
With this groundwork set, the discussion delved into a description of the painting, using the elements of composition and art. After this exercise, I value the painting even more, particularly because of the sentimental value it brings to me.
I am very familiar with the environment around the old town of Winchester, and it was interesting to see Winchester in the Civil War era. It was interesting to see a building now and compare it with its original form noting the stark differences.
This sentimental attachment makes me value the painting because I know that even when changes are happening around, I can still visit the museum and appreciate the old times.
Besides using the collection as an aesthetic piece, a teaching lab and a tribute to the Feltners, the University can use the collection for revenue generation by hiring the paintings out to other museums around the world.
The paintings can also be loaned out to state offices and other public establishments such as the White House on a seasonal basis, so that visitors at these places can appreciate the distance that the United States has pass since the days when Civil Wars were the order of the day.
Works Cited Kiefer, Geraldine. Art 200, Art Appreciation: The language of Form. Shenandoah University, 5 October 2012. Lecture notes.
Kiefer, Geraldine. Art 200, Art Appreciation: The Principles of Composition. Shenandoah University, 5 October 2012. Lecture notes.
Künstler, Mort. Wayside Farewell. 1996. Feltner Museum, Winchester. Oil on canvas.
Künstler, Mort. After the Snow. 1998. Feltner Museum, Winchester. Oil on canvas.
Mort Künstler: America’s Artist. Web.
Tesco Strategic Decisions Problem Solution Essay college essay help: college essay help
Abstract To attain competitiveness amidst of modern changing business environments, an organization’s leadership team needs to implement operational, project and strategic management strategies that are responsive to the needs of the particular market the company is trading. With effective strategies, a company is able to resolve problems and conflicts that are likely to create a weak link in the companies operations.
Modern contemporary business environments are also posing some dangers to organizations as leaders are finding their old policies and business approached being challenged by the environment prevailing (Wheelen and Hunger,1998). This paper discusses the strategic issues facing the retail industry in the domestic and international market; it will focus on Tesco Merchandise Company.
After discussing the issues, the paper will discuss some strategic measures that the company can take to improve its business as well as improve its competitiveness.
Background of the company Tesco is an international merchandise company with its main market in the United Kingdom; the company operated a chain of grocery that can amount to over one thousand supermarkets, convenience stores, and hypermarkets in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Asia and Central Europe. Although the company was initially involved in the food sector, it has diversified its operations to clothing, consumer electronics, financial services, and internet services.
The company’s management vision is to develop lifetime customer loyalty and ensure that it adds value on consumers. The company’s vision and mission statement establishes close links and connections with its customers and aims at understanding their needs and enacting policies that improve the relationship.
Other than focusing on customer needs, the company maintains an effective human resources department that ensures the Tesco maintains and sustains trained, motivated, and adequate staffs at any one point in time. Despite the company being among the oldest and successful retail companies in the world, it is facing some challenges that are limiting it meet its profitability (Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011).
Problems facing Tesco Other than being a leader in the retail industry, the company is facing some challenges; the first issue facing the company is regard the use of e-commerce tools. Although the company has a computerized system of marketing as well as payments for goods, it is still lagging behind some of its competitors like Wal-mart that seems to have moved a step ahead.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tesco’s system accepts only a limited number of electronic payment systems like debit cards, credit cards, and online payments buts lack some of the main upcoming e-business or payment methods like PayPal, western union transfer, and wire transfers. The weak system has locked some customers from buying form the company.
In the same line of computerization, the services cannot be differentiated thus a customer lacks the motivation or the drive that can make him or her come again for the services. The internet section of the company is facing some challenges especially when it comes to browsing and downloading works; the computers are slow and sometimes customers are expected to wait for over ten minutes to get a download.
With the large chain of works and variety of commodities they stock, the company has had deficit of products in some stores; at times, the products may have run out of stock without the management being aware or there has been a delay in delivery.
This is brought about by system failures and the interdependence of branches (when buying commodities that cannot be bought in bulk; the company joins the needs to two or more branches than orders the product in bulk), when this happens, some commodities are found not in their shelves (Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011).
Genetic tool kit to identify challenges and how to solve them To identify the above problems and solve them, the company should use a hybrid management toolkit; a method of management that combines the strength of Six Sigma management approach and Total Quality Management strengths. Under the method, the company will be required to set some benchmarks of operations that should be maintained at all times in the organization.
To ensure that the benchmarks are attained, the management should set some operational system appraisal methods.
Identification of problems
All operations with the organization should be documented and optimal operation levels set; the document whether in print or electronic should be made available and accessible to every employee in the firm; the responsibility of every staff as long as the attainment of the set standard should be well defined.
We will write a custom Essay on Tesco Strategic Decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some challenges face an organization because of reluctance of employees or those companies that have been subcontracted; to ensure that this does not happen, the company should have a punishment mechanism of any person whether natural or artificial who limits the attainment of the benchmarks set.
The blue print document acts as the point of reference in day-to-day operation and the best strategy line of operation should be formulated. With the strengths of Six Sigma, which allows a company to establish its areas of weakness and inefficiency, then the approach will help know those areas that need to be addressed for a competitive business.
To have efficiency, the company should strengthen its internal control and review its contacting policies; those operations that are not core, like cleaning the stores, should be outsourced to ensure that the company’s management concentrates in the main line of business (Wheelen and Hunger,1998).
The over one thousand chain should have an independent or regional management approach; having a central management structure of more than one thousand stalls is not practical and If made, then chances of high inefficiency can be expected. The management should change its structure to ensure that managers are responsible for few stalls.
This will improve e delivery and facilitate solving of problems at local or regional level. The computer and internet system seems to be one of the thorns that the company should be looking at; the failures that the company is getting are coming from adopting technology that is outdated or one that cannot be fully be relied upon.
As far as the system is concerned, the company has two options; to either change the complete system and adopt a better version or improve the current one. The choice of the matter depends on the situation and the availability of either option.
The company should continuously restructure and rebuild its vision and mission; developing a strategic vision and mission involves thinking strategically about the following three questions
What are the customer’s needs?
How much is the company offering? Can we do better?
Where are we now?
Where do we want to go?
How will we get there?
The following diagram shows how the company can use the Hybrid system to counter check its processes and probably improve them:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tesco Strategic Decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chart 1
A vision is a view of an organizations future and business course: it is a guiding concept for what the organization is trying to do and become. All must be looked into to ensure that there is no one area that benefits at the expense of the customer. Setting objectives that are aimed at meeting the gap that the company had not been filling in the past; the aim of setting the objective is to ensure that the company has embarked on the fulfillment of the need of the customer.
The aim is to improve the feeling that the customer will get when he has transacted with the business. The objectives are aimed at improving all the area of the organization and the measurement is the satisfaction that the customer will get. A satisfied customer will be a loyal customer and the business stands to benefit (Kotter and Schlesinger, 2008).
The failures in deliveries can be a matter of internal controls, supply chain management or the computer system; this is a sensitive area that needs to be addressed independently; by independent it means that the problem should be handled separately and the root causes sort. After noting the area with a problem, then the management should seek to handle and solve the root cause.
The following is a sample of a supply chain chart that the company can adopt to have an effective supply chain management:
(Goold and Campbell, 2002)
Periodically, the company should be taking internal and external business analysis: internal business analysis seeks to show the strengths of the company, how well it is compiling with the set standards and establishing any area that need improvement. When undertaking internal analysis, the managers should ensure that the benchmarks they have set are complied with and when they have not, the cause of the deficit should be diagnosed.
Through TQM, the company will be able to develop customer royalty; it will be able to surpass other companies to become the world largest merchandise retail chain. For a company to continuously improve its processes and attain the set goals as well as surpass the expectations of the customer the company should keep reviewing its policies (Fred, 2008).
Strengths of the proposed method A hybrid management-tool kit has its main strength in the approach that it will take; the method address all areas of the business and ensures that problems that the company may be facing are recognized at the earliest time possible. On the other hand, the process involves every human capital in the organization for its success; it does not overburden the managers but spreads the functions across the board.
Strength with hybrid system is that it ensures that a benchmark has been set which operates as the line of best business pathway. With such moves, Tesco will establish those areas that might be causing problems and be able to address them accordingly.
Weaknesses of the method The method is an overall quality and problem recognition approach, this means that it can only operate when all mechanisms are set to go; it does not offer advice on what to do but only evaluates the mechanism set.
The method establishes weaknesses and areas of inefficiency but does not offer mechanisms of preventing the occurrence of challenges; the main concentration is how to identify a problem and solving it but no-much has been provided to avid the occurrence of a problem, thus the business may be identifying problems when danger has already happened.
Method of improving the system To ensure that the system works better, management should integrate a gap analysis mechanism: gap analysis is a tool used by managers to decide which tactics and strategies to use in order to increase production. It is a tool used to link a business vision with its strategies and goals. It helps in identifying a discrepancy in the performance that helps in selecting appropriate strategies to fill the discrepancy.
It was necessary to conduct a gap analysis on the implementation and use of TQM in the company. This was done by asking two simple questions, where is the company now? Where does it want to be five years from now? The following diagram shows the process of identifying the gap within the company (Camillus, 2008).
New policies As Tesco continues with the hybrid system of detecting and solving issues, the management should understand that every outlet has its unique issues that can be solved by unique management techniques. They should be open to adopt new approaches to different outlets.
Conclusion Tesco is an international merchandise retail company that is facing strategic issues; the main issues are caused by changing business environments that calls for continuous policy formulation. To ensure that the company remains competitive amidst changing business environments, the management should adopt a hybrid management system. The system will assist the company identify weak points and solve them before they become substantial threats to the company.
References Camillus, J., 2008. Strategy as a wicked problem. Harvard Business Review. 86(5), pp. 98-106.
Fred, D. ,2008. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Goold, M. and Campbell, A. ,2002. Do you have a well-designed organization? Harvard Business Review. 80(3), Pp. 117-124.
Kotter, J.P and Schlesinger, L.A.,2008. Choosing strategies for change. Harvard Business Review, 80(30), pp. 117-124.
Tesco Limited Official Website, 2011.
Wheelen, L. and Hunger, J.,1998. Strategic Management and Business Policy: Entering 21st Century Global Society, 5th edition, Reading, Massachusetts and Harlow: Addison Wesley.
Earth Science and Environmental Education Reflective Essay writing essay help
The most exciting experience for me during the first year of school was learning about nature. I was five-years-old at the time, fascinated by the natural environment surrounding us. So was our science teacher, Miss Asma, who valued wild plants and small animals.
She adopted pedagogical approaches that aimed at getting the children involved and interested in the subject such as a cooperative learning and stations approach as outlined by Fjørtoft (2001).
On several occasions, Miss Asma took us to her house, where she had an amazing collection of natural species. She treasured small animals such as rabbits, birds, snails, mice and butterflies as well as wild plants in her garden.
Such a variety of species enabled us to understand vital issues about the nature. So did the field trips to other regions, which gave us an insight about our environment (Wisneski, 2000).
It has been adopted recently not to use artificial props in science classes and uses nature itself to educate children (Coates, 2002). This form of education is associated with multiple benefits in children’s lives.
Through children’s social interaction with natural environment, they learn a lot about real nature and the environment we live in (Fjørtoft, 2001). Such an approach allows children to be explorative and critical towards every aspect of nature.
As a result, they can formulate their own conclusions based on the discoveries they make. Meanwhile, the surroundings offer children an ideal environment to form a basis for their own understanding of the world (Charlesworth
Organizational Culture Assessment Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Every organization has its own competitive strategies. However, these strategies cannot work without a strong organizational culture. Organizational culture has the advantage of increasing employee commitment to the firm. In addition, it enables the organization to define its strategies effectively.
This is essential as it ensures successful execution of activities necessary for achievement of organizational goals. Organizational culture is also important in maximizing production through employee motivation. This is particularly significant to human capital whose value is maximized by the right organizational culture.
In essence, organizational culture forms an integral part of management competency. While these attributes can be achieved through implementation of the right organizational culture, determining an effective culture is quite difficult.
This paper will explore corporate culture, its roles in organizations and the factors that influence its implementation (Senge, 2006, p. 55).
Organizational culture encompasses concepts such as assumptions, values, beliefs, artifacts and behaviors, among others. It, therefore, works to reduce variability in the workforce. This allows for easier control and shaping of staff behavior.
In essence, it defines the distinct character of an organization since it varies from one organization to another. Culture, therefore, plays a crucial role in organizational setup. Organizational culture connects employees together and ensures efficiency in execution of activities.
Moreover, communication is essential for implementing the right culture. In addition, when the right culture is implemented, employees are usually motivated to maximize production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, it is necessary that the right communication framework is put in place to achieve desired objectives. Furthermore, motivation is a central factor in determining an organization’s competitiveness (Andreas, 2006, p. 159-172.)
Motivation Motivation can be defined as the urge to do something. For instance, organizations with motivated staff enjoy their work. This improves both efficiency and quality of production. Moreover, it saves time and creates opportunity for innovations. Motivation is essential to every organization.
In fact, when employees are motivated, they are able to create as well as implement inventive ideas. Strong identification is important in enabling employees to be part of the organization. This gives them a sense of belonging, which is significant in entrenching spirit of unity in the team.
Besides, their sense of innovation can only be achieved if the organization embraces innovative norms. Interestingly, these norms can only be achieved through implementation of strong organizational culture. Motivation is usually derived from effective organizational culture.
Organizational culture is essential in creating commitment among employees. This strengthens their motivation to achieve organizational goals. Motivation is a very significant factor in organizations because it affects returns.
When employees are not motivated then organizational objectives cannot be achieved. Moreover, it is important that employees enjoy their working conditions. This helps in influencing on the team spirit as well as motivation. Corporate culture reinforces shared and individual beliefs.
This is then allowed to develop as employees share the same values. Organizational culture is thus significant in driving employee motivation. However, it is necessary to note that some organization cultures are uninspiring.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Culture Assessment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such organizations face such issues as lowered standards of performance. Motivation is thus a vital factor in corporate culture (Bisel, Messersmith
Theory of Knowledge Explicatory Essay online essay help: online essay help
Knowledge is very fundamental in the life of a person and it is therefore very necessary to fully understand the various ways of knowing. Traditionally, there are four basic ways of knowing which were developed by different philosophers. These four ways of knowing are depicted in the TOK diagram of knowledge.
The sources of knowledge represented in the TOK diagram include sense perception, language, emotion and logic. Sense perception is the first way of knowing that is based on body senses such as vision and touch (Lehrer 34).
The second source of knowledge is language and in this case knowledge is passed down from those in authority and through reading. Language is used as a medium to pass knowledge from one person to another.
The third source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is emotion. Knowledge about certain things is obtained through intuition and emotional feeling.
The fourth and final source of knowledge according to the TOK diagram is logic which emphasizes the importance of reasoning as a source of knowledge. Rational thinking leads to generation of ideas and solutions that become a very important source of knowledge and understanding.
Philosophers and psychologists claim that there is a fifth way of knowing that is yet to be fully exploited. Many scholars agree that memory plays a very significant role in helping a person know and understand things (Lehrer 112).
Although memory as a way of knowing is not featured on the TOK diagram, many scholars agree that it plays a significant role in generating crucial information that is used in historical studies and social science.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will substatatiate and explain why memory is an important source of knowledge apart from the four ways of knowing highlighted in the TOK diagram.
The idea of classifying memory as a source of knowledge is always discussed in most TOK discussions. Memory is a concept that combines different sources of knowledge and is normally used by many people to make knowledge claims. Memory is a combination of past experiences, perception and emotion.
Ideas generated by memory are reliable but not in all instances (Dicker 59). Some of the ideas generated by memory end up being faulty and hence not trustworthy at times.
Cases of mistaken identity are very common in courts and it is therefore true to say that the reliability of memory as a source of information or knowledge is not a hundred percent. There are instances where eyewitnesses commit a lot of errors in their testimonies due to forgetfulness and misconception.
The fact that eyewitnesses can not be completely relied upon in a court of law makes many people to question whether memory is a reliable way of knowing. It is believed that memory can easily be altered if a person uses drugs or listens to other suggestions.
The memory of a person keeps changing as time passes with the one that is relived more that once losing its truthfulness over time (Dicker 78). The mind of a human being is very vulnerable and it can therefore be easily manipulated by other external sources.
The fact that the memory of a person can easily be influenced under different circumstances proves that it is sometimes difficult to find the actual truth of a particular case by completely relying on memory.
We will write a custom Essay on Theory of Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite its shortcomings, memory is still considered as an important source of knowledge in fields such as history and social science. Memory can not be completely ruled out as an unreliable way of knowing because it is sometimes useful in cases where there is no manipulation (Dicker 145).
It is always a great challenge to convince some people that memory is a very reliable source of knowledge that is used in fields such as history and social science. Psychology scholars have discovered that memory is a very important element of cognitive psychology and other social sciences.
Cognitive psychology deals with how the human behavior is affected by the mental processes of a human being (Pollock 46). Many people underestimate the importance of memory and only coming to realize its significance when it fails to help them.
Forgetting occurs as a result of memory failure and therefore memory should be seen as a very important asset. In psychology, memory is classified into three categories that include the working memory, sensory memory and long-term memory.
The sensory memory is directly connected to mind with the information delivered or the impression created fading in the shortest time possible. The human mind could be completely overwhelmed if it had to remember all the information it receives (Pollock 46).
The human mind tends to remember only the information that grabs its attention. The human mind finds it difficult to remember everything that a person sees of hears. The amount of information that can be kept and worked on by the memory at a particular time is very limited.
A working memory is normally used to keep information while working on it at the same time. The people who speak faster are a perfect example of how a working memory works. The information in a working memory tends to fade if it is not stored in a long-term memory.
It is always easy to retrieve information from a long-term memory since the information stored is permanent. A person’s name is normally stored in their long-term memory and that is why its retrieval is automatic.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Theory of Knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other shortcoming of using memory as a source of knowledge is the possibility of new memories interfering with the new ones (Pollock 46).
The memory of person can be distorted by stress, passage of time and the power of suggestion. There are three ways through which the memories in the mind of a person can be retrieved.
The first way is through recall where previously learned information is retrieved in its original order or randomly.
The other way through which information can be retrieved from the memory is through recognition. In the case of recognition, previously learnt information is retrieved through identification of the right option from a number of choices (Hoerl 396).
The third way of retrieving information from the memory is through reconstruction. Reconstruction occurs through remembering particular details of a scenario and building concrete information from the remembered details.
The majority of historical information was obtained through the use of memory to remember past events. It is therefore very important to examine the reliability of memory as a source of historical information (Hoerl 396).
Many historians are always skeptical about the use of memory as a source of historical information. Social historians are the main proponents of oral history that relies majorly on information obtained from oral interviews.
The use of memory in recalling a past event makes some historian to view oral history as subjective and unreliable. The use of documented sources as a source of historical information has become a common trend with many historians but it is important to state that those sources are not always accurate (Hoerl 396).
Some of the discrepancies in documented sources are normally discovered when oral interviews are conducted. This scenario justifies the fact that memory can be a reliable source of historical information.
The subjectivity of oral history is what makes the memory a unique source of knowledge for historians and social scientists. Critics of oral history bank on the argument that memories decline with time but the argument is yet to be substantiated with concrete evidence (Hoerl 396).
Supporters of oral history argue that when interviewing a person to obtain historical information, the only thing that is required is the motivation to remember.
Knowledge claims are categorized according to their source. The primary category consists of a person’s own understanding and ideas whereas the secondary category is based on the ideas and findings of others.
There are cases where knowledge claims are based on a combination of both primary and secondary sources (Guyer 89). The majority of new ideas and theories are normally derived from other people’s ideas and it is therefore very difficult to classify them as original.
The majority of knowledge claims are based on both primary and secondary sources because new knowledge is normally built from the existing one.
The two categories of knowledge claims include positive and normative knowledge claims. Positive claims of knowledge describe the past; present and future nature of a system, process or activity (Guyer 89).
The statements that are normally formulated from positive knowledge claims describe the relationship between things. The best way to come up with positive knowledge claims is through careful observation of processes and systems.
Positive knowledge claims also describe systems, things, processes and activities in detail. These descriptions are based on both personal understanding and understanding of others. Positive knowledge claims are very common in science because science aims at discovering why things happen the way they do.
By claiming that academic success depends on how hard a person works, an individual is said to have used a positive knowledge claim to describe the relationship between working hard and academic success. A statement of relationship is used in the mentioned example to describe a process.
The normative category of knowledge claims is based on judgment. The value, morality and importance of a process or thing are normally expressed in this category of knowledge claims (Guyer 89). The normative knowledge claims judges whether a process, system or thing is wrong or right.
Knowledge claims come with issues that limit what people claim to know. The first issue that arises when particular knowledge has been claimed is whether evidence is required and the reason why it is needed.
The second issue regarding knowledge is that the number of knowledge claims that do not require evidence is very small. The majority of knowledge claims require evidence for people to believe in them.
The implications that a knowledge claim without evidence brings is another knowledge issue (Guyer 112).
The fourth issue regarding knowledge is the level of importance that some areas of knowledge have compared to others. Knowledge issues should be critically analyzed before a person comes up with a knowledge claim.
Works Cited Dicker, Georges. Kant’s Theory of Analytical Knowledge: An Analytical Introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason. New York: Hackett Publishing, 2004. Print.
Guyer, Paul. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print.
Hoerl, Christoph. Time and Memory: Issues in Philosophy and Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Lehrer, Keith. Theory of Knowledge. New York: Westview Press, 2000. Print.
Pollock, John. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. New York: Rowman
University Students’ Emotions in Lectures Critical Essay college essay help near me
In their article “University Students’ Emotions in Lectures: The Effect of Competence Beliefs, Value Beliefs and Perceived Task-Difficulty, and the Impact on Academic Performance”, Greek researchers Georgia Stephanou, Petros Kariotoglou, and Konstantinos Dinas present the results of the investigation on the problem of correlation between students’ emotions at lectures in Psychology, Linguistics and Physics and their academic expectations and performance.
The article was published in The International Journal of Learning in 2011. This quantitative research is related to the problem of academic performance in the field of education with its dependence on such factors as the students’ cognition and emotions.
The researchers have focused not only on examining students’ usual emotions at lectures during the academic semester but also on their performance expectations, the category of ability self-perceptions, on value beliefs, estimated task-difficulty and on the interdependence of these factors with students’ successful and unsuccessful academic performance.
In the study, the authors have presented several hypotheses with the main one suggesting that students who experience positive emotions at lectures are more successful in their academic performance than those students who often experience negative emotions at the same lectures.
Those students who consider their performance as successful experience more positive emotions at lectures. That is why, they argue, the process can be discussed as interdependent.
Furthermore, the level of value beliefs, performance expectations, and ability self-perceptions also depends on the correlation between positive emotions and successful performance.
These hypotheses are based on the results of the previous studies according to which such positive emotions as, for instance, curiosity and pride can affect students’ motivation, cognition, and achievements positively as well as negative emotions provoke students’ unsuccessful performance (Stephanou, Kariotoglou,
Nationalism in the Modern-Day World Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Every person in any corner of the earth has a country that he or she considers as his or her motherland. Therefore, no matter where he or she moves, there is something in the back of the mind that reminds him or her of his or her country.
For example, United States of America has for along time being considered as the land of milk and honey by the immigrants from other countries especially the developing ones. However, regardless of this perspective, Taiwo (p 21) observes that such people remain attached to their country of origin in spite of the difficulties found there.
He point out that most of these people move there to look for greener pastures and that when they are satisfied with that they will return to their country of origin. He claims that to show their patriotism, he notes that the immigrants will not invest heavily in the foreign land but rather will invest in their country of origin.
As a result he portrays these kinds of people as nationalistic because they have put the welfare of their country ahead of their country. According to him nationalism is the loyalty or devotion to ones country. Gellner (p 54) claims that nationalism is solely responsible for the creation of a national identity.
In addition he says that nationalism makes a people in a country appreciate and have respect to each other irrespective of their faith, race, and even ethnic affiliation. Therefore, peace and stability in a region or a country is promoted when people learn to co-exist with others in spite of their varying cultures. He observes that as long as people have a unifying factor for example the president, then nationalism will be promoted.
Theories of Nationalism In the contemporary world a number of scholars have come up with various explanations to explain why people feel honored to be identified with their countries. Samir (p 100) has come up with a theory which he calls the instrumentalist theory. In this theory the most striking feature is that it focuses more on the ethnic groups rather than countries or the nations.
In his discussion he observes that ethnic identity is variable as well as flexible. That is, both the content and the boundaries of the ethnic group are not rigid and therefore can change according to the prevailing conditions. He observes that ethnic affiliations are a mere way of promoting economic interests. To add on he point out that some people are ready to change their group membership once they have fulfilled their desired and set goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Modernization theory According to Bellamy (p 15) modernization theory asserts that nationalism emerges as a result of the process of transition from traditional to modern society. He claims that the modernization theory proponents zero in on the spread of industrialization, political, cultural conditions as well as the socio-economic.
According to him these are some of the issues that make a people in some countries be proud of their nation. He says that in the developed countries of Europe, Asia and the United States of America industrialization and a strong economic base has in particular led to rise of nationalism in them. Taiwo (p 15) states that modernization theory of nationalism stems from the tradition of Enlightenment rationalism and more specifically in the area of scientific materialism and empiricism.
In his discussion he tends to relate nationalism with the historical, economic as well as political advancement that is necessitated by the science and its effect to politics and also social life at large. According to him nationalism affects traditional social ties in that it breaks the progress that had previously been witnessed in the market relations for instance.
Evolutionary Theories Andersson (p 50) states that people begin by having an ethnic sought of nationalism before they can develop the ‘real’ nationalism. He observes scholars have not managed to explain the period at which people change their perception from ethnic to national appreciation.
He attributes this to lack of an in depth research o how these transitions occurs and the failure to see the implication of ethnicity for today’s nationhood. According to Geertz (p 115) there exists a gap between the medieval and the modern notions of a nation. As a result of this he point out those national identities has to be re invented in the modern world.
Types of nationalism Anti colonial nationalism
Scholars have identified a number of nationalisms that are different from each other depending on their nature and the times at which they take place. According to Sukumar (p 251) there is the anti colonial nationalism. He notes that, this took place in the period after the World War II.
After the World War II many countries especially in Africa and Asia that had for a long time been under the colonial rule of the Europeans began to rise up against such rule. In Africa for example he claims that nationalism movements claimed a lot life in Algeria and Kenya as they wanted their countries from the colonial chains.
We will write a custom Essay on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1952, a group calling itself MAUMAU waged a full war against the British colonial government and true to its expectation the country attained her independence in 1963 after more than a hundred thousand people had lost their life.
He observes that although the Kenyan and Algerian nationalism turned out to be bloody other countries like Tanganyika managed to negotiate with the British who had been given the mandate to run her affairs after the defeat of the Germans in the First World War.
Ultranationalism Blaut (p 198) observes that this kind of nationalism is characterized by people’s immense support for their country. He claims that people come in their numbers to show their solidarity with the actions of their government. He says that when a country is attacked by enemies like it happened in the United States in September 11 2001, members of the public are likely to come out in large numbers to demonstrate that they are in solidarity with the government.
According to him other actions that may cause this kind of nationalism include, the government plan to control the number of immigrants entering the country, expulsion out of the country of suspects who are considered a threat to the state security, fight against drugs as is the case in Colombia and Mexico.
Other include going to war against another country that is perceived as a threat to that country. He thus argues that this kind of nationalism is normally peaceful and in many instances do not last for a long time. This is because its occurrence is catalyzed by an event that is at hand.
Bellamy (p 22) has noted that some countries especially those that have advanced technologically have a tendency of looking down upon those countries that are poor and technologically behind. He contends that this kind of behavior people originates from infancy when a child is taught by the parents on what or who he or she should relate to.
He says that in the twentieth century, black people in the United States of America and in Europe were despised which made it extremely hard for them to co exist with the whites. He point out that with changing time, the perception has changed and as a result such people can relate and help one another during the times of need. He calls this kind of nationalism as ethnocentrism.
Civic nationalism is another type of nationalism. According to Snyder (p 102) civic nationalism shows a country as an assembly of different people who view themselves as belonging to that nation. He argues that such people consider themselves as having same political rights and allegiance to similar political procedures.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nationalism in the Modern-Day World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, he says this kind of nationalism is meant to instill certain values such as equality, tolerance, respect for human rights, and freedom in people as they participate in the process of nation building.
Impacts of Nationalism in the modern day world In the world today, nationalism has contributed greatly in shaping the world in its present state. Tilly (p 127) points out that, as people try to search they national identification on the international scale various events has taken place that have made what they are today. He says that one of the impacts of nationalism is the rise of new states.
According to him, prior to the Second World War, the world was literally owned by the European powers led by the British and the French authorities. In the African continent for example he states that French and British government claimed over 80 percent together while the rest of the European powers controlled the rest.
After the Second World War, most of the African soldiers taken by the British to be carrier corps returned home and demanded that the Europeans leave their territories. He points out that the India’s independence of 1947 gave a fresh impetus for these Africans to demand for their independence.
This wave spread across the whole continent and by the year 1970 more than 60 percent of African countries had been liberated from the colonial rule. This therefore gave rise to many countries that had previously not existed. He says that prior to independent Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania used to be referred to as East African Protectorate.
But with attainment of independence, each country adopted its own name with a complete government. He notes that to date there are those regions of the world fighting to secede from another country. He argues that this is all brought about by nationalism.
Furthermore, Andersson (p 54) asserts that nationalism has brought about war between one country and others. He says that the terrorism attacks on the 11th September 2001 in the United States of America made the then president, George Walker Bush to declare war on Afghanistan that was blamed for protecting the then leader of Al-Qaeda the late Osama bin Laden.
He claims that the members of the public came out in large numbers and urged their government to retaliate by waging a war against Afghanistan. According to him, the attacks on the Twin Towers and the World Trade Centre brought together the entire American citizens. As a result they united behind their leaders and offered their support for the country to go to war as they considered it a war against terrorism.
Nationalism has also led to an increased pride among nations. Geertz (p 110) claims that as countries compete with one another, the winning one feels more superior to the other although it is the players alone involved. He says that in Brazil, their winning football culture has made the entire nation proud.
Therefore as they play another country, the entire nation is behind them so that they can continue with their winning ways. In addition he says that, countries that have progressed technologically have developed a negative attitude towards the poor and the impoverished countries.
According to him some of the citizens in the developed countries got so much pride that they cannot take or consume anything made from such a country because he or she believes that their country has the best product while the others are sub standards. Tilly (p 147) points out that nationalism have led to the fall of government in different parts of the world.
He claims that dictatorial forms of government have witnessed its own people rising against it in popular uprisings. This usually takes the form of mass action organized by the pressure groups and other activist. If this fails to work, he notes that others takes arms and uses force to topple such government. He gives an example of how the late Mobutu Sese Seko of the former Zaire was overthrown.
Therefore, a government has to be responsible to its people or else people will revolt against is and bring it down. In addition Sidwell (p 214) argues that nationalism has brought about unifications in some countries in the world today. He says that in Italy and Germany for instance, nationalism as a tool for unification.
According to him, prior to this nationalism in Italy the whole country was divided into many city states that claimed autonomy. As a result of nationalism he points out that the city states came together and managed to form the modern day Italy. He argues that once the citizens have learnt to live peacefully with one another, they are likely to cooperate and work together for the good of the country.
Sukumar (p 254) points out that nationalism have led to the emergence of a new crop of leaders in a number of countries in the world. According to him, the young people have become tired of being referred to the leaders of tomorrow and therefore want to take up the leadership o their countries now and not any other day.
He notes that in most of the developing countries the heads of government are usually old people above the age of sixty five who have been blamed for lack of vision in their leadership. As a result there has been a rise in the number of young people taking part in elections where a significant number is vying for the top seat in their country. Nationalism has increased accountability in many government institutions.
According to Hroch (p 73) many government that had previously blamed for lack of accountability are today being held accountable by the electorate. To ensure that they gain the electorates’ confidence and thus stand a chance of being re elected in the subsequent elections, he asserts that these government have yielded to the calls by the members of the public to increase transparency in all their transactions.
As a result incidences of corruptions have gone down significantly. Furthermore, nationalism has led to persistent conflict between neighboring countries. According to Feld (p 99) when colonial government laid their hands on the colonies they drew up boundaries without bearing in mind the effects the boundaries would have on the communities residing in those areas.
He says that, while carrying out a research in East Africa, he realized that the British government divided the Somalis from Kenya with their families in Somalia. As a result of this the Somali government that came to power after the British had left tried to annex the northern part of Kenya into Somalia. He observes that even today the Somalis in Somalia considers the north eastern part of Kenya as rightly theirs and therefore continues to cause conflict with their Kenyan authorities.
Nationalism has also led to increased democracy in a number of countries. Gellner (p 127) argues that when people stand united to demand certain things from the government are bound to get them because the government is aware of the potential danger posed by the citizens should they all decide that enough is enough.
He points out that as a result of this the government yields in to the demands of the people and allows room for more public participation in the running of the government affairs. He adds that nationalism has led to some countries looking down upon others. According to him, the developed countries have put in measures that ensure that the developing countries don’t improve economically without their help.
By so doing he says that the developed nations are able to spread their influence on these nations and make them compel to their wishes. Woolf, (p 123) points out that nationalism has been responsible for the ethnic and religious clashes in some countries in the world. In Northern Ireland for example there have been for a long time clashes between the Catholics and the Protestants based on ideological differences.
According to him, these people fight with one another because of their unity in religion. That is, the believers are proud and ready to die in the name of their religion because they are proud to be associated with either side of the divide. In addition, he argues that such people will do anything possible to protect their religion from interference from other people.
Minaham (p 211) contends that nationalism has helped a lot of people to know their basic human rights. According to him when people feel attached so much to their country, they get a good chance to be taught their basic rights and therefore critic their government when such a person realizes that the government or any other state agency is not respecting human rights.
Moreover, nationalism has promoted the relationship between a country and the others. He notes that when the members of the public show their solidarity with their government actions, people and governments from other countries begin to show a keen interest in such a country and the countries may end up becoming good trading partners hence benefiting the citizens of both countries and more so those who realizes a positive balance of trade.
Hayes (p 54) has argued that if not properly looked at, nationalism can lead to degeneration to groups. He point out that, once become proud of their nation so much, they can attract potential enemies who would attack them using propagandas in order to divide them.
Once such propagandas have sunk in them, people tends to develop a sense of mistrust and with time a country that was perceived as intact may begin to disintegrate slowly and after a while some of the leaders may begin advocating for secession. He says that this was the case when the cold war ended in the late 1980s and early 1990s after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
According to Kohn (p 78) nationalism has impacted on the manner in which people conduct themselves whether in public or in private. He points out that once the people realize the importance of being royal and appreciating their country and the leaders, they develop a new attitude towards that country and begin behaving in a manner likely to suggest that they respect and honor all those in authority.
Conclusion Being a nationalist is a virtue that each one of us regardless of age, sex, race and religious affiliation should have. Although some of our rulers have not created a good environment for us to be proud as citizens we should take that and try to ask other people to join us in campaigning for patriotism and nationalism.
People should learn that it is their noble to duty always be ready to protect their country from external as well as internal attacks. In order to promote nationalism from an earlier stage in life the government should start an awareness campaign in school for children to be taught the importance of being patriotic as they grow up.
In addition to that, the government should introduce a mandatory unit that will be taught right from the primary school to the University level. By so doing people will be in a better position to decide for themselves on whether to be patriotic or otherwise. One way of promoting nationalism is to ensure that democracy prevails in the country.
Members of the public on the other hand should learn to co exist peacefully at all times regardless of the prevailing conditions. Liah (p 211) asserts that peace and harmony are important ingredients in the realization of nationalism. This is because for people to be considered nationalistic, they must show cohesiveness among themselves so that they can get whatever they want to achieve.
As earlier stated there are certain types of nationalism that can bring hatred among people and to an extent generate into a full scale war like it was the case in the Northern Ireland between the Catholics and the Protestants. In order to avert such crisis leaders in both camps should sit down together and iron out their differences so that no blood shed is witnessed in the future.
Once people in a country have learnt to live peacefully in their own country, it is the government’s obligation to establish good working relationships with other countries so that the citizens in those countries can benefit from such a relationship in terms of doing business.
Works cited Andersson, Eliud. Culture, Identity and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008
Bellamy, Charles. Nationalism and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001
Blaut, Jim. The National Question. London: Routledge, 2004
Feld, Jordan. Minorities, Autonomy and elf Determination. London: Sage, 2003
Geertz, Clifford. Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006
Hayes, Carlton. The Historical Evolution of Modern Evolution. London, Blackwel, 2007
Hroch, Miroslav. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002
Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism. New York: Macmillan, 2009
Liah, Greenfeld. Nationalism, Roads to Modernity. London: Penguin, 2007
Sidwell, Alex. The Age of Nationalism. New York: Harper
The Three Choirs Vineyard Research Paper scholarship essay help
The wine industry is one of the most competitive industries in many countries around the world. Companies involved with wine production have to put in place the right marketing and promotional strategies in order to retain and attract customers.
The Three Choirs Vineyard offers different wine varieties and accommodation services in addition to a beautiful and relaxing environment. The Three Choirs Vineyard facility has a wine shop, gift shop, daily guided tours, a restaurant, eleven boarding units, and a state of the art winery with 75 acres of vines.
To fully analyze the Three Choirs Vineyard, it is important to highlight the organization’s marketing strategies such as segmentation, targeting and positioning.
To begin with, Three Choirs Vineyard has tried its level best to divide its market into segments of consumers with a common inclination towards a particular brand of products and services.
Market segments are created according to demographic variables, income, behavior, lifestyle and the type of benefit sought from the product or service. Consumers with the same interests and needs are divided into small segments to ensure that everyone is fully satisfied.
The success of Three Choirs Vineyard is attributed to its segmented market. Three Choirs Vineyard provides a unique experience for its customers with the different varieties of wine and other recreational facilities being perfect segments for its customers.
Three Choirs Vineyard caters for wine enthusiasts, gift shoppers, holiday makers and those just looking for a beautiful place to relax. The organization produces different brands of wine according to the different preferences of its segmented market.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Promotional schemes of products and services depend on the unique tastes and preferences of a particular market segment. After creating market segments, the next step to be taken by the organization is targeting the created segments.
An organization develops marketing schemes and plans to effectively reach the created market segments. In an attempt to target its wide range of segments, Three Choirs Vineyard has elaborate marketing schemes targeting its market segments.
To begin with, the organization has wine tasting tours that target wine lovers and holiday makers. Three Choirs Vineyard has discount plans for each market segment according the marketing goals of each segment.
The organization offers two packages of wine for both its rich and average income customers through the adopt a vine with wine promotion. An organization strives to create a particular perception in the mind s of customers with regard to their market segment through positioning.
Taking Three Choirs Vineyard as an example, the organization has different wine brands for the rich, middleclass, teenagers, the old, women, men, Christians and non-Christians. All brands are created with the aim of creating a particular perception in a targeted market segment.
Positioning is an effective marketing strategy that ensures that all market segments are accommodated. Each brand of wine is prepared, priced and positioned according to the requirements of a particular market segment.
The three marketing strategies have been effectively used by Three Choirs Vineyard in an attempt to retain, satisfy and attract customers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An organization needs to analyze and fully understand its environment of operation for it to achieve its organizational goals. In order to analyze its environment of operation, there are certain external factors that the organization needs to understand.
These factors are commonly referred to as the PESTLE factors. Three Choirs Vineyard faces some legal, social, political, economic and environmental issues that affect its daily activities. The legal and environmental categories of the PESTLE factors are very crucial in the UK wine industry.
Three Choirs Vineyard faces strict regulations that guide the winemaking industry. The alcoholic strength of each wine category has both minimum and maximum limits that need to be followed. Enrichment and de-acidification of wine produced in the UK is also regulated to ensure that the standards are maintained.
The legal regulations limit export business of wine making companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard. The level of sulphur dioxide in red wine is limited to 150 milligrams per litre for all UK wine industries.
Records concerning wine bottling and enrichment must be recorded immediately and kept for a minimum of five years for accountability purposes. The UK wine labeling regulations are very strict because they are harmonized with the EU wine labeling regulations.
The wine label must include the alcoholic strength, the nominal volume, country of origin, sulphur dioxide content and the type of wine. Fluctuating values of international currencies affect the price of wine at the international market.
Wine companies such as Three Choirs Vineyard end up incurring loses on its exports due to weak foreign currencies. The Three Choirs Vineyard holds daily tasting events and it is therefore required to have a Winery Special Event Permit.
There are quite a number of environmental regulations and issues that affect the wine industry in the UK. Environmental factors form part of the PESTLE factors that affect the UK wine industry.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Three Choirs Vineyard by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Vineyards and other winery operations are considered as Agricultural activities by the UK authorities and therefore the zoning of farms is done by bona fide government agencies.
All wine producing facilities like Three Choirs vineyard are inspected after very six months to check whether there are any activities which are harmful to the environment. All companies that produce wine must have a Winery Waste Disposal Permit to ensure compliance with environmental legislation.
The PESTLE factors affect the marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard in a number of ways. To begin with, the sociological factors help the organization in the process of market segmentation. The organization uses the data gathered from sociological analysis to segment its market.
Three Choirs Vineyard has segmented its wine market according to age, sex, level of income, religion and the type of satisfaction sought from wine. The data obtained from analyzing external sociological factors helps a great deal in market segmentation.
Economic factors such inflation and exchange rates play a significant role in the pricing of goods and services at Three Choirs Vineyard. Promotion of goods and services is an essential component of a marketing mix that is enhanced by the PESTLE factors.
It would be difficult for Three Choirs Vineyard to promote its products if the UK as a country was politically unstable. The success being enjoyed by Three Choirs Vineyard is as a result of the good political and economic relationship that the UK enjoys with the rest of the world.
An organization or company can only develop an efficient and effective marketing plan if all the PESTLE factors are put into consideration. The marketing mix adopted by Three Choirs Vineyard brings good results because the organization constantly considers the PESTLE factors.
The Psychology of Personality Essay college admission essay help
Introduction This case study outlines the process of counselling, which composed of six sessions that my client underwent. The case study I have chosen has great significance to my life and career due to several reasons. Firstly, it was my first experience dealing with a client during my first year of training as a counsellor.
Secondly, I managed to counsel a client successfully despite the conditions that surrounded her life. Thirdly, the experience was quite enriching as it gave me the impetus to build my career. Nevertheless, I will elaborate how the case study is significant to me through the six sessions of counselling that my client underwent.
Confidentiality is important in counselling because it protects clients from undue stigma arising from the use of confidential information. Since confidentiality is important in protecting clients, I have used different names to protect my client’s identity as well as identities of her relatives and friends.
To elaborate the case study well, I will outline it as follows:
Firstly, I will introduce the case study by providing background information of the client and the case study. The background information will enable readers to get a glimpse and understand the essence of the case study.
Secondly, I will describe the six sessions that my client underwent, as an endeavour to elucidate the process of counselling that occurred in the case study.
In the description section, I will describe the following aspects of the case study: therapeutic interventions, the client’s process, experienced instincts, my own process, evolution of our relationships, learning gained, and the role that my supervisor played. Description of these aspects gives an insight of my experience coupled with client’s experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, I will discuss how supervision played a role in helping me overcome the numerous challenges that I encountered during the six sessions. Given that the case study represents my first experience as a counsellor, supervisor helped me to resolve ethical dilemmas and apply my theoretical knowledge professionally.
Although I will try to recapture all that transpired in the case study, I admit that I cannot recapture every detail. Therefore, I will try to provide a glimpse of what transpired during the six sessions in an attempt to present my firsthand experience in counselling. Interaction with my client involved intricate nuances that I cannot articulate well or present them as they occurred during counselling.
How can I explain the nature of glances that my client usually gave or describe the nature of pain and depression my client expressed in my presence? Thus, it is impossible to explain the emotions that my client was fighting at the time of our interaction throughout the counselling session.
Background The case study underscores the life of my client who is a 65-year-old female showing signs of depression. For the sake of confidentially, I have named her Ita. Ita is a depressed woman because she has many issues bothering her. Firstly, she is a widow because her husband died five years ago, and his death anniversary is approaching.
She is also about to celebrate her 40th wedding anniversary without her husband in a few months’ time. Ita lives a lonely life because she has only one daughter who rarely visits her due to their volatile relationship.
Moreover, Ita has several health complications as she has an inoperable breast cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and arthritis in her both hands. Cancer therapy leaves her fatigued and sensitive to warm sunny weather.
Given her conditions, Ita is unapproachable, bitter, and angry about the world. Her family members have forsaken her; they did not even support her during her husband’s illness. Moreover, they have cut off any communication with her. Ita is also upset by the negligence on the part of her family members because they have not done much to help her disabled sister, who suffers from schizophrenia.
We will write a custom Essay on The Psychology of Personality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The First Session
During the first session, Ita came to the room that I had rented since she was my first client. After we talked and I understood her condition, I decided to employ the Rogerian model of psychotherapy in helping her to overcome depression. As it was the first session, I started by seeking an informed consent from her and creating a rapport.
According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, relationships between a client and a psychotherapist form the basis of a therapy. Thyer (2008) states, “Rogerian therapy sought to transform the therapist from a resident expert to transparently honest human sojourning with the client” (p.299). During the first session, I aimed at creating a good relationship between Ita and me, so that we could engage freely in subsequent sessions.
When Ita arrived at the counselling room, she had many reservations. She did not want to express her depressing conditions because she had fears regarding the revelation of her confidential information. Moreover, Ita expressed some of the problems she had been experiencing in life.
With my counselling skills, I probed her gently and assured that the information she could give would only be applicable in the counselling process only. Glassman and Hadad (2008) warn, “The therapist must act in an open and genuine way; not hiding behind a professional façade” (p.431). After managing to create a rapport, Ita was in a position to communicate freely without any fears.
At the end of session one, I had obtained enough information from Ita, which enabled me to understand the cause of her depression. Eventually, Ita went home happy because she got someone who listened to her problems attentively and was willing to help her.
When Ita entered the counselling room, I welcomed her warmly and offered her a seat. Although it was difficult to introduce myself, I gathered courage and informed her that I was a counsellor and I would take her through several sessions of psychotherapy. After the brief introduction, Ita sat restlessly and somehow bored.
As a counsellor, I had to take charge of the situation and create a friendly environment to enable her participate actively in the therapy. Although I managed to encourage Ita to express her misery, she intermittently broke into tears.
Shulma (2011) argues, “psychotherapists should understand the power of emotion in their own lives before understanding their impacts on clients” (p.322). Thus, although her feelings moved me, I managed to control them so that I could help her.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Psychology of Personality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The relationship between Ita and me developed gradually as we shared our experiences. The more she narrated her experiences in life, the more we became close to one another. The narration of her experiences moved both of us and in some way bonded even more.
Thyer (2008) notes, “The fundamental change is determined by the relationship between the therapist and the client” (p.299). Hence, in the first session, the relationships between Ita and me transformed from just being a client to being friends who could share anything to each other.
The first session was the first experience in dealing with a client, and I gained from it a great deal of empirical skills. The major skill that I gained during the first session is that, I learned how to create the necessary rapport for any therapy.
Close interaction with Ita resulted into fruitful communication, which enabled me to gather enough information for the therapy. I applied the Rogerian psychotherapy strategy of creating psychological contact between the client and the psychotherapist. Ultimately, I learned that client-psychotherapist relationship plays a significant role in the process of psychotherapy.
Prior to my first session, my supervisor and I discussed what I was to do on my first session. Since counselling was my first experience, I had to consult my supervisor who provided me with necessary skills to perform psychotherapy.
The Second Session
In the second session, Ita arrived in time because she was eager to have her depression relieved. Ita described her condition as total misery because she lived a lonely life, suffered from inoperable breast cancer, was diabetic, and experienced a host of other social issues in her life. In this session, I had to identify and classify her problems as well as examine possible solutions to each of the problems.
An important step in psychotherapy is the identification of the presenting problem and then contextualising it (Shulman 2011, p.76). Hence, I discovered that Ita’s problems emanated from social and health aspects. From here, I could formulate hypotheses about possible interventions that might help her recover from depression and live a normal life.
At the beginning of the session, Ita viewed her life with lots of complications without any possible intervention. She cited that she lived “a solitary life” where nobody was willing to help her. Moreover, she said that her inoperable cancer and diabetic conditions contributed to her depression.
At first, I too perceived these conditions as very complex for I could not figure our possible interventions that could help Ita overcome her depression.
However, after taking her through the process of identifying possible interventions using different hypotheses, she became convinced that her life would change for the better. Hence, at the end of the second session, Ita was longing to proceed to the next session and have her problems solved.
According to my experience, the second session was somehow easy to handle since we had created a good rapport in the first session. Nevertheless, I experienced a challenge in identifying the problems and formulating possible solutions. Given that Ita viewed her condition as irredeemable, it was challenging to convince her that the hypotheses that we set would work effectively.
Barlow (2007) asserts, “A therapist can facilitate the transition to a more active and structured approach by maintaining a problem-oriented stance” (p.268). In this view, I made sure that Ita transitioned from having pessimistic attitude to having optimistic attitude for her to internalise the possible interventions.
At the beginning of the second session, Ita viewed me as a friend who would perform a miracle to get her out of her condition. As the session progressed, Ita gained an insight of her condition and possible interventions. Ita expected me to come up with interventions and make them work to improve her life.
However, with time, she realised that interventions emanated from our interaction. Therefore, at the start, Ita viewed me as a helping friend, but at the end of the first session, she recognised me as a partner who wanted to help her overcome her miserable life.
The second session gave me great insights of how clients perceive their problems. Moreover, I learned how to identify and classify problems so that I could formulate possible interventions. I noted that formulation of interventions is the hardest part in the process of psychotherapy.
Clark (2006) argues, “In constructing the model of a patient, the therapist is often able to activate affective and imaginative processes that provide an empathic understanding of a patient’s experiential state” (p.117). I realised that involvement of the Ita in the formulation of possible interventions is central in psychotherapy. Therefore, the second session gave me an invaluable experience of formulating possible interventions with Ita.
Given that I experienced some challenges in the first session, I had to consult my supervisor on what to expect on the second session, lest I would experience similar challenges.
My supervisor helped me a lot because he provided me with reading materials that enabled me to prepare well. Without my supervisor, I could not have managed to counsel Ita during the second session. Hence, I attribute my success in the second session to my supervisor’s guidance and instruction.
The Third Session
The third session started well as Ita arrived on time as usual for the therapy. Since the Rogerian psychotherapy is non-directive, I commenced the therapy by letting Ita recollect what we did during the previous session to see whether she could remember anything. The non-directive approach to counselling is effective because it enables a client to take charge of the counselling process (Barlow 2007, p.268).
The aim of the third session was to formulate feasible goals that Ita could achieve at the end of the counselling process. Therefore, in the session, I did ask her to state goals that she sought to achieve at the end of the counselling.
During the third session, Ita made significant progress that encouraged me. At the beginning of the counselling, Ita was reluctant. She did not want to play an active role in the counselling process because she believed that I was the one to guide her through the process of counselling and recovery. However, using non-directive skills of the Rogerian psychotherapy, I managed to convince her to become active.
Clark (2006) argues, “…a therapist’s attitudinal stance of congruence is fundamental to the quality of therapeutic relationships” (Clark 2006, p.68). For me to probe Ita well, I had to be congruent and attentive to her needs. Eventually, Ita trusted me and started becoming active throughout the counselling process.
I had prepared well for the third session, but when I started counselling Ita, I realised that she was quite different. Although she arrived as usual, she looked disinterested with the discussion. I too felt uneasy as I did not know how and where to begin the session. From expressions, she looked more depressed than previous sessions. She uttered some words saying, “life is unfair because my misery has no end.”
These words compelled me to encourage and comfort Ita because she said them while crying. I empathised with her while encouraging her to face the reality. The situation seemed tough, but I eventually managed to contain her and progress with counselling.
The counselling relationships in the third session evolved from a therapist-centred to client-centred. At the beginning of the third session, Ita assumed that I had the overall responsibility of directing her in the process of counselling. She believed that a therapist performs everything, while the client simply receives the therapy.
However, continued discussions on her condition allowed her to discover that she had a noble role to play in the counselling process. In the end, Ita formulated feasible goals that she wanted to achieve. Hence, the counselling process started from a therapist-centred and ended as a client-centred process.
Before the third session, I was quite aware that employing non-directive approach in counselling is difficult. As the Rogerian psychotherapy entails using non-directive strategy, it was challenging to transform Ita from playing a passive role to an active one.
According to Shulman (2011), non-directive strategy involves “reinforcing and encouraging positive statements to enable client become active in the counselling process” (p.67). The application of non-directive strategy helped me in transforming Ita’s attitude. Although she was reluctant to participate, my constant probing prompted her to open up for the session.
After opening up, Ita became active in formulating the goals that she expected to achieve at the end of the counselling process. Ultimately, I realised that non-directive approach is critical in counselling because it enables a client to own the counselling process.
Since I knew the third session was more complex than previous sessions, I consulted my supervisor regarding the probable challenges that I would face. My supervisor cautioned me to be ready for any relapse that could happen since Ita was vulnerable to depression.
Thus, the caution helped me when I found that Ita was not in the mood to continue with the counselling process because the depression overwhelmed her. In this view, my supervisor gave invaluable advice that I applied in the third session.
The Fourth Session
At the fourth session, we focused on formulating interventions to the problems that we had examined in previous sessions and aligned them to the goals we had made. Ita’s problems constituted health and social aspects. Hence, we started by formulating interventions to social problems that she had faced in life.
In the social interventions, we agreed that Ita should forgive her family and daughter for not giving her the support she deserved. In addition, we concluded that Ita should begin engaging her family members in a friendly manner. Concerning the medical issues of diabetes and inoperable breast cancer, we agreed that she would seek medical attention on management interventions, as well as live a positive life.
According to the Rogerian psychotherapy, “by adapting cognitive behavioural intervention to the individual client’s background, life history, and experiences, psychotherapist is helping a client to attain a state where there is meaningfulness in life” (Thyer 2008, p.126). During the counselling, I helped Ita to find meaning in life and uplift her spirit.
In the fourth session, Ita made considerable improvement because as we started the session, she was in depression due the conditions in her life and left when she was a bit happier. When she arrived at the counselling room, Ita confessed that her troubles were weighing her down and she was tired of facing another day. She cried saying, “I am desolate and wretched without anyone caring about me”.
As she cried, I comforted her to regain strength and live a positive life. After a lengthy discussion of issues affecting her and formulation of possible interventions, Ita improved for she went home hoping the interventions could work in her life.
I perceived the fourth session as a bit technical, for I had to formulate interventions that seemed feasible enough for Ita to accept and apply them in life. I knew that, for an intervention to be effective, Ita must accept it wholeheartedly.
Thus, I was quite careful in formulating interventions and describing the expected outcomes to Ita. Since the depression at times overwhelmed Ita making her unapproachable and bitter about life, it required a tactful approach to convince her. For that reason, I had to formulate workable interventions that suited her condition.
During the fourth session, our relationship changed as we progressed with the counselling session. At first, Ita perceived me as a therapist who wanted to impose unreasonable interventions that would not work in her life. However, as counselling progressed, she realised that interventions emanate from the available resources.
After examining several interventions, we had a privilege of choosing the most appropriate ones among them. Hence, at the end of the session, Ita had entrusted me with her life since I was sensitive and did show great concern towards her attitude and feelings.
From the experience of the fourth session, I learned that winning the trust of a client is a critical factor in the counselling process. Trust is important in collaborating with patient, “because collaboration requires that the patient trusts the therapist; we emphasise those interpersonal qualities that contribute to trust” (Barlow 2007, p.380). Trust enabled me to engage Ita in the formulation of feasible interventions.
Although the interventions seemed obvious, the trust that Ita had developed enabled her to understand the feasibility of the interventions. Overall, I have learned that a therapist must first develop trust before engaging a client in the development of possible interventions.
My supervisor helped me in the formulation and development of possible interventions that suited the case of Ita. Before the fourth session, we discussed with my supervisor various interventions, which gave me an insight into psychological interventions. During the counselling session, I applied the interventions because they suited Ita’s situation.
The Fifth Session
Given that we had formulated interventions to achieve set goals in the previous sessions, the fifth session sought to find out if Ita had applied the interventions and made any significant changes. When Ita arrived at the counselling room, I welcomed and asked her how she had progressed after applying the interventions we had set in the previous session.
She responded, “there is no difference because I was so depressed last night”. Though she looked fine that morning, her statement indicated that she needed extensive counselling to allow the needed change. Corsini and Wedding (2010) argue, “More individuals seek therapy because of concerns about the purpose in life than often therapists often realise” (p.313).
Since Ita was willing to go for therapy, I realised that she was determined to have a purpose in life. Hence, in the fifth session we re-examined the goals and interventions that we had established and planned to re-apply objectively.
During the session, Ita progressed well since we started the session after she had experienced mild depression, and at the end of the session, she reported that she felt much better than when she came for the therapy.
Her progress during the fifth session indicates that she had not only made significant achievement, but also the Rogerian psychotherapy had effectively changed her condition. Her determination made her apply the interventions that we had formulated. Moreover, the trust we had developed enabled her to communicate freely and follow my instructions to the letter.
When Ita responded that the therapy had not done much to her, I thought I had employed the wrong intervention in the counselling process. Since her problems revolved around social and medical aspects, I made sure that the formulated interventions addressed all the problems for Ita to recover well from the depression that had weighed her down.
Corsini and Wedding (2010) assert, “More and more patients come to therapy with vague complaints about loss of purpose or meaning in life” (p.311). Therefore, I began questioning whether the non-directive approach in the formulation of goals did not target the problem well. Eventually, I re-examined the process of counselling and reapplied the strategies while having conviction that they would work well.
Throughout the fifth session, our relationship remained relatively constant except that she entrusted me with her life because she thought that I was the only person who would make a difference in her life. In this case, I was like a family member who had the responsibility of taking care of her in times of distress and need.
At the end of the session, Ita felt much better and could not help thanking me about the therapy she had received. As she moved out of the counselling room, she smiled and told me that, “you have brightened my day, I am now better with great hopes”. Such a response encouraged me because I knew my intervention had made her life more tolerable.
As usual, I consulted my supervisor before I started the fifth session. Since I was worried about the effectiveness of the intervention, I inquired from my supervisor whether I could change the intervention in the middle of the counselling process.
My supervisor told me that relapses are common occurrences in the counselling process, and I should be ready to tackle them whenever they occur without necessarily changing the intervention used. Therefore, by the time Ita showed signs of relapse, it was not strange to me. Hence, I handled the situation well and encouraged her to continue with the therapy.
The Sixth Session
The sixth session involved assessment and termination of the counselling process. As a therapist, I had to ensure that my intervention had worked well and empowered the client. Since engagement of the client is important when starting a therapy, disengagement is also essential in termination of the counselling process.
“Under normal circumstances, after a client has made progress in reaching therapeutic goals, it is the therapist’s responsibility to explore what the client thinks and feels about ending the therapy” (Mozdzierz 2009, p.427). In this case, when Ita came for the sixth session, I observed that she had progressed well, and she even confirmed the same verbally.
Afterwards, I proposed that the therapy might end at the sixth session and she did not object it. She only asked that I allow her to see me whenever she wanted because we had become great friends. Thus, we recapped the interventions that we had agreed upon and scheduled to meet after a month or any day that she deemed fit to see me.
In the sixth session, Ita seemed quite happy because she believed that the therapy had helped her to live a better life that is free from depression. Despite her conditions, Ita promised that she would live a positive life with a meaning and full of hope.
The counselling process has been good to her in that she was unwilling to terminate our relationship for we had established a strong bond between us. Eventually, Ita ended the counselling process with a considerable progress for her to manage depression and accept reality of life.
The sixth session was quite enriching for both of us. It is inspiring to interact with a client, share problems, and eventually reach a successful conclusion.
The counselling process started with sorrow and misery, but through various psychological interventions, it ended with fulfilling happiness that gave us a sense of achievement. Thus, the sixth session enabled me to assess the achievements I had made through the process of counselling and gave me a reason to terminate the process.
During the sixth session, our relationship evolved from a client-therapist association to great friends with common experiences.
The experiences we shared made us one. In the Rogerian psychotherapy, “there is a considerable amount of emphasis on the working relationships between the client and therapist” (Carducci 2009. p.215). The working relationships made us friends because at the end of the session, Ita was willing to meet me again on a friendly level.
The sixth session made me understand the essence of engagement and disengagement with clients. As the Rogerian psychotherapy is client-centred, therapists should engage a client in the process of counselling, and when the client has achieved considerable progress, there should be a process of disengagement.
The process of disengagement is very important because it determines the effectiveness of interventions employed during counselling. According to Mozdzierz, psychotherapist must try as much as possible to end counselling process on a positive note (2009, p.427). In this view, I disengaged Ita smoothly from the counselling process to protect her from relapsing.
Prior to the last session, I did not know what to do because I deeply empathised with Ita. The condition of her life required someone to support her throughout her life.
Since I did not want to terminate the counselling process abruptly, I consulted my supervisor who informed me about the process of termination and disengagement of a client and when I applied the skills, I was successful. Therefore, my supervisor guided me through the counselling process from the first to the last session.
Conclusion From Ita’s case, I can conclude that the Rogerian model of psychotherapy is effective in counselling a person with depression due to a combination of social and health issues. The Rogerian psychotherapy entails the use of skills that are client-centred. The non-directive approach is another attribute of the Rogerian psychotherapy for it allows a client to be active in the formulation of his/her goals and interventions.
The main objective of the Rogerian psychotherapy is to help the client accept and face reality in life. Since I applied the Rogerian model of therapy in the case study, it was effective despite the fact that it was my first experience. The process of counselling was quite successful as I managed to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling Ita to recover from depression.
The process of psychotherapy was interesting because it was my first experience to counsel a client. Moreover, the experience of interacting with a client at a personal level was quite inspiring as I managed to win Ita’s trust.
In the course of the counselling process, I noted that relationships change according to the progress of the client. As Ita progressed, I also advanced because I had to keep abreast with any developments that occurred in each session. At the end of the counselling process, I was happy to have achieved the objectives that we had set with Ita during the counselling.
The experience of counselling Ita has enhanced my knowledge and skills. Firstly, I have understood how to apply the Rogerian psychotherapy in counselling a client with depression. Secondly, I have known how to engage a client into psychotherapy, utilise various skills in the counselling process, and eventually disengage a client from the process of counselling.
Thirdly, I have learned how to create a rapport that provides room for growth and progression in psychotherapy. I managed to learn all these skills with the help of my supervisor whom I consulted throughout the process of counselling Ita.
References Barlow, D 2007, Clinical Handbook of psychological disorder: A step-by-step treatment Manual, Guilford Press, London.
Carducci, B 2009, The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research, and Applications, John Wiley
Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The article under analysis called Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation considers the role of leadership styles, as well as supervisor-subordinate relationships, in increasing organizational performance and culture (Butler 139). The author provides an overview of connections between efficient decision-making and its influence on productivity levels in a company.
The article starts with identifying leadership in terms of its relation to business performance. The researcher also provides a distinct analysis of leadership, particularly how it differs from managers. Further, the author proceeds with the assessing communication that is crucial in promoting leadership skills.
Therefore, leaders should be able to generate favorable behavioral patterns and shape an effective organizational environment. With an emphasis on organizational culture, leaders should be able to use power effectively to influence other people. As a result of such relations, leaders evoke certain moods, expectations, and images which later allow managers to carry specific roles.
To emphasize importance of leadership for organizational performance, the author also touches on the problem of cultural diversity in Arab multicultural organizations. Implementing specific leadership styles can both encourage and motivate employees to work more enthusiastically.
Therefore, concept of cultural diversity comes to the forth. At the end of the studies, the scholar concludes that leadership should underline charisma to attract employees’ attention and increase their satisfaction. It has also been found that commitment to organizational goals is strongly associated with quality of relations between supervisors and their subordinates.
Clarity and Usefulness
The article has well organized and transparent structure. The author’s ideas closely relate to the structure and organization and provide the readers with the overall concepts and connections. Therefore, the article is consistent and logical. In addition, the article is useful because it highlights aspects and challenges of managing cultural diversity in UAE. The author has managed to shed light on leadership in a narrow cultural concept.
The author also presents information about features and conditions under which multicultural organization can improve its performance. In addition to the consistent structure, the article provides a number of reliable evidence stipulating the usefulness of the research under consideration. In particular, the authors provides similar research studies related to cross-cultural issues.
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The study is based on a qualitative methodology which allows to analyze 137 employees working in a multicultural Arab company. By means of Likert scale, the participants had to choose seven variants of answers, which ensure greater objectivity of the text. The chosen sample for the research is adequate for conducting a research provided the sample covers the entire population.
Although the give methods allows to provide significant findings, as well as practical implications for future research, introducing quality methods, such as interviewing of the focus groups, individual interviewing, and recording of the answers, could contribute greatly to the analysis of employees behaviors, as well as their attitude toward the challenges of multicultural environment.
Quality of Hypothesis and Data
The hypotheses of the research study are relevant because they are confined to a specific problem investigated in an Arab leadership context. Each hypothesis out of five is followed by detailed explanations of purposes and arguments that should be researched and discussed. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the necessity to establish frames within which leadership influences other organizational aspects, as well as human resources.
By discussing various traits of leadership, the author skillfully finds correlations with other dimensions of organizational leadership, including employees’ commitment, reward and recognition schemes, cultural backgrounds, and leadership styles.
Apart from the topic relevance, the given hypotheses allow for assessment of employees’ behavior. They also predict further implications for studying leadership styles and their influence on a multicultural environment. The quality of data delivered in the article is justified because it is taken from the real-to-life environment.
Discussion Evaluation (Good no need to add any more points, just I need explanation on some point, so I can get it for my discussion with my teacher)
Though there is no particular heading for discussion, it still involves explanations that are matching with all hypothesis posed at the beginning of the research. The explanations, however, do not provide consistent and systematic responses to the research questions, but are incorporated into thematic domains.
While evaluating the persuasiveness of the highlighted themes, specific emphasis should be placed on considering logical connections established between employees’ responses and leadership theories.
We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The value of the discussion is enhanced because it relates to a specific cultural context within which leadership styles are considered. Despite the consistency and clarity, much concern is connected with the generalized conclusions based on the surveys.
So, there should be more references to the initial hypothesis, instead of generalized statements. In particular, the discussion focuses primarily on general assumption, but not on practical implementation of the discussion.
Findings and Practical Implications
The findings are represented in a clear and transparent way. Each of the conclusions made in the passage correspond to the numerical data received during the survey. Because the research refers to a certain multicultural variety, as well as the way it is treated in an Arab world, the findings could be used to make the corresponding changes to work and objectives of an organization.
Despite the narrow context, the findings can also be applicable to the multinational organizations established in other countries. For example, it has been defined that “commitment to the organization is related to the quality of supervisor-subordinate relations” (Butler 139). The finding proves the importance of introducing person-oriented approaches in managing multicultural organizations.
Therefore, the research proves the reliability and validity of the findings. Practical implications introduced in the article reflect further perspectives for analyzing business environment in terms of culture and organization.
Limitations for Academics and Consultants
The limitation of the study lies in a narrow-focused discussion of supervisor-subordinate relations in a particular organization. The findings related to this topic could not be applied to other organizations with various cultural backgrounds.
Indications on Future Research
Because the research under analysis focuses mainly on the analysis of leadership qualities and their impact on employees’ performance, future research should be dedicated to the analysis of employees’ behavior and their influence on the development of new leadership styles.
In addition, the author pays closer attention to language and communication skills as essential components of successful cross-cultural interaction. Managers and leaders should be more concerned with understanding cultural peculiarities. A person-centered approach is more justified.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Relevance of the Research to an Arab Management Context
The research studies are based on the survey of employees working an UAE multicultural company, but their nationalities differ. On the one hand, because UAE culture shapes the basis of organizational culture, the research findings are highly relevant to the topic.
On the other hand, the employees who take part in the research originate from different cultures and, therefore, their answers that do not depend on the UAE cultural peculiarities. Such perspectives, however, could be used in any multicultural context to meet the needs of culturally diverse employees. The task of Arab leaders, therefore, is to correspond to international standards of managing business.
Works Cited Butler, Colin. Leadership in a Multicultural Arab Organisation. Leadership
Differentiated Instruction’ Strategies and Benefits Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Responding to the requirements of unlike students
Introduction Differentiated instruction entails giving students unlike avenues to gain content, develop, build, find the meaning of ideas, and construct teaching stuff to ensure that every student in a classroom learns efficiently, irrespective of differences in capability (Ellis, Gable, Greg,
Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Strategic Planning Mission and vision statements, core values and organisational goals have become defining forces in the formulation of organisational strategy.
To this end, some strategists note that mission and vision statements, core values and goals can offer options to a tedious work of organisational planning (Dobson, Starkey and Richards 10). This is because stakeholders look at organisations in terms of their mission and vision statements, core values and goals. These factors define the long-term purpose of a company with regard to its services and products.
Organisational strategies and objectives must support its vision and mission statements, core values, and goals. Vision and mission statements, core values, and goals should show the purpose of the firm in terms of the main business, principal values and aspirations. It should also show key stakeholders and principles of the code of conduct to guide employees on how to behave.
Therefore, we shall focus on these strategies when formulating vision and mission statements, core values and goal for Gulf Fertilizer. This is a start-up organisation that needs well-formulated statements to provide strategies that can radically transform it for the markets it serves. These are the mission and vision statements, core values and goals of Gulf Fertilizer.
Gulf Fertilizer is a global leader in the provision of fertilizer to farmers. We are a leading fertilizer company that combines various processes and technology to produce high quality fertilizer. There is no other company in the world that produces fertilizer to farmers the way we do by integrating technology and research.
Gulf Fertilizer is dedicated to providing the best quality fertilizer with the aim of value creation for farmers and quality performance of crops, and providing productive and sustainable farming in society at large.
To provide the best fertilizer manufactured with the state-of-the-art technology and research.
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Proving the best quality natural and organic fertilizers available
Delighting and satisfying customers through meeting their diverse needs
Creating ongoing win-win partnerships with suppliers
Caring about farmers and the environment
Promoting the safety and health of farmers through education programmes on fertilizer handling and usages
Description of the organizational environment, both the internal functions and the external context
The internal environment an organisation reflects features within the organisation. These are resources, culture, strategies, competence, and behaviours among others. Some elements of the internal environment may relate to the management, whereas others affect the entire organisation.
Gulf Fertilizer is a progressive organisation that empowers its workforce to make decisions that drive business. Some elements of the internal environment of the company include the following.
These refer to the company’s human resources and other inputs that produce products through combinations of various processes.
Gulf Fertilizer needs resources like money, raw materials, facilities, knowledgeable workforce, and manpower in order to produce products for various markets. Gulf Fertilizer must ensure availability of products and meet the costs of these resources so as to ensure success of its goals, strategy, mission and vision.
These are behaviours within the organisation originating from forces and influences of management and workforce. They can influence usages of available resources. Gulf Fertilizer promotes functional behaviours to ensure that relevant departments get adequate resources.
This is the strength the company has among its major rivals.
The company has distinctive competence in its core functional area like research and development, finance, human resources, and marketing systems. The company evaluates its strength in terms of skills and abilities that enable it to implement its core strategies.
We will write a custom Report on Gulf Fertilizer Company Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer can address its weaknesses by investing its resources so as to achieve the strength necessary for implementation of strategies. The company can also change its mission so that the available skills and resources can support it (Roberts 49).
Functional Plans and Policies
The company strategy should serve its plans and business policies. Implementation of these plans and policies influence the effectiveness of strategic management. Functional plans and policies shall help Gulf Fertilizer in the following areas. First, plans and policies ensure that the company implement its strategic decisions across all departments.
Second, the company has capabilities to control processes in different areas of its operation. Third, functional plan and policies shall reduce time spent in decision-making processes as the organisation already has plans. It shall also help the organisation distribute its resources fairly in core areas that need them. Finally, there is coordination among all departments of the organisation.
The external environment entails all elements outside the company which have effects on growth its growth. The company has little or lack control over external environment elements. However, the organisation must monitor them and adapt accordingly. We shall focus on areas that have significant effects on Gulf Fertilizer.
Gulf Fertilizer shall face competition from well-established companies like FAUJI Fertilizer Company, Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT), Saudi Aramco, and Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) among others. These industries have a regional presence, strong market relations, large in sizes, better facilities, and high skills.
Gulf Fertilizer shall directly supply its products to farmers. It will also set up distribution outlets in the region.
The company shall assume a regional context in the Gulf region and Middle East. Its expansion strategy shall focus on Africa, Asia, and the US.
The company shall rely on external resources such as efficient road networks in the UAE, logistic capabilities, power supply and manpower for its success.
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The company shall utilise available and qualified labour pool in the production of its products especially in research and development of new products. It shall also observe changes in the labour market so as to adjust with shifts in the labour market. This shall prevent the company from losing qualified employees.
Gulf Fertilizer shall avoid any disruption in the supply of raw materials to ensure its continuous operation. It shall also watch fluctuating costs of raw materials. This shall also include storage facilities, transport facilities and subcontract to other organisations.
The company shall rely on its initial investment of one billion dirham in driving its operation. Since Gulf Fertilizer is a start-up company, it has little avenues of raising capitals.
The company shall rely on technology for efficiency in its production. This shall also include technical tools in the production processes.
Laws and Regulations
Gulf Fertilizer shall apply good corporate governance and ensure effective implementation of the region’s laws and regulations. However, it shall also take into account costs associated with compliance especially in the environmental area.
Current organizational chart showing functional relationships and lines of communication
Management structure strengthens the culture of a company by providing foundations, showing planned relationships, communication line, and providing outline boundaries in which the firm’s activities take place. The management structure must accommodate all aspects of varied departments. However, it can ignore conflicting expectations of the constituents (Miner 147).
There are two main strategies of designing a company’s structure. These are mechanistic and organic structure approaches. Traditionally, structures depicted power delegations, authority relations, and communication lines among others. The mechanistic management structure provides a single line of reporting and communicating that employees follow rigidly.
Employees in similar horizontal structures have no power or authority over each other. On the other hand, the organic structure lacks rigid or fixed hierarchy. Workers can work together to finish a project, and then provide help in other areas. In addition, employees can also handle more than a single project at any given time. Workers can have a manager, many managers, or none at all.
In such situations, the firm expects its workforce to exercise self-leadership. Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt an organic management structure to ensure effective operation and coordination among departments. This structure shall also work best because the company is new. Below is the proposed management structure.
Breakdown of the organisational structure in terms of characteristics, size, line and staff components or administrative and operational components, and examples of differentiation in terms of vertical and horizontal components, integration, centralization, standardization, formalization and specialization
The organisational structure and related information depict the division and coordination of the work of the firm among various departments (Kazmi 25). This provides specific functions for every department among all functional areas of the organisation. Breakdown of the organisational structure is necessary so that processes and policies have clear coordination for maximum achievement of the core goals and strategies.
These strategies become functional strategies of the organisation. The firm can create them from its corporate and business strategies. It is necessary that the company aligns its strategy implementation with the capabilities of its resources (Griffin 78).
Organisational strategies work at different levels. However, a company must create congruence and coordination of all its different strategies. This is the importance of vertical and horizontal elements of strategies. These processes should create both vertical and horizontal fit for the company.
Vertical elements create a necessary definition of various functional strategies with regard to their capabilities within the functional area so as to enhance the strategic advantage of the company. Gulf Fertilizer functional strategies with the focus on both horizontal and vertical elements shall focus on the following key areas.
First, the company shall focus on strategic sales and marketing management. The aim of this strategy is to align marketing strategies of the firm alongside its core goals in order to achieve strategic advantage in the market.
Second, the company shall also focus on strategic, financial management in order to control costs of operation and maximise returns for shareholders. This is a key strategy that the company will use to achieve strategic advantage against its competitors.
Third, the company must also pay attention to its operations management. The company should align operations management with its business and organisational strategies so that it creates a competitive advantage.
Fourth, Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on recruiting and retaining the best talents in order to achieve success from its human resources capabilities. This implies that the company must focus on demographic shifts in the workforce and adjust its recruitment strategies.
Strategic management of human resources shall ensure that the company has recruited, retained and exploited its human resources for the overall strategic advantage of the company.
Fifth, the company must also manage its research and development strategies in order to create the best fertilizer for its customers. This is a crucial area in the success of the company. It ensures growth and survival the company. The company must introduce technology, facilities, and knowledge and skills that can facilitate this strategy.
Horizontal element of the company shall ensure integration of different operational activities within the company that produce products for customers. Thus, the company must ensure integration during implementation processes of operations management.
The company shall operate with heads of departments that report to the director.
The company shall learn to standardise its processes as it comes of age. In the beginning, there shall be limited standardisation of processes.
The company shall not operate with formal written rules. However, it shall change its rules as it matures.
Organic management structure allows employees to have overlapping roles and perform various tasks. However, this is likely to change as employees become specialists in their areas.
Estimate of the organizational life cycle in terms of where it has come from and where it is going and comment about short term objectives and longer range strategy
A start-up like Gulf Fertilizer must go through a life cycle like any other company. This implies that directors and other staff must perform all the necessary functions to keep the business running. However, the future survival of the organisation requires changes from these practices found in start-ups. Thus, the management must recognise processes that the firm is undergoing.
The management must understand issues that the company faces in its life cycle. This creates a sense of insight and provides opportunities on how management can respond to various issues the company faces during operation. As the organisation changes, it acquires new features different from the old ones. Daft provided a summary of an organisational life cycle upon which we define life cycle of Gulf Fertilizer (Daft 135).
Gulf Fertilizer Life Cycle. (Adapted from Daft, 1992)
Birth Youth Midlife Maturity Size Small Medium Large Very large Division of labour Overlapping tasks Some departments Many departments Extensive, with small jobs and many descriptions Centralization One-person rule Two leaders rule Two department heads Top-management heavy Formalization No written rules Few rules Policy and procedures manuals Extensive Internal systems Nonexistent Crude budget and information system Control systems in place; budget, performance, reports, etc. Extensive planning, financial, and person Short-term Objectives
The short-term objectives of the company shall focus on the first year of its operation. The company shall focus on growth and expansion in terms of sales, finance, and market share.
The company shall also concentrate on employees and management of the company. The process shall involve recruiting top talents for the organisation. New employees shall also undergone training and take various responsibilities within the company.
Gulf Fertilizer must also focus on sales and income. However, this may change as people learn about its products. The company must consider prices, outputs, and demand within the region.
Gulf Fertilizer shall focus on revenue growths as its core strategy. In order to achieve this goal, the company shall study the market, competition, customers buying behaviour, and provide new products to drive sales.
The organisation shall also focus on customer service. The company targets at least 95 percent of positive response from its regular customers. It will redesign customer service approach where necessary so as to ensure customers’ satisfaction.
Gulf Fertilizer shall also engage in employee appreciation and reward systems that ensure low staff attrition. This also aims at attracting creative inputs from employees.
The company shall also focus on community and the environment. Employees shall volunteer to support community projects and environmental conservation efforts in areas it operates.
Strategy Development SWOT analysis
SWOT analysis shall offer Gulf Fertilizer advantages by identifying areas where it can focus and create a niche. At the same time, the company shall also understand the fertilizer industry in the Middle East and Gulf region. This process shall also enable the company to identify potential threats and formulate strategies to counteract them.
Strength Massive capital of 1 billion dirham
Favourable distribution channels
Suitability of location
Low operational costs
Weaknesses Low market penetration
High costs of production
Similar products in the market
Unreliable supply of skilled labour
Opportunities Research and Development
Technology in production
Favourable distribution channels
Availability of natural gas
Reliability of supply
Increasing capacity for raw materials
Threats Market saturation
Shortage in key inputs including skilled labour
Economic uncertainties such as recession, exchange rates, inflation rates
Arab uprising threats
Changes in regulations and trade policies
The PESTEL analysis
The globe financial crunch of 2008 and the euro crisis were the main economic factors that tested start-ups in the recent period. The prevailing economic conditions influenced how consumers, resellers, and other stakeholders in markets purchase products.
Some start-ups closed because their business systems could not sustain difficulties of the recession. However, the financial crisis may create opportunities for new investors with low operating costs. Gulf Fertilizer can take advantage and exploit the vacuum in markets.
The fluctuation of exchange rates also has huge potential of affecting the company’s earning and profits. The prevailing market factors are difficult to predict. Thus, the company should prepare for such eventualities in the market.
These may entail taxes, regulations, political unrest in the Middle East and other related political factors. Gulf Fertilizer must operate within the regulations of Middle East and the Gulf region.
The unrest in the Middle East and the Arab spring are major factors that can cause instability in the company. The company must anticipate effects of such unrest before exploring new markets.
The company shall engage in social responsibilities such as conserving the environment and supporting local communities’ initiatives. This shall create a favourable company’s image and enhance its relationship with customers. Such approaches have influence on consumers’ emotions, attitudes, opinions and interests regarding the company and its products.
The company must also avoid any negative publicity that may affect its operation. Thus, it must relate well with its customers, communities, suppliers, and other stakeholders in order to enhance it social image among competitions.
Gulf Fertilizer shall adopt technology in its core operation. The company must actively engage technology in research and development of its new products. Changes in technology shall ensure efficiency and low costs for the company. Technological advancements have changed the way companies conduct business. In fact, Gulf Fertilizer must adopt technology in all its operation and in dealing with external suppliers and relations.
Gulf Fertilizer must operate with the law of the fertilizer industry in the region so as to avoid expensive lawsuits that shall affect its profits. Therefore, it must avoid charges from regulators, customers, competitors, labour unions, environmentalists, and trade unions among other interested parties.
Environmental factors shall also influence Gulf Fertilizer practices. Regulators are keen on the effects of fertilizer materials on the environment. As a result, the company must ensure compliance with the environmental requirements regarding its products in terms of chemical compositions and packaging. It must also minimise production of waste materials during manufacturing processes.
Protection of the environment has become the key sustainability approach among many manufacturing organisation. Therefore, Gulf Fertilizer must also adopt best practices in the industry when conducting its manufacturing processes.
Competition profile analysis
Fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East mainly engage in manufacturing or mixing of fertilizer materials from other sources. The fertilizer industry in the Gulf region grows at a high rate predicted to reach 7.5 percent per annum by 2016. As a result, fertilizer companies should embrace long-term strategies for sustainable growth.
Top fertilizer companies in the Gulf region and Middle East
Company Market share FAUJI Fertilizer Company Abu Dhabi Fertilizer Industries Company (ADFERT) Oman India Fertilizer Company (OMIFCO) Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals Borouge Fertil Saudi Aramco Total Petrochemicals Strategy map for Gulf Fertilizer showing the different perspective of it along with the cause-and-effect relationships between these different dimensions
The strategy map shows cause-and-effect relationships among various key performance indicators and overall goals of the company. Strategy maps originate from the Balanced Scorecard framework (Kaplan and Norton 64). It shows organisational performance through four key areas.
Analysis of cause-and-effect relationships in the strategy map breaks down a mission and a strategy to a point where we can identify key performance indicators (KPIs) and objectives as the organisation focuses on detailed and specific objectives.
However, in a case where various departments engage in promoting the mission and strategies, then KPIs build a chain that ensure the implementation of organisational, strategic goals and mission. KPIs show the relationship among key activities of the company.
For instance, Gulf Fertilizer shall recruit qualified employees and provide them with the necessary training. Highly qualified and trained staff shall improve internal processes of the business through developing quality products, and maximise use available resources to satisfy customers’ needs.
This has potential of creating customers’ loyalty. Loyal customers will come for repeat purchases thus, increase the company’s profitability and shareholders’ returns.
Strategy map adapted from Kaplan
“Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai Critical Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The book ‘impossible subjects’ by Mae Ngai focuses on the history of immigration in the twentieth-century America. It offers a concise illumination of the illegal immigration of the late twentieth century. Though considered illegal and a serious problem, the author sees the immigration as a legal endeavor.
According to him, the inclusion of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. was a politics-based activity. They government wanted to use these immigrants to boost the political economy in the Southeast region.
In reality, these Mexican immigrants became the major source of cheap labor in the Agri-business sector, which was dominant in the region.
With the aid of border policies, inequitable control of visas and the Immigration Acts, the Americans and the American government went on to institutionalize racism against the Mexican and Asian Immigrants.
According to the author, ‘illegal aliens’ is a construction of positive immigration-policy laws and the implementation of border laws that propped the labeling of ethnically foreign immigrants.
The chronological scope of this book revolves around the twentieth-century immigration into the U.S. Most of these immigrants came from Mexico and the main actors were the Mexican government, Mexicans, American government and the American people.
Arguably therefore, the author uses the concept Impossible Subjects to denote this immigration that seemed impossible according to law, but turned out to be a social reality.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her exploration, the author seeks to answer two major questions: what is the origin of the label ‘illegal aliens’ in the American society? Why does the immigration policy consider the ‘impossible subjects’ a national problem? These are the key questions the author attempts to answer throughout the book.
In her exploration, the author uses content analysis and literature methods to carry out her study. This methodology entails a methodical and critical analysis of the American historical sources. She also uses theories to reinforce her arguments concerning the twentieth-century American immigration policy.
In her analysis, the ‘Critical Legal Theory’ plays a very critical part. This theory is critically instrumental in determining the role laws play in the process of social formation.
Therefore, theoretical approach in this inquiry makes posited arguments about the American immigration highly persuasive and historically excellent.
Such sources as case studies; archived historical documents; government documents, and historical journals were primary in the provision of necessary information relevant to the study.
In regard to the issue of national origins, the author is trying to persuade her audiences that the United States is a fabled country of immigrants. On the question of racial discrimination, the author fails to understand how people from certain ethnic origins became culprits of racism while every America is a country of immigrants.
Before the inception of the U.S., America was inhabited by Asians, Caucasians, Latinos and the Indians. Ironically, these are the racial groups that later came to suffer colonial subjugation.
We will write a custom Essay on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the beginning of 1020s, the colonial government called for more immigrants so as to get enough cheap labor. The imperialist government used the immigration policy to administer immigrants under the provisions of the American law.
However, an intricate strategy came into play in institutionalizing discrimination against the immigrants on grounds that they came to America through illicit means. As a result, the label illegal alien was introduced to refer to the immigrant population in the U.S.
The Mexican immigrants became socially known as new political and legal slaves whose inclusion in the country had no legal basis though a social reality.
Therefore, these immigrants became culprits of racism for many years since the so-called ‘aboriginals’ saw them as ‘illegal aliens’ who didn’t deserve the American citizenship.
As the author illustrates, there was a huge recruitment of Mexican and Filipino laborers into the U.S. to work in the Agri-business sector at the start of the 1920s. This was a legal endeavor that constitutionally granted these Mexican and Filipino immigrants the U.S. citizenship according to the constitution.
However, as time passed, these immigrants began to face racial discrimination. As the situation continued to worsen, these legally recruited and accepted Mexican and Asian immigrants became known as illegal foreigners in the American society.
According to the author, the whole endeavor was aimed at ranking racial categories, excusing mistreatment of certain races, and elevating economic, political and racial status of the European-American people in the U.S.
During the Second World War, Americans of the Japanese and Chinese origin opted to leave America for their mother countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Impossible Subjects” Book by Mae Ngai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though this was as a result of disappointments from the abusive and discriminatory American society and the subsequent reinforcement of their cultural bonds, they received a wrong depiction as treacherous citizens.
In reality, these were the original American citizens. In addition to their patriotism, they were also native-born and deserved all rights and protection that citizens should have unlike their illicit immigrant counterparts.
The author also notes how the American government put in place extreme measures to prevent Chinese immigration to the U.S. According to her, all these were aimed at protecting Americans from the Chinese communist ideology.
This book deserves academic appraisal. It offers critical and realistic historical insights about the American society. It has contributed much to American History, Ethnic Studies and Legal History.
In a nutshell, Impossible Subjects is a perfect exposition of the twentieth-century immigration to America. Therefore, history scholars should make good use of the information in this book.
Data Results of Statistics Exploratory Essay college admissions essay help
Statistics is a supportive measurement that has an objective to evaluate and enumerate a situation to find the most probable conclusions. It is, therefore, factual to state that statistics do not always evidence situations (Bartholomew, 2004). Rather, statistics provides an overview of the situation in a probability manner.
The accuracy of collected data depends on the strategies and techniques incorporated. It is clear that inaccuracy in collected data leads to the wrong results. Data collection, therefore, requires adequate experience and commitment to prevent failure in results.
Einstein describes data collection as a hitting and missing strategy of trying to support conclusions. He suggests that what might require considerations during data collection may be missed for another that does not (Einstein, 2000). For instance, during data collection in ecological studies, the random methods involve the collection of data relying on the randomly picked areas.
This method only allows collection of data held in the area. Also, the measurement made in that area might not all be necessary or accountable in the study. For instance, in a study to measure how perform when employed by the government, effectiveness is a vital factor to consider. Measuring effectiveness is quite hard.
This, therefore, calls for other strategies that could be counted in the study. In management, where the personality of decision making is unavailable, the decisions made by managers when giving data are impartial and unreliable. These are the types of data that cannot count. In this way, the postulation made by Einstein is workable.
There are different types of scale classified as parametric or nonparametric data (Sheskin, 2007). The distributions of parametric data can be predicted easily using the parametric tools. However, nonparametric data do not assume any distribution.
Ordinal and nominal scales are used in the nonparametric while both interval and ratio scales are used in parametric statistics. In graphical representation, we use tools such as histograms, box plots, the Q-Q, and P-P plots among others. They determine the normality of data.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, there are four types of scales used in the measurement. These types are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales (Louis, 1980). Nominal scale measures qualitative data. The origin of the word nominal originates from the Latin word ‘nomen’ which means name. This scale represents data that have something in common but with different names.
In this case, no data points are superior to the others. For example, data with the data points as Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Pagans are nominal scale. We observe that a Muslim is neither superior nor inferior to a Christian. All data points are equal to each other. In nominal scale, items are categorized to belong in a similar category. For instance, the four constituents written above belong to religion classification.
Just like the nominal scale, ordinal scale is a scale used in qualitative data belonging to the same category (Louis, 1980). However, unlike the Nominal scale, it has an element of hierarchy and superiority (Louis, 1986).
For example, if we would consider the category of education to classify data in different levels, we might have undergraduates, graduates, masters and PhD. In this case, PhD is a higher level than the Masters level whereas the undergraduate level is a lower level.
Unlike nominal and ordinal scale, interval scale is used for quantitative data (Louis, 1980). In this case, the data points are at similar distances from one another. For example, the data points 1, 2, 3 and 4 are in interval scale. This is because the quantitative items are at an interval of one from each other.
The point zero is used as a reference point. It allows the use of negative and the positive integers. For example, we can have a temperature of -5 degree Celsius and a temperature of 5 degree Celsius.
Ratio scale, just like the interval scale, also represents quantitative data (Louis, 1980). It measures data such as the mass, weight, amount of energy, and age among others. It is possible to make comparisons on data in ratio form because the numbers are multiples of others. In this scale, the point zero has a meaning. For example, an energy value of zero means that there is no energy. We can either divide or multiply the ratio scale by a scalar.
We will write a custom Essay on Data Results of Statistics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The statement made by British prime minister that refers to statistics as a lie applies here (Tolman, 2012). Statistics do not prove whether or not the theoretical facts presented are true. Instead, statistics supports what we already know. It, thus, implies that the conclusions we make after doing a statistical research appear to be consistent with the present knowledge.
It is not what we obtain from the statistical analysis that we always aim to investigate. In most cases, researchers are unable to collect the data for the whole population and hence consider a sample of the population. It is true that data collection relies on samples.
The results retrieved from these samples determine the population properties such as mean and median. This clearly shows that assumptions made in deriving concepts for the whole population lead to wrong conclusions. This is unrealistic and supports the statement made by the prime minister.
References Bartholomew, D. J. (2004). Measuring intelligence: facts and fallacies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Time Value of Money Exemplification Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), time value of money means that money at hand today is worth more than the same amount at a future date. It is the amount by which money will grow to in the future. In simpler terms, it is the net increase or decrease in the amount of money. He affirms that the concept helps to determine the amount that one will earn in the future.
This concept results from the existence of charges due to the use of other people money. There are different sections under time value of money. According to Kuhlemeyer (2004), the concept of simple interest, compound interest, compounding and discounting are used to assess the time value of money.
The process of growing money from its present value to its future value at a given duration and interest rate is known as compounding. Discounting is the process of calculating how much future value of money equal to at present.
Decisions that utilized the concept of time value of money The instance was when one of my business partners owed me money which I had lent to him as a loan. The person was reluctant to repay the money, and I took him to a law court. After the careful analysis of the evidence that I presented, the case was ruled in my favor and the judgment specified that the loan should be repaid to me.
I further made a request that the borrower should not repay the exact amount that I lent. In that instance, I was claiming that the amount I lent should be repaid with an interest. An agreement had to be entered to determine the amount of interest that was payable to me. The rate of interest was determined by considering the prevailing economic conditions, and it was determined as the prevailing market interest rate at that time.
Compounding was done on the amount that I had lent out using the market rate over the duration of time the person held my money. As a result, the amount of money that I received increased tremendously.
Computation was done using the future value annuity factor, considering that variables like principal, interest rate and duration were known. Having applied the concept of time value money, I was able to obtain extra income from that transaction. If I had claimed the original amount I had lent out, I would have obtained relatively less.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another instance where the concept of time value of money was applied was during a rotary competition in my home country. The winners were to be awarded a total of half a million shillings. It happened that I was declared a winner among other people. As the winner claimed their money, I was reluctant since I had a decision to grow the money so that it could increase.
An agreement was entered between the rotary committee and me so that they could be paying me as an annuity at the end of every month. This was advantageous move as the money was earning me interest at the prevailing interest rate. The compounding formula was applied to determine the amount at the end of every month. If I had claimed the money as a lump sum, then I could have obtained a lesser amount than what I finally got.
Reference List Kuhlemeyer, A. (2004). Fundamentals of financial management. USA, Pearson Carroll College: Waukesha Pearson Education Limited.
Motivation and Reward Systems Used In Today’s Companies Research Paper writing essay help
Abstract Human resource is one of the vital resources that organizations require to remain competent. Organizations should have favorable motivation and reward systems to retain their employees. The two-factor theory holds that tangible rewards do not act as the main motivators. Expectancy theory maintains that employees are motivated if they realize that their effort will lead to material or tangible rewards.
The stewardship theory focuses on managers in the upper stratum of an organization. Social cognitive theory focuses on self-efficacy and concurs that employees are motivated to pursue certain projects after realizing that they have the capacity to achieve the goals in question.
The fifty-fifty principle asserts that fifty percent of employees’ motivation comes from within while the other fifty percent comes from people that the employees interact with and the working environment. Organizations use varied rewarding systems to motivate their employees. Some organizations believe that extrinsic motivation plays a significant role in promoting employee motivation.
Such organizations have monetary reward systems to reward employees according to their performance. On the other hand, some organizations trust in the power of intrinsic motivations. Such companies have policies that enhance employee growth and development as one of the motivation mechanisms.
Introduction The present competition in the business world is compelling organizations to come up with reward systems that aim at enhancing employee motivation, thus boosting their performance. Currently, organizations are coming up with reward systems that reward employees according to their contribution to the organizational success. In most cases, organizations use rewards whenever they wish to achieve certain goals (Andrew