Alvin Plantinga’s claims revolve around individuals who argue against naturalist concepts such as the rejection of the existence of supernatural beings like God, but instead, support theories such as that of evolution.
Plantinga claims that such individuals have a self-undermining set of beliefs. Plantinga uses various abbreviations to illustrate his claims, whereby naturalism is represented as N, the evolutionary theory as E, evolutionary naturalism as NE, and the reliability of cognitive faculties as R.
Plantinga’s arguments begin with a Probability Thesis, which is followed by the Defeater Thesis. The Probability Thesis states “the probability that R is true given the truth of N and E is either low or inscrutable” (Fales’ 434).
The Defeater Thesis, on the other hand, holds that “an evolutionary naturalist who is apprised of the Probability Thesis has a defeater for her belief in R” (Fales’ 434). This paper seeks to explain Plantinga’s Defeater Thesis and the basis for his beliefs, including his claim that the naturalist has a defeater for R and other beliefs.
The Probability Thesis holds that individuals are the product of an undirected evolutionary process, in the event that both N and E are true. However, the probability that a being with this sort of attribution would have reliable cognitive faculties is either low or inscrutable.
Hence, the assumption that the probability of individuals’ cognitive faculties are reliable given N and E are true is low or enigmatic (Fales’ 435).
Plantinga’s argument for the Defeater Thesis is based on the evaluation of instances whereby agents are observed to be contradicting their beliefs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plantinga also bases his arguments on the correlation between such individuals and evolutionary naturalists, who are facing a defeater for their belief in R, owing to their awareness of the Probability Thesis. Plantinga uses four analogical cases to argue for the Defeater Thesis.
These cases include the Widget Cases, the Freudian Theist Cases, the space Radio case, and the Brain-in-a-vat Case (Fitelson and Sober 119).
According to the Widget Cases, the individual is presented with two contradicting arguments about a situation that she is familiar with, causing her to doubt her beliefs. This is illustrated when the individual walks into a factory that appears to be manufacturing red-colored widgets.
However, the individual is informed by the shop superintendant that the widgets are red due to the effect of light on them, but majority of them are actually not red in color. Based on this revelation, the individual acknowledges that there is a low probability that the widgets are red in color.
However, the individual later encounters the vice-president of the production line, who claims that the superintendant cannot be trusted with the information provided earlier regarding the color of the widgets. This information causes the individual to have a dilemma about the color of the widgets.
Plantinga regards such a situation as causing the individual to be doubtful about her vision’s ability to provide her with accurate information regarding the color of the widgets, which causes the individual to have a defeater of color beliefs about widgets observed in an assembly line (Fitelson and Sober 120).
The other cases are also based on different situations that bring doubt to the individuals, causing them to question the rationale that made them belief or trust, in the first place. Based on this argument, a general principle of Low Reliability (LR) principle of defeat can be proposed in the form of:
We will write a custom Essay on Alvin Plantinga’s Claims specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “S has a defeater for the belief p if, relative to all her evidence, S takes as low the probability that the source of p is reliable”.
The shortcoming with this LR principle is due to the fact that the individual in the widget’s case does not make the deduction that her perceptual faculties regarding the color of the widgets are unreliable under the circumstances of the case.
This implies that the LR principal falls short in explaining the reason for the defeater. In order to explain the defeater in the widget’s case, it can be assumed that the individual finds the rationale in the case.
For this intervention to pass as accurate, it is essential to identify the requirements of rationality that are relevant in the matter, as well as the kind of rationality that is raised in the case.
One of the requirements for the individual to identify the rationale behind her case can be identified by forming the belief that her “perceptual faculties concerning widgets are unreliable”.
However, this perspective is thought of as being too demanding in proving the rationale behind the case, as it would require the individual to condemn her perceptual faculties as unreliable.
She may also fail to acknowledge that her color detection faculties are unreliable in her situation, which is basically the reason why her defeater for color beliefs concerning the widgets manifests itself (Fitelson and Sober 121).
Another method of explaining the case of self-defeat in the scenario involves the use of internal and external rationality. Plantinga refers to “internal rationality as that which deals with maters “downstream” from experience, while external rationality deals with matters “upstream” from experience” (Fales’ 441).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alvin Plantinga’s Claims by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The case of color belief pertains to irrationality that is downstream from experience, which requires elaboration on the basis of internal rationality (Fales’ 441). Plantinga argues that internal rationality can only occur if the agent possesses the required level of coherence.
As such, the belief that there is a defeater in the widget cases is due to the fact that the visitor would not satisfy the nominal level of coherence required for internal rationality in the event that she denied that the probability that her color-detecting faculties are reliable in the circumstances at hand is rather low.
Based on this argument, the Low Reliability (LR) principle can be re-written as:
“S has a defeater for the belief p if, relative to all of her evidence, S takes as low, or it would be internally irrational for S to deny as low, the probability that the source of p is reliable”.
The various factors that may have influenced the individual in the first case to believe regarding her cognitive faculty, which led to her belief in R, or the R-faculty, are influenced by the Unsubstantiated Source (US) principle of defeat, which holds that:
“S has a defeater for the belief p if, relative to all of her evidence, S takes as low or inscrutable, or it would be internally irrational for S to deny as low or inscrutable, the probability that the source of p is reliable”.
This implies that it would be internally irrational for her to deny that relative to all of her evidence, the probability that her R-faculty is reliable is either low or inscrutable. Based on the US principle, it is clear the individual has a defeater for her belief in R.
It is possible for someone to claim that it is internally irrational for the evolutionary naturalist, who is acquaint with the Probability Thesis, to deny that despite all the evidence, the probability that her cognitive faculties are reliable is low, based on the Attended No-reason (ANR) condition.
This principle concerns the level of coherence on the individual’s beliefs that is required for the person to be internally rational. The ANR condition holds that:
“if agent S’s attention is brought to bear on whether her belief B is formed in a warranted way, and it is internally irrational for her to accept any reason for thinking that B is warranted, then it is internally irrational for her to continue to believe B”.
This condition implies that the internal rationality of the agent’s acceptance of B can be influenced by the individual’s reflection on B, despite the agent’s acceptance of B prior to the reflection.
The variation is caused by the process of reflection, which causes the agent to consider whether B is warranted. The ANR principal proposes that it is internally irrational for the agent to continue to believe B after the revelation during her reflection (Fales’ 444).
The ANR principle explains how the evolutionary naturalist is supposed to proceed, from the acknowledgement of the Probability thesis, to the possession of a defeater for R. Reflection on the Probability Thesis is what causes the naturalist to focus on determining whether her belief in R is formed in a reasonable way.
In the event that there is no internal rationale to defend the belief, then it implies that the reflection on the Probability Thesis causes the evolutionary naturalist to have a defeater for her belief in R. As such the ANR principle forms a vital pillar in the support of Plantinga’s case against evolutionary naturalism (Fales’ 446).
Works Cited Fales’, Evan. “Plantinga’s Case Against Naturalistic Epistemology.” Philosophy of Science 63 (3), (1996): 432-451. Print.
Fitelson, Branden and Elliott Sober. “Plantinga’s Probability Arguments Against Evolutionary Naturalism.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79, (1998): 115-129. Print.
Collaboration, Cooperation, and Coordination Definition Essay essay help online
Collaboration can be defined as the process of sharing ideas. It gives two or more individuals, who possess harmonizing skills, a chance to share their knowledge, skills and experience.
This interaction presents the parties involved with a shared understanding, creating a common meaning about an issue that none of the parties possessed individually. Collaboration leads to creation of something that was not in existent.
However, successful collaboration comes with its own set of challenges; modification of conflicting goals that are characteristic of any team is one such challenge.
For the collaborating parties to work together, decision making is approached from a collaborative point of view giving each of the parties some responsibility. This ensures that no one party is in charge of all supervision and decision making.
Cooperation is another important aspect in the process of strategic planning. Cooperation entails coming together of parties with the same interest in terms of combining resources, capacities, and competencies in an effort to attain mutual interests for the achievement of goals.
The joint application of efforts in various processes such as production or distribution leads to joint benefit. In any organization, there are different persons, divisions and the like, which together form the organization. For these different units to work efficiently there must be some form of coordination.
Without coordination, the units will overlap and create redundancy. There may also arise some sort of separation of units and in such cases productivity will be greatly reduced. Coordination serves to ensure that each unit has some set targets which should be achieved by some predefined deadline.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This way, work flows from one unit to another without delay or overlap in terms of resource usage and time allocation. For efficiency to be achieved there should be no duplication of efforts as this turns out to be costly in terms of resources, time and monetary value.
Therefore, efforts should be made to avoid it. This can only be achieved by employing proper coordination practices.
Strategic planning is a vital process for all organizations and countries that are out in pursuit of economic growth. This is due to the fact that efficient running of these organizations is highly dependent on the strategic plan deployed. A strategic plan will involve cooperation, collaboration and coordination.
For different teams of professionals that comprise an organization to work together, they must put their expertise together as one team. None of the parties in the team is superior to the other and hence, they should work collaboratively.
Each of the parties should shoulder some responsibility and exert control up to a certain extent that is arrived at using a collaborative approach.
Secondly, there are varying types and amounts of resources assigned to the different teams. These resources together with the staff’s abilities need to be combined to achieve the common goals. Therefore, cooperation among the team members is vital.
The members come together in trust and respect. Lastly, for the strategic plan to be effected, all the units, that is, the teams and the resources must be coordinated. There must be some organized layout of procedures that must be followed without which there will be effort duplication, resource wastage and redundancy among the units.
We will write a custom Essay on Collaboration, Cooperation, and Coordination specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategic planning is all about maximization of productivity while cutting down on costs. Efficiency, effectiveness and unity of purpose will lead to realization of this plan.
The three C’s discussed above, that is, collaboration, cooperation and coordination must be incorporated in the strategic plan to ensure that it meets its desired purpose.
Economic Crisis in Greece Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Greece is the weakest member of the euro zone, and its economy is continuously contracting at a fast pace. Sarah Hewin, a London economist, proposed that the economy of Greece had been struggling even before 2008 when Lehman Brothers collapsed. The decline in the economy translated the economic depression in Greece (Jolly para. 1-4). This paper is aimed to evaluate the position of Greece in the euro zone, and it also focuses on the effects which Greece may suffer if it decides to leave the euro zone.
Problem in Greek economy Greece’s expenditures were beyond its mean even before the change in its currency from drachma to Euro. After accepting euro as its currency, the public expenditure was significantly accelerated in Greece. The level of wages in the public sector greatly increased which was the highest rate in the euro zone.
The Athens Olympics in 2004 led the Greek government to exceed the limit of its debt. BBC reported that the national income of Greece declined significantly due to the tax evasion on a massive scale in the country. After overspending for years, the budget deficit of Greece went out of control, which resulted in the economic depression in Greece (Eurozone crisis explained para. 4-7).
Benefits of Euro zone There are multiple benefits which Greece attains from being a part of the euro zone. In May 2010, Greece was provided bailout loans from IMF and the European Union in order to help the Greek government for paying its creditors. BBC reported that these loans had amounted in total to 110 billion Euros after that another bailout of 130 billion Euros was lent to Greece (Eurozone crisis explained para. 10-12).
The growth in the value of Euro in the past helped member states of the euro zone achieve significantly better economic and financial results (Barrell para. 3-7). Euro zone provides great support for countries like Greece, which face severe economic conditions. Being part of the euro zone has helped the Greek economy to survive, acquiring huge loans.
Affects of the exit from the Euro zone on monetary and fiscal policy If Greece decides to exit the euro zone, it will impact member states of the euro zone and the European Union to a great extent. Its impact on the monetary policy of Greece will be severe. The money supply may reduce if the Greek state exits the euro zone. The unemployment rate will be rapidly increased, and at the same time the interest rate might also rise.
The fiscal policy, which deals with the expenditure and taxation, would also be affected by this exit. Taxes will be increased whether Greece leaves or stays in the euro zone, but the expenditure can get out of control if Greece exits the euro zone and introduces its own currency (Giles, Spiegel and Hope para. 3-9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impact of the exit on the options of financial debt BBC reported that the exit of Greece from the euro zone would also affect the financing debt which the European Union and IMF would have to collect from Greece. The bailout loans which were provided to the country to clear its debt from other creditors have made Greece a major borrower. If Greece exits the euro zone, many possible outcomes are proposed which are, therefore, not in favor of Greece and its economic stability which would further entice bankruptcy and recessionary conditions in the country.
The availability of the options, by which the financing debt would have to be returned to IMF and European Union, would significantly be reduced with such a decision. The loans would be provided on a higher interest rate, which would worsen the economic status of Greece, and the crisis might have become more severe (What could happen next if Greece leaves the eurozone? para. 2).
Conclusion Greece should stay in the euro zone because of the benefits which may be gained from a membership in the euro zone. There is a high chance of greater financial crisis in Greece if it decides to exit the euro zone and introduce a new currency, which will definitely be weaker than Euro is in the global economy.
Works Cited Barrell, Ray. ”Eurozone crisis: what if… Greece leaves the single currency.” The Guardian 14 May 2012. guardian.com Web. .
BBC. “Eurozone crisis explained.” BBC News Business. 27 Nov. 2012. Web. bbc.com. 28 May 2013. .
—. “What could happen next if Greece leaves the eurozone?” BBC News Business. 18 June 2012. bbc.com. Web. .
Giles, Chris, Peter Spiegel and Kerin Hope. Eurozone: If Greece goes… Financial Times. 13 May 2012. ft.com. Web. .
We will write a custom Essay on Economic Crisis in Greece specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jolly, David. “Greek Economy Shrank 6.2% in Second Quarter.” The New York Times 13 Aug. 2012: B2. nytimes.com. Web. .
Public Debt in Managing Macroeconomics Essay essay help
Public debt is beneficial when maintained at low levels against the GDP. When the public debt goes beyond 85% of the GDP, it starts to become a burden.
Public debt is useful in managing macroeconomics through fiscal policy. It allows governments to form stable tax rates without the influence of market fluctuations. It reduces present taxes but increases the ones in the future.
The impact of public debt is reduced when it used in key areas that will increase future productivity such as human capital. Deficit financing may result in growth that provides a surplus. The surplus may be used to service the debt eliminating inflationary effects.
High public debt reduces government’s ability to borrow. This limits the ability to use expansionary fiscal policy to stimulate economy growth. The government may find it necessary to increase interest rates to attract creditors.
With high interest rates, debt servicing becomes more costly. The rates compound, and finally the government’s ability to repay the debt is doubted. An example is China, the main creditor to USA, doubting USA’s ability to repay loans. Without lending, consumption and investment would decline.
The additional debt may be considered to have a crowding-out effect on capital accumulation. The Greece case shows an economy that additional capital was no longer producing growth. This is when additional capital has diminishing returns.
Further concerns about high public debt is the accumulating fraction of those who are aging in the population. With a high dependency ratio, it becomes difficult for a government to take care of social services, and a high public debt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Causes and Solutions to the Debt Crisis The US debt crisis is considered to have been caused by tax cuts, stimulus packages, and the Iraq/Afghanistan wars. Availability of credit at low interest rates is considered to have caused consumption to rely mostly on debts. As a result of cheap credit, financial assets exceed GDP several times.
The Greece debt crisis is considered to have been caused by tax cuts/evasions, generous pensions, expenditure on the 2004 Olympic Games, health care benefits, and reliance on tourism and shipping industries.
The Greeks took lots of debts because their economy was growing at a very high rate before the global recession. Similarly, they borrowed to invest in real estates. However, all these causes are blamed on bad governance.
The Federal government has plans to reduce spending while the Congress wants to raise the debt ceiling to avoid defaulting. The Congressional plan will give the economy more time to fix the problem.
The Federal government plan is more effective. The Fed plan is more effective because it reinstates confidence which affects financial markets. The solution to the US’ debt crisis is to reduce government spending.
Socialism is not portrayed by the government owning big companies. This is because they are run in a capitalist manner. The government sets funds for stability. It hires a CEO who runs it for profit maximization.
This is similar to private business. In socialism, the main aim is to increase utility to citizens. In that case, it would make them have quality products at the lowest price even when there is an opportunity to charge higher prices.
We will write a custom Essay on Public Debt in Managing Macroeconomics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was necessary for the government to bail out these companies to prevent the economy from going deeper into recession. When the big companies run out of business, a big workforce is laid off. Consumption decreases, and other companies soon experience the declining purchasing power. They react by reducing workforce, and overall expenditure.
Developing Economies and Middle Classes There are many obstacles to economic growth in developing countries. The main ones include political instability, inefficient human capital, dual economy, and lack of investment.
Political instability discourages capital inflow causing lack of investment. Inadequate savings are caused by low per capita income. This makes the countries to be locked in the vicious poverty cycle.
Developed countries can assist these countries by ensuring they have stable democratic governments. They can assist by transferring human capital or technology to these countries.
There is no crowding-out effect in these countries, so capital inflows will generate higher output than additional capital accumulation in developed countries. This is a benefit to external investors as well as the developing countries.
A stable economy relies on a high domestic demand. The middle class is the main contributor to domestic demand. This is because they have purchasing power, and they demand consumer goods. The upper class are few, and most likely to demand capital goods.
The lower class lacks purchasing power. The US economy is considered to be shrinking because the middle class size is declining. For a sustainable economy, the middle class should be bigger in size.
A middle class is created by progressive tax rates. In the US case, tax cuts seem to have benefitted more the upper class than other classes. A middle class can be expanded by raising taxes on the upper class, reducing taxes on the middle class, and tax exemption for the lower class.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Debt in Managing Macroeconomics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Increasing government expenditure to finance tax cuts for the upper classes has not done well in the US economy. There is need to create a balance to avoid relying on deficit to fund government spending.
Women’s Education in Confucian Cultures Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Modern historians and sociologists focus on the education of women in Confucian cultures. According to a popular stereotype, it was only supposed to reinforce the strict gender roles of these societies, especially the subservient position of women in families and communities.
Nevertheless, this assumption does not take into account the complexities of Asian societies that can differ from one another in terms of political, social or economic relations. Secondly, this view overlooks the possibility that women could resist some principles of Confucianism.
They could be aware of their disadvantaged position in the community. This paper is aimed at showing that Confucian education could indeed reify the dominant power structure or the idea that men should play the main role in family, government or organizations; however, at the same time, it enabled women to challenge popular perceptions of gender roles.
This is the main issue that should be examined in more detail.
Scholars are very cautious when using the term Confucian education because it is very ambiguous. This concept can be defined as a set ethical and political principles formulated by Confucius and his followers (Ko, Haboush,
Murdered Women of Ciudad Juarez Mexico Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction There are various forms of human conflicts. The causes of these human conflicts vary. They include gender, tribal, and racial conflicts. Conflict between genders is a key theme in literature.
However, gender violence concerning females during the time of war or other circumstances of dispute and conflict is a matter of utmost importance. Naturally, men seek to have superiority over the females.
In extreme conditions, they adopt violence as a way of suppressing the women. This assures total frustration of women so that they willingly submit to the men. During war, men accomplish this by raping, using physical torture and murder. In some countries, this behavior becomes an issue of national concern.
For example, the death of women in Ciudad Juarez is one of the most tragic phenomena that the world experiences in term of gender violence to women. It is a condition that the authorities finds difficult to control and maintain. The Spanish refers to the female homicide taking place in Juarez as Femicide.
In this homicide, serial murderers have been killing women in the city since 1993. Ciudad Juarez is a town which is in the northern parts of Mexico at the border of Rio Grande and El Paso. Researchers estimate the number of deaths to about five thousand people.
This phenomenon has attracted some international attention due to the perception that the government of Mexico has remained indifferent and reluctant to solving the situation. International bodies have a perception that the authorities play a significant role in promoting gender violence against women in Ciudad Juarez.
Nature of Victims There is evidence which suggest that the nature of women targeted in Juarez has certain similarities. Investigators say that most victims are laborers of Maquiladora and students. Most women share physical similar appearances. Most victims share physical similar appearances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The murderers torture and mutilate the victims before killing them. The statistics of female homicide remains conflicting. There are different reports with varying statistics about the number of murders. As a result, the Amnesty International gives insufficient data concerning the committed crimes in Chihuahua.
This Femicide has raised conflicts around it blocking the pursuit for justice. Amnesty international argues out that, by February 2005, the murders exceeded three hundred and seventy in Ciudad Juarez.
Prosecutors from Chihuahua suggested that, by the year 2010, organized gangs killed about two hundred and seventy ladies in that state. Out of the two hundred and seventy murders, two hundred and forty seven of them came from Juarez.
In his report, Carlos Manuel Salas reported that there were two hundred and twenty two murders since the month of January to August of the same year. In total, the gangs killed over three hundred females in Mexico.
It is thus exceptionally clear the number of murders happening in Ciudad Juarez is higher than those happening in other cities of Mexico and U.S.A (Alba 2005).
Perpetrators The properties of the perpetrators, the relationship they have to the victims and their motives remain uncertain. This uncertainty is due to the unjust system of government in Mexico which does not allow adequate investigation and documentation of the crimes.
Literature attributes the murders to patriarchal buckles that operate against working females. It considers this as a potential reason for the killings. In this case, women employment has challenged the opportunities available for men.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Murdered Women of Ciudad Juarez Mexico specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This raises conflict between the genders. Some researchers attribute the killings to the Mexican crisis in their structure. These crises include poverty migration, poverty and injustice.
Traditions also purport gender violence against females in Ciudad as a way of dominating, controlling, suppressing and excising power over women (Foweraker and Ann 1990).
Murders to Murders As a matter of fact, there exists intensive violence against women in Ciudad than any other city in Mexico. This violence has led to many negative effects to the city of Ciudad Juarez. These include unnecessary migration, existence of orphans among many others (Morris 2009).
As human beings, the world expects the city of Juarez learn from their mistakes. However, the behavior is spreading and increasing in other parts of Mexico and U.S.A. This spread is as a result of the pre-existing femicide in Ciudad Juarez.
In other words, the murder of women in Juarez has encouraged and supported the growth of this problem in the society in various ways. These ways attach on the factors that contribute to femicide in Ciudad Juarez. These factors when combined with the femicide contribute to the spread of the problem.
To begin with, men in the society consider violence against women as a way of oppressing and dominating them. This is a traditional methodology that elevates men above women. As a matter of fact, this has certainly managed to suppress women in Juarez.
The men in Juarez can, therefore, consider this methodology as a suitable tool of obtaining superiority. In the literature, it researches prove that humans tend to take up the behaviors of those they relate and socialize with in the society. They also tend to copy and emulate what they see in other people especially if it is favoring them.
Consequently, men in the society view this as a tested and approved methodology of suppressing the females in the society. This has supported the spreading of this problem the society. We can, therefore, conclude that Juarez has set a poor example to the society.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Murdered Women of Ciudad Juarez Mexico by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International Shame
It is, also, evident that the authority of Mexico considers this homicide as an international shame to the country. As a result, the government, therefore, obscure investigations concerning the murders and the victims affected by the gender violence against women, in Ciudad.
In addition, it neglects the pursuit for justice by family members and relatives who lose their loved ones. They do this in a bid to prevent the international intervention in the matter which would consider them as unable to protect and guard their citizens against gender violence.
As a result, the murderers take advantage of this condition and increase the killings. It also allows sufficient freedom for the killers to expand and spread to other areas in the society.
In fact, there are several rulings by international bodies against the government of Mexico challenging their indifference, insufficient response to the matter in question and the rising cases of murder that the country experiences.
The international bodies assert that the government reluctance and exhibition of tolerance to such crimes contributes to spread and growth of the murders. In addition, it is quite ironical that while hundreds of killings have happened in the country the police have convicted a negligible number of people.
Many questions have emerged challenging the integrity and method of investigations carried out in the administrative system. The corruption exhibited by the Mexican government has set a poor example to the society.
The neglect by the government to curbing gender violence in Juarez has played a significant role to the spread of the problem.
Authority Supporting Gender Violence
Ironically enough, the policemen whom the society expects to offer security involve themselves in the gender violence that gangs launch against women. They practice the abuse of power in their line of duty. A woman by the name Espiona suggests that the chief has given the police some powers that they should not have.
She has a firsthand experience of power abuse. She says that, during one night, she received orders to enter into her car by policemen pointing guns at her. Afterwards, the police commander got into her car and made some sexual advances with her.
She says that she experiences emotional setbacks over the sexual harassment that happened to her. In this case, the authority, which we expect to protect the citizens from gender violence, involves itself in propagating the violence. As a result, this supports the growth of gender violence in society.
Preventing Media Overage
The government of Mexico makes a lot of efforts to prevent the coverage of gender violence in Ciudad Juarez by the media (Ruvalcaba and Ignacio 2010). As a result, international authorities cannot identify the frustrating crimes against humanity.
The citizens in other parts of the society are unable to learn from the crimes happening in Ciudad. The media are does not get a chance to warn people against such happenings. It is also unable to counsel the killers to refrain from such actions. This total public ignorance about violence against women makes the society remain ignorant about its existence.
They, therefore, take less or no measures of safety against it. Consequently, the people behind it get a better chance to propagate it in the society and hence its growth.
Spread of Drug Trafficking
It is also evident that the drug traffickers influence abductions and killings that take place in Ciudad Juarez (Watt and Roberto 2012). In the modern society, drugs and drug trafficking is one of the most challenging matters. It is spreading and getting popular every day.
Drug traffickers have expanded at an extremely high rate. Most expectedly, when the drug traffickers expand their territories they also spread the other immoral behaviors that they have. In this case, the drug cartels encourage abduction and killing of females directing a lot of violence to the Mexican population.
When the drug cartels are expanding their territories, they encourage the spread of female violence in society. Drug trafficking and governmental reluctance propagate the society to adopt the culture of gender violence.
In addition, gender violence that the drug cartels have exhibited in Ciudad Juarez has encouraged other drug cartels in the society to engage the same behavior. Gender violence in Ciudad Juarez is also as a result of organized gangs and robbers on the border.
In fact, an investigation carried out in Colegio de la Frontera suggests that 9.1% of the killings of women are as a result of drug organized gangs. The gangs rob women and abduct them for prostitution. Some of these gangs are extremely strong such that they become permanent.
As a result, they engage and specialize in gender violence against women as permanent groups. Therefore, they try to get more women in other places other than relying on the border. They thus spread this violence to other places in the country.
Furthermore, prostitution has become an indispensable vice in the society. It is a significant source of money to those who engage in it. The abduction and murder of women in relation to prostitution in Juarez thus sets a poor example to the society.
As a result, that prompts the societies that engage in prostitution. The society adopts the same behavior hence encouraging its growth.
Spread by Gang
The other way in which murders in Ciudad Juarez contributes to growth and support of this problem is by activism. Following the gender violence in Ciudad Juarez, selected women volunteer to claim and fight for their rights as women.
They commit their lives to protest against violence against females. They do this in a bid to reduce the death, mutilation and torture in the society. Most expectedly, the society looks forward to the reduction of this violence as a result of the activism.
However, the killers shift to targeting the activists and murdering them. In addition to that, they also kill their relatives and families, as a result, to the activists, behaviors. This indicates that the murders in Juarez which lead to activism also cause an increase in the number of murders of women.
For example, Susana Chavez who was a famous activist against this gender violence against women died as a result of her activism. She protested against the incompetence of the city’s authority in finding the perpetrators who were responsible for the murder of hundreds of ladies since 1993 in the city of Ciudad Juarez.
She looked forward to putting a stop to the killing of women which started even before the domination of drugs in Ciudad Juarez. She used a popular slogan “Not one More Death”. Murderers killed the lady at the age of thirty six years as a result of her effort.
Her mother says that she waited for her for a whole night, but she never came back. She was driving to a restaurant to take a meal in the celebration for the arrival of 3 kings in the country. However, they attacked her some streets away from her residence.
Initially, they had said that the activist had joined them for a drink, after refusing to give them sexual favor they killed her. After her death, her parent found her body after days of serious searching. They found the body in an abandoned house.
The parents found the body without the left hand. Researchers suggest that they cut hand to suggest that her death did not have any relationship to her activism. In fact, the officials said that murder did not have any relationship to her activism.
In addition, the Attorney General described her death as an “unfortunate encounter (BBC news – home, 2012). On the contrary, the group of human rights, Amnesty International argued that her murder indicated that violence against females was increasing.
They attributed this rise to a possible empowerment of the serial killers as a result of her death. This implies that, her activism lead to support and the growth of this behavior in the society.
In another case, the killers murdered a prominent activist by the name Marisela Escobedo Ortiz near a government building. Before her death, unknown people had threatened Marisela against her activism. They had hung up a banner in front of the school which she teaches.
They warned her against teaching a female by the name Malu. The group said that if Marisela continued doing so, it would have killed her son. They further said that they had her son’s on the list of the victims. She was a mother to a young girl whom they killed at the age of seventeen years.
She had spent years campaigning against gender violence against women. Masked men pulled from a vehicle in front of her while protesting. They began talking to her after which she ran away across the street where they shot her onto the head to death.
This happened in front of the office of the governor in Chihuahua. The boyfriend to her daughter is the suspect for the two murders.
They also killed Josefina Reyes, who was also an active activist against related to crimes against females and violation of women rights by the army, near Juarez in the year 2010. Surprisingly, four of her relatives have also been killed since her death (Staudt 2008).
Most undoubtedly, the murders have killed the four relative so as to remove the possibilities of continued resistance by her relatives and family members. Therefore, it is clear that activism launched against gender violence on women has supported the growth of the problem.
Risk of Migration
Gender violence against women in Juarez forces women to migrate from the area to the city of El Paso. From statistics, two hundred and thirty thousand people left Juarez in the year 2009 abandoning thirty two hundred and seven hundred homes.
Researchers have reported that fifty four percent of these people moved to El Paso. The migrants move from their mother country in pursuit of peace. However, the American government has intensively fought against this illegal migration into its country.
As a result, the migrants find an alternative path for migration (Wilson 2009). In this case, they borrow permission from other illegal gangs like the La Linea.
They expect the gangs to offer a more secure path for their migration than the path they used earlier. However, the gangs attack and kill them in the process instead of protecting them. In August 2011, the gangs killed seventy two women in Tamaulipas which is in the northern part of the country.
Researchers suggest that in the process of the women expose themselves to higher risk of abduction and murder as they travel across the desert. Unexpectedly, corrupt policemen and the immigration officials blackmail, abduct and kill some of the victims.
The researchers say that most gangs kill the migrants with the help of the local authorities. This way, the existing murders, play a role in supporting the same behavior.
In addition, the researchers have observed that the migrants carry with them the same behaviors they had in Juarez. The old residents of Santa Maria Atzompa say that when they looked around they only saw new arrivals.
They see children flooding their schools, women laborers in work areas and new businesses everywhere. However, Marcelino, who is a local artisan, say that before they came everything was tranquil. She adds that they only brought complications in the city and no benefits.
As an implication, the continued migration of women and men form Juarez into the city is a tool that will contribute to the spread of this behavior which made them run away from their homes. Moreover, the change of pattern in migration has also worsened the situation.
This change in the pattern is due to the strict rules of the American government against illegal migration. Consequently, they choose to settle in more peaceful cities like Oaxaca and Merida. This phenomenon leads to spread of such behaviors to a larger area.
As a matter of fact, this migration is an enormous challenge and yet a surprise to the cities in the future.
Forced Labor in Maquiladros
Another important way in which the death of women in Ciudad Juarez has contributed to the growth of the problem is through forced labor. When men kill and torture women in Ciudad, they feel inferior and unworthy. The murders instill fear and inferiority in them.
They become into poor and dependent. Consequently, factories employ them as workers but pay them less. They prefer women laborers since they are more productive than men. Though they appreciate the high productivity, they pay them seriously little amount of money.
They use the little payments to prove the inferiority and unworthiness of women. The most critical part of this phenomenon is that the supervisors torture and even kill the workers. They torture them emotionally and physically making them submissive.
A young woman by the name Maria says that she has worked over years in the factory. When she was working there, she was burnt by the chemicals for a number of times. Most of the chemical names are in English making the difficult for them to understand.
They cannot read the warnings on the labels. Surprisingly, they never get compensation for the physical loss (Prieto 1997). Instead, the managers fire the workers who suffer such burns immediately. Her coworker, Carmelina tells a similar story.
She worked in the factory for thirty five years. The owners abuse them physically and emotionally. The bosses blame all accidents that happen on the workers. The workers die poor and young. In fact, they consider women as bodies instead of human beings.
As a result, they kill those who get such accidents and interchange the dead with new bodies. In fact, they argue that the labor value of a maquiladora worker decreases with time. According to them, a woman’s value as a worker diminishes after years of exhausting hours of work in the factory.
More over the researchers suggest that the gangs target the workers in Maquiladora factory. This is because; males do not like to see employed women. Men, therefore, kill some of the workers as they move to and from the factory.
The researchers also suggest that, in some incidents, the factory management recommends the death of some workers by the gangs. In this way, the pre-existing deaths of women contribute to the death of more women.
Machismo and Mariansimo
Murder of women has increased the ideology of Machismo and Marianismo. These are two terms that Mexicans use categorizing the male and female status. Machismo represents the male power and aggressiveness.
On the contrary, Marianismo represents the ideology that women should carry out domestic roles only (Vulliamy 2010). Women should carry out domestic chores as wives. They should not be paid for any labor they offer.
As a result, women who seek employment in the factories go against the ideology of Machismo. It challenges the sense of hyper masculinity that exaggerates the ability and status of men. Given that, death of women has encouraged Machismo it directly encourage men to torture and kill women without fear.
This ideology does not only lead and encourage men to torture women, but it also leads to mental and emotional torture. Scientist approve that emotional torture causes a sizeable number of deaths within the population.
As a matter of fact, Mexican women are not an exception to this indictment. The ideology of Machismo also encourages little care to the females. Therefore, the society neglects their health and welfare. This increases deaths of women in the society of Mexico.
For example, some factories testify in the public that they cannot employ pregnant women. This is because; the society considers women as object of service as a result of this same ideology. As a result, the death of women supports the growth of murders of females.
Murder in Pretext
The existing murders have also encouraged murder of other innocent women in the pretext of pre-existing murders. In this case, other people kill their relatives and for other reasons, but people the authority assume that it is as a result of the existing murders.
To add on to this, some individuals kill their friend through the existing serial killers. It offers a solution to disputes especially between married men and women. Such actions express a feeling which suggests that the society is supporting the ideology of gender violence against women.
This encourages the growth and spread of the behavior among the society.
Habit of Murder
Lastly, murder of women by the serial killers in Ciudad Juarez has created this behavior which is difficult to abandon. In literature, when a community or a group of people get into a given behavior without guidance or opposition, they increase their aggressiveness.
In this scenario, the culture that supports murder of women in Ciudad Juarez has created a habit that the society can hardly eradicate. Therefore, without any control measures the behavior is more likely to spread than deteriorate.
Though this argument might seem philosophical, it represents a clear image of human beings’ behavior. The Mexicans are not an exception to these rules of other human beings.
Conclusion In conclusion, gender violence against women is a conspicuous challenge to the society of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico and the neighboring countries. Through the above discussion, it is clear that the problem propagates itself to higher levels of complexity and danger.
It is evident that the existing murders of women led to increase, spread and growth of the behavior. This is not a matter of national concern, but an issue that the whole world should address. If the involved will not work to eradicating the prevailing murder cases, the condition will worsen.
Individually, people should fight the cultural ideology of hyper masculinity and encourage gender equality in the society. The society should collectively discourage drug abuse in a bid to prevent such vices as gender violence, arising as a result of their use.
Local and international authority should protect and guard their citizens with diligence against gender violence. Corruption, negligence and irresponsibility, are vices that all people should fight in the society.
Works Cited Alba, Alicia. Desert blood: the JuaÌrez murders. Houston, Tex.: Arte Publico Press, 2005. Print.
“BBC News – Home.” BBC News – Home. N.p., n.d. Web. .
Foweraker, Joe, and Ann Craig. Popular movements and political change in Mexico. Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1990. Print.
Morris, Stephen. Political corruption in Mexico: the impact of democratization. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2009. Print.
Prieto, Norma. Beautiful flowers of the maquiladora: life histories of women workers in Tijuana. Austin: University of Texas Press, Institute of Latin American Studies, 1997. Print.
Ruvalcaba, HeÌctor, and Ignacio Corona. Gender violence at the U.S.-Mexico border: media representation and public response. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, 2010. Print.
Staudt, Kathleen. Violence and activism at the border gender, fear, and everyday life in Ciudad JuaÌrez. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2008. Print.
Vulliamy, Ed.. Amexica: war along the borderline. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
Brown Vs. Board of Education Essay college application essay help
This case dealt with the issue of racial segregation in public schools in Kansas. The ruling by the US Supreme Court determined that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. The case and its subsequent ruling set a precedent in the history of the country.
It was one of the most extraordinary steps towards civil rights’ protection for African Americans and other racial minorities in the US.
The ruling meant that the Plessy vs. Ferguson case of 1896 could no longer be applied by states to sanction racial segregation in public schools. The ruling affirmed that detached educational institutions based on racial identity caused inequalities in the society.
This ruling brought about greater racial integration in public schools, which had never existed before. The Supreme Court asserted that racial segregation in all its forms contravenes equality of all the citizens, as enshrined in the Fourteenth Amendment of US Constitution.
The case was filed against the Board of Education in Topeka city, Kansas, at the local district court. Thirteen parents filed the case to compel the board to repeal its laws that permitted racial segregation in public schools (Patterson 68).
The main plaintiff, Oliver Brown, filed the case because his daughter, Linda, had been denied admission to a public school which was close to her family’s residence. The racial segregation laws did not allow white and black children to learn together in public schools.
His daughter had to board a bus every morning to go to a public school where black pupils learnt, which was more than a mile away from their home.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Plessy vs. Ferguson case of 1896 had permitted states to enact racial segregation in all the public places. These laws were responsible for widespread of racism against African Americans and other minority racial groups in the US.
These laws made several states to institute racial segregation policies in public places. Patterson reveals that racial segregation laws were meant to offer services which were equal to both Blacks and Whites (71).
However, this was rarely the case because Blacks were given services of inferior quality as compared to those provided to Whites. Segregation laws were used to justify the inhumane treatment of minority populations subjected to racial prejudices.
Brown together with other parents from Topeka tried to enroll their children in public schools, close to their homes, in 1951. The children had been denied admission, and their parents were advised to enroll their children in schools which had only black students.
This made the plaintiffs to seek legal redress to challenge the laws put in place by the Board of Education in Topeka (Patterson 74). The Kansas District court ruled against the plaintiffs because it followed the 1896 landmark ruling made by the Supreme Court, regarding the Plessy vs. Ferguson case.
The district court maintained that the law that permitted racial segregation in public areas was constitutional. The three judges that ruled on the case argued that public schools for both the white and the black were equal regarding the level and quality of education.
As such, the case lacked merit because it did not conclusively show any evidence of inequality caused by racial segregation in public schools.
We will write a custom Essay on Brown Vs. Board of Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plaintiffs proceeded with the case to the Supreme Court for a constitutional interpretation and adjudication in 1952. The plaintiffs, who were supported by civil rights body NAACP, argued that the Equality Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment of the constitution had been violated.
The plaintiffs argued that racial segregation in public schools had led to inequalities in syllabus, quality of facilities and the modes of transportation used (Ogletree 111). They argued that segregation laws caused a lot of inequalities between white and black students, which affected their future perspectives in American society.
The plaintiffs in their appeal stated that more resources were allocated to white schools than to black ones, which proved the board to be discriminative. The conditions, in which black pupils studied, were deplorable as compared to conditions provided to white students.
Ogletree reveals that the case had far-reaching implications on the role of the Supreme Court in determining constitutional matters in the country (115). Some judges felt that, if the court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, it would be seen as pursuing an activist agenda.
The court’s panel of judges was divided, on whether the constitution conferred it enough powers, to enforce racial desegregation in public schools. A section of the judges felt that the Fourteenth Amendment gave necessary legal grounds to overrule the Plessy vs. Ferguson precedent of 1896.
These judges argued that the Supreme Court needed to maintain its status as a beacon of liberty to all Americans, irrespective of color, gender and social status.
The new Chief Justice, Earl Warren, convinced the other disagreeing judges on the importance of a unanimous ruling in favor of the plaintiffs. The case had been dragging at the Supreme Court for two years before the final verdict was reached.
The judges requested lawyers on both sides to make more submissions regarding the matter before they made their verdict known (Ogletree 118). Chief Justice Warren managed to convince other dissenting judges that a unanimous ruling in favor of the plaintiffs would bring progress to the country in regard to the civil rights.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Brown Vs. Board of Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The judges also carefully looked into the principle of racial segregation and its legal basis. They challenged the notion that segregation of public educational facilities on the basis of race presented all learners with the equal opportunities.
The Supreme Court made its decision on May 1954 after almost two years of deliberations and hearings. The justices relied on previous research done by Kenneth Clark and ruled that racial segregation had a negative psychological effect on black pupils (Ogletree 121).
They also stated that racial segregation in public schools was not constitutional because pupils from minority racial groups could not access equal opportunities in education.
The Supreme Court argued that the policy of segregation reinforced stereotypes that Blacks were inferior, and this had a positive impact on the psychology of young black pupils. The judges asserted that segregation denied black children many benefits they could obtain from learning in an integrated educational environment.
The judges also ruled that segregation in public schools denied children the right to associate – a right which every person is granted by the Fourteenth Amendment. The judges argued that provision of public education was a right which every child needed to enjoy regardless of his/her racial or ethnic background.
The separate and equal principle was enforced in many states after the Plessy vs. Ferguson case had been overruled. The ruling had a big impact on race relations in the country. The Topeka Board of Education revised its laws and allowed students from all the races to learn in racially integrated schools.
Many states had to observe the decision even though some governors were opposed to the new desegregation laws (Goethals and Sorenson 94). The ruling changed the manner in which public schools in the country admitted their students.
Works Cited Goethals, George R., and Georgia Jones Sorenson. The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006. Print.
Ogletree, Charles J. All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half Century of Brown v. Board of Education. New York: W. W Norton, 2004. Print.
Patterson, James T. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and its Troubled Legacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown Problem Solution Essay essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Financial crises greatly disrupt financial markets “characterized by sharp declines in asset and firm failures” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196).
Starting from August 2007, the defaults in subprime mortgage markets in the U.S shook the financial markets, contributing to the most horrible financial crisis from the time of the Great Depression and to several banking crises all over the world.
Allan Greenspan, the former chairman of the United States Federal Reserve gave a description to financial crises as “a once-in-a-century credit tsunami” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196). Moreover, the commercial banks as well as Wall Street firms incurred big losses.
The households as well as businesses faced a situation in which they had to pay increased rates on their loans and it was more difficult to obtain credit. There was crashing of the financial markets across the world which fell by more than forty percent from their peak (ADB 1).
A large number of the financial companies, encompassing the investment banks and commercial banks among others “went belly up” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196).
In this paper, there is going to be a review of literature concerning the financial crises and Subprime meltdown and this will be followed by a discussion on the relevant tools for tackling the problem of financial crises and the policy implications. The conclusion section will provide a summary of the main points in the discussion.
The Financial Crises and Subprime Meltdown A financial crisis comes about when a rise in “asymmetric information from a disruption in the financial system causes severe adverse selection and moral hazard problems that render financial markets incapable of channelling funds efficiently from savers to households and firms with productive investment opportunities” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the financial markets do not work in an efficient manner, there is a sharp contracting of economic activity.
To get the knowledge about the reasons why there is occurrence of the finical crises and how they contribute towards contracting the economic activity, there is a need to look at the factors which cause them.
There are six classes of factors which play a significant part in financial crises and these include; “asset market effects on balance sheets, deterioration in financial institutions’ balance sheets, banking crises, increases in uncertainty, increases in interest rates, and government fiscal imbalances” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197).
“Assets Market Effects on Balance Sheets”
A big decline in stock market is among the factors which can bring about grave deterioration in the balance sheets of the borrowing firms. Subsequently, deterioration can bring up the level of adverse selection as well as moral hazard issues within the financial markets and trigger a financial crisis.
A stock market decline implies that the “net worth” of companies has gone down, since the share prices “are the valuation of a corporation’s net worth” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197).
The decline in the net worth causes the lenders to have little willingness to lend and this is for the reason that a firm’s net worth plays a role which is similar to the one played by collateral.
In case the collateral value declines, it offers reduced protection to the lenders, implying that there is likelihood that the losses that are incurred on loans will be harsher.
We will write a custom Essay on Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since lenders have now less protection against the effects of adverse selection, they bring down the level of their lending which subsequently results in a decline in aggregate output as well as investment (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196).
“Deterioration in Financial Institutions’ Balance Sheet”
The financial institutions, especially banks, play a very big role in the financial markets for the reason that they are in a better position to take part in the “information-producing” activities which help in facilitating fruitful investment (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 197).
The state of the balance sheets of banks as well as other financial institutions significantly affects lending. In case there is a deterioration in the balance sheets of financial institutions experience, this will lead to great contraction in these institutions’ capital.
These financial institutions have reduced resources to lend and there will eventually be a decline in lending. The contracting lending subsequently contributes towards having declining investment spending and this brings down the level of economic activity (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 196).
In case the deterioration in the balance sheets of the financial institutions is severe to a high level, these institutions will begin failing; TV-Here can be spreading of fear among institutions and even making the health one “to collapse” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198).
For the reason that banks do have deposits which can rapidly be pulled out, they are especially vulnerable to infectivity of this kind. A “bank panic” comes about when a large number of banks experience failure at the same time.
During a panic, those who deposit, having fear for their deposits’ safety and not having knowledge about the quality of loan portfolios of banks, engage in withdrawing their deposits to a level that banks fail.
In case some banks are not able to succeed within a short span, there will definitely be a loss of information production that may occurs in the financial markets, so there is also direct loss of the financial intermediation of banks (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Crises and the Subprime Meltdown by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A reduction in bank lending in the course of banking crisis causes a reduction in the supply of the funds that are available to the borrowers, which contributes towards having increased interest rates. The bank panics cause a rise in adverse selection as well as moral hazard issues within the credit markets.
These issues or problems create an even increased decline in lending in order to facilitate “productive investments and lead to an even more severe contraction in economic activity” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 198).
“Increase in Uncertainty”
A remarkable rise in uncertainty within the financial markets, possibly as a result of an outstanding financial institution, or a recession or a crash in the stock markets, causes it to be difficult for the lenders to be able to engage in screening bad as well as good credit risks (Stiglitz 133).
The consequential lack of ability of lender to be able to find a solution to the problem of adverse selection causes them to have less willingness to lend and this contributes towards having a reduction in lending as well as investment and total economic activity.
“Increases in Interest Rates”
The businesses as well as individuals having the most risky projects are those that have the willingness of paying the “highest interest rates” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199).
In case higher demand for credit or a reduction in the supply of money causes an increase in the interest rates adequately, “good credit risks” have a low likelihood to be willing to borrow. On the other hand, “bad credit risks” still have the willingness to engage in borrowing.
Due to the consequential rise in “adverse selection”, the lender will not want to make loans any longer. The remarkable reduction in lending will contribute towards having a remarkable reduction in investment as well as in the overall economic activity (Minsky 22).
The increases in the rates of interest also serve to promote a financial crisis via the effect they have on cash flow, the difference that is there between the expenditures and cash receipts.
A business organization that has enough cash flow can fund its projects within, and there exists no “asymmetric information” for the reason that it has knowledge about “how good its own projects are” (hdgnn199).
In the presence of increased “adverse selection” as well as moral hazard, a bank may make a choice not to lend even in the cases where firms which are “good risks” and have the willingness to carry out prospectively gainful investments.
Therefore, in case cash reduces following a rise in the rates of interest, the moral hazard issues as well as adverse selection turn out to be more severe, once more limiting investment as well as lending and economic activity.
“Government Fiscal Imbalances”
In the emerging economies, the “government fiscal imbalances” may serve to “create fears of default on government debt” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199).
Consequently, the demand for the individual investors for the government bonds may go down and this will cause the government to engage in forcing the financial institutions to buy these bonds.
In case the price of the debt goes down, the balance sheets of the financial institutions will become weak and there will be contracting of their lending.
The fears regarding government debt default, can as well ignite a “foreign exchange crisis” where the domestic currency value goes down greatly for the reason that investors “pull their money out of the country” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199).
A reduction in the value of the local currency will in turn contribute towards damaging the firms’ balance sheets with big amounts of “debt denominated in foreign currency” (“Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown” 199).
Such balance sheet issues contribute towards having a rise in adverse selection as well as in “moral hazard problems”, a reduction in lending and reduced economic activity.
Recommendations and Policy Implications It is true to point out that the capital market is a significant component of the “financial system” due to its unique roles in any country’s economy.
These roles were identified by Levine as “raising capital for business, mobilizing savings for investment, facilitating company’s growth, redistribution of wealth, promotion of corporate governance, creating investment opportunities for small investors, government capital raising avenue for development projects and barometer of the economy” (Levine 1445).
Serving a role as a big source of suitable long-term finances, the capital market is clearly critical for the economic development of any country across the world.
This market plays a major role in facilitating economic growth by, for instance, mobilization of savings from various economic units like institutional investors, governments and individuals for users like the private sector and the government.
It as well serves to bring improvement in the capital allocation efficiency through a pricing mechanism that is competitive.
Basing on the significant role played by the capital market, as well as the incredible negative effect of the financial crises on the development of capital markets across the world, the governments have to ensure that they restore the public confidence in this market and make sure that it is a lively capital market (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
Moreover, development of banks is a very important move towards improving a country’s economy. This is true especially when the undeveloped financial system is considered. There is a need to take a move to improve the level of efficiency within the banking system.
No bank is supposed to be allowed to fail. Such a move is regarded as being very important when it is “compared with the contagious effect associated with bank failure” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
But on the other hand, an efficient financial system is not formed by just banks; the capital market is as well a vital part of the system. Researches that have been conducted indicate that the stock markets as well as banks complement one another in the attainment of economic growth and development.
Following the financial crises, banks and the stock markets were affected negatively. But on the other hand, some governments were quick to protected the depositors in banking sector and at the same time allowing those investing in the stock market “to their fate” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
Such particular action has the power to weaken the stock market development. The affected investors will go on shying away from undertaking investment in the capital market. This can have two policy implications for a country’s economy (Krugman 11).
The first implication is that firms will just have a single funding source which is the bank. The effect of this is that “the long-term end of financial system will remain atrophid and firms will be highly levered which translates to higher risk” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
At the end, this will contribute towards firms disappearing. The second implication is that a country’s economy can suffer from issues which are linked to economies that are bank-based. In the course of funding firms, banks are able to access information which is unavailable to other lending institutions.
The banks can utilize information like that to engage in extracting rents from the firms. At the point of undertaking fresh investments or renegotiation of debts, the banks may be able to have “bargaining power over a firm’s expected future profits” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
The banks that are more powerful can disproportionately big profit share, in order that the firms will have very less motivations to carry out “high risk and profitable projects” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
Moreover, when the banks make a move of entering a debt contract with the firms, they naturally have an inclination towards “low risk projects that have high profitability of success” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 345).
However, the problem of this conduct is that the projects classified as “low risk” are, in general, low-return investments. Thus, the systems that are bank-based can limit technological innovation as well as long-term economic growth. Evidence has been found by Weinstein and Yafeh which supports the two points.
These researchers indicate that, as on one hand intimate relationship between firms and banks bring up the level of capital availability to the borrowing companies, on the other hand, they do not essentially contribute towards growth (Weinstein and Yafeh 635).
As a matter of fact, the firms’ capital cost with close bank links is greater than “that of their peers, which suggests that most of the benefits from these relationships are appropriated by banks” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 346).
The slow bank customer rate of growth also serves to show that banks put off firms from undertaking investment in projects that are classified as risky but profitable.
In addition, the banks that are powerful can engage in colluding with managers against the outsiders and this eventually hinder competition as well as corporate controls, new firm creation and therefore leading to the economic growth in the long term.
Evidence is offered by Wenger and Kaserer from the Germany where there is misinterpretation of the firms’ balance sheets by the banks to the public and they give encouragement to the managers of the firms to engage in misbehaving (Wenger and Kaserer 13).
Moreover, an argument is presented by Allen and Gale that, even if intermediaries can be effectual at doing away with duplication of the processing as well as gathering of information, they can achieve less success in handling uncertainty as well as innovation and fresh ideas (Allen and Gale 70).
For instance, new technology evaluation is difficult because of lack of the availability of adequate information regarding the potential returns since it is hard to judge the information itself “without some expertise” (Augustine, Pius and Umar 346).
The broad possibility range and the absence of hard data imply there is always remarkable diversity of views.
The “bank-based financial systems” involve “underfunding of new technologies” (Pius and Umar 346).
Since these systems make it possible for individuals to either reach an agreement or disagree, and thus enable coalitions of people having same views to come together in order to fund projects, markets are quite effectual at funding new industries or industries in which there is limited availability of information and where there is persevering of opinion diversity.
Based on this, it can be recommended that governments are supposed to engage in exploring ways of how to win back the confidence in the capital market. The governments are supposed to engage in reinforcing sufficient regulatory supervision.
This can be realized by greatly enhancing the double role of effectual regulatory supervision and development of capital markets. This calls for dealing with weak governance as well as inadequate ability as seen in market in the recent times.
Conclusion The financial crises bring about big disruptions to financial markets marked by sharp reductions in assets and lead to firm failures.
The financial crises are caused by the effects of the asset market on balance sheets, worsening of the financial institutions’ balance sheets, the banking crises, rise in the level of uncertainty, increases in the rate of interest, and government financial imbalances.
Considering the important function played by the capital market, and the great adverse effect of the financial crises on the growth of capital markets all over the world, the governments are supposed to make sure that they bring back the confidence of the public in this market and also ensure that it is a lively capital market.
Works Cited ADB. The Impact of the Global Financial and Crisis on Africa, 2009. Web.
Allen, Frederick. and David Gale. “Diversity of Opinion and Financing of New Technologies”, Journal of Financial Intermediation 8.1 (1999): 68-89.
Augustine, Ujunwa, Salami Pius and Ahmed Umar. The global financial crisis: realities and implications for Nigerian capital market. American Journal of Social and Management Sciences, 2.3 (2011): 341 – 347.
Financial crises and Subprime Meltdown. n.d. Web.
Krugman, Peter. What Happened to Asia? Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998. Print.
Levine, Robert. “Stock Market, Growth, and Tax Policy”, Journal Finance, 46.4 (1991): 1445-1465.
Minsky, Philip. The Financial Instability Hypothesis. Working Paper No 74, May 1992. The Jerome Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. Handbook of Radical Political Economy. (eds.) Philip Arestis and Malcolm Sawyer, Edward Elgar. New York: Aldershot, 1993.
Stiglitz, John. “Credit Markets and the Control of Capital”, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 17.1 (1985): 133-152.
Weinstein, Daniel. and Yusuf Yafeh. “On the Costs of a Bank-Centered Financial System: Evidence from the Changing Bank Relations in Japan”, Journal of Finance, 53.4 (1998): 635-672.
Wenger, Edward. and Charles Kaserer. “The German System of Corporate Governance: A Model Which Should not be Imitated”, in S.W. Black and M. Moersch (eds.), Competition and Convergence in Financial Markets: The German and Anglo- American Models. New York: North Holland.
Human Resource Management: Workplace Shortages (Mentoring) Report college application essay help
Executive Summary Workplace shortages have become a common problem in Australia. Because of the upgraded demands towards employees and the unwillingness of the latter to train their professional skills on their own, the Australian public companies and private entrepreneurships have developed a strategy of mentoring, which has already been launched in several companies, yet its aftereffects still remain unexplored. By considering the opportunities that the mentoring approach can offer, as well as evaluating the threats that it poses, one can possibly decide whether approving mentoring in public and private companies is truly worth it.
Introduction: Where Workplace Shortages Stem from Australian companies are facing a crisis. The lack of qualified workforce is having its toll on the companies’ performance (Fang, 2009). Although reasons might vary according to the chosen field, a number of companies in Australia suffer from the same problem, which is the inability of adopting the recent changes and innovations fast and efficiently (Jaworski, 2010). Therefore, the factors that cause workplace shortage are:
Problems with tracking recent innovations (Kilpatrick, Johns, Millar, Le
Human Dignity and Bioethics Term Paper custom essay help
Introduction Recent debates in academic circles have questioned the relevance of human dignity in bioethics. Some scholars argue that the concept is useful as it helps in explaining a number of bioethical issues.
The areas addressed by the concept include embryo research, biomedical enhancements, as well as care for the disabled and the dying. Others argue that it is a useless and irrelevant concept given that it is just a means of justifying unconvincing arguments and un-articulated biases.
The current paper is a critical analysis of the controversy surrounding the issue of human dignity and bioethics. In the paper, the author analyses the history and meaning of human dignity as perceived from different sources. In addition, the author outlines some traditional guidelines with regard to bioethics.
The author analyses the various alternative approaches to bioethics and the principles on which bioethics are based. Finally, the author discusses possible solutions to address the controversy surrounding human dignity and bioethics.
History of Human Dignity and Bioethics There are various sources of human dignity in contemporary society. Each of these sources contributes significantly to bioethics. However, the diverse nature of these sources brings with it some difficulties with regard to the application of the human dignity concept to bioethics (Ainslie2001, 110). Some of the various sources of human dignity are discussed in the section below:
Kantian Moral Philosophy Immanuel Kant is among some of the philosophers who attempted to set human dignity on a rational foundation. According to Kant, the concept of human dignity has two major components. The two are humanity and dignity. According to Gregor (2006, 99), dignity denotes a ‘form of value’ that cannot be equated to anything else in the world. In other words, it is not possible to put a price tag on dignity.
The concept derives its moral foundation from its ability to limit and regulate the exchange between humans. It is not the ‘price’ of the individual or the amount that is paid to use his power and other resources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kant views humanity as an ‘objective end’ (Gregor 2006, 99). What this means is that the concept regulates the ‘other ends’ of humans. The regulation is in terms of the activities prompted by the ends. Humanity is not a goal that is to be achieved. On the contrary, it is the ability of the individual and the society in general to set objectives. It also refers to the ability of the individuals to reason systematically.
According to Kant, respect for humanity, among other things, involves avoiding using others in ways aimed at meeting ends that they cannot formally share in (Pluhar 2007, 42).
What this means is that acting on people without their consent is disrespectful to humanity. Making false promises, giving inaccurate and misleading information, as well as assault on the freedom and morals of others, are all regarded as disrespecting human dignity.
Human consciousness is an important aspect of human dignity. It involves freedom, justice and injustice, as well as ‘good’ and ‘bad’. Human values are homogenous and hierarchical. For instance, pleasure and esteem are homogenous. The implication of this is that individuals viewed as just, according to human judgment, deserve to be happy (Pluhar 2007, 40).
In extension, the implication means that there are three distinctions of human aptitudes. The three are animal, rational, and moral distinctions. According to Gregor (2006, 91), the original disposition or Anlage to the good involves three issues.
The first is animality, which is evident given that humans are living beings. The second is humanity, which is evident in as long as humans are living and rational beings. The last is personality, which addresses the rational and responsible nature of humans.
Kant argues that individual human beings must respect themselves ‘as animal beings. For instance, the individual should desist from killing or defiling themselves out of lust or anger. The argument made by Kant is a valid and significant issue in bioethics.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Human Dignity and Bioethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Life cannot be reduced to mechanical operations. As such, when humanity is confronted with opportunities for genetic and other enhancements to the human organism, cautions should be taken (Pluhar 2007, 44). In addition, the argument that duties and rights are legally enforceable is a very important issue in bioethics.
However, it is important to note at this juncture that, in some cases, human dignity may pose problems to a bioethical discourse. The reason for this is that it is often invoked by opposing sides arguing about the same issue of bioethics. For instance, is it right for an elderly patient suffering from Alzheimer’s disease to stop taking his cardiac medication in hopes of a quick death?
These are some of the questions that divide scholars and other professionals in the field of bioethics (Fletcher 2009, 87). Some may argue that it is alright to stop taking the medication and allow the disease to progress naturally, affording the patient a dignified and humane death.
If such a patient continues taking the cardiac drugs and other life supporting medications, he may end up becoming a burden to his family and the society at large. They will also become humiliated by their condition, especially when they start suffering from dementia. Others may argue that assisting another person to die is contrary to the dignity and respect equally owed to all forms of human life.
Another possible argument is that the dignity and autonomy of individuals dictates that the patient should be granted the freedom to make the decision without interference. The decision made by the patient should be respected by all, regardless of whether or not we agree with it (Beyleveld 2001, 97).
The relationship between human dignity and technology is another source of problem in bioethics. For instance, many people wonder whether or not it is right for an athlete to use drugs that enhance their performance (Kass 2003, 89).
Some may argue that the use of new forms of technology is permissible since it enhances the characters and traits that uphold the esteem of human beings. Others might disagree with this position by arguing that the use of new forms of technology leads to over-dependency on such technology (Ainslie2005, 29).
Biblical Teachings According to the Bible, man was created against the image of his maker, God. The belief is another foundation on which the concept of human dignity is based. According to the scriptures, human beings are to some extent similar to God. As such, they possess an inherent and inalienable ‘dignity’. A major aspect of this dignity is the special place occupied by man in the natural world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Dignity and Bioethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Compared to the other animals, it is man alone who can comprehend the world. Man is engaged in efforts to perfect nature in order to complete and complement God’s creation. Such interpretations of human dignity are significant to bioethics. For example, they inform such activities as medical support and cloning, among others. Such efforts are understood as endeavours to perfect nature, a God given responsibility (Kass 2003, 88).
But others may interpret the biblical concept differently. The dissents argue that it may be true man was created in God’s image. However, this fact does not make man a creator, but a creature. It means that all human beings, regardless of whether they are healthy or sick, have a share in the God given dignity.
The position gives ethical guidance to professionals, advising them to treat their fellow creatures with respect and dignity. It means seeing dignity where others may find disability and finding human life in places where others regard it as only a clump of cells (Engelhardt 2006, 54).
The various interpretations of the biblical account of human dignity conflict with each other. As such, their effects on bioethics are not clear. For instance, does human dignity mean that human life is sacred, regardless of its stage of development?
In other words, is destroying an embryo equivalent to destroying a life and, therefore, forbidden? Some argue that the biblical account of human dignity is unreliable. They are of the view that it is merely a camouflage for religious dogmas that have no legitimate place in secular bioethics (Beyleveld 2001, 89).
Constitutions and International Declarations Most constitutions and international declarations enacted after the Second World War address the concept of human dignity. Such constitutions and declarations are regarded as sources of this concept in contemporary bioethical discussions.
For instance, according to the President’s Council on Bioethics (2005, 37), all individuals enjoy the inherent and inalienable dignity accorded all humanity. The declaration by this council is seen as the foundation on which freedom, justice, and peace in the world is built on.
But it is important to note that the meanings, content, and foundations of human dignity are not explicitly defined in these constitutions and international declarations.
The view of human dignity expressed in these articles reflects a political consensus among groups that have varying understandings of what the concept entails. Human dignity is interpreted as anything that entitles human beings to basic human rights and freedoms (Ainslie2001, 110).
As a concept, human dignity is formal and vague in nature. The vague nature of the concept extends to its representation in the various constitutions and international declarations. As a result of this, the concept fails to adequately address the controversy surrounding contemporary bioethical practices.
Addressing the concept in these articles should, however, form a basis for exploring the nature of the ground on which human dignity is built. It will also help in exploring the idea of universal human dignity aimed at establishing a baseline for human rights that should never be violated (Fletcher 2009, 93).
Alternative Practices Euthanasia is the practice where a person takes the life of another person, intentionally and painlessly. It is practiced by act of omission or commission for compassionate reasons. Euthanasia comes from a Greek word, which loosely translates to ‘good death’. The act may be achieved by either administering a lethal drug to the patient, or withdrawing basic health care, which normally sustains life (Fletcher 2008, 77).
According to Ainslie (2001, 111), the practice may be voluntary or non-voluntary. Voluntary euthanasia refers to taking of human life on request of that person, for example, when a patient requests his family and the doctor to switch off life-supporting machines. On the other hand, non-voluntary euthanasia is taking of human life without the person’s request or consent.
The question of whether this practice is right or wrong is highly controversial. Some argue that it is permissible and dignified to take a person’s life by act or omission. The permissibility is especially significant if the act saves the patient from prolonged agony. Others argue that human dignity does not permit the taking of a person’s life. As such, euthanasia is wrong, regardless of the conditions under which it is carried out (Ainslie2005, 29).
The doctrine of double effect governs the permissibility of actions with two possible outcomes. The possible outcomes are good and bad. The principle provides that an action of this kind may be permissible provided the bad outcome is only foreseen, not intended. It is also permissible if the bad outcome is proportionate to the action, meaning that the bad effects do not outweigh the good intended effects (Beyleveld 2001, 99).
However, the principle does not permit for an action with two outcomes that are both intended. If, for instance, a doctor administers a high dose of pain relief drugs to a patient with the intention of relieving pain and distress, but with the awareness of the possibility of death, the action is permitted under this principle. It is permitted provided the foreseen possibility of death is determined as proportionate to the action.
The doctrine is fiercely criticised on the basis of whether or not there is a moral difference between intending and foreseeing an outcome. The critics argue that the difference should be made clear, such that the agent excused is capable of showing the permissibility of the act (Engelhardt 2006, 50).
Problems touching on formal and material cooperation will always arise when research is carried out on human genes. There are different forms of cooperation, which can take place in different areas of human life. Not all forms of cooperation in immoral procedures are morally wrong.
Wrongful cooperation occurs where a person knowingly cooperates with a researcher intending to do something that is wrong. For instance, when a bus driver stops at an abortion clinic knowing that some of his passengers are getting off at the station, he contributes to the practice, even if at a small capacity (Fletcher 2009, 87).
Foundation Principles Autonomy
The principle of autonomy basically complements the principle of respect for humans. The principle emphasises that human beings have the right to make their own choices and decide how to lead their life (Ainslie2005, 24). In healthcare settings, it is equivalent to the principle of informed consent.
It basically states that a patient should not be treated without their consent or that of their lawful surrogate, except under defined circumstances. However, to affirm autonomy, the patient or surrogate must be fully informed about treatment and all the alternatives to make a free and intelligent choice.
Furthermore, the patient or surrogate must be competent and capable of comprehending the outcomes of the choice. They should also be capable of making a free choice without coercion or undue influence (Fletcher 2008, 18).
Beneficence and Non-Malfeasance
The two principles primarily address professional conduct. They emphasise on the fundamental importance of the patient’s interests. As a principle, beneficence requires people, other things remaining equal, to do good, or that which will advance the interests of the patient.
The principle of non-malfeasance, on the other hand, requires individuals, other things remaining equal, to avoid doing harm to the patient, or something that will be contrary to the patient’s interests (Kass 2003, 89). The difference between the two principles is observed on their stand on the avoidance of harm to the patient and the requirement for positive benefits.
The principle of non-malfeasance requires that a person should not kill, cause needless pain, or incapacitate others. On the other hand, the principle of beneficence requires the person to prevent the infliction of needless pain, prevent killing, and prevent incapacitation of others (Fletcher 2008, 78).
The principle requires the fair distribution of goods and services. It includes fair distribution of medical goods and services. The principle requires equal treatment of all cases. It requires a human need, which is defined as any claim to a basic need, to be regarded as important (President’s Council on Bioethics 2005, 33).
The failure to do so will amount to neglect. A medical need is determined in terms of likely benefits to the patient, urgency of need, change in quality of life, and the duration of benefit (Ainslie 2005, 29).
Solution to the Controversy
The first step to tackling the controversy between human dignity and bioethics involves recognising the fact that most of the traditional approaches to this debate have no place in contemporary society (Lynne 2000, 59. In this day and age, a lot has taken place and traditional sacred values that depend on widespread and acceptable myths have no place in the society.
Humans need to encourage values that can withstand the scrutiny and criticism directed towards their own creation. However, in doing so, human beings have to be self-conscious about their reliance on such policies without destroying their faith (Fletcher 2009, 78).
According to Ainslie (2005, 23), there is always some form of disagreement between what the author refers to as the ‘whistle-blower’ and the authorities. The disagreement is present, regardless of the fact that the authorities may be fully aware of the fact that they have conferred, albeit by mistake, scientific recognition on findings made fraudulently.
Finally, humans should rely on both laws and traditions in addressing the controversy between human dignity and bioethics. The laws that prohibit unjust practices should be encouraged. Codes of ethics and legal liability should be encouraged and enhanced. Individuals who practice in the field of medicine should be held accountable, whether or not they have a valid claim of ignorant innocence (Fletcher 2009, 29).
Traditions that discourage unfair treatment should be encouraged. In addition, local traditions, which can withstand scrutiny and defend the values that humans try to protect, should be encouraged. Only those traditions that respect all should be preserved (Kass 2003, 88).
Conclusion In this paper, the author analysed the controversial issue of human dignity and bioethics. The author discussed the history and meaning of human dignity as explained in various sources, including the Bible. The author outlined some traditional guidelines that inform bioethics.
An analysis of alternative approaches to bioethics, as well as the founding principles of bioethics, was also provided. Finally, the author discussed possible solutions to the controversy surrounding human dignity and bioethics.
Reference List Ainslie, George. Breakdown of Will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Ainslie, George. Breakdown of Will: Behavioural and Brain Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Beyleveld, Deryck. Human Dignity in Bioethics and Biolaw. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Engelhardt, Tristram. The Foundations of Bioethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Fletcher, Joseph. Humanhood: Essays in Biomedical Ethics. Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 2008.
Fletcher, Joseph. Morals and Medicine. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Gregor, Mary. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Kass, Leon. The Beginning of Wisdom: Reading Genesis. New York: The Free Press, 2003.
Lynne, Rebecca. Persons and Bodies: A Constitution View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Pluhar, Werner. Critique of Judgment. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett, 2007.
President’s Council on Bioethics, The. Taking Care: Ethical Caregiving in Our Aging Society. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2005.
Orange County Sanitation District, California Report essay help: essay help
Company Overview and Risk Analysis Orange County Sanitation District is a sewage company located in California. The company has been in operation for the last few decades. However, according to the 2011-2012 financial year results, the company’s performance has been declining, as evidenced by its extremely low production capacity.
This has necessitated a reflective investigation of the environmental risks of this company in order to decode the underlying operation, instruments, and labor risks that the company faces in its operations. In addition, the identified risks should be aligned with their effects on the eventual outcome of the company’s performance.
This study’s thesis postulates that, providing annotated links to the risks involved in the provision of sewage disposal within the district of California, which enables the project managers of the company to improve their understanding of the major risks involved in their projects, is not only effective strategy of sustainable operations, but also necessary for efficiency in the long-run.
Risk Identification Generally, a risk is regarded as a negative factor in the introduction of new technology because of its associated limitations to the performance of an enterprise. Risk identification is the most important process of risk management, as it is difficult to work on a project before identifying the risks associated with it.
Mostly, using past experience of types of risks that have been recognized within the area or is considered as the general strategy for risk identification. Identifying new risks necessitates greater thought about things and enlarges the scope of dealing with a particular risk.
The implication is that, before carrying out a project, it is imperative to have a good strategy on how to manage the risks associated with the adoption of new concepts such as adoption of new technologies. It is through risk identification that the project managers will be able to plan for the available resources in order to counter the associated risks.
Perils, hazards and potential losses
Perils are the fundamental causes of loses. The Orange county sewage company is faced by a lot of perils which may make the company to suffer huge losses. Some of the potential perils to the company include earthquakes land, slides, fire, floods, etc. though some of the perils may be insurable, some like earthquakes are not since most insurance companies do not insure underground pipes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Self insurance remains the only option for most of the company’s assets and these posses a great challenge to the risk management department of the company. Also, during rainstorms a lot of water accumulates in the pipes which may lead to the bursting of the pipes and also increases the cost of the sewage treatment because of the increase in the volume of the sewage.
On the other hand, hazards are the conditions that increase the likelihood of a risk occurring. The underlying perils facing the company can be triggered in many ways. The company has done a lot to prevent the occurrence of majority of its most probable risks. Most of its structures are solid hence the chances of the occurrence of fire are very minimal.
The emission of poisonous hydrogen sulfate gas during the waste treatment process of the company also triggers the possibility of environmental pollution. Though very few deaths have been caused by the gas over the recent years, the company has set in mechanisms to ensure that any environmental pollution caused by the gas is well checked.
This is done through ensuring that it employs very qualified risk managers in al its undertakings. Other potential hazardous activities in the day to day running of the company are the damage of personal property resulting from spillages of sewage from trucks or leaking pipes during rainstorms.
Poor handling of sewage by majority of the employees has also been a major predisposing factor to majority of losses suffered by the company.
Reckless driving by some truck drivers over the recent past has led to contamination of water with sewage waste, which has caused a lot of damages to third parties; hence making the company to incur huge expenses. The company sets aside 30000 dollars to cater for such losses which are a big strain to the progress of the company.
The potential losses to the operations of the company may either be internal or external. The internal losses are those that accrue to the company and have no adverse effects to the whole industry in California. Some of the potential internal losses to the firm over the recent past have been theft by employees.
We will write a custom Report on Orange County Sanitation District, California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company reported to have lost over 40000 dollars as a result of some of its employees stealing some of the company assets on their fields of work. Other losses include bursting of some high temperature sewage recycling tanks as well as busted sewage pipes during rainstorms.
Mostly external losses occur as a result of third parties. Some company trucks hit pedestrians while transporting sewage to the treatment centers which compels the company to compensate them.
Some of the reasons why the company has failed to optimize its operations include a poor business approach, low support system levels, high costs in sustaining top quality services, high costs in building management systems, and poor focus of other related services. Risk analysis on these issues would help in mitigating or reducing the associated risks while delivering better sewage services to the residence of California.
Summary of the Risk analysis( Source: Self Generated)
Identification of Indirect Losses Indirect losses are losses that do not result from the occurrence of a peril, but result due to another loss. In the orange sewage company, destruction of sewage recycling tanks or the busting of pipes results to a direct loss to the company but the indirect loss would be the loss of profits occasioned by the direct risks.
Indirect losses are very detrimental to companies and therefore the company takes keen measures to prevent them from taking place. Other indirect losses to the company are loss of goodwill and the inability to get the necessary financing because of non insurability of some of its activities because the likelihood of the occurrence of the losses is not easily determinable.
The company also suffers indirect losses when contractors fail to meet the sanitation council specifications which may force the company to spend a lot of resources to renovate already constructed structures.
Occurrence of risks greatly affects the day to day business activities of the company. For instance, in cases of rainstorms, which are very popular in California, the increased volume of sewage posses a great challenge to the company because the normal operations of the company would be interrupted. Truck accidents, although unpopular also interrupts business in the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Orange County Sanitation District, California by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The management has to make sure that in puts in place measures aimed at ensuring that any emergence of such risks is easily mitigated. From an interview of the stakeholders of the company. It was found out that the emission of poisonous gasses also interrupt business in the company. Hydrogen sulphate emitted during the waste recycling pollutes the environment and can also result to deaths.
Contingent Business Interruption
In general insurance, contingent business interruption is the interruption of the business due the stoppage of the normal operations of the business. To avoid some of the contingent business interruptions, the company has set up 15 to 20 projects in progress so as to cater for any damage which may result to the normal functioning of the system.
This is also aimed at catering for tear and wear since each facility takes about 30 to 40 years, for example the “dewatering” facilities. The company is also using an updating technology which is aimed at ensuring that the appliances that are becoming obsolete with time can be upgraded to cater for the changing technologies.
In most cases the company usually incurs more expenses than it budgets for. These is because of loses occurring outside the normal operations of the company. For example, the company has to invest more during rainstorms when the volume of the sewage increases which constitutes to extra expenses of the company.
Also, incase of a truck accident hitting a third party, the compensation of the loss also uses a lot of finances for the company hence constituting extra expenses.
The environmental agency of California postulates that no sewage should sill to the private domain and this calls for strict measures to be taken to avoid conviction of the company. It is also a social responsibility of the company to protect the lives of the people of the community and hence it has to spend resources to improve the livelihood of the unfortunate members of the society.
Building Ordinance and Leasehold Interest
Building ordinances are laws set aside to govern the companies involved in building. These laws govern the construction and repair of damaged structures. In some countries, any building that has been destroyed to more than 50% must be rebuilt again. There was one case in 2012 where a boiler and some machinery exploded and the company bought other new boilers and did not repair them.
In order to avoid more losses most of its materials are constructed using concrete to avoid many losses. Concerning the leasehold interest, the company has a strong capital base which motivates many investors. The company also provides pension schemes to its employees, has a crime policy and takes great regard to the general life of the members of the public.
In conclusion, this paper has discussed the perils, hazards and potential losses of the Orange County Sewage and Sanitation District. Among the perils explored are thunderstorms earthquakes, rainstorms fire and other environmental hazards.
Other perils including internal dysfunctions have also been analyzed. After analyzing the direct risks, the indirect risks of the company were also discussed. Identifying potential risks and adopting appropriate actions is an essential challenge facing managers of this company.
Business Behaviour in Changing World: Hyundai Motor Company Case Study scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Problems faced by HMC and measures taken
Hyundai’s global strategy
Theory/concept behind the Hyundai’s strategies
Policies affecting Hyundai Motor Company
Problems faced by HMC and measures taken Since its inception, Hyundai Motor Company has encountered numerous challenges both in the local and foreign market. The company was established under the authoritarian leadership of Ju-Young Chung. Consequently, the Chung family assumed the responsibility of making all the decisions affecting the company.
One of the challenges that the company encountered both in local and foreign markets was the decision-making process. The success of any organisation dwells on the ability by the management team to make informed decisions. The executives ought to have a chance to present their opinions on matters affecting the organisations.
At the beginning, the leadership of HMC denied the executive a chance to share their ideas on how to manage the company. Hence, the company could not benefit from the wide knowledge and expertise that most of its professional managers possessed. Chung fired all the executive members that opposed his decisions and replaced them with others who showed veritable loyalty to him.
Later, Ju-Young handed over the leadership baton to his younger brother who made efforts to enhance the leadership culture of the company. He promoted autonomous management coupled with equal opportunity and called for harmonious human relations in the company. Unfortunately, he introduced these aspects at a time when Korea was also experiencing political democratisation.
In spite of the positive changes made by Ju-Young’s brother, the company suffered from numerous labour-management disputes. The company saw its first labour union established in 1987, which was responsible for presenting employee complaints and bargaining for better employment terms on behalf of the employees.
Disagreements between the leadership and labour union led to strikes in 1987 and 1988, which pushed the company into huge loss. In 1997, the company suffered liquidity crisis because of the financial crisis that swept across the East Asia.
Moreover, Hyundai group had to restructure its business in line with the International Monetary Fund policies. The restructuring process subjected the company to public distrust as it involved allocating most of the company’s properties to the Chung family instead of coming up with novel management strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the United States, Hyundai Motor America started at a high note, but later its performance plummeted. At the beginning, the Americans associated the company with Japan; hence, they freely purchased its cars leading to high sales volume recorded during the early days of HMA. Nonetheless, it did not take long before people learnt that HMA’s car, the Excel, had immense quality problems.
The car started exhibiting engine failure and some of its components, as air conditioners did not function properly not to mention its body, which rusted fast. In 1989, the sales volume for Excel went down significantly, which left the company in huge losses. In the process, the dealer profit went down with numerous dealerships closing down. It became hard for Hyundai to get lenders to cater for its consumer loans.
In 1990, J.D Powers and Associates started rating and publicising Hyundai cars. The ratings showed that vehicles manufactured by HMA were of poor quality relative to those manufactured by other automakers. Eventually, Hyundai cars became the synonym for sloppy products.
After Rodney assumed the leadership of HMA, he thought of enhancing the company’s image by enhancing the quality of its cars and increasing their costs.
Poor organisational performance coupled with poor leadership are recipe for employee turnover. Whenever employees feel that they do not have the opportunity to make decisions on matters affecting their company, they tend to slacken and eventually look for another company that allows them to partake in the decision-making process.
Besides, whenever employees learn that their company is not doing well, they fear for their job security, which forces some to quit. Another problem that affected HMA was employee turnover. In 1996, the company lost seven of its talented managers.
In an effort to address all these challenges, the Hyundai Motor Company used numerous strategies. Some of the strategies proved successful while some solved the problems only for a short period. After Se-Young took leadership from Ju-Young, he tried to address the leadership problems by restructuring the organisational culture.
We will write a custom Case Study on Business Behaviour in Changing World: Hyundai Motor Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He advocated for autonomous management, equal opportunity, and harmonious human relationship. This move helped in delegating duties to the executive managers that for a long time had been denied the opportunity to participate in managing the company.
Later, in an effort to boost production efficiency, Se-Young merged some of the job functions, which eventually helped the company in downsizing thus cutting down on operations cost.
In 1996, Se-Young relinquished the HMC leadership to his son, Mong-Kyu Chung. Mong-Kyu sought to continue with the leadership style used by his father and in a bold move to improve the company’s image; he set a vision to ensure that HMC became one of the reliable companies in the world. Consequently, he embarked on improving the quality of products sold by the Hyundai Motor Company.
He aimed to use move as an avenue for enhancing organisational brand and realising consumer satisfaction. His humane attitude helped the company in solving the labour-management disputes, thus improving its performance between 1996 and 1998.
In the United States, HMA tried to use varied strategies to address the challenges facing it. For instance, the company came up with advertisements and promotions, offered dealer incentives, and established new packages as ways of regaining its past glory. Nevertheless, these strategies did not work due to the immense tension between HMC and HMA.
Moreover, the company tried to diversify its product mix as away of enhancing its performance in the United States. In 1991, it came up with the Elantra car with an aim of closing the gap between Excel and Sonata.
Nevertheless, the introduction Elantra posed a threat to the sales of Excel in the American market, thus rendering the strategy unsuccessful. In 1994, the company embarked on an advertisement strategy using a popular NBA player. This move helped the company to increase the sales volume of the Sonata model, but only for a short period.
Hyundai’s global strategy In a bid to facilitate in improving the image of Hyundai Motor Company both locally and internationally, Bob Martin helped the company in establishing bold market strategies. The company not only sought to enhance the quality of its products, but also worked on enlightening its target customers about the quality of its vehicles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Behaviour in Changing World: Hyundai Motor Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the process, the company came up with a global approach that sought to help it to realise product differentiation as well as market diversification. One of the factors that made Hyundai Motor Company not to make substantial sales in the global market was the consumers’ perception that the company offered poor quality vehicles. This perception hinged on the low prices of the vehicles sold by both HMC and HMA.
Therefore, to address this challenge, the company opted to come up with a packaging strategy, which sought to repackage their vehicles at higher prices to impart the notion of quality on its target consumers.
One of the challenges that faced this approach was the fact that most of the sales made by the company in the global market relied on the cost of its vehicles. Hence, repackaging the vehicles at a higher price would have resulted to reduction in sales. The challenge was addressed by differentiating some of the equipments installed in its cars from those installed by its competitors.
This approach helped the company to change its image in the public eyes. Customers started perceiving HMC vehicles as reliable just like those manufactured by other automakers. The main reason why customers fail to associate with a particular organisation is its brand image. The brand image facilitates in selling an organisation (John et al. 2002).
No matter how hard an organisation advertises its products, if its brand image is poor, it is hard for consumers to use its products. Differentiating the car equipments from other automakers helped HMC to regain its glory and attract more customers. This move made customers to realise that Santa Fe did not have a cheaper car image as they thought, and thus they developed the willingness to purchase the vehicle.
In 2000, HMC deliberated on selling a luxury car in the American market as a way of enhancing its image. The company felt that selling the entry-level models in the international market, even after being in the market for a long time, sent a negative image about the company. HMC borrowed this idea from its competitors. Other motor companies were selling luxurious cars like Acura, Lexus, and Infiniti.
Building a luxurious car would thus help HMC in boosting its sales in the global market. Besides, it would make the public change their perceptions about the company, and thus start buying even its intermediate models. Normally, companies always strive at being at par with their competitors.
Failure to come up with strategies to counter competition waged by rival companies may lead to a company losing its customers. One of the reasons that prompted HMC to come up with the idea of developing a luxurious car was the fact that the Japanese automakers were already using the approach, which gave them both quality and price advantages.
Besides product differentiation, HMC also opted to establish market differentiation to ensure that it benefited from all the market segments. Hyundai worked in liaison with Kia. Moreover, they operated at the same market level. Moreover, the two companies opted to differentiate their markets and products to ensure that they reap optimally from all market segments.
Kia Company was to focus on the low income earners by selling the entry-level car models, while HMC targeted the high-income market segment by selling expensive car models. This approach could work without opposition from Kia Company. Every organisation would wish to enhance its image by selling products of presumably good quality.
Requesting Kia Company to continue selling low priced vehicles would make the public doubt the quality of its vehicles. Consequently, the company could not just agree with this idea, as it would be detrimental to its profit margin.
In spite of this approach standing out as the most appropriate, it had significant drawbacks to the company. For the company to change the brand image through enhancing the quality and increasing the prices of its product, it had to give up its price benefits. Hyundai Motor Company made significant sales in the global market due to the prices of its vehicles.
Low-income earners and young families bought their vehicles from the company since their prices were affordable. Consequently, increasing the cost of these vehicles would lead to the company losing most of the low-income customers.
Moreover, the company would incur huge costs in manufacturing and distributing high quality car models. Even though the approach would facilitate in building the company’s brand, the management had to dig deeper into the company’s financial reserves to fund the approach.
Theory/concept behind the Hyundai’s strategies Most companies come up with business strategies based on the market forces that rival companies exert. It would be hard for a business organisation to stand out in the market without differentiating itself from rival companies.
In a bid to achieve this goal, the organisation ought to have a good understanding of its rival companies, their operations strategies, and be in apposition to forecast future market changes that might affect its performance (Teece et al. 1997).
Apart from learning from rival companies, a company ought to understand its customers as well as suppliers in terms of their bargaining power and its probable effects to the company. Hyundai Motor Company formulated its business strategies under the concept of the five forces of competition established by Porter.
The forces include competition from substitutes, new entrants, and rival companies. Besides, the company considered the suppliers and buyers’ bargaining power in coming up with its strategies (Teece et al. 1997).
In coming up with the operations strategies, HMC considered the level of competition waged by rival companies, especially in the American market. The Japanese and European automakers were already manufacturing and selling luxurious and expensive cars in the market by the time Hyundai Motor Company opened HMA in the United States, and thus to capture the market, HMA started by selling the entry-level cars.
The cars were cheaper relative to cars sold by other automakers. With time, customers started doubting the quality of the vehicles that HMA was selling in the market. The competition waged by rival companies triggered the move to embark on enhancing the quality of the vehicles as well as the image of the company.
It was hard for HMA to remain competitive in the market since people perceived that the company sold its vehicles at lower prices due to their poor quality. Therefore, in an attempt to overcome this challenge, Hyundai Motor America had to start selling vehicles that were at par with those offered by rival automakers like the Japanese.
Hyundai Motor America was afraid that new companies would venture into the American market. Hence, it had to look for ways to ensure its establishment in the market before the new entrants. The company feared that in the next ten or fifteen years, the Chinese automakers would establish themselves in the American market.
This move would lead to the introduction of vehicles that sell at lower prices thus being detrimental to the price advantage that HMA had been enjoying in the market. The fear of new entrants’ inevitability in the American market forced HMA to embark on the strategy of enhancing the quality of its cars. The company felt that by enhancing the quality of its cars, it would surmount competition waged by new entrants.
Besides the competition from new entrants and rival companies, numerous vehicles acted as substitutes to the ones sold by Hyundai Motor America. For instance, Elantra competed with Nissan Sentra, Chevrolet, and Dodge Neon. On the other hand, Santa Fe competed with RAV4 and Toyota Highlander.
These substitutes were mainly from companies known for manufacturing quality vehicles, thus making it hard for HMA to assert itself in the American market. The main reason why HMA decided to differentiate some of the standard components in its vehicles was to outdo the substitute cars in the market. It was hard to prove that its cars were superior while they did not reflect anything unique relative to their substitutes.
This aspect compelled Hyundai Motor America to install unique air conditioner components, power windows, and other components to its cars as a way of signifying the cars’ uniqueness relative to the substitutes offered by other automakers.
In coming up with the warranty strategy, HMA considered the bargaining power of its suppliers. The strategy was to be compensated by developing quality vehicles thus boosting the company’s sales volume. Therefore, to come up with quality vehicles, the company had to liaise with suppliers to acquire quality materials.
This aspect meant that suppliers would have an upper hand in influencing the company’s strategy. Moreover, to ensure that they continued acquiring quality materials from the suppliers at a cheap cost, the company worked closely with suppliers in its research and development strategy.
Consumer bargaining power played a significant role in the business strategy that HMA adopted. The company benefited most from the low-income earners and the young families.
Hence, in the effort to come up with high quality and expensive vehicles, the company had to consider this group of buyers. The reason why the company embarked on a market differentiation strategy was to ensure continuity in serving this group of buyers, which acted as it main market.
Policies affecting Hyundai Motor Company The success of any business organisation depends on its policies. Through policies, a business establishes a set of guidelines that direct its operations. Moreover, every market has some policies that direct the operations of all the stakeholders. Technological, international, and local policies are some of the policies that influence organisational performance in any market (Metcalfe 1994).
Therefore, to enhance its operations, Hyundai Motor Company adopted a technological policy that sought to promote innovation in the company by enhancing management capacity and knowledge acquisition. After operating in the American market for a long time, HMA learnt that it was hard for it to continue enjoying substantial sales without working on the quality of its cars as well as building its image.
Hence, the management embarked on looking for the most innovative enhancements to include in its cars. The company sought the assistance of its research and development personnel to achieve this objective. The personnel members were to work in liaison with suppliers to ensure the acquisition of quality supplies. Moreover, the company worked in collaboration with its customers to identify some of their preferences.
It would be hard for an organisation to meet all the customer needs without liaising with its customers (Metcalfe 1994). Consequently, HMA adopted a technological policy that allowed for cooperation between the company and its customers in building its new car models.
One of the local policies that affected Hyundai Motor Company in Korea was political democratisation. Initially, the Korean Chaebols did not allow their employees to form labour unions. Nevertheless, the democratisation process led to the emergence of labour unions, and as the unions started fighting for employee rights, they led to HMC encountering a series of labour-management disputes.
The disputes made it hard for the company to maintain its consistency in vehicle production and distribution. In 1987 and 1988, the company recorded numerous employee strikes because of labour unions. Besides the local policies, international policies also had significant effects on Hyundai Motor Company. In 1997, East Asia suffered a severe financial crisis. Most of the Korean companies were forced to close down due to bankruptcy.
The crisis did not spare the Hyundai group. In the process, the International Monetary Fund and other foreign companies imposed their foreign policies on the Korean government forcing it to ensure that local Chaebols restructured their operations and enhanced transparency. Hyundai had no option but to restructure its businesses. In the process, the company lost about 70 associate businesses, thus affecting its performance.
Another foreign policy that significantly affected the performance of Hyundai Motor Company in the United States is the tendency to publicise the information about how its products were fairing with respect to quality. When the company entered into the American market, consumers did not know anything about the quality of its cars.
Some associated it with Japanese automakers; nevertheless, as time went on, J.D. Power and Associates started broadcasting the ratings of Hyundai cars. Hyundai’s cars ranked low in the market, which stirred doubt amongst customers regarding their quality. This aspect made most of the potential customers to shun from buying Hyundai cars.
Reference List John, R, Cox, H, Gillies, G
Childhood Obesity Scientific Studies Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Design of the study
Data collection strategies
Introduction Childhood obesity has become a big problem in the modern world and this has led to many studies. These studies have tried to focus on the causes, consequences, prevention and cure, among others. The issues of childhood obesity could be triggered by various factors such as lack of exercises, high intake of energy-rich foods, and genetics.
In addition, certain nutrients are also thought to play a crucial role in the causation of childhood obesity and as such, it is important to create awareness about such nutrients so that remedial action can be taken.
Changes in lifestyle such as increased television viewing tends to reduce the amount of time that children spend while undertaking physical activities and for this reason, it is important to explore the actual link between increased television viewing and obesity.
Abstract The following research paper is a review of three articles on childhood obesity, although each of the articles had approached the topic from a different perspective. For example, Carruth and Skinner (2001) have examined the crucial role played by dietary calcium in the regulation of body fat among preschool children.
On the other hand, Ludwig, Peterson and Gortmaker (2001) have endeavored to undertake an observational analysis in order to explore the link between childhood obesity and the intake of sugar-sweetened drinks. Robinson (1999) has attempted to examine whether we can prevent childhood obesity by reducing children’s television viewing time.
To start with, the paper shall attempt to examine each of the hypotheses from the three articles being analyzed. The design of the study for the three research articles shall also be explored, along with the population that the articles attempted to target. Also, the sampling procedures that have been adopted by the three articles shall be examined.
In addition, the article review shall also endeavor to explore the data collection strategies that have been adopted by each of the three articles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Next, the research finding s of the three articles shall be reported, along with the limitations that the author could have encountered while undertaking the studies. Finally, the article review shall provide recommendations for future studies into the topic, based on the research findings, in addition to providing an exhaustive conclusion to the review.
Hypothesis In the first article, the authors hypothesize that increase or decrease in BMI among children could be predicted by altering their intake of sugar-sweetened drinks within a period of two academic years. This evidence would be more credible than other studies that only use independent variables and not usually over a
The objective of the second study was to find out if body fat could be reduced if one consumed more calcium and dairy products. It was aimed at finding the relationship between children’s body composition and what they ate.
The objective of the third study was to find out if changes in time spent engaging in physical activities; types of foods consumed and body fat are influenced by decreasing time spent watching TV, videotapes, and playing video games.
Design of the study To meet the requirement of the hypothesis above, the study was designed to run for two years. It was an observational study of the manner in which sugar-sweetened drinks affect BMI. The second study longitudinal one taking a look into particular nutrients that children consume in addition to the servings of dairy products that they are given.
The third study was randomized and controlled within a school environment. One of the elementary schools was chosen to undergo lessons that would assist the students to decrease the time they spent watching TV, video tapes and playing video games.
Population The children involved in the study were enrolled from five randomly assigned control schools. They had a mean age of 11.7 years, 48% were female, 64% white, 15% Hispanic, 14% Afro-American, 8% Asian and 8% American Indian and others. 38% reported exercising to lose weight.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Childhood Obesity Scientific Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Participants of the third study were 53 white children from middle and upper socioeconomic status. 29 of them were male and 24 female. They were between the ages of 24 to 60 months at the beginning of the study and 70 months at the close of the study.
Participants of the third study were from two public elementary schools in San Jose, California. There were a total of 198 third and fourth grade students enrolled in the study and 192 of them with a mean age of 8.9 years were able to complete the study.
Sampling procedures In the first study, five schools were chosen in a random manner from a pool of schools that were not involved in any programs meant to assist children in decreasing obesity. From these schools, participants in the study were chosen.
They were all from middle income earning families. It is important to note that participants who changed schools at baseline were not included in the study, along with those who could not communicate in English. Only students in grades six and seven took part in the study. Dropouts due to school transfers, absences and implausible daily intakes left 548 participants.
To limit the potential negative effect on children’s food intake, participants in the second study were chosen from middle and upper socioeconomic status. Carruth and Skinner (2001) also chose white children as they make the majority of the US infant population. Their being in the middle or upper class was appropriate because the consumption of nutrients that is normally recommended is based on them.
All the students in the third and fourth grade in the two selected schools were allowed to participate in the third study. District personnel were charged with the responsibility of matching the scholastic and sociodemographic characteristics of the two schools.
The researchers chose one school randomly and created a program which would train students on how to watch less TV and to play fewer video games. The other school was a control and participants and school personnel were not informed of the objective of the study.
Data collection strategies Data was collected when the participants in the first study began grades six and seven and further data collection took place after 19 months. Once BMI had been calculated, obese students were defined by use of BMI and skinfold thickness. In order to gather information on the participants’ patterns of dietary intake and television viewing habits, use was made of a questionnaire.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Childhood Obesity Scientific Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the second study, interviews were carried out in homes using trained interviewers. They held six interviews where they would collect data consisting of what the children had been feeding on for the last three days. They also took height and weight measurements of each child every six months.
By utilizing dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, they were able to obtain the composition of the body. All body composition scans used in this study were low density software. To find out the average amount of nutrients consumed by each child, the researchers used software. They used a generic food to substitute those food types that did not have complete listings for unsaturated fats.
In the third study, data was collected using questionnaires completed by children in both schools before and after the intervention period.
The staff that had taken the first measurements took the other measurements at the same times while the students were out for physical education. They used BMI to determine the adipose tissue in the children. Parents also gave an estimate of time their child spent on television and other sedentary activities.
Results In the first study, 57% of the children showed increased intake of sugar-sweetened drinks while 7% showed no change. In the study’s time period, a 9.3% incidence of new cases of obesity was observed.
In the second study, a third of the energy obtained was from dietary fat. Less body fat was observed in those participants who consumed more calcium and more dairy products. Significantly less body fat was also observed in males than in females.
In the third study, the intervention group showed significant decreases in BMI compared to the other group. That group also showed a decrease in time spent watching television. The research findings did not reveal significant differences in levels of physical activity and high-fat intake among the two groups.
Limitations In the first study, the researchers pointed out that the observational nature of their study was a limitation as it cannot prove the cause. Residual confounding could also have been masked due to inaccuracy of measurement of factors (Ludwig et al., 2001).
Finally, the study had only 548 participants which meant that the effects of calcium intake could be underestimated due to occurrence of errors in measurements and lower statistical numbers.
From the second study, the researchers cannot state if the link between the amounts of calcium consumed and reduction in the amount of fat in the body is due to calcium alone or if there are other nutrients in dairy that play the same role.
The third study was restricted to children in only two schools creating the possibility that the results were due to differences in the groups. These differences could have no relation to the intervention.
Recommendations To reduce incidences of obesity, there needs to be a reduction in intake of sugar-sweetened drinks as their consumption leads to compensation for energy consumed in liquid form resulting in obesity.
The second study revealed a need to conduct further studies in this area as regards the undesirable effects of low calcium intake among pre-school children. In the third study, the authors recommend a reduction of television and videogames in prevention of childhood obesity.
Conclusion The three studies have a lot in common. Their main aim is to show the adverse effects of certain foods and sedentary lifestyles and to provide evidence of methods that can help in the fight against childhood obesity. The first study shows the contribution that sugar-sweetened drinks have on obesity.
The second shows the positive effects that calcium has in reducing obesity and the third proves that reducing the time spent watching TV and engaging in such sedentary activities can have a positive effect on fighting obesity.
Reference List Carruth, B. R.
Efficiency and Effectiveness for Nike, McDonalds and Body Shop Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help
Nike, McDonalds and Body Shop are the world known brands. Each of these brands has become popular because of many reasons, however, the main of them are human resource management, marketing and distribution, accounting and finance, operations, information management, and cross-functional issues.
The correct organization of these basic processes in economics leads to the successful business running. Speaking about efficiency and effectiveness for Nike, McDonalds and Body Shop, these specific aspects of business are going to be discussed with the stress on how the companies should behave in each of these processes.
Human resource management is one of the most important aspects of company running and a guarantee of successful company performance. Each of the companies mentioned above have specific approaches to the human resources. Nike is sure that having become a part of their company each person is going to change due to the challenges offered by the corporation. McDonalds has the strategy of so-called achievement.
People have an opportunity to achieve the highest positions only having come through the whole career ladder. Being a simple salesman, people can become managers and even top managers.
Training and other supportive practices are guaranteed. Body Shop offers people specific working places. The specifics with in working with human resources in Body Shop is that the first several days people do not work but get used to the new environment.
Marketing and distribution are important as well. Nike offers their products in pair with connecting software of the well-known producers. McDonalds is famous for its fast and tasty products with McDrive and other convenient options. Body Shop sells its products on the internet that increases the rate of customers who are ready to buy their products.
Accounting and finance in the companies is based on the latest innovative technologies and companies are sure to maintain order in these processes. The efficiency and effectiveness of the mentioned companies depends on their financial operations. The opportunity to pay online, create personal account in Nike and Body Shop are important as customers may return to these stores.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McDonalds also tries to improve its financial situation and accounting using electronic money, etc. Selling products online, companies deliver those throughout the country. The delivery is based on various express services which guarantee fast and quality delivery.
It is essential to understand that the effectiveness and the efficiency of Nike, McDonalds and Body Shop depend not only on the products but also on the quality of services offered.
Information management is an important stage in companies’ functioning as the knowledge about the rate of sale in the industry, about the lack or excess of the products and about other strategic issues is crucial for company efficiency.
The inability to get necessary information on time may create a number of difficulties and lead to substantial financial loses. Nike, Body Shop and McDonalds are successful because they do not consider each process of business separately but do all possible to dwell upon a combination of processes, etc.
These world known brands managed to be successful only because they collaborated all the processes implementing each new process in combination with many other processes. The efficiency and effectiveness of the companies is based on successful business running and other particular aspects which guaranteed effective work.
Childhood Obesity as a Serious Health Problem of the World Argumentative Essay essay help
Childhood obesity is a serious health condition that affects the wellbeing of children. It is a condition characterized by excess fats in the body.
The condition is an issue of international concern because it affects children in various parts of the world. The condition poses serious challenges to families, the society, and the global economy. The Body Mass Index is applied in identifying the condition in children over the age of two years (Costa, 2006).
The disease causes stigmatization because obese children are often referred to as overweight. The Body Mass Index level in children depends on their age and sex. The health practitioners propose that ninety- five percent is the accepted level to declare the child’s health condition obese. Childhood obesity is becoming a health problem in many parts of the world, including the US.
It is a cause of health problems, traditionally referred to as the adult and rich man’s diseases. The World Health Organization indicates that an estimated forty two million children are obese. Surprisingly, about thirty five million of children are from developing countries. This shows the effects the condition is having on both low income and middle income earning families.
Large volumes of calories cause obesity in children. The condition is worse when children do not practice. If a child consumes more and expends less, the chances of him developing the condition are very high. Globally, people have shifted their eating lifestyles. The eating behavior now leans towards consuming foods with too much fat and sugar content.
These foods have very low levels of minerals, vitamins, and many other healthy micronutrients. Urbanization has some effects on the health of children. There are changes in the modes of transport. People no longer walk to their work places, which has reduced the people’s opportunity to exercise (Sheila, 2004). Recreational facilities are modified to a level that they do not serve to keep people physically fit.
Childhood obesity has both long-term and short-term effects. The effects affect children, families, and the society. The condition affects the emotional and psychological state of children. This could result from teasing, harassment, and discrimination. The perpetrators range from friends to family members.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These effects usually result to low self-esteem and depression in children. Another effect is the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. These are mainly non-communicable diseases. They include high blood pressure, liver disease, heart diseases, and diabetes. The condition also leads to early puberty and bad eating habbits such as anorexia. Adolescent obesity generally leads to adult obesity.
Childhood obesity is preventable and curable. It is the responsibility of societal members to ensure that children maintain good health. Adopting a healthy lifestyle is one of the prevention measures. This entails changing the eating habits and the lifestyle. Eating habits should be changed to conform to the recommended health standards. This would reduce the chances of developing childhood obesity.
Physical exercise plays a bigger role in preventing the effects of the disease. Due to limited chances among children to choose what they consume, special attention should be given to exercise. Clear rules and regulations should be designed, especially those that determine the diet of children.
In conclusion, it is clear that childhood obesity is a condition whose effect is global. Therefore, all parties must come together to curb the effects of the disease.
References Costa, R. (2006). Obesity in Children and adolescents. New York: Public Health Nutrition Academy
Sheila, G. (2004). Child and Adolescent Obesity: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. New York: Pearson.
Effective Incentive Plan Essay essay help: essay help
Business organizations should formulate and implement competitive incentive plans for their employees. Incentive plans also commonly referred to as performance incentive plans motivate workers to attain set objectives as well as enhance business growth. Effective incentive plans facilitate good organizational behavior in specified periods, which help in attaining organizational goals.
Companies which have effective incentive plans for employees have been noted to attract talented and potential employees. These plans also boost company loyalty among employees and in turn yield to higher levels of production. For an incentive plan to be effective, it should hold obtainable goals and consider all aspects of employees. In this essay, the criteria of an effective incentive plan will be reviewed.
In determining the effectiveness of an incentive plan, the attention to employee needs should be prioritized. Effective incentive plans must pay special attention to short and long term employee needs. This is one of the ways of ensuring an employee incentive plan is effective. Instead of generalizing and pre-choosing the benefits for the employees, management should consider the opinions of employees regarding their needs.
It is effective and more satisfying to offer incentive plans which match the needs of employees. This will yield more satisfaction and efficiency in motivating employees. The diversity of employee needs in should be taken into consideration so as to ensure the benefits and rewards offered by the organization are relevant.
For an employee incentive plan to be effective, it should be clearly understood by all members. In this case, the issue of ease of communication should prevail in incentive plans. In examining an effective incentive plan, the issue of simplicity should be considered so as to ensure ease in communication. Incentive plans should not be complex but rather straight forward and ease to understand.
From another perspective, the aspect of discrimination should be taken in account. Effective incentive plans should not discriminate employees on payments based performance standards. The potentials of each employee should be embraced.
Evaluate current business economic drivers A key issue of consideration in incentive plan evaluation is comprehensiveness. Incentive plans should comprehensively address all set goals and objectives. Revenue growth, profitability, productivity, and customer loyalty among other factors should be considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is important for incentive plans to have an internal control structure. This will help in motivating the behavior of employees as well as top management. Individual and group awards should be clearly defined.
Effectiveness Measure Strategic Achieves marketing goals Fits marketing life cycle Externally competitive Internally equitable Financial Balance between sales incentive ROI Tactical Reflects Individual effort Meets career income needs Simple and action-oriented Seen as fair Balances sales rep risk and reward Provides for territory variances Provides for territory management Conclusion Organizations should consider all issues affecting the employees in development of incentive plans. It is important for organizations to prioritize employees individual and groups needs in choosing the benefits programs. This will enhance employee satisfaction as well as the relevance of the incentives offered.
Other issues of great concern include ease in communication, comprehensiveness, fairness, and long and short term objectives. By considering all these elements in the development of an incentive plan, efficiency and effectiveness will be attained. These issues should also be adhered to in evaluation of incentive plans to ensure their effectiveness.
Masculinity in Fight Club Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Nature of masculinity
Masculinity and identity
Media and masculinity
Castration and masculinity
Introduction Today, media represents men and masculinity in different ways. Different sources point at how men are required to behave and present themselves in order to appear like male. With time, the different aspects that would associate with masculinity are gradually fading and new ideas quickly emerging to define masculinity. In the past, people used masculinity to identify with one’s gender (Clark “Fight Club” 411).
Nevertheless, the onset of equality in the contemporary society is gradually making it hard to see the distinction between femininity and masculinity. In the United States and other developed countries, capitalism is putting immense pressure on masculinity. In her chef-d’oeuvre article, Ta laments how capitalism, through the aspect of creating and accumulating profits, has affected masculinity in the American society (265).
Moreover, increase in advertisement programs is making people change their views regarding masculinity. It is becoming hard for modern men to achieve definite ideals attributed to masculinity (Clark “Fight Club” 413-419).
In trying to assert his masculinity, today, the contemporary man portrays his masculinity through addressing his pain and fears, as well as through violence. This paper seeks to bring out the theme of masculinity in the masterpiece, Fight Club.
Nature of masculinity Fight Club is one of the narratives that effectively bring out the state of masculinity as well as the nature of masculinity in the modern western culture. In addition, the novel brings out the level of crisis in masculinity, which is prevalent in the current capitalist culture. It would be imperative to note that masculinity does not necessarily portray in an individual’s physiological attributes.
Instead, one’s behaviors portray masculinity. Both men and women may display masculinity based on their behaviors. Consequently, masculinity is not entirely an exclusive male attribute. In Fight Club, numerous scenes portray the theme of masculinity.
For instance, in one of the scenes, Jack opts to attend the meetings held by the “remaining men together” as a way of helping him retain his masculinity (Fight Club). This group consists of men who have lost their testicles due to cancer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, their association helps them retain their masculinity. Being together allows them to engage in activities that are mostly associated with masculinity, thus regaining their masculinity.
In her article, Ta posits that Jack endures a false emasculative fear, which borders on the baseless belief that all things are terrifying to his priapic abilities (270). The only way to overcome this suffering is by ensuring that he associates with other men and partakes in games or fights that are attributed to masculinity.
Women may portray masculine features, while men may exhibit feminine features. Normally, attributes like autonomy, affluence, and strength represents masculinity. Nevertheless, traditions dictate that females should not exhibit masculine characteristics (Faludi 547-551). With time, changes in the Western culture have resulted in male victimization.
The emergence of consumerism and capitalistic culture has given way to a crisis in masculinity. In her book, Susan Faludi shows how consumerism has led to male victimization. She posits, “After World War II, manhood signified the guarantee of novel borders for their lads to surmount a culture where historical inherent qualities of masculinity could be carried on” (Faludi 597).
According to Faludi, the consumerism culture led to men embarking on the business of enriching themselves, and in the process, they abandoned activities that once portrayed their masculinity (599). Initially, features like scars, muscles, and courage portrayed masculinity. Nevertheless, capitalism has substituted these features with affluence and power (Foucault 123).
More and more women have become wealthier than men have, thus leading to male victimization. In Fight Club, male victimization has affected Jack mentally, eventually forcing him to come up with a fight club. He establishes the fight club as a consolation since it gives him an opportunity to meet with other men and engage in activities that assure them of their masculinity.
Masculinity and identity One of the roles of masculinity is that it helps in establishing one’s identity especially in men. In Fight Club, Jack struggles to establish his identity. He ends up attending numerous support groups and tries to associate with them in the name of seeking self-identity. He ultimately joins the fight club after realizing that he could only establish his identity in such a place (Fight Club).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Masculinity in Fight Club specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In her well-researched book, Men and Masculinity, Sweetman, “Identity only becomes an issue when it is in crisis, when something assumed to be fixed, coherent, and stable is displaced by the experience of doubt and uncertainty” (14).
In Fight Club, Jack perceives this uncertainty and qualm as a change in masculinity. In the past, features like endurance, strength, power, and knack to tolerate pain were regarded as some of the masculine traits (Palahniuk 65).
However, since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, technology has significantly substituted these traits. Faludi posits that the industrial revolution led to a transition from creation of goods to the creation of knowledge (487). Consequently, industrial revolution took away most activities that satisfied men’s masculinity, thus leaving them with limited activities. Currently, men enjoy “ornamental” masculinity.
Men like Jack were confined in rooms to work with phones and computers. The masculine rebirth that Jack and Tyler are going through compels them to establish the fight club (Palahniuk 65).
The fight club gives Jack and other men an opportunity to engage on physical combat, which that reinvigorates their masculinity. In one of the scenes Tyler posits, “We have no great war, no great depression… our great war is a spiritual war…our great depression is our lives” (Fight Club).
This assertion confirms Tyler’s belief that men can only regain their masculinity through violence. When Bob meets other men in the “remaining men together”, he reminds them “We’re still men” (Fight Club). Bob goes on to apply some masculine techniques during his fight in the club. He uses these techniques as a way of showing others that despite losing their testicles they are still men and thus have all it takes to be men.
One of the factors that make Jack join the “remaining men together” group is that it allows him release his emotions as a man (Palahniuk 68). Some activities can lower one’s masculinity if done in public; for instance, if a man cries in public, it would show that he is not mature enough.
Hence, at times, men suffer emotionally in the name of preserving their masculinity. Therefore, joining the “remaining men together” group gives Jack an opportunity to release his emotions through crying.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Masculinity in Fight Club by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Media and masculinity In the Fight Club film, Tyler makes numerous comments regarding consumerism and identity. For instance, when travelling in a bus, he makes a comment on a Calvin Klein advertisement. Tyler uses the advertisement to bring out his perception on what men ought to look like. In his elaborative book, Masculinity and Culture, Beynon goes ahead to coin a new word, viz. “mediated masculinity” (64).
He shows the different ways that media portrays masculinity. Today, media has a significant influence on masculinity. Different media presentations and advertisements portray masculinity in different ways making it hard for people to identify the real and ideal masculinity. For instance, in a bid to come up with a mental representation of Tyler, Jack almost buys to the masculine ideas brought out by media.
According to Jack, Tyler carries all the ideal qualities that he believes a real man ought to portray. He has everything that entails masculinity and that Jack lacks (Lee 418-421). It would be correct to assert that Tyler is a super-masculinized replica of Jack. At the end of the film, Tyler returns in a more advanced masculine state. His muscles are well pronounced and he has shaved his head as a symbol of asserting his masculinity.
Castration and masculinity Fight Club refers to castration as one of the aspects that kill male identity. In the later scenes of the film, Tyler makes some remarks on Jack’s house after it is destroyed. He tells Jack to relax and be thankful that nothing worse happened like a woman cutting off his manhood and disgracefully tossing it out of a speeding vehicle (Fight Club).
According to this remark, Tyler shows that material things do not necessarily portray masculinity. In spite of Jack losing his house, he still has his masculinity. Losing manhood is one of the ways through which men may lose their masculinity. Throughout the film, Tyler shows how castration is a major threat to masculinity by threatening to chop off the manhood of those men opposes his policies of the project mayhem.
Tyler feels that people in the higher echelon of capitalism are responsible for the rampant emasculation witnessed in the society. Therefore, to ensure that he overcomes this emasculation, he threatens the perpetrators with castration. Later in the film, Jack kills himself as away of eliminating Tyler (Fight Club).
In a way, this move symbolizes castration. Tyler possesses numerous masculine qualities that Jack lacks. Hence, to do away with these qualities, Jack opts to kill himself as an avenue to eliminate the masculinity attributes in Tyler.
Male bonding Fight club brings out numerous insights into the elements that underscore the current mode of bonding amongst men. Throughout the film, men relate with one another by shunning what they perceive to be feminine. In one instance, Tyler and Jack discuss their fathers and the responsibilities bestowed on them as men.
Jack claims that his father abdicated his responsibility as a parent by leaving him in the hands of his mother for upbringing. Rather than taking care of Jack, the father went out to marry numerous women.
On the other side, Tyler goes on to claim, “We’re a generation of men raised by women; I’m not sure if another woman is what we need” (Fight Club). This aspect signifies the level to which men in the capitalistic society are trying to do away with issues to do with feminism as a way of retracing their masculinity. They feel that associating with women would make it hard for them to regain their masculinity.
Capitalism has made it hard for men to have a father figure that acts as their role model. Hence, the modern man is turning to media in pursuit for a male role model. Throughout his early life, Jack lacked a father to look upon as his role model. Hence, he did not develop a burly male bond. Therefore, to ensure that he develops a male bond, Jack opts to only associate with fellow men and do away with women.
Tyler goes on to claim that he has not managed to achieve all the expectations bestowed on him by his father (Palahniuk 67). He posits that at different stages in his life, he is expected to complete his college education, get a job, and marry. Nevertheless, he asserts that he is not ready to get married since he still feels immature.
Due to lack of proper fatherly upbringing, Jack and Tyler are incapable of assuming their responsibilities as men. Fight Club shows how capitalism is leading to the emergence of a generation made up of “eternal adolescents” (Palahniuk 69). There is no paternal bond between fathers and their sonnies.
The overriding bond between the two protagonists underscores another type of attachment in the film. Prior to learning that Tyler is a replica of Jack, one may treat the two as different personalities. At the beginning, jack views Tyler as the exact opposite of himself. Later, he develops interests in Tyler’s entire viewpoint on life and perceives him as his chance to snub capitalism and its weakening effects (Palahniuk 45).
Another male bond stands out conspicuously in the fight club. Jack is strongly attached to the cohorts of the project mayhem. Initially, the bond between Jack and Bob is emotional, but later it becomes violent upon the establishment of the fighting club. The establishment of the fighting club brings together men from different backgrounds that are tied together by their desire to surmount the emasculation caused by consumerism.
As the film progresses, the fight club transforms into project mayhem, that is, a group established with the sole objective of fighting capitalism, which the group members perceive as the main cause of their emasculation.
Conclusion Fight Club brings out the current level of emasculation caused by capitalism as well as the possible risks posed by the current crisis. Capitalism and its effects receive a vehement condemnation throughout the book as well as the film. The film blames capitalism for the prevailing meagerness of the contemporary masculinity.
Michael Clark warns that violence would do little to help in curbing the current level of emasculation that men are experiencing. Rather than resulting to violence and discrimination, Clark assets that the way out is probably “not to battle consumerism, but to abandon it, to begin increasingly making other, non-consumerist kinds of choices, within the web of relationships that constitute our…communities of life” (“Faludi, Fight Club” 74).
According to Clark, men ought to come up with solutions that involves all the stakeholders rather than excluding women in their struggle (“Faludi, Fight Club” 76). This move would help in bringing together the two genders to solve a common problem.
It would help men to shun from engaging in self-destructive activities like the establishment of fight clubs. Instead, both men and women would come up with strategies to reignite the sense of social efficacy, thus encouraging cooperation and somehow convince men that their masculinity is not under threat.
Works Cited Beynon, John. Masculinity and Culture. London: Loutledge, 2003. Print.
Clark, Michael. “Faludi, Fight Club, and phallic masculinity: Exploring the emasculating economics of patriarchy.” Journal of Men’s Studies 11.1 (2002): 65-76. Print.
Clark, Suzanne. “Fight Club: Historicizing the rhetoric of masculinity, violence, and sentimentality.” Journal of Advanced Composition 21.2 (2001): 411-420. Print.
Faludi, Susan. Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man. New York: William Marrow and Company Inc., 1999. Print.
Fight Club. Dir. David Fincher. Perf. Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter. Twentieth Century Fox, 2002. DVD.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York: Random House Inc., 1995. Print.
Lee, Terry. “Virtual Violence in Fight Club: This is what transformation of masculine ego feels like.” Journal of American
Eucharistic Practices of St. Augustine and John Wesley Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction The Eucharist is a Christian ordinance that dates back to the times of Jesus Christ on the earth over 2000 years ago. In the Bible, when Jesus was taking the last supper before crucifixion, He ordered His disciples to observe the Eucharist in remembrance of His life in this earth. Observation of the Eucharist entails taking of bread and wine symbolically as the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
“Sharing in the Eucharist, like sharing in the mystery of Christ’s death and resurrection, is at the heart of Christian life.”1 The Eucharist provides an opportunity for Christians to assert their allegiance to God and have assurance of eternal life.
Although the practice has biblical basis, different Christian religions have attached different meanings and names to it. Depending on the Christian religion, Christians have named the Eucharist as the Holy Communion, Sacrament of the Altar, the Holy Mass, or Lord’s Supper.2 To some extent, these names indicate theological variations in the application of this doctrine.
Mainstream Christian religions such as Protestantism and Catholicism have different interpretations of the Eucharist. In a bid to enhance understanding of the variation in the Eucharistic practices among Christians, this paper examines the Eucharistic practices of St. Augustine and John Wesley, and seeks to examine how they differ and compare in the Catholic Church and Methodism way of teaching the practice respectively.
St. Augustine Eucharistic Practices St. Augustine believed in transubstantiation where the bread and the wine become the body and the blood of Jesus Christ respectively by the power of the Holy Ghost during consecration. “The Eucharist is an intimate sharing in the real presence of Christ in a way that is truly human and truly divine.”3 The Eucharist allows humans to interact with the divine in an intimate manner that is real and nourishing to the Christians.
Since the bread and wine are symbols, St. Augustine asserted that signs and symbols are sacred things for the become real when consecrated. According to his beliefs, “language about liturgy and sacraments was about signs and symbols – in all their reality, content, and liturgical fullness of expression.”4 Hence, according to St. Augustine, bread and wine are real body and blood of Jesus Christ respectively.
St. Augustine also perceived the Eucharist as a sacrament of unity, which unites Jesus Christ and His Church. When Jesus Christ left this world, He instructed His disciples to observe Lord’s Supper whenever they are together, because the Eucharist stands for unity between Him and the church.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of symbols in the Eucharist has significant importance because “the Eucharist and church are gifts of God, and that our proper attitude to them is one of receptivity.”5 Disciples of Jesus Christ practiced and taught about the Eucharist as they preached the Gospel to the world. In this view, St. Augustine perceived the Eucharist as a central element in uniting God and His people.
Thus, St. Augustine held that Christians should always take part in the Eucharist to rejuvenate their relationship with God. The Eucharist is also important in uniting Christians as the body of Jesus Christ.
Essentially, “the church’s celebration of ritual meal launches a process of becoming the Eucharist, a process that is completed only when Christians recognize their own new identity as Christ’s body in the world.”6 Hence, through the Eucharist, St. Augustine believed that Christians and Jesus Christ unite as one body in the process of taking part in the Holy Communion.
St. Augustine regarded the Eucharist as a sacrifice that Jesus made when He died on the cross. When Christians practice the Eucharist, it symbolizes the sacrifice that Jesus made at the cross when He shed His blood to cleanse the sins of the world.
In viewing the Eucharist as sacrifice, St. Augustine did not imply that Jesus Christ should die every time during the Holy Communion, but perceived it as a continual memorial of sacrifice that Jesus Christ made at the cross. St. August presented the Eucharist “as a scramentum memoriae, a symbolical commemoration of the sacrificial death of Christ.”7
As Christians believe in the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Eucharist reminds them that the agony of the cross is a sacrifice that saves humanity. Thus, frequent participation in the Eucharist in the church with other believers is imperative for the salvation of Christians.
Salvation of Christians links with the ordinance of the Eucharist for Jesus instructed His disciples to preach and practice it as a remembrance of His love towards humanity. Therefore, Christians should practice the Eucharist for it signifies acceptance of the body and the blood of Jesus Christ as a holy sacrifice that saves humanity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Eucharistic Practices of St. Augustine and John Wesley specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eucharist has importance to Christians because it symbolizes the love that Jesus Christ gave to the church and the love that Christians should have for one another. During the Eucharist, Christians come together and express the love that Jesus Christ bestowed to them.8 Since the Church is a group of believers, the Eucharist enhances love among them.
According to St. Augustine, the Eucharist practice plays a central role in enhancing love among Christians. “Therefore, just as you see that the bread, which was made, is one mass, so may you also be one body by loving one another, by having one faith, one hope, and an undivided charity.”9
Christians carry the responsibility of sharing their love among different members, since the body of Christ has many members. Through the Eucharist, Christians get an opportunity to share their love with others, thus building the body of Christ and strengthening faith among believers.
John Wesley Eucharistic Practices John Wesley believed that the Eucharist (Holy Communion) is a sacrament of spirituality. Through the Eucharist, believers attain the grace of God. God bestows grace to all believers and through the Eucharist Christians achieve it. Hence, grace is a central aspect of the Eucharist for without grace, Christians cannot attain fellowship with God.
“Wesley agreed with those Western traditions that believed the faithful communicant actually received grace through the Eucharist.”10 Without the Eucharist, Christians would be unable to derive spiritual nourishment that God provides through the practice.
According to John Wesley, “the term Holy Communion invites us to focus on the self-giving of the Holy God, which makes the sacrament an occasion of grace, and on the holiness of our communion with God and one another.”11
By practicing the Eucharist, Christians avail themselves to the matchless and boundless grace of God that has the power to save sinners. Therefore, Christians affirm the importance of the body and blood of Jesus Christ when they practice the Holy Communion.
John Wesley also believed in the Eucharist as a holy sacrament that God gave to His Church. For the Church to coexist with Jesus Christ as one body, it must accept the sacrament of the Eucharist. In this view, John Wesley perceived the Eucharist as a form of worship through which Christians and the church can link up with God.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Eucharistic Practices of St. Augustine and John Wesley by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In his teachings, John Wesley “exhorts the Methodists to avail themselves to the means of grace and remember that whatever power and mercy accompany the sacraments come from God and not the means”12 for the power of the Holy Ghost comes only through Jesus Christ.
When Christians participate in the Holy Communion, they allow the power of the Holy Ghost to enter into their lives, and thus causing transformation, which strengthens their faith.
Therefore, according to John Wesley, the Eucharist is a form of worship that Christians should exercise in their journey as Christians so that they can receive blessings from God. Taking part in the Holy Communion enhances Christians to enjoy full fellowship with their God because Jesus Christ mediates the fellowship.
Since Jesus Christ died on the cross to cleanse the sins of humanity, the Eucharist offers an opportunity for Christians to celebrate it. “The Eucharist is a celebration of the presence of the living Christ.”13
During the Holy Communion, Christians take bread and wine as a way of celebrating the life of their savior Jesus Christ, who died on the cross to ransom the world from sin.
Before Jesus Christ died, He instructed His disciples to celebrate the Holy Communion in remembrance of his life and saving power through the Holy Ghost. In this view, Christians should participate in the Holy Communion for it reminds them about the life of Jesus Christ and His divine role in saving humanity from perishing in sins.
John Wesley also believed that the Eucharist is important to Christians because it indicates acceptance of sacrifice that Jesus Christ made on the cross. Jesus Christ made eternal sacrifice on the cross because He abolished the practices that took place on earthly sanctuaries and initiated a heavenly sanctuary. Among Christians, the sacrifice that Jesus Christ gave was a holy sacrament that invites all into His kingdom.
According to John Wesley, “the main intention of the Christ herein was not the bare remembrance of His passion, but over and above, to invite us to His sacrifice.”14
During the Holy Communion, Christians sing hymns, which recognize Jesus as the savior of Christians, who become His followers by accepting the eternal sacrifice made at the cross. Through the Eucharistic practices, Christians transform their faith and love leading to holiness in both heart and life.
John Wesley regarded the Eucharist as an experience with Jesus Christ. Christians who take part in the Holy Communion experience great changes in their lives because they encounter their creator. The encounter and experience in the Holy Communion “not only touches the five senses, but it can also radically affect the lives of those who experience it.”15
Since the Holy Ghost mediates the relationship between Christians and God, the Eucharist provides means of achieving the experience of a Christian life. Through the Holy Communion, Christians experience the transformational power of the Holy Ghost, which connects believers with Jesus Christ and God. Thus, the Eucharist is a process that Christians undergo to experience an encounter with Jesus Christ.
Differences and Contrasts of the Eucharist in Catholicism and Methodism Catholicism and Methodism differ in the way they interpret the Eucharist. One major difference that exists between the two denominations is the doctrine of transubstantiation. “The Catholic theologians emphasize the importance of affirming the real presence of Christ and the change of elements of bread and wine.”16 Hence, Christians experience real presence of Jesus Christ in the form of body and blood.
In contrast, Methodism does not believe in the doctrine of substantiation. Instead, Methodism holds that the bread and wine are just signs and symbols that Christians use in commemoration of the real body and blood of Jesus Christ, which He gave to humanity as a sacrifice to atone their sins.
Methodism maintains, “The bread and wine acquire an additional significance as effectual signs of the body and the blood of Christ, but do not necessarily cease to be bread and wine.”17 The bread and wine are mere symbols of the body and blood rather than real substitutes. Hence, Catholicism and Methodism differ in the aspect of transubstantiation.
Although Catholicism and Methodism perceive the Eucharist as a way of commemorating the life and sacrifice that Jesus Christ made at the cross, they differ in the manner they believe in the Eucharist. Catholicism believes that the Eucharist provides a means of reliving the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross. This assertion means that Christians relive the experience of the cross whenever they participate in the Eucharist.
The Catholic Church maintains, “The sacrifice of the cross and that of the mass are specifically and numerically the same, only the manner of the offering is different.”18 Catholicism holds that the Eucharist is equal to the sacrifice that Jesus Christ made on the cross.
In contrast, Methodism believes that the Eucharist is a mere representation of the sacrifice that Jesus Christ made at the cross, but not the same as the sacrifice. According to Methodism, Jesus Christ made eternal sacrifice for the last time, and thus Christians do not have the ability to offer the same sacrifice through the Eucharist.
Perpetuating Christ’s sacrifice in the form of the Eucharist implies that the sacrifice made at the cross lacked power to cleanse people from sins.19 In this view, Methodists are against the perpetuation of the cross sacrifice during mass.
Another difference in the Eucharist between Catholicism and Methodism is the role of priests in consecrating the bread and wine. “In Catholic theology, the consecration is the indisputable heart of the Eucharist, from which we have Christ’s real presence.”20
Priests take bread and wine and consecrate it into the real body and blood of Jesus Christ by invoking the power of the Holy Spirit, which implies that the priest has the power to offer sacrifice just as the high priests in the sanctuary did. In Methodism, the believers hold that the priests have no power to consecrate the bread and wine into blood and body respectively.
The priest only enables the believers to take part in the Holy Communion as a symbolical practice of commemorating the life of Jesus Christ and thanking Him for His atoning sacrifice.
Among Methodists, clergy and priests have a role of administering the Eucharist, because it is just a representation of the sacrifice made at the cross.21 Therefore, Catholic priests have the ability to consecrate the bread, while in Methodism they do not have such capacity.
Methodism and Catholicism differ in the frequency of the Eucharist. Usually, Methodists schedule the Eucharist in a frequency of about once a month, but Catholics prefer taking the Eucharist every time they hold a Mass.
“Frequency of Communion increased dramatically among those groups affected by Romanticism, but together with this was tendency toward the privatization of religious experience and excessive sentimentality in Eucharistic devotion.”22 Therefore, the frequency of the Eucharist is high in Catholic Church than in Methodism.
Conclusion Comparative analysis of the Eucharistic practices of St. Augustine and John Wesley shows that the two have some fundamental differences although they share same biblical origin. The views of St. Augustine and John Wesley are evident in Catholicism and Methodism respectively. The major difference of the Eucharistic practices in the two Christian religions is the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Moreover, while Catholics tend to perpetuate the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, Methodists just celebrate it symbolically. Other differences lie in the manner of performing sacrifices by the priests and the clergy, as well as frequency. Among Catholics, priests have a noble role of consecrating the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Jesus Christ, while Methodists do not believe in such consecration.
Additionally, Catholics hold the Eucharist as many times a possible during their masses, but Methodists hold their Holy Communion within a frequency of about once a month.
Bibliography Binz, Stephen. Eucharist. London: Twenty-Third Publications, 2005.
Cantalamessa, Raniero, and Frances Villa. The Eucharist: Our Sanctification. London. Liturgical Press, 2008.
Chilcote, Paul. “Eucharist among the means of the grace.” Salvation Army. Web.
Crockett, William. Eucharist: Symbol of transformation. London: Liturgical Press, 2007.
Dimock, Giles. “The Eucharist sacrament and sacrifice.” Knights of Columbus Supreme Council. Web.
General Body of Discipleship. “This Holy Mystery: A United Methodist Understanding of Holy Communion.” Gateway. Web.
Hamilton, Andrew. “Eucharist, Theology, and Discipleship.” Pacifica 12 (1999): 143-155. Irwin, Kevin. Models of the Eucharist. London: Paulist Press, 2005.
Keefer, Luke. “John Wesley, The Methodists, and Social Reform in England.” Wesleyan Theological Journal 25, no. 1 (1990): 1-157.
Khoo, Lorna. Wesleyan Eucharistic Spirituality: Its nature, sources and future. New York: ATF Press, 2005.
Kwatera, Michael. Ministry of communion. London: Liturgical Press, 2004.
Mitchell, Nathan. Real presence: The work of Eucharist. Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 2001.
Outler, Albert. “John Wesley and Eastern Orthodoxy: Influences, Convergences, and Differences.” Asbury Theological Journal 45, no. 2 (1990): 29-53.
Puglisi, James, Horace Allen, and Teresa Berger. Liturgical renewal as a way to Christian unity. London: Liturgical Press, 2005.
Schaff, Philip. Nicene and Post Nicene Christianity: History of the Christian Church. New York: Kissinger Publishing, 2009.
Smith, Gordon. The Lord’s Supper: Five Views. London: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
Sours, Stephen. “Anthropology and transcendence: Wesley’s sacrificial Eucharistic theology in ecumenical context.” John Wesley Fellows. Web.
Stookey, Laurence. Eucharist: Christ’s feast with the church. Chicago: Abingdon Press, 2010.
White, James. The sacraments in Protestant and faith. Chicago: Abingdon Press, 2010.
White, Susan. Foundation of Christian worship. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006.
Footnotes 1 Stephen Binz, Eucharist (London: Twenty-Third Publications, 2005), 110.
2 Luke Keefer, “John Wesley: The Methodists, and Social Reform in England,” Wesleyan Theological Journal 25 no. 1 (1990), 121.
3 Binz, 110.
4 Kevin Irwin, Models of the Eucharist (London: Paulist Press, 2005), 247.
5 Andrew Hamilton, “Eucharist, Theology, and Discipleship,” Pacifica 12 (1999), 148.
6 Nathan Mitchell. Real presence: The work of Eucharist (Chicago: Liturgy Training Publications, 2001), 105.
7 Philip Schaff. Nicene and Post Nicene Christianity: History of the Christian Church (New York: Kissinger Publishing, 2009), 251.
8 William Crockett, Eucharist: Symbol of transformation (London: Liturgical Press, 2007) 34.
9 Michael Kwatera, Ministry of communion (London: Liturgical Press, 2004), 3.
10 Albert Outler, “John Wesley and Eastern Orthodoxy: Influences, Convergences, and Differences,” Asbury Theological Journal 45 no. 2 (1990), 40.
11 General Body of Discipleship, “This Holy Mystery: A United Methodist Understanding of Holy Communion,” Gateway.
12 Stephen Sours, “Anthropology and transcendence: Wesley’s sacrificial Eucharistic theology in ecumenical context,” John Wesley Fellows.
13 Paul Chilcote, “Eucharist among the means of the grace,” Salvation Army.
15 Lorna Khoo, Wesleyan Eucharistic Spirituality: Its nature, sources and future (New York: ATF Press, 2005), 55.
16 Gordon Smith, The Lord’s Supper: Five Views (London: InterVarsity Press, 2008), 18.
17 James Puglisi, Horace Allen, and Teresa Berger, Liturgical renewal as a way to Christian unit (London: Liturgical Press, 2005), 44.
18 Giles Dimock, “The Eucharist sacrament and sacrifice,” Knights of Columbus Supreme Council.
19 James White, The sacraments in Protestant and faith (Chicago: Abingdon Press, 2010), 54.
20 Raniero Cantalamessa, and Frances Villa, The Eucharist: Our Sanctification (London. Liturgical Press, 2008), 80.
21 Laurence Stookey, Eucharist: Christ’s feast with the church (Chicago: Abingdon Press, 2010), 76.
22 Susan White, Foundation of Christian worship (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006), 101.
“Recent developments in the UK housing market” by Graeme Chamberlin Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Précis/summary of the critiqued case study
Assumptions made in the paper
Assessing the validity of the assumptions made
Précis/summary of the critiqued case study The case study discusses the latest developments in the UK’s housing market. Evidently, UK has experienced remarkable changes in its housing markets in the last decades due to numerous factors including immigration. The trend has generated evenhandedness for house owners.
Nonetheless, it has made the house ownership unaffordable to the common people in UK. The demand for such houses has increased greatly due to the increasing population contributed by immigration factors. The demographic changes on housing demands have equally contributed to this trends as demonstrated by the paper (Chamberlin, 2009).
Consequently, the increase in the housing costs has prompted house debts leading to considerable inflation rates and drop in the UK’s economy. The case study uses statistics to prove this point broadly. Precisely, the case study presents numerous ideas on the recent UK’s housing market trends.
Assumptions made in the paper Evidently, the author assumed that this case study would not require a comprehensive abstract. This was a critical provision when considered comprehensively in the context of writing and evaluation of academic papers. The assumptions made in this article are both implicit and explicit in nature. Other assumptions regard the structure of the paper, contents, readability and format used to deliver the intended message.
The paper has also assumed the quantity of data analyzed (Chamberlin, 2009). It recognizes the available data to be enough for the case study not considering that the kind of case it addresses demand a comprehensive data gathering to attain an explicit inference.
Nonetheless, they are not elaborate enough; hence, they cannot give enough information to generate a considerable conclusion (Chamberlin 36). There is also assumption in the data literature review among other provisions.
Assessing the validity of the assumptions made There are various aspects/assumptions of this case study that can be subjected to evaluation. This helps in determining its clarity, appropriateness, authenticity, and credibility in the contexts of case implementation, compilation, analysis, and presentation of the findings in regard to the discussed topic. Evidently, the case study presented has a brief abstract as assumed by the author.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, a comprehensive abstract is a very important requirement in any case study since it provides a broad overview of the conducted research. Another notable consideration is that the paper does not have a distinctive introduction section in its entire contents.
It is crucial to provide an accurate introduction of a case study. This section details how the paper is structured, its major contents, genuineness, and appropriateness in order to prepare the reader/ audience for what is contained in the paper.
Although the paper gives a significant overview on the available and relevant literature concerning the impact of recent UK’s housing market trends, its content and depth are still debatable. The author assumed that the information he had provided was enough to address the concerned issue.
From various aspects, the paper do not exhaust the literature that exist in the UK housing market, the trends, detailed immigration impacts, and other important factors in this very context. Connecting the two variables in the context of case analysis and other provisions is significant in case analysis.
Although the case study given has tried to provide the basic and relevant information regarding the topic, it equally needs to elaborate further on the issue. Precisely, there is an overview of the case; however, the sections could have had some deepness if possible.
Adequate literature overview establishes other research provisions, pinpoints the knowledge gaps, and helps in setting appropriate research questions and objectives among other better provisions. Hence, the research could have provided a detailed literature review that cuts across all components of the selected topic.
Evidently, the paper has no visible terminology sections to explain further on the technical terms. May be, it has no significant technical terms in its contents thus indicating why it does not have the terminology section. Whichever the case, the part is quite important for referrals and explanation of the technical components of any case paper (Chamberlin, 2009). Additionally, there are limitations and strengths of the studies discussed.
We will write a custom Essay on “Recent developments in the UK housing market” by Graeme Chamberlin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The paper scrutinizes the recent undertakings in UK’s housing market. The limitation of this is that the research carried out might not provide the exact picture on the ground since it only used compiled statistics to emerge with its findings.
The study has adopted a descriptive approach; however, the information presented still lacks numerous components to help in its justification. It could have incorporated some critical perspectives to help in the evaluation of the entire case context. Evidently, there are procedural gaps apparent in the study.
The quantity of data analyzed seemed enough; however, they are not elaborate enough; hence, they cannot give enough information to generate a considerable conclusion (Chamberlin 36). Precisely, the sampling method is not comprehensive enough to make the conclusion entirely convincing. Agreeably, the case methodology is precisely described; nonetheless, it requires other aspects that can make it more descriptive and genuine.
It is important to state clearly how the study was structured, data collection tools, and other prominent provisions in this very context. The methodology in this case is quite brief.
The paper has no extensive provisions required in the methodology context especially in its contents and structure. Additionally, the data gathering and analysis techniques/tools are quite transparent and visible as expected. Critically, the two sections require an elaborated applicability and directness.
Notably, the data sets being used in this context are clear and coherent. The research in the case has utilized a survey method and extensive literature review to augment the entire methodology. Notably, the researcher uses two methods of data collection tools. It is from this context that the case study gains its trustworthiness as well as the authentication of its findings.
Sufficiently, the case reveals significant information on why it was conducted and other characterizing features. Nonetheless, there are some gaps still evident when the entire case provisions are scrutinized critically.
While considering the writing style, it is clear that some parts of the case study such as the data analysis and project plans are not consistent enough. This might disfavour the entire contexts of the case despite the efforts taken to emerge with such papers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Recent developments in the UK housing market” by Graeme Chamberlin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidently, the paper has endured to successfully demonstrate its ability to move beyond descriptive provisions by critically analyzing the collected data. However, this provision is not comprehensively evident in the paper. This forms a considerable challenge to its contents. The presentation of arguments fronts some challenges in the context of understanding and comprehensibility.
Despite the critical presentation of the investigated information, the paper still requires the aspects of coherency, structuring, and enhanced presentation of ideas. There are numerous unsupported statements in some parts of the case study. In fact, the paper clearly quotes some areas that have not been explored clearly. The trend is quite supportive; nevertheless, some additional researches are demanded.
Additionally, there are some figures and graphical data presentation in this paper; however, the paper generally presents the already concluded findings. It is crucial to provide the exact data analyzed in order to validate the case findings. Describing the methodology does not refer to the actual data collection techniques from the field. This is an important provision when considered decisively.
Unfortunately, there are limited supportive quotes to make most of the statements written in the document convincing. Quotations help in verifying the data and information provided. The research never assumed any spontaneous/reflexive approaches. Concurrently, most parts of the research presentation have included the aspects of interpretation. However, this was not exhaustive enough to give more information on the matter.
Conclusion Despite the negative assumptions noticeable in this paper, it is agreeable that it has no exaggerated claims in its contexts. This constitutes what is likeable about the paper (Bookstaber, 2011). Equally, it presents its ideologies with precision and the demanded appropriateness. What is dislikeable in it is that it has some advanced theories for common readers.
Additionally, it misses some important aspects of a case paper Nonetheless, interpretations are consistent with the results and consistently linked to the background of the case. Contextually, the case study has no official conclusion provisions; however, it is possible to conclude its main ideologies through viable mechanisms. Additionally, although the case study has nothing quite innovative, its theoretical provisions are consistent.
References Bookstaber, R. (2011). A Demon of Our Own Design: Markets, Hedge Funds, and the Perils of Financial Innovation. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Chamberlin, G. (2009). Recent developments in the UK housing market. Economic
Issues in Non-Point Source Pollution Critical Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Summary
Summary In recent years, environmental protection has been one of overriding issues for environmentalists, academics and policy makers. One of the most dominant issue in the domain of environmental protection concerns non-point source pollution of water resources (Donlon
Data Mining Role in Companies Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The increasing adoption of data mining in various sectors illustrates the potential of the technology regarding the analysis of data by entities that seek information crucial to their operations. Data mining tools enable entities to establish relationships such as associations, classes, clusters and sequential patterns.
The analysis of data can occur using a variety of techniques such as genetic algorithms, rule induction, neural networks and data visualization. Information obtained through data mining has transformed business operations by aiding companies in decision-making and the prediction of crucial factors such customer’s behavior, which helps companies to gain a competitive advantage.
Benefits of data mining to businesses The generation of predictive scores for organizational elements is crucial in the analysis of the behavior of customers. Predictive analytics enable companies to optimize marketing strategies by modeling trends in customers’ responses. This information helps businesses to allocate funds for various campaigns based on their potential of succeeding.
In addition, it minimizes wastage of time and money caused by the use of manually analyzed marketing strategies. Research shows that manual analysis of marketing methods is a cumbersome process that is error-prone due to the extensive skills required. Predictive analytics eliminate guesswork in the identification of marketing methods by providing reliable data on customers’ preferences and habits (Pyle, 2003).
Analyzing past and present trends about customers’ habits provides patterns that aid in making decisions on future undertakings of a business. A company that implements measures in response to future patterns of customers’ behavior is likely to gain a competitive advantage.
Data mining enables businesses to establish relationships among items in a transaction. The association technique facilitates identification of products that customers purchase frequently. Using the association rule, businesses can determine the way one product influences the sale of another product.
For example, an association of Bagels and Potato Chips provides insight on products that a fast foods business can sell with Bagels so that the sale of Potato Chips increases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Market based analysis provides businesses with important information that guides the implementation of marketing campaigns by enabling them to establish hypotheses for customers’ buying patterns. Relevant marketing strategies boost sales and promote higher profits.
Web mining enables business entities to establish patterns of customers’ behavior from the web. Using data mining techniques, companies can identify customers’ interests on the web concerning textual or multimedia data (Soares, 2010).
Web usage mining facilitates the analysis of target demographics. Web content and structured mining enable companies to monitor brands and analyze the content and structure of competitors. Such undertakings create strategic advantages.
Clustering enables companies to identify distinct groups of customers and implement strategies to retain customers that are above a cluster and gain the confidence and loyalty of customers that are below the cluster.
Customer-relationship management uses clusters to segment customers based on particular variables indentified through data mining. Variables such as customer-retention probability help companies in the identification of marketing opportunities.
Reliability of data mining algorithms The reliability of data mining algorithms depends on the nature of data under analysis. Some datasets contain information that has errors or is invalid. Research shows that algorithms have diverse responses to errors and thus compromise the results of data analysis in different manners. Assumptions such as noise-free data influence the accuracy levels of data mining algorithms.
Another factor that interferes with the accuracy of data mining algorithms is the size of data. The search space varies depending on the dimensions in a domain space.
We will write a custom Report on Data Mining Role in Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research shows that the relationship between the search space and dimensions in a domain space is exponential. This relationship introduces a phenomenon known as curse of dimensionality, which interferes with the reliability of data mining algorithms (Kantardzic, 2003).
Various errors arise due to factors that affect data-mining algorithms. Systematic errors are likely to arise due to assumptions on clean data. Preprocessing of data helps to minimize such errors. Other errors include training and pessimistic errors that arise due to invalid data and assumptions such as noise-free data.
Data mining infringement on privacy Data for mining purposes raises many privacy concerns. First, data intended for profiling customers and analyzing their behavior contains a lot of personal information. The collection and storage of confidential information about individuals introduces controversies due the possibility of illegal access to the information.
Another issue concerns the dissemination of implicit information about an individual or a group of customers. Thirdly, data mining discovers valuable information that is subject to sale. This creates loopholes for the distribution of confidential information without control.
To address the issue of privacy protection in data mining, concerned bodies have established measures that promote reliable data mining results while meeting privacy requirements. OECD Guidelines on data mining extensively cover the use of personal information obtained through data mining by providing various guidelines (Aggarwal
Main Motives for European Integration Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Evolution of the European Integration
European institutions today
The war years of European integration
Treaties and European Acts
1970s widening and deepening and the Single European Act
Introduction The integration of various European states was as a result of various reasons. As a process of political, economic, cultural, social, industrial, legal and technological engagement, integration of various European states came into being.
Regional integration also emerged in an attempt to foster unity among various European countries and thus enhanced efficiency and effectiveness in the manner in which challenges and business opportunities were addressed (Craig
Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Real Disorder? When Medicine Faces Controversial Issues Argumentative Essay best essay help
Among the most complicated mysteries of the universe and human nature, the question concerning the way in which a human brain or, to be more exact, human nervous system, works seems to be the hardest to answer.
Despite the fact that in the present-day world, a lot of complicated questions in the sphere of medicine have been answered successfully, the question concerning whether a certain specific state should be considered a disorder or merely a specific state of mind, remains open.
Among the above-mentioned states, the phenomenon known as ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, deserves to be mentioned. Because of the fact that most children, as the results of numerous researches show, have ADHD at certain stages of their development, the classification of the phenomenon as a disorder is questioned (Wright, 2012).
Checking the latest research results on ADHD and comparing them to the previous records, one can possibly find out whether ADHD is an actual disorder or merely specifics of most children’s development.
To start with, the key symptoms of the disorder in question must be named. However, even at the very first stage of defining the key features of the disorder, one must admit that the existing descriptions of the symptoms are rather vague. According to the existing evidence, the children with ADHD tend to display such negative qualities as “inattentiveness, forgetfulness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity” (Seitler, 2011, 116).
Likewise, in the case study in question, the patients displayed similar symptoms, as Nelson, Duncan, Peacock and Bui (2012) say. Analyzing the above-mentioned, one must admit that the above-mentioned qualities can be discovered in children of a certain age quite often.
Another essential detail of the case study in question, the background of the patients is rather important for understanding the mechanisms of the phenomenon. According to the research design offered by Nelson, Duncan, Peacock and Bui, the settings of the research and the patients’ background were the following:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The ADHD Telemedicine Clinic served English- and Spanish-speaking families for a half-day/week while school was in session, with initial intake slots of 90 min” (Nelson, Duncan, Peacock and Bui, 2012, 294).
Hence, it can be concluded that the research was carried out among the children who were under a considerable pressure in school as the representatives of minority, which could have been the reason for the rapidly developing symptoms of the alleged disorder.
As it has been mentioned above, the children who have been observed in the given case study have experienced certain issues which must have had an impact on their development and, therefore, served as the causes of the ADHD phenomenon.
To start with, the children in the case study have very specific background – according to the case, they are all belong to the cultures of the national and social minorities, which makes their process of integration into the society all the harder. According to the case study settings, the children whose behavior was observed came from the English- and Spanish-speaking families with other than American backgrounds.
Since there are still considerable arguments against adding the ADHD to the list of disorders, it is necessary to mention that the symptoms of ADHD as they are not quite as palpable as the ones of, say, influenza. However, when a range of symptoms can be observed at once, there are sufficient reasons to suggest that the case in point is exactly the instance of ADHD.
For instance, according to the case study, “All children presenting to the ADHD clinic had a concern related to the core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity” (Nelson, Duncan, Peacock and Bui, 2012, 295). It is necessary to mark that, when observed separately, the above-mentioned phenomena can be considered features of character and a very specific temperament of a child.
When stacked together, however, the given phenomena can be regarded as the symptoms of ADHD. Therefore, the recurrent symptoms make a solid proof for the fact that ADHD can be considered a disorder.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Real Disorder? When Medicine Faces Controversial Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, it must be born in mind that, because of the rapid development, on its certain stages, children can display certain anti-social features of character. Therefore, whether the given characteristics should be regarded as symptoms is not clear yet.
In addition, it is necessary to mention that some of the symptoms which the children in the case study displayed could to be considered as the ones of ADHD.
For instance, the fact that “Almost all of the children seen had a co-occurring learning concern, with 95% having some delays or difficulties that were referred back to the school for further evaluation” (Nelson, Duncan, Peacock and Bui, 2012, 295-296) can be viewed as a lack of the general skills that the children of the given age should have.
Hence, the issue can concern the readiness for school learning rather than an ADHD disorder. It is worth mentioning that in certain cases, the disease has been progressing for several years, which busts the myth about ADHD having little impact on people (Fritz, 2000).
It is also worth mentioning, however, that there is no mentioning of the children’s behavior changing over the course of treatment whatsoever in the case study. According to the results of the research, the children displayed certain behavioral issues which were supposed to vanish without a trace after the suggested interventions.
However, as for the changes in the behavioral patterns, the experimental group did not show either the disorder progress in the course of the study; the children seemed to have the same symptoms described above all the way during the research.
Analyzing the short-term goals intervention, one must admit that it addressed the problem in a rather adequate way. To start with, the test for a probable comorbidity was rather appropriate. In addition, the fact that the treatment was split in several sessions was rather wise (Seitler, 2011, 120).
As for the long-term goals, the authors of the case study did a very satisfying job as well. According to what Wheeler (2010) claims, the use of pharmaceutical treatment is also extremely important along with psychological interventions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Attention Deficit Disorder a Real Disorder? When Medicine Faces Controversial Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, it is necessary to mention that the discussion of the Ritalin treatment has been going on for years (Breggin
The Principle of Non-Intervention in Contemporary International Law Analytical Essay essay help: essay help
Interference in the domestic affairs of independent states by other states is one of the most controversial issues in international law. The United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolution 2131 (XX) declared that all countries should conduct their affairs independently1.
Additionally, the principle of non-intervention prohibits any state from meddling in the internal affairs of another independent state2. Although the UN Charter prohibits use of force or any military intervention in the internal affairs of a country, it permits use of substantial force in extreme situations3.
For that reason, the principle of non-intervention has had a number of contradicting interpretation and, therefore, is subject to abuse. Nonetheless, the concept of human rights is gaining momentum against that of sovereignty. Consequently, the principle of right to protect (R2P) and unilateral humanitarian intervention are slowly replacing the principle of non-intervention4.
Therefore, the two principles are a major impediment to the principle of non-intervention as a core doctrine of international law5. This essay revisits the application of the principle of non-intervention in contemporary international law.
The United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolution 2131 (XX) aimed at protecting all countries’ independence and sovereignty6.Therefore, this resolution laid a foundation for the principle of non-intervention. Furthermore, Article 2 of the principles of the UN summarizes the principle of no-intervention7.
For instance, Article 2(1) provides for sovereign equality to all UN members. Additionally, Article2 (3) states that all international disputes must be settled peacefully. Furthermore, Article 2(4) prohibits use of force in all interventions made in a sovereign by another state.
However, Article 2 (7) allows the UN to use it own discretion when applying the principle of non-intervention. For that reason, although self-determination is the backbone of friendly relations, the UN recognizes the need to protect humanitarian interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a number of cases, the international community has been unable to reach a quick agreement on how to approach a humanitarian crisis8. As a result, there has been confusion and controversy in the application of the principle of non-intervention as a basis of maintaining order in the world. Some states such as China and Russia have decided to adhere to the principle of non-intervention and its interpretation.
On the other hand, countries such as the United States, France and Britain have used some of the exceptions in this principle to involve themselves in other countries’ affairs. A result of these disagreements is slowness in solving major humanitarian crises facing the world. For instance, the international community is yet to come up with a plan to end the ongoing civil war in Syria.
Another example was when United States drafted the Iraq Liberation Act. This act called on the United States to assist in dethroning Saddam Hussein and replace him with a democratic government. However, this issue elicited a heated debated among members of the international community and left unanswered questions on some countries commitment in upholding the principle of non-intervention.
Nonetheless, the principle of non-intervention is an important legal tool for addressing an array of regional and international security issues9. For that reason, it is a fundamental doctrine of the international law under the UN Charter and customary international law. Additionally, this principle is the foundation of peaceful co-existence among states10.
Additionally, it is a constituent of the international law and must be upheld by all states as it shields them from external aggression11. Moreover, the principle of non-intervention upholds the principle of sovereignty which maintains that all states are equal legally12.
However, when there is need to deal with massive human rights violation or maintain regional or global stability there is some exception to this principle13. A state’s independence is limited by human rights14.
For that reason, under the international law, when a situation takes a humanitarian angle, focus shifts from the state’s right to state’s obligation towards its citizens15. Accordingly, states are just instruments whose main function is to serve the interests of their citizens.
We will write a custom Essay on The Principle of Non-Intervention in Contemporary International Law specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the international legal system is now centered more on an individual than the state16. Consequently, R2P has replaced the principle of sovereignty as the first principle of international law. The explanation to this change is that sovereignty is derived from people and, therefore, their rights, interest and security should be prioritized. State sovereignty, therefore, has a legal value only when it respects human rights17.
However, a government can request for intervention when faced with a situation it cannot handle18. For instance, the Democratic Republic of Congo used the UN, through the International Criminal Court (ICC), to fight rebels on its northern frontier. In addition, the UN has also facilitated major interventions in states which have no governments. In non-legal terms, these states are called failed states19.
A typical example is the military intervention being experienced in Somalia by the UN backed African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISON).
Principles of unilateral humanitarian intervention and the R2P are a major impediment to the principle of non-intervention as a core doctrine of the international law. Unilateral humanitarian intervention allows for armed interference in the affairs of a country without its consent20. On the other hand, R2P was developed out of the need to develop a clear framework to counter impunity and mass atrocity in some states21.
However, the validity of these two principles is hotly contested. Unilateral humanitarian intervention is derived from customary law and the UN Charter22. For that reason, it is part of the international law. Nonetheless, a vivid legal justification is required to accept the use of R2P and Unilateral humanitarian intervention. Although the moral justification requires no explanation, the legal justification is hard to prove.
In contemporary law, the legality of these two principles is controversial. However, some scholars argue that these principles are legal under the Customary International Laws23.
Unlike treaties, Customary International Laws are binding to all nations except those that were opposed to them during their formulation24. Since the UN charter is a treaty, Customary International Laws are best placed to offer legal interpretation of unilateral humanitarian intervention and R2P25.
Apart from its ambiguous interpretation, implementation of the principle on non-intervention is also faced with other controversies. For instance, many people believe that it is implemented with a bias. Likewise, the UN Security Council members support its implementation in circumstances that favour their interest.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Principle of Non-Intervention in Contemporary International Law by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For that reason, there are always disagreements between permanent members on ways of handling major humanitarian crises. Additionally, this principle is also politicized in some instances.
For instance, many analysts believe that the crackdown on Muammar Gaddafi regime was largely due to his opposition to the west. Moreover, many believe that sanctions imposed on countries such as Iran and Zimbabwe are a punishment to their continued opposition to the west. On the hand, the west is yet to crackdown on Bashar al-Assad regime because Syria is an ally of the west.
Another problem facing the principle of non-intervention as a fundamental doctrine of the international law is the difficulty in determining whether crimes committed are in magnitudes that warrant intervention. For that reason, it is very difficult to gauge whether certain atrocities can be regarded as crimes against humanity.
For instance, in the Kenyan case, around a thousand people were killed and a few thousands displaced. However, the picture portrayed to the world, through the ICC, was that of a failed state. In contrast, there have been countries where tens of thousands of people have been killed and the ICC is yet to intervene. The ICC has also a reputation of investigating their cases poorly. In some case, ICC depends on investigations done locally.
For instance, it sometimes looks at a country’s human right report. As a result, many people have lost faith in the ICC and the principle of non-intervention as a whole. In addition, some interventions serve to deteriorate peaceful co-existence. A typical case is when the ICC indicted Omar al-Bashir. This prompted the African Union to intervene since its members believed that this move could have worsened the situation in the Darfur region.
Finally, most members of the UN Security Council do not lead by example. For instance, most of them are yet to become members of the ICC. Nonetheless, they appear to control major dealings within this court.
In conclusion, this paper has examined the existence, nature, and content of the non-intervention principle in contemporary international law. However, major issues have arisen on the way it has been applied to solve major humanitarian crises worldwide. For instances, major decision made by members of the international community and the ICC has put the principle in disrepute.
For that reason, permanent members of the UN security have been seen to abuse their veto. Consequently, most states have lost faith in the international community and the principle of non-intervention as a whole. Therefore, unless an amicable solution is reached, the disagreement on its implementation will continue. As a result, it will be very difficult to apply it.
Reference List Adjei, E., The legality of humanitarian intervention, 2005. Web.
Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law: non-interference in a state’s internal affairs used to be rule of international law: is it still? 2007. Web.
Halt, B., The legal character of R2P and the UN Charter, 2012. Web.
Kinacioglu, M., The principle of non-intervention at the United Nations: the charter framework and the legal debate. Web.
McWhinney E., Declaration on the inadmissibility of Intervention in the domestic affairs of states and the protection of their independence and sovereignty General assembly resolution 2131 (xx) New York, 21 December 1965. Web.
Nashu, H., Revisiting the principle of non-intervention: a structural principle of international law or a political obstacle to regional security in Asia? 2012. Web.
Peters, A., “Humanity as the A and Ω of sovereignty”. The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 20, No.3, 2009, pp. 513–544. Web.
Footnotes 1 McWhinney E., Declaration on the inadmissibility of Intervention in the domestic affairs of states and the protection of their independence and sovereignty General assembly resolution 2131 (xx) New York, 21 December 1965.
2 Adjei, E., The legality of humanitarian intervention, 2005.
3 Kinacioglu, M., The principle of non-intervention at the United Nations: the charter framework and the legal debate.
4 Peters, A., “Humanity as the A and Ω of sovereignty”. The European Journal of International Law , Vol. 20, No.3, 2009, pp. 513–544.
5 Adjei, The legality of humanitarian intervention.
6 McWhinney, Declaration on the inadmissibility of Intervention.
7 Kinacioglu, The principle of non-intervention at the United Nations.
8 Halt, B., The legal character of R2P and the UN Charter, 2012.
9 Nashu, Revisiting the principle of non-intervention: a structural principle of international law or a political obstacle to regional security in Asia? 2012.
10 Nashu , Revisiting the principle of non-intervention
11 Peters, Humanity as the A and Ω of sovereignty
12 Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law
13 Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law
14 Peters, Humanity as the A and Ω of sovereignty
15 Peters, Humanity as the A and Ω of sovereignty
16 Halt, The legal character of R2P and the UN Charter
17 Halt, The legal character of R2P and the UN Charter
18 Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law
19 Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law
20 Adjei, The legality of humanitarian intervention
21 Halt, The legal character of R2P and the UN Charter
22 Adjei, The legality of humanitarian intervention
23 Adjei, The legality of humanitarian intervention
24 Adjei, The legality of humanitarian intervention
25 Chatham House, The principle of non-intervention in contemporary international Law
Supply Chain and Challenges Essay (Article) best essay help
There are a lot of different ways of moving a product from a supplier to the customer. The process of organization of different elements involved in the delivery of the product from the supplier to the customer is called a supply chain.
Grieger (2004) in his dissertation defines supply chain management as “the integration of key business processes from end user through original suppliers that provides products, services, and information that add value for customers and other stakeholders” (p. 105). Reading Whiteley (2000), he has the same approach to supply chain in e-commerce.
E-commerce was relatively new trend in 2000, the year of the book publishing. During that time E-Commerce: Strategies, Technologies and application by Whiteley (2000) was an innovative and reasonable source devoted to supply chain in e-commerce. Nowadays, reading that source, most of the strategies, approaches and specific peculiarities remain up to date.
E-commerce has changes in the rate of use, mechanism of functioning, etc. However, the approach to the process of the delivery of the product from the producer to the customer has remained unchanged.
One of the most powerful aspects in the use of the source under consideration is time. Being written more than ten years ago, it remain up to date and it is easy to understand why it is if to consider the information properly. The second chapter is devoted to the supply chain and value chain. The author of the book refers to the popular and world known model offered by Porter.
Proposing the simplest manufacturing value chain which consists of the components of supply which are shifted to the to the sub assembly supply and further appear at the manufacturing stage after which go to wholesale and appear in hands of retails which deliver the product to the customer.
Basing on this manufacturing value chain, Whiteley (2000) offers Porter’s value chain model as the most effective and it is easy to explain why. Porter offers five primary activities necessary for successful process, these are inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and service.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally to these primary processes, Whiteley (2000) points at procurement, technology development, human resources and firm infrastructure.
The model mentioned above is just the model, the skeleton which may be used as the basis for applying to the company’s needs. Each company referring to this model should understand that depending on its peculiarities, the chain may have another view, however, the central elements are to be included.
Following the pieces of advice offered by the book, the company which refers to this specific strategy should identify the components applicable to its organizational process, then define the linkages and analyze each of the elements from the point of view of cost and value added.
This will help to add efficiency to the model. Therefore, having read this source up to the end, it may be concluded that the date of publication does not play any role as the models used there as the models are referred to by the modern companies and the explanation to those models and the pieces of advice given for better understanding of the process are also efficient.
This source if obligatory for reading by all students who deal with management, marketing, e-commerce and other related spheres as being easy in understanding, it presents a lot of effective and comments which help apply a theoretic model into real life.
Reference List Grieger, M. (2004). Internet-based electronic marketplaces and supply chain management: a systems approach towards a holistic concept of utilizing internet-based electronic marketplaces to support supply chain management. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School, Ph.D. School of Technologies of Managing.
Whiteley, D. (2000). E-Commerce: Strategies, Technologies and application. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.
We will write a custom Article on Supply Chain and Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Concept of Creativity Research Paper writing essay help
Introduction Based on the work of Kirby Ferguson, it can be stated that the concept of creativity arises not out of nothingness; rather, it is the result of applying ordinary mental tools within the mind onto existing materials in order to produce new results (Vogel et al., 2011). In order to better understand such a concept, it is important to first know what the various elements of creativity are and how they impact the creative process.
The elements of creativity are composed of the following:
Cognitive – Cognitive elements within the creative process refer to an individual’s basic knowledge regarding particular processes (whether generalized or specializing in a specific field), their attraction towards complexity (e.g. their innate ability to analyze and combine ideas into new areas or dimensions), their general open-mindedness towards new discoveries and finally their awareness of the creative process itself.
Affective – Affective elements on the other hand refer to an individual’s intrinsic level of curiosity, willingness to explore, their ability to take risks and their general independence towards following generally accepted processes and procedures in order to attempt something new.
Combined with the cognitive elements of creativity this in effect enables an individual to examine current processes from multiple angles and actually desire to implement new methods which could potentially improve such processes.
Based on the study of De Miranda, Aranha
Censorship on the Internet Coursework essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Abstract The internet was founded on the philosophy of openness and its inventors hoped to provide a means through which information could be shared freely among participants. However, it has grown to become a heavily restricted medium with some form of censorship being implemented everywhere and severe censorship in a few places.
This paper highlights the reasons why censorship is on the increase. A list of the technologies employed to achieve censorship is given followed by the techniques used. The paper concludes by observing that internet censorship will continue to increase in coming years as governments, organizations, and parents seek more control in the internet.
Introduction The Internet has emerged as the most important invention of the 21st century. This creation has acquired the status of “most important technology” due to the positive impact that it has had worldwide. However, the internet also has some negative impacts and this has led many people to regard the technology as a double-edged sword with both negative and positive attributes.
On the positive, it has made communication easier and turned the world into a global village through its interconnectivity ability. It has increased the ease with which people all over the world can access valuable news and information. On the negative, the internet has increased the security threats to all people by making it easy for terrorists and anarchists to access dangerous information such as how to make bombs.
Objectionable and inciting material is also easily available and this might threaten the stability of the society. Governments and organizations have therefore been forced to take steps to mitigate the potential harmful effects of the internet. The motivation behind these actions has been to enable people to benefit from the wealth of information contained in the internet while at the same time safeguarding the lives of innocent people.
Software solutions have been used to prevent access to any material considered dangerous or objectionable. While some people see censoring as a positive act that protects the society, others view it as a violation of the individual’s right to access information freely.
Censorship Mechanism Internet filtering or censoring refers to the act of restricting access by internet users to material that is considered dangerous or in some way offensive. Censoring is achieved though filters and firewalls which are configured to prevent access to certain material or prevent the publishing of certain content.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Censorship in the internet can also occur in the traditional sense of the word where material is removed from the internet to prevent public access. In addition to universal censorship, material can also be restricted to particular audiences based on attributes such as user age or occupation.
Many governments have censorship policies in place to help control access. However, effective censorship is yet to be achieved since the internet is rapidly growing and changing. Different devices and networks are occurring and technologies such as social networking are changing the manner in which people access the internet.
Internet filtering is conducted on a number of unique levels. The most pervasive filtering occurs at the Government level. The Information and communications ministry of the respective country does this filtering.
The state dictates the kind of websites that its citizenry can have access to and deny access to websites that are deemed dangerous or objectionable. Countries such as Saudi Arabia, China, Iran, and Syria regularly engage in this government level blocking. The governments cite security concerns and decency violations as the major reasons for preventing their citizens from accessing numerous sites.
Another level of blocking is the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) level. ISPs typically provide filtering and blocking services to their clients either on client request or universally. The ISPs that provide universal filtering usually do this at the suggestion of governmental agencies in the country. Kuwait, Singapore, and Malaysia ISPs provide filtering and blocking services at the request of the government.
ISPs in some countries such as the US and most European countries let their clients chose if they want filtered or unfiltered internet services. However, most ISPs prevent their users from using legitimate privacy and anonymizing tools since such tools will render filtering systems useless and enable the user to access censored material.
Filtering can also take place at the Organizational level where individual organizations enforce some form of internet filtering on their LANs and intranets. Organizations such as banks, schools, and hospitals conduct internet filtering for reasons such as increasing worker productivity and preventing access to inappropriate material.
We will write a custom Coursework on Censorship on the Internet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, filtering ensures that workers do not make use of the internet for leisure surfing or chatting during work hours. The final level of filtering is the Parent’s level and individual parents implement this level.
This level of filtering is necessitated by the lack of trust by parents on the ability of the government or ISPs to filter out all the information they consider inappropriate for their children. Parents therefore use commercially available filtering software to further restrict access to the internet by their children.
Censoring Technologies Censorship implementations have acquired a wide market as the need for censoring by governments, organizations, and parents increases. Censorship techniques can be categorized as hardware based and software based. For filtering and blocking internet content, software based technologies are employed.
Hardware based technologies on the other hand are used to classify network traffic and perform inspection on packet headers in order to deduce the content of the traffic.
As of yet, the perfect Internet censor software has not been developed and the censorship software used experience some errors. Even so, the censor software in today’s marketplace is able to meet majority of the needs of the government sector, organizations, and parents. There are three components to internet censorship and this are: social, political, and technical.
These components sometimes interact with each other and they can be used concurrently for higher effectiveness. For example, authoritarian regimes use highly advance technologies, social conformity though the threat of harsh punishment and political philosophy to foster acceptance of the imposed censors by the population.
These three components must be dealt with in order to counter internet censorship. Anti-censorship proponents must deal with the technological, social, and political structures in order to defeat internet censorship.
The filtering and blocking process is hidden from the public and people are not made aware of what type of content is blocked. Because of this, filtering technologies are susceptible to the problem of over-blocking or under-blocking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Censorship on the Internet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In over blocking, the filtering technology employed blocks out content that it is not configured to allow the user to access. In under blocking, the filtering mechanism fails to block out material that is supposed to be filter out.
Internet Censorship Trends The worldwide growth in internet access and usage has been accompanied by a steady rise in internet censorship. While there has been a steady increase in internet censorship since 1993, the most dramatic increment was observed between 2007 and 2010.
Government level censorship has been the most significant with authoritarian regimes such as China, Cuba, and North Korea conducting the most pervasive internet censorships.
China has established herself as the country with the most sophisticated internet censoring technology. Other authoritarian governments have therefore tried to implement the methods and policies used by the Chinese in their attempt at controlling access to information on the internet in their countries.
However, authoritarian countries are not the only ones engage in internet censorship. The world’s leading champion of democracy, the United States, also engages in this activity. The government is allowed by the Supreme Court to censor certain material that is not protected by the First Amendment.
This includes material that is meant to incite lawlessness, defamatory material, and obscenities such as child pornography. The government is also authorized to keep material that it deems important for national security secret.
In the Middle East countries, most of the blocking and filtering is done on political, cultural and religious considerations. The religious considerations are included since most of the countries in the region have Islam as the predominant religion.
To implement this censorship, most of the ISPs in the region make use of commercially available filtering software mostly obtained from the US. Secure Computing and Websense, which is a US company, provides most of the filtering solutions used by the Middle East ISPs.
Considering the prevalence of internet filtering, a number of studies have been undertaken to help quantify the instances of censorship. Dievert et al have engaged in the most insightful study on global internet filtering. In another related study, users are allowed to report allegedly blocked websites and this user-generated data is used to come up with a database indicating which sites are blocked and by which countries.
Filtering Techniques The filtering tools employed make use of a number of techniques to carry out the blocking.
TCP/IP Header Filtering
This is the most common filtering technique and it is also known as blunt filtering since it blocks out entire sites based on their IP address. The IP (Internet Protocol) is a basic protocol used by all communicating devices to direct their traffic across the internet. The TCP/IP Header filtering examines the sender and recipient information contained in an IP packet.
IT then blocks out all packets from an IP address that is known to contain objectionable material. A major advantage of this technique is that it is cheap and simple to implement since one only needs to highlight the IP addresses that need to be blocked out.
However, this method suffers from a significant disadvantage since it leads to over-blocking when a single IP address that contains useful and valuable content is blocked out since it also hosts a site with objectionable content.
TCP/IP Content Filtering
This technique is also called the Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and as the name suggests, it involves inspection of the packet more thoroughly than simply inspecting the packet header. As such, the approach does not block out entire web addresses or web sites, instead, individual pages that contain the objectionable material can be removed.
This approach avoids the problem of over blocking since only packets that contain prohibited keywords are filtered out while the rest are displayed to the user. However, this method requires specialized hardware, which makes it hard and costly to implement. Significant computation power is also required to inspect all the data packets which makes the computational cost of this method very high.
DNS hijacking Filtering
Domain Name System hijacking allows the ISP to implement filtering by blocking out the name of a site. As opposed to filtering an entire IP address, this method allows a targeted website to be blocked. The ISP relies on a list of blacklisted domain names mostly provided by the government to implement this filtering. The ISP then configures its DNS server to refuse requests for those domains by the user.
A major demerit of this method is that it can be bypassed easily by someone with technical knowhow. In addition to this, blocking out entire domains restricts access to pages within those domains that might have valuable information that is not objectionable.
More sophisticated implementations of DNS hijacking filtering (that make use of keywords or URL filtering) are being implemented to address this problem and therefore increase the accuracy of this filtering technique.
This method blocks access to websites based on the presence of banned words in the URL. The method also blocks search engine searches that contain certain blacklisted words. Many countries are using this technique more frequently due to the blocking power that it presents. Due to the processing power required, it is the most expensive technique to implement.
HTTP Proxy Filtering
This method makes use of the web proxies that are used to reduce bandwidth requirements and therefore improve performance. This is achieved by storing copies of recently downloaded HTTP content so that any future request for the same content do not result in the web server responding with the same content repeatedly.
By using the filtering proxy, requested destined for or coming from banned sites are prevented from reaching the caching proxy. This provides a thorough filtering comparable to the TCP/IP content filtering without compromising the efficiency of the network.
In addition to the mentioned methods of blocking and filtering, other means can be used to regulate web content. Governments can ask that entire websites be removed therefore making the content of the site inaccessible to all.
The state can also tamper with the connectivity to a particular website making it too slow therefore dissuading users from visiting the website. Such methods might be used in conjunction with the software tools filtering to achieve the desired censorship.
Blocking and Filtering Tools Bess
Bess is a filtering tool that was created by N2H2 and later acquired by the Secure Computing Company which merged the tool with another one of its filtering tools, the SmartFilter. The tool is available commercially as SmartFilter, Bess Edition with a target market of schools. The tool uses sophisticated technology and human review to reduce the errors that general keyword blocking methods cause.
The tool makes use of human reviews to allow access to sites with material on breast cancer and sex education. Such sites would be blocked out by most tools that use “keyword blocking” due to the presence of the word “sex” and “breast”.
Bess had 38 blocking categories (as of 2006) and its elaborate blocking allows access to websites that might have educational value but contain pages that have content that is unsuitable for children. However, the tool has engaged in pervasive blocking by filtering out some websites that are against censorship as well as websites that report on filtering software.
This filtering tool makes use of content-based filtering and it relies on keywords and graphic recognition to filter out objectionable material. The tool is especially efficient in filtering out pornographic content and it is able to accurately differentiate appropriate from inappropriate content even if key words such as “sex” or “breast” are used in both instances.
For increased security, the list of prohibited sites is made invisible and the user does not know of these sites. However, users are allowed to check if a website is included in the prohibited list by keying in the full address to the site. In addition to the objectionable content blocked out, the company also blocks out sites that have information or programs that can be used to compromise blocking software.
The accuracy level of ClickSafe is impressive with the tool being able to block pornographic sites 90% of the time. Instances of over-blocking (where “good sites”) are blocked out stands at only 5-10%.
Conclusion The internet is turning into a heavily regulated sphere and internet censorship can only be expected to increase with coming years. This paper has reviewed the censorship mechanism used and proceeded to highlight the technologies employed to achieve censorship.
The filtering techniques used and their merits and demerits have been discussed. Filtering and blocking tools will continue to experience high use as the internet becomes even more controlled in the future.
Demand Forecasting in Revenue Managment in the Hotel Coursework best college essay help
In the hospitality sector, demand for accommodation rooms fluctuates daily, seasonally and annually. Analysis of these fluctuations in demand produces unreliable forecasts. Effective revenue management realization requires the development of an appropriate forecasting mechanism. Attainment of reliable forecasts is never easy even though the process of forecasting is simple.
Hence, Cross, R. G. (1997) suggested some rules applicable in forecasting. Cross suggested that the prediction must stay at comprehensive level. Detailed predictions contribute significantly to current Hotel Revenue Management Systems.
The second suggestion is that a large amount of information has to be used in the investigation. Additionally, the predictions must be adjusted regularly to potential changes in the business environment.
Precise predictions are vital in improvement of price and availability suggestions for hotel rooms. In addition, precise forecasting improves decisions made on recruitment of workers, purchase of goods and budget preparations.
In contrast, incorrect forecasting results into adoption of inefficient decisions on price and availability suggestions that the revenue management systems produce. Such inefficient decisions affect the revenue of a hotel negatively.
Talluri (2004) identified two forms of revenue management predictions. The first kind is quantify-dependent revenue management prediction. This is mainly used in aviation and hospitality industries. The other type is price-dependent revenue management prediction.
Apart from demand information, quantify-dependent revenue management prediction needs data on the arrival of reservation requests from different types of clients. This data is obtained at the time when clients make orders. This means that the information utilized in lodge demand prediction depends on present reservation activities, past data that relates to every day arrivals or the number of sold rooms.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, this kind of prediction requires guess on cancelled reservations and the number of clients who do not show up. A reservation is grouped as “No Show” if the client who made the request does not terminate it before the deadline of the hotel reaches and does not come to claim it.
Prediction used in hotel revenue management should consider two variables that relate to time. These two variables are reservations and consumption times.
There exist other vital issues considered apart from the prediction method chosen. Some of the key issues are the forecast period, aggregation levels and measurement of the prediction’s precision. Weatherford et al (2001) proved that completely disaggregated predictions provide dependable outcomes compared to partially aggregated strategies.
Therefore, it is appropriate for hotels to examine arrivals by the duration customers spend in the facilities and the category of price. One key concern to take into consideration is the method applicable in time division to produce an appropriate basis for prediction. A common practice is to consider a week as a forecast. In this method, each day is considered differently.
For example, predictions for Mondays rely on information collected on other Mondays and so on. Another vital point to consider is the periodic phenomenon, which has significant influence in the hotel industry. Consideration of limited data set limits managers’ ability to capture seasonality. Conversely, the use of many periods may make predictions made unresponsive and rigid.
Managers physically developed predictions through analysis of historical data before the introduction of revenue management systems. They analyzed the length of stay in hotels and the price categories. The process lacked sophistication and consumed a lot of time. Consequently, the manual system is inappropriate in the current business environment due to stiff competition and fast-paced market activities.
Prediction strategies can be grouped into three categories namely historical, advance and combined forecast models. Historical reservation models only take into consideration total rooms booked on earlier nights. It considers the number of rooms booked and arrivals at a hotel. Advance reservation models take into consideration the booking behavior of customers over a given period.
We will write a custom Coursework on Demand Forecasting in Revenue Managment in the Hotel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, joint reservation methods consider features of both chronological and advance methods to establish predictions. Weatherford and Kimes, (2003) showed that exponential smoothing, pickup and moving standard forms are the most dependable prediction strategies.
However, the performance of these strategies depends on the data available. Hence, hotel revenue managers must have adequate prediction models. Additionally, they should use unlike strategies at different times and in diverse markets.
Forecast Accuracy Accuracy is a vital component in prediction since it determines the method selected. Numerous measures of the performance of the predictions made exist. The Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) is the easiest and popularly used method. It involves determination of the averages of the absolute values of prediction errors made. The Mean Percent Error (MPE) is the mean of the percentage errors made.
The Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) and MPE are similar. However, MAPE averages the total figures of the prediction errors. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) takes into consideration the square root of the averages of the squared prediction errors.
MPE and MAPE are appropriate since they provide limitless figures. Nonetheless, they stay unclassified when the total number of reservations is zero. Hence, Thiel’s Inequality Coefficient is used to overcome the disadvantage. The coefficient is denoted by U in which F* and F are exact and predicted reservations.
Pickup Model Pickup model is a well-known advance reservation strategy that takes advantage of the unique features of booking information. It relies on reservation information instead of reliance on arrival histories to make dependable predictions.
However, it provides variations in the predictions. The model can be further divided into preservative or multiplicative, standard or superior and straightforward or subjective average prediction strategies.
Judgmental Forecasting Human judgment plays a significant role in revenue management practice. This is despite the ability of a revenue management system to perform multiple tasks in the process. Conventionally, predictions include human opinions. Judgmental prediction involves the inclusion of human opinions. A different research exhibited that opinions can be used to make adjustments in past predictions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Demand Forecasting in Revenue Managment in the Hotel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A revenue manager can then supervise the prediction process using the adjustments. Moreover, hotels can make appropriate use of revenue management systems in educating managers. A well-trained revenue manager can know how to analyze data and make appropriate plans. This can result into efficient operations in a hotel. Notably, business people agree that human judgment play a pivotal role in predictions.
Human judgment plays a vital role in generation of accurate predictions. However, human judgment is inclined towards biasness. Individuals may make decisions or predictions that can result into achievement of their personal goals. In addition, the differences in skills and abilities affect people’s judgment. Hence, well-trained people can make appropriate judgment compared to undertrained persons.
In early prediction studies, Hogarth and Makridakis, (1981) examined the effectiveness of human opinions in prediction generation. They concluded that statistical predictions were dependable compared to judgmental forecasts. Their study found that human predictions had biasness and errors. Human judgment involved much control and humans had overconfidence.
Fischhoff, (1988) noted that appropriate forecasts required human judgment in the selection of the model used, determination of parameters and investigation of study outcomes. There are two reasons for need of accuracy in judgmental prediction. Experts have adequate data and are able to acquire information in time.
There exists some features that can assist revenue managers improve their judgment. Revenue management systems are acceptable in prediction generation. The perception of forecasters on revenue management systems affect decisions or forecasts made. Secondly, revenue management systems are easy to manage, and they enable comparison of statistical predictions made.
Hence, they assist revenue managers to determine errors easily. Additionally, revenue management systems provide flexibility in methods used in generation of forecasts. This makes forecasters feel responsible and involved in revenue management. Revenue management systems also make managers employ correct techniques.
Comprehensible assistance and clear methods eliminate confusion and mistakes in generation of predictions. Revenue management systems also support the integration of human judgment and statistical methods in generation of demand forecasts. Reliable revenue management systems produce dependable statistical predictions. They also support judgmental adjustments in generation of demand forecasts.
An income manager can examine the effectiveness of a revenue management system. The manager can examine the usefulness of a database and the appropriateness of statistical techniques. In addition, the manager can compare the error measurement methods used in generation of demand predictions.
Examination of these factors can assist a manager to establish whether a revenue management system can enable development of appropriate forecasts. Integration of the mentioned features assists managers to design revenue management systems that enable development of precise predictions.
The Main Industrial Hygiene Concerns Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Recommendations and Guidance to the Incident Commander
Environmental hazards require comprehensive and critical strategies for incident management. The Incident Commander must be aware of specific steps to ensure that the emergency or risk is contained in an effective manner. The commander must identify and initiate proper communication and feedback channels.
This ensures that all persons within the scene obtain adequate information about the existence of the risk. The coherent communication mechanisms also provide a reliable platform for the establishment of response initiatives (Friend
Implications of Privatising Public Utilities and Accountability Issues Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help
Abstract The focus of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the implications of privatising public utilities with regard to accountability issues. In addition to the provision of supporting evidence, the paper assesses how privatisation of public utilities affects accountability. Privatisation of public utilities has two main effects on accountability. Efforts to privatise public utilities lead to demotivation on the part of the government.
The responsibility of the government is to investigate and respond to the demands of the public. When public utilities are privatised, the private sector takes up the role of providing the various services needed by members of the public. In addition to the government, efforts to privatise public utilities demotivate the entire public. The public sector lacks the resources and the mandate to mobilise resources and rouse for quality services.
The private sector ends up holding the public at ransom, inflating the costs charged on the government and, in extension, the public. In the process of legislating, some politicians may be biased and favour the issue of privatising public utilities. In most cases, they are the ones who benefit as most of the private companies that end up taking up the role of providing public services belong to them.
By privatising public utilities, the government reduces the role of members of the public in ensuring that the services provided are of high quality. The development has various effects as far as accountability is concerned. At the end of the day, the consumers pay more for the same services.
Introduction Privatisation initiatives are mechanisms and components that fall under the broader liberalisation strategies and policies adopted by governments around the world. The main objective of privatisation initiatives is the formulation and implementation of policies aimed at restructuring the economy.
The major aim of such restructurings is to control the economy, especially if it has become inefficient and inebriated with corruption and other economic problems. The driving force behind the government’s decision to undertake such a policy is, in most cases, its ‘heavy’ involvement in the public sector. Resource privatisation, as a policy, is not an ancient phenomenon.
It is one of the most recent and most revolutionary innovations in economic policies. While this idea seems restricted to majority of the developed nations, a significant number of developing countries in the world find the initiative more applicable to their economies compared to other policies. All over the world, nations and governments regard the idea as a financial desire and a growth strategy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, while the idea continues to gain more ground and acceptability in most nations, some policy makers look at it from an accountability perspective. Most of the issues raised by these policy makers with regard to the honesty of the idea revolve around accountability issues.
They are also concerned with the credibility of the move, as well as the level of involvement among the three parties or stakeholders, namely the government, the private sector, and consumers of public utility goods and services.
Colonisation and Drug Trade Term Paper essay help
Abstract The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. Consequently, this paper traces the influence of colonialism in the emergence and growth of the drug trade.
Comprehensively, this paper shows that the influence of colonialism on drug trade centres on the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade. Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers.
Introduction The emergence and growth of the drug trade stems from the willingness of drug addicts to pay for drugs at any cost. Indeed, Shmoop University (2010) affirms that drug addicts are very good customers because they are not motivated by reason but rather, by a need to fulfil their addictive desires.
Consequently, drugs are among the most lucrative products in the global market because drug cartels and drug companies make handsome profits from the sale of legal and illegal drug types (Rexton, 2009, p. 7). Profits realised from the sale of drugs even rival some of the world’s most lucrative legal trades such as the sale of coffee, corn, or even gold.
Currently, the sale of petroleum and coffee (in the same order of dominance) dominate the biggest global markets. Even though the drug business trails these products (in terms of market size), undoubtedly, drugs are more precious today than most products around the world.
Shmoop University (2010) even says, some drugs (like cocaine) are more precious than gold because a gram of Cocaine may cost $100 while a gram of gold may cost $25. Other drugs such as marijuana have a very high value in certain parts of the world such as the US where Shmoop University (2010) considers it the most valuable cash crop. Marijuana growers in the US rake in about $36 billion annually.
Most of these sales link to illegal marijuana sales. Corn is the second most valuable cash crop in the US and it is worth only $23 billion (Shmoop University, 2010, p. 1). From these statistics, there is little evidence to contradict the belief that the trade is among the most lucrative business in the world. Even though it remains destructive to human life, the drug trade will not end.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One question many people ask is how this trade started and became so profound in the global market today. Since some of the most notorious drug cartels emerged from the colonial era, there is a strong indication that colonialism has a huge role to play in the emergence and sustenance of the drug trade. This paper explores the influence of colonialism and the dominance of colonial powers in supporting the drug trade.
Role of the Colonial Powers in Aiding Drug Trade The emergence of colonial powers in the 15th century heralds the birth of colonisation and the dominance of European powers around the world. However, colonisation is not the only product realised from the emergence of colonial powers; the emergence and growth of the drug trade is also a conspicuous product of colonisation (Rexton, 2009, p. 7).
Before colonisation, there was little distribution of drugs beyond western nations; however, the growth of the drug trade filled the voids of this trade. This happened mainly through wars and conflicts such as the opium wars.
The Opium Wars By far, the opium wars are among the most notable atrocities committed by the British. This war traces its origins to the 19th century when Britain fought with China over the sale and distribution of Opium and heroin (Compilation Group, 2000, p. 1). At the time, Britain had a strong monopoly over the supply of both drugs.
Britain’s control over the supply of both commodities culminated through the control of the drug production process by British trading houses and banks. Most banks involved in this trade engaged in the laundering of drug money, while the trading houses dealt directly with the control of the trade (regulation).
The dominance of Britain over the supply and distribution of Opium stemmed from its influence and control of the Indian peninsula, including the biggest Opium producer known today as Afghanistan (Annu, 2009).
When the Chinese empire banned the sale of Opium within its borders, the British felt greatly threatened because they were already involved in the trade of tea in silver with the Chinese empire. The British perceived the trade of tea as a big threat to its future sustenance because the Chinese only accepted silver in exchange for tea (Annu, 2009). Britain was paying a lot of silver to the Chinese who did not do much with it.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the trade between the Chinese and the British counteracted through a new trading paradigm where the British could get their silver back. The opium trade was a perfect opportunity for the British to do so. Before the opium war, the Chinese consumed only small proportions of the drug.
Somewhat, the consumption of opium was considered to have a religious significance to some Chinese communities. However, Compilation Group (2000) explains that broadly, the Chinese did not know much about opium. The opium war however changed this situation.
The British waged an all-out-war on the Chinese empire where millions of Chinese people died. Chouvy (2010) explains that the Chinese empire was no match for the world’s most powerful country (Britain) and therefore, the Chinese had to concede defeat in an embarrassing way. This defeat led to the enslavement and colonisation of the Chinese empire (plus the exertion of British dominance in the once flourishing empire).
Through this dominance, China became the biggest drug zone on earth because the British exploited their newly found dominance to encourage the trade of Opium (Compilation Group, 2000). The unrestricted access, distribution, and sale of opium to the Chinese people (with little regard for their social or economic well-being) simplified this trade.
Chouvy (2010) says that wealthy Chinese people could afford the drug but poor Chinese people could spend up to two-thirds of their earnings on this drug. Therefore, most Chinese families became neglected, broken, and abandoned because of the trade.
Even though the British claimed they were trying to protect the sovereignty of the Chinese to use Opium as a religious practice, Polachek (1992) says the motivation of the British to engage in the war was far more than protecting the religious rights and freedoms of the Chinese. Consequently, the British conveniently established their trade imbalance with China and recovered their silver from the tea trade.
The Chinese population was distraught from the consumption of Opium (it was not until Mao Zedong won back the sovereignty of the Chinese people did they understand the meaning of sobriety). Comprehensively, through the opium war, the British supported drug trade.
Afghanistan and the Opium Drug Trade In many debates regarding the war on terror, people see terrorism as a product of the drug trade. Indeed, the link between Afghanistan and the drug trade is because Afghanistan enjoys a strong monopoly in the production of Opium around the world. In fact, it is estimated that close to 95% of the world’s opium comes from Afghanistan (Annu, 2009).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Colonisation and Drug Trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The equivalent of this output is 3,500 tonnes of the annual drug shipment out of Afghanistan. United Nations (U.N) says that the opium market in Afghanistan is worth $65 billion every year (about 15 million opium users depend on this market) (Annu, 2009). When the Afghan government had a strong control on legal opium production, illegal opium production had a very severe penalty (death or the loss of a limb).
This period was especially characterised by the control of opium production by the Taliban regime. According to Annu (2009), the decline of opium production affected western world powers. Through the influence of the Taliban on the opium drug trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror to safeguard western interests in the opium trade.
To further cement accusations that Western powers had a huge role in protecting their interest on the opium trade, Annu (2009) says, American and British forces invaded Afghanistan on the pretext of the war against terror.
Within the western sphere of influence, it was completely unacceptable for a country that did not have any army (navy or air force) to impede the flourishing drug trade that formed the bedrock of western civilization (Annu, 2009). In fact, the above ideas informed the argument of the western world to seek the support of the U.N in invading Afghanistan.
The west got its way because the U.N practically gave the west an unregulated mandate to invade Afghanistan. Western-allied forces therefore forged a war against Afghanistan and attacked many defenceless citizens. After the war, the Taliban control over the opium trade ended and the production of the drug recovered.
Today, Britain and America account for the biggest markets for heroin and opium. Their consumption increased with the demand of the drugs from other European countries. Consequently, the biggest drug traders and beneficiaries come from the US and Britain.
In fact, Annu (2009) says that these traders are among the most powerful and influential people today. Some of them trace their dominance to the opium wars of the 15th century. Others trace their notorious heritage to drug trafficking cartels that ruled in the early 20th century.
Pundits accuse the U.S CIA of being at the helm of this drug trade as demonstrated by the Iran-gate Contra scandal where critics accused the CIA of protecting the drug trade to further selective political activities (Annu, 2009).
This accusation also spread to the British M 15 and M 16, which links to the drug business (Annu, 2009). Proceeds accrued from the drug trade (by the CIA and other security organs) fund illegal political and business ventures (Annu, 2009). Some of these illegal activities include organising assassinations, coups, and similar activities.
Tobacco and American Colonisation The colonisation of America further led to the emergence and spread of the drug trade within Europe and the rest of the world. Shmoop University (2010) says Virginia and New England mainly depended on the drug trade because their economies were quickly collapsing after other economic ventures failed.
After the first tobacco grower in Virginia (John Rolfe) made handsome profits from the sale of tobacco to Europe, other farmers around the state quickly embarked in farming the product. In fact, Shmoop University (2010) says tobacco occupied every empty space in Virginia. Virginia’s tobacco production peaked to 20,000 tonnes annually.
In 1619, colonialists started using tobacco as a currency to buy women because women offered a natural way to sustain Virginia’s natural production. About 120 pounds of tobacco bought a woman. The introduction of slavery heralded the onset of women trade and tobacco became a currency to pay for the slaves.
The introduction of the slave trade led to the expansion of the tobacco industry because slaves worked on tobacco plantations. Concerning the rapid expansion of the tobacco produce, Shmoop University (2010) says the slave trade helped expand the drug trade.
The rapidly expanding tobacco trade also complemented the growth of the opium trade because the consumption of tobacco complemented opium consumption. Furthermore, the colonisation of America supported the drug trade because the colonial powers provided a ready market for American drugs in some of their major colonies (including China).
Colonial Labourers The link between colonialism and cocaine trade stems from the labour practices implemented by colonial powers. Throughout the colonial period, there was a thriving slave trade where traders sold labourers throughout the world to work in cotton fields, sugar plantations and other agricultural industries (Jankowiak, 2003). The human conditions that the slaves experienced were demeaning and inhuman.
These conditions posed a threat to the colonialists because it demoralized their workers. A demoralized work force was also disastrous to the colonial powers because it would decrease their industrial output.
To correct this imbalance, the colonial powers introduced several drugs to motivate slaves to work harder. These drugs ranged from marijuana, opium, to cocaine. The drugs provided psychological relief for the slaves. The productivity of labour increased in this regard and colonial powers benefitted from improved productivity (Jankowiak, 2003).
The manipulation of colonial labourers to join the ever-expanding group of drug users was not a secretive affair. The use of drugs was an effective strategy employed by colonialists to keep the expanding workforce captivated and rewarded for their hard work.
Once this tool gained acceptance among colonial powers, the labourers started influencing one another to engage in drug consumption. For example, Jankowiak (2003) says, Caribbean labourers influenced Indian labourers to consume rum instead of marijuana (for optimum satisfaction).
Jankowiak (2003) says the involvement of colonial labourers in the drug trade was unavoidable because the pain of working hard on the fields and the psychological torture of separating from their families were bound to have a strong psychological effect on the labourers. Often, these labourers worked in the new colonial territories and lived in appalling conditions, which were characterised by poverty, disease, and death.
Drugs therefore helped the labourers to blot out or deflate this psychological pain and accustom themselves to psychological pain. Their physical pain was also suppressed in the same regard because the labourers were able to work longer and harder (Jankowiak, 2003).
Cocaine Trade The ability of colonial powers to control international drug trade increased their dominance in the world. This dominance was especially conspicuous since most of the major cocaine producing territories such as Columbia and Peru were under European colonisation.
After the establishment of the cocaine trade, predominant international drug trafficking cartels that controlled the opium trade also started to get a strong hold of the cocaine trade. However, in the early eighties and late nineties, this control fizzled out to local criminal cartels.
There is however a close relationship between drug cartels in cocaine producing countries and international drug traffickers. For example, the notorious Columbian cocaine drug lord, Pablo Escobar, had a strong link with international drug trafficking cartels (Gootenberg, 2008).
South America has the highest incidences of drug crime. Marcy (2010) says the most worrying issue about the cocaine drug trade is the sophistication of drug cartels and their penetration of government institutions and agencies. The penetration of drug interest in British and American intelligence manifests in this study.
These government institutions enjoy a very high security clearance, which has given them the power to influence drug trade. The involvement of the CIA on the use of drug money to finance political interest is one example. However, the involvement of western powers in the drug trade does not match the influence of drug traffickers in the governments of some drug producing nations.
For example, the influence of drug cartels in the Mexican, Columbian and the Afghan government is very high. Comprehensively, dominant drug cartels from the colonial era still engage in the sale and distribution of cocaine and other illicit drugs around the world.
Conclusion The global drug trade is worth billions of dollars. Colonialism has had a huge role to play in the growth of this trade. This paper demonstrates the influence of colonialism on the emergence and growth of the drug trade through the opium wars, expansion of drug markets, and the role of colonial wars in liberalising the trade.
Further evidence shows the emergence of international drug trafficking cartels from the colonial era and the growth of the drug market through drug abuse by colonial labourers.
From the evidence provided in this paper, drug trade played a pivotal role in the economic expansion of colonial powers. The introduction of European drug trade to new colonial territories either significantly transformed local drugs or completely replaced them. The role of colonialism in increasing the growth of trade manifests through its influence on increasing trade and the intensification of labour productivity.
The link between trade and drugs occurs through the increased dependency of new colonies to their colonial powers for drugs. This was especially vivid through the opium wars where China was heavily dependent on Britain for the supply of opium. Britain controlled most of the opium supply.
In addition, the colonial powers used drugs to increase the intensity of labour by providing drugs to slaves and other labourers so that they were relieved from the burden of intense labour and psychological torture.
Comprehensively, from the role of the opium war in increasing colonial domination of the drug trade, the link between war and the flourish of drug trade manifests (Kan, 2009). The opium war strongly compares with the ongoing drug wars in Latin America because these wars offer the instability needed for the growth of drug trade.
References Annu, O. (2009). What is the American Army Doing in Afghanistan? Web.
Chouvy, P.A. (2010). Opium: Uncovering the politics of the poppy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Compilation Group. (2000). The Opium War. New York: The Minerva Group, Inc.
Gootenberg, P. (2008). Andean cocaine: The making of a global drug. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.
Jankowiak, W. (2003). Drugs, Labor, and Colonial Expansion. Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
Kan, P. (2009). Drugs And Contemporary. London: Warfare Potomac Books, Inc.
Marcy, W.L. (2010). The politics of cocaine: How U.S. foreign policy has created a thriving drug industry in central and South America. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
Polachek, J. (1992). The Inner Opium War. Massachusetts: Harvard University.
Rexton, P. (2009). Drugs and Contemporary Warfare. New York: Potomac Books, Inc.
Shmoop University. (2010). Economy in History of Drugs in America. Web.
Problems of Population Growth in China Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
China is the world’s most densely populated country and makes up one-fifth of today’s world’s total population. The country’s large population, rapidly changing demographic patterns and future uncertainties has caught the attention of policy makers worldwide (Riley 3).
The country’s rapidly growing economy and its demographics are a proof that China will be in the global spotlight for years. China has endured several socio-economic challenges over the past few decades; however, most of the problems that the country faces today are related to recent demographic changes.
A census taken recently has revealed that population increased to 1.34 billion in 2010 as compared to 1.27 billion in 2000. Annual population growth rate averaged to 0.57% in the past 10 years. This is a significant decrease compared to 1.07% for the previous ten years. The census statistics also revealed the emergence of a rapidly aging population. People over the age of 60 years comprised 13.3% of the total population in 2010.
This is an increase in comparison to 10.3% for the year 2000. Part of the population under the age of 14 years was 16.6%, a decline down from 23% in the year 2000 (United Nations Population Fund 18).
The Chinese government has been implementing a one child policy law since 1979. This law limits the number of children that a married couple can have to one child. It was a policy created to mitigate environmental and socio-economic problems in the Country (Riley 9).
Authorities concerned with population matters claim that prevention of over 400 million births occurred since the implementation of the one child policy. The policy makers have further claimed that the law has led to decreased pollution levels and decreased pressure on global food supplies.
In spite of the preventing millions of births, the one child policy has created immense socio-economic challenges for China and caused irremediable interference in the structure of Population Growth in China. A projection by The United Nations Population Division has revealed that the population of people above 60 years old in China will be 31% of the country’s total population by 2050 (United Nations Population Fund 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is a challenge for the country’s policy makers. It has already been evidenced that the constantly growing percentage of the elderly in China is straining the country’s resources.
Over the past decades, family compositions and marriages in China suffered due to changes in government policies, reduced fertility rates and marriage laws. China just like other Asian nations has a custom for son predilection.
This can be observed with the followers of Confucianism who openly prefer sons over daughters. They consider a son to be more helpful in the farms than a daughter. They believe that having a son is better because he will provide monetary support to his parents later in life when they retire.
These Confucian beliefs and the one child law have created a shortage of females in the Country. The male to female ratio in China is the highest in the world and stands at 1.13 male to 1 female. Projections show that China will have approximately 30 million more males than females in China by 2020; this may lead to social volatility (Riley 22).
Conclusion Vast demographic changes in China’s recent history affect a country’s development and operational policies. Considering China’s economic, political and demographic importance to the world, the country’s future population is of immense significance worldwide (Riley 32). Predicting what exactly will happen in China over the next decades seems to be impossible.
However, the effects of the government policies on reproduction, family size, fertility rates and marriages will almost certainly continue to affect the country in the predictable future.
Problems brought about by reduced population growth rates and the one child policy, for example, a dwindling labor force; are sufficient reasons for policy makers in China to be concerned about the Country’s future development and social status in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Problems of Population Growth in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Riley, Nancy 2004, China’s Population:New Trends and Challenges, Population Bulletin 59, no. 2. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. PDF file.
United Nations Population Fund. Report on Population Dynamics in the LDCs: Challenges and Opportunities for Development and Poverty Reduction. PDF file.
Lance Armstrong Gets Dumped by R. Albergotti, V. O’Connell and S. Vranica Essay best essay help
In the article Lance Armstrong Gets Dumped Reed Albergotti, Vanessa O’Connell and Susanne Vranica (2012) describe the actions against the famous athlete Lance Armstrong by such companies as Nike or RadioShack. In particular, the authors report that these organizations cancelled commercial contracts with this athlete because he was found guilty of using performance-enhancing drugs (Albergotti, O’Connell,
Strategic Management of Organizations Essay best essay help
Organizational structure Structure generally means the framework on which an organization is built and functions that keep the organization going. Organizational structure is the operating guideline that informs the members or workers how the organization works.
Structure explains the way members are received, how leaders are chosen, and the process of decision-making. Organizational structure explains the way an organization puts workers and jobs for effective work performance and goal realization (Baligh, 2005).
Channel of communication depends on the size of the organization; small organizations have short channels of communication because the top manager can reach the lowest ranked employee easily. On the other hand, large organizations have long channels of communication because they contain many departments and functions. From these decisions, an organizational structure is established.
Organizational structure may be centralized or decentralized. In centralized structure, the top management is vested with the most of decision-making and total control over the organization’s departments, subdivisions, and divisions.
In decentralized organizational structure, power and authority over control and decisions making is evenly distributed and the independence between departments and divisions is different (Baligh, 2005).
In an organization, regardless of its size, employees’ tasks and complexity is defined by what function it partakes, its supervisors, and managers. Organizations use organizational charts to simplify relationship between its departments and positions and their interdependence.
The finest organizational structure designed by any organization relies on many factors such as its work, revenue, number of employees, geographic distribution of its amenities, and the collection of its trading. Organizational structures have been in existence since the ancient past, they have evolved to date because of their needs and complexities in the current organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How Organizational Structure Implement Organizations Strategy Organizational strategy is the tactic, which an organization uses to meet its future goals, mission, vision, and targets. An organization must compare its present state to the projected future state then look at the difference and plan on how to cover the difference through changing its working tactics.
There are several organizational structures, which include pre-bureaucratic structures, bureaucratic structures, post bureaucratic structures, functional structures, divisional structures, and matrix structures. Organization strategy includes sequence of authority, span of organizing, departmentalization, circulation of authority, and organization’s height.
These elements are integrated within an organization to give out the desired outcome in type of the organization and the management required (Baligh, 2005).
The Basic Building Blocks of Organizational Structure An organization needs to be built on several organizational blocks to ensure and strengthen its survival. These blocks help in making sure that the organization is focused in its target of meeting its future goals. These blocks include:
Hierarchy or layers of organization is the primary most component of the organizational structure, individuals’ need to have people above them to obey, respect, consult, and structure the way of achieving a target. Organization’s layer means the length of the line of communication, that is the procedure followed before the information from service man reaches the department manager.
Hierarchy flow of information is mostly exercised in the bureaucratic organizations where the individual must report directly to his or her immediate supervisor. Hierarchy act as a major organizational block because it determines each employee’s authority and responsibility in the organization. Hierarchy makes organization to be organized because every employee is aware of his or her duties (Tannenbaum, 2006).
Formalization is another major form of an organization building block. Through formalization, an organization decisions, orders, and standards are passed to all employees. Formalization is closely attached to both leadership and hierarchy. A number of organizations prefer tight bureaucratic system of administration because these systems establish strict orders and methods in the organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Management of Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bureaucratic systems call for rigid communication channels. On the other hand, some other organizations allow for non-bureaucratic procedures, which allow for collaborative decisions making, employees dissent, and alternative ideas from employees. These kinds of organizations allow for flexible decision-making and channels of communication (Swayne, Duncan
Globalization and Environment Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact of Globalization
Causes of Climate Change
Successes and Failures
Introduction Throughout history, the world has continued to pursue avenues aimed at promoting economic development and integration. Due to economic connections, the world has often been referred to as a global village. Through the process of globalization, countries have a lot in common and have become more dependent than before.
In essence, globalization has had commendable impact in the world, with economic development having been enhanced. Nevertheless, it has negatively affected the environment even though its impact can be changed if certain measures are taken. This paper explores the issue globalization, its impact on the climate, and what can be done to change the situation
Globalization Globalization has been defined by numerous authors and experts in the world, basing their description on certain factors or a given context. It can be defined as the process that involves causes and consequences of global integration of activities, which may be human or non-human (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 4). In this case, integration revolves around transnational and trans-cultural aspects of people.
Unlike other definitions, this approach acknowledges the fact that globalization is tied to human and non-human factors. In this context, the environment and globalization are connected by ecological processes, whose impact traverse beyond national boundaries and environmental problems, which pose challenges that are not limited to a given country.
Importantly, globalization and the environment intersect at three points: economy, knowledge, and governance. For instance, countries get connected because of economic reasons like consumption needs, which allow highly diffused externalities.
Additionally, lack of resources or excess supply of certain products prompts globalization since no economy around the world is self-reliant to depend on another (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 5). Importantly, globalization promote interaction and sharing of information and practices across borders.
In cases of environmental stress, such indicators are likely to be shared within a short time because of enhanced channels of communication. With regard to governance, different states have found it hard to promote the well-being of people without involving the outside world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Essentially, environmental standards observed by a given country have the potential of trade and investment on national and global scale (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 6). This aspect has become paramount in promoting business relationships among countries around the world.
Impact of Globalization As mentioned before, globalization has a wide-range of effects; negative and positive. One of the aspects of human life, which has been affected widely by globalization, is population. It is evident that current demographic patterns do not resemble those witnessed several decades ago.
Cities are growing at an alarming rate, forcing governments to consider the expansion of facilities, which initially met the needs of a small number of people. For instance, research indicates that the number of people living in cities has hit 50% from 5%, two centuries ago (McMichael 1117). In line with this trend, it has been projected that almost two thirds of the world population will be living in cities by the year 2030.
This means that more people are getting attracted to urban centers for various reasons, which may differ from one city to another and country to country. Importantly, globalization has significantly reduced the size of the world by cutting down time and space, which were previously available in plenty.
While more people are getting attracted to cities, the negative effects of this trend are being felt, especially on the natural environment. For example, in the mid 20th century, only New York had a population of more than ten million. However, this has been overtaken with time, with several cities accommodating millions of people.
Similarly, there were twenty cities, which registered a population of between five and ten million people in the year 2000 (Najam, Runnalls and Halle 5). These trends have been used to project that twenty three cities will have more than ten million people by the year 2015. The main concern is the challenge of meeting the needs of the cities as the number of people increases.
Of great significance is the fact that cities are the leading consumers of energy and contribute approximately eighty percent of the greenhouse gases, emitted into the atmosphere. This has widely led to what is commonly known as climate change.
We will write a custom Essay on Globalization and Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Climate Change Climate change has become a major issue around the world, dominating leadership ideologies, yet no significant progress has been made in addressing it. While others may assume that several strides have been made in addressing the issue of climate change, substantive and practical results are yet to be realized.
According to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climate change focuses on quantifiable deviations in the state of the climate. In other words, it entails variability in climatic conditions, which may be experienced for a longer period of time than usual, say decades (International Panel on Climate Change 30).
In other words, it refers to measurable change in the climate, over a specific duration, and can be influenced by natural factors or human-related factors. These activities cause alteration of the natural composition of the atmosphere.
Causes of Climate Change According to the IPCC, the temperature of the earth surface has continued to rise, with a deviation of 0.6oC, from early 1800s. Based on this, the world will experience a huge difference of up to 4.5oC by the year 2100. Regardless of the difference, which will be recorded, it will be a representation of the highest magnitude in human history (International Panel on Climate Change 36).
As mentioned before, large cities are the leading consumers of energy. They widely contribute to the increase in the temperature of the earth surface as a result of massive industrialization, which attracts people for employment opportunities.
Industries emit greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, which are the leading causes of climate change. These gases are further produced during combustion, and their levels rise when forests are destroyed as pressure heightens on agricultural land due to poor methods of farming.
While every nation is responsible for the effects of climate change, it is doubtless that not all countries contribute to this menace equally. This is based on the fact that there is variation in the quantities of products exported and imported, depending on whether the country is developed or developing.
There is usually an ecologically unequal exchange, since developing countries concentrate on the exportation of resource-intensive products while developed countries focus on exporting services like tourism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization and Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unlike developed countries, developing countries experience environmental costs, which are never felt by developed countries. In other words, there exists an ecological debt between the two sides, since they contribute to climate change variedly, depending on their levels of emissions (International Panel on Climate Change 37).
From this point of view, it can be argued that all nations of the world bear the responsibility of climate change; it knows no boundaries. While this is the case, citizens equally have a role to play in addressing the issue of globalization and climate change. This analogy is linked to the fact that citizens elect leaders who are supposed to champion ideas and interests of their people (International Panel on Climate Change 37).
These individuals become important in decision-making and initiating safety measures, regarding climate change. In essence, people need to be global citizens in order to view the issue from a global perspective, regardless of their home countries.
Successes and Failures The world has in recent years witnessed the emergence of organizations and programs aimed at promoting climate change awareness around the world. Importantly, most of the movements and organizations advocate for a safe environment as a way of promoting sustainable development (International Panel on Climate Change 38). As a result of these efforts, people understand climate change and its negative impact to the environment.
Several treaties like the Montreal Protocol of 1987 and other agreements have been adopted for the purpose of protecting the ozone layer. Whist these successes have been realized, several failures have been registered, including the failure of the Kyoto Protocol and the slow pace at which nations react to climate change issues.
Conclusion From this presentation, it is clear that globalization has contributed to climate change, which threatens the global environment. Nevertheless, globalization may offer solutions for dealing with climate change. For this to occur, there is need for leaders and citizens to change their attitude towards climate change. Lastly, the fight against climate change can only be won through collective responsibilities and actions.
Works Cited International Panel on Climate Change. “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report.” International Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Web.. .
McMichael, Anthony. “The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78.9 (2000): 1117-1126. Print.
Najam, Adil, David Runnalls and Mark Halle. “Environment and Globalization: Five Propositions.” International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2007. Web. .
Green Computing in Botswana Qualitative Research Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Aim of the Research
Introduction Green Computing refers to eco-friendly utilization of computers. Green computing is quickly gaining popularity in various organizations and it should not only be seen as an environmental issue, but as a way of making good use of electronic gadgets.
The primary goal of green computing is to mitigate the use of harmful resources. Second, it is concerned with efficient utilization of energy in the entire lifetime of electronic equipment. Third, it focuses on encouraging reprocessing of obsolete products and industrial spin-offs. Specifically, green computing ensures that utilization of Information Technology does not harm the environment.
Aim of the Research Majority of students and other individuals that have embraced computer technology in Botswana are aware of its benefits, but they are oblivious of its negative consequences. It is against this background this research endeavors to find out the extent to which Botho College community has integrated green strategy into their activities.
Research Methodology In conducting this research, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated to both the learners and tutors at Botho Institute. The learners who participated in the survey answered the questions during lecturers.
The respondents pursued various disciplines that ranged from IT to accounts. 110 respondents completed the questionnaires. Sampling methodology was applied in assessing the respondents at Botho College. The participants had varied computer competency and experiences.
The feedback form was divided into section A and B. Section A had vocabulary quiz that was meant to gauge the extent to which computer users understood green computing. The respondents were asked ten questions that focused on the basic components of eco-friendly computing. Section B of the questionnaire focused on assessing how the respondents handle computers.
Questions in this section were scenario-based. For instance, the respondents were asked to explain what they do immediately after accomplishing their computer tasks. Section B was simply examining the energy saving skills of the respondents, especially, when they use electronic appliances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Study Outcome In general, the survey at Botho College revealed that most participants had little or no information regarding green computing. 40.8 percent of the participants responded to section A properly; 59.2 percent of them failed. In section B, only 35.4 percent of students made the right choices. This implies that serious induction on green computing should be carried out at Botho College.
The study also demonstrated that most learners and academic staff were ignorant of energy saving skills. Energy saving guidelines was strategically pinned in various class doors. The college does not have energy efficient computers, and they do not monitor their energy saving trends. Thus, it can be concluded that this institution lacks proper strategies on environmental protection.
Recommendations These recommendations are drawn from secondary sources such as books and journals that describe the concept of implementing green computing. In order to ameliorate its energy utilization, Botho College should develop a comprehensive policy on environmental protection which should be implemented through eco-friendly computing.
Computer procurement should be undertaken with proper consideration of the energy efficiency of the computers to be purchased. Moreover, the school should invest in the latest computer equipment since it is efficient. Lastly, the school should come up with a better strategy of disposing its junk computers. For instance, the college can donate its used computers to charitable trusts and remote communities in Botswana.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction Training is a crucial process in every organization. Regardless of how it is structured, it has a prime role to play in the development and success of all organizations. It is a productive and rewarding course to both employers and employees. Training enhances employer/employee knowledge and skills by addressing workplace weaknesses, and thus increasing productivity.
It also helps in maximizing human resource utility by improving employee morale and creating a working organizational climate. It further creates an environment where there is less supervision, but high efficiency and productivity of the workforce (Rees and Porter 254).
This paper looks at training in the Ministry of Interior (MOI) of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) coupled with how it has helped in the maximum utilization of human resources. In so doing, the paper begins by looking at the history of UAE coupled with how the MOI came to existence.
The paper significantly analyzes the strategic plan of the MOI including its vision and mission. The paper then identifies some of the key training programs offered at the Ministry and reviews the structure of the organization. It also gives a report on how these training programs apply to different levels of employees working at the Ministry.
History of United Arab Emirates Even though the federation of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was officially established in 1971, early history of the Emirates dates back to thousands of years ago. Perhaps the turning point was the defeat of non-Muslims in the 630s, which saw the various Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms converted to Islam. Later in the 19th century, these sheikhdoms disintegrated, with most of their members becoming pirates.
However, in 1820, the British imposed a truce on them and renamed the disintegrated sheikhdoms to Trucial Sheikhdoms. When the British finally granted them their independence, the Trucial states agreed to form a Union. This federation became known as the United Arabs Emirates.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates was created almost immediately after the states agreed to form a federation and work together. The member-states expressed a strong determination to realize peace, unity, and prosperity for the region. They also endeavored to achieve strength and dignity to improve their International reputation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was thus very necessary to unify their security under one essential federal authority. This unification brought about the creation of the MOI. The setting became one of the most important tenets of the federal government (Lori 315-337). Since its creation, MOI has gone through transformations with major changes witnessed in the leadership styles and human resource utilization.
For instance, at its early beginnings, the leadership of the Ministry was cunningly preserved to a certain class, specifically the elite officials. Sheikh Mubarak, its first Minister, is a very good example.
Even his successor, Hmooda bin Ali, was equally privileged. However, substantial developments started in the early 1990s with the posting of more professional leaders at the Ministry. Lt. General Dr. Mohammed was particularly responsible for defining the levels of stability and security in the region.
He helped raise the security standards by introducing principles and values, which ensured that the Ministry employees fulfilled their duties and obligations in various security-fields. In recent years, the Ministry has achieved large-scale developments and equipped its staff with efficient knowledge and skills to fight crimes and improve security (Lori 315-337).
Large Scale Developments The Ministry of Interior has adopted a leadership style based on scientific rules to enhance progress, skills, maturity, accountability, and help in developing efficient human resources. These rules include a vision, mission, values, and strategic objectives. The vision of the Ministry is to make UAE one of the most peaceful, safest, and securest nations in the region and beyond.
Its mission is to improve the quality of life in UAE by guaranteeing everyone security. The Ministry values include honesty, integrity, justice, respect for human rights, teamwork, excellence, quality leadership, and creativity and innovativeness.
Lastly, the strategic objectives of the Ministry include enhancing safety and security, ensuing readiness, maintaining public confidence, investing in the public, working in partnerships, and finest utilization of human resources. However, to prioritize security and safety matters, the Ministry has developed training programs for its employees.
We will write a custom Report on The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These programs seek to equip employees with more knowledge and skills so that they can understand their roles and objectives the best way possible. They also seek to help employees understand the needs and necessities of the society in a better way.
Training Programs Training programs are very important in improving employee performance. They help in the development of human resources, which ultimately helps employees to achieve both organizational and personal goals. Secondly, these programs help employees to expand their skills and knowledge of the job.
They also help in measuring success and addressing workplace weaknesses. Above all, training programs aim at developing superior personnel that is equal to the tasks of the organization (Sloman 73-87).
The Ministry of Interior of the UAE has adopted a similar training program to that of the U.S army leadership model. The “Be-Know-Do” model is a superior training program, which focuses on leadership. It prepares everyone to be a leader in his or her own capacity.
Thus, the model forms responsible, mature, and focused employees. In effect, employees require less supervision, become well acquainted with goals, and have fewer chances of making errors (U.S. Army 1-22).
The “BE” training model is about placing the character of the employees first. Every organization is value based. Every organization wants to have employees who are respectful, loyal, courageous, selfless, honorable, responsible, and persons of high integrity.
This element is exactly the purpose of this program. It aims at forming the character of the employees in all human areas (emotional, physical, and mental) to increase their ability to lead. It also prepares employees to be leaders at all times, regardless of the circumstances.
Above all, this model aims at training employees to be in a position to balance their personal values with those of the organization. It can be so stressful to have employees who do not have common values or who act on their personal values regardless of the organizational values.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The “KNOW” model is a training program aimed at developing employees to become more competent in their jobs. The employees are trained particularly on four areas, viz. interpersonal, conceptual, technical, and tactical skills. Interpersonal skills comprise of motivational, counseling, communication, and teaching skills. Conceptual skills include critical, ethical, and innovative skills.
Technical skills apply to the employee-knowledge of equipments and systems. Lastly, tactical skills are those that enable employees overcome hardships or face challenges. Overall, the mastery of these four categories of skills enables employees to handle their jobs with the deserved delicacy and professionalism (Jenter 413-443).
The “DO” training model aims at preparing the employees to act. Given that the character has been formed and employees have been equipped with enough intellectual skills, this last program seeks to empower the employees to act. However, to act, employees require three qualities, viz. influence, operation, and improvement. Workers should do the right thing regardless of the outside forces.
They also need to assess the situation before they can act. Additionally, without creating room for improvement, their actions might not be of much help to future actions, and to sum up everything, through the training programs, the Ministry of Interior aims at forming its staff to be people with character, intellectual capacity, and presence.
The Structure of the Ministry of Interior of the UAE The Ministry of Interior is structured into nine various departments. They include Traffic Department, Department of Finance and Support, Private Security, Police Sports Association, Department of Punitive and Reformatory Establishments, Human, General Inspector Office, Police College, and Law Respect Culture Bureau (United Arab Emirates Para. 3).
The Traffic Department supervises traffic services in all parts of the country to ensure that accidents are minimal. The General Department of Finance and Support (GDFS) provides the financial support to all public administrations under the Ministry. Its creation follows the “Council of Ministers Decision” No. (37). The Department of Private Security (DPS) ensures that there is security in the country.
It does this through creating partnerships between the security sector and the public. Established under the Federal law No. 43, the Punitive Reformatory Establishments (PRE) ensures that punishments are within the basic standards, while the Police Sports Association (PSA) ensures that police sports are properly developed through technical policies.
The sixth department oversees the maintenance of human rights and sees to it that there is freedom and dignity for everyone in the country. The mandate of the General Inspector Office is to ensure that safety and legitimacy are prioritized. It also oversees all the other police security services. The Police College is responsible for training all police officers.
Through training seminars and extensive courses, the College ensures that police officers are competitive in terms of their knowledge and skills. The last department, Law Respect Culture Bureau (LRCB), ensures that the rule of law is upheld by educating the society on the various categories of laws through languages that the people understand best (United Arab Emirates Para.6).
How the training programs are useful to employees in different Departments The training programs are extremely useful to all employees across the Departments. Regardless of the different levels, all employees should be people with character, intellectual capacity, and presence. Besides, the Ministry of Interior has very clear values, viz. honesty, integrity, justice and respect for human rights, teamwork, excellence, quality leadership, creativity, and innovativeness.
These values appeal directly to the character of the employees. Not everyone possesses these qualities. Nevertheless, even for those who do, balancing their personal values with the organizational values might be challenging in many ways. It is only through training the ‘character’ of the employees that there can be a working harmony in the employee-values.
The Ministry conducts its training at two levels. The first level, the administrative, aims at training the directors of various departments to be competent leaders. The directors are trained to lead by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to those under them.
They also learn to lead by example through communication and by extending their influence beyond their departments. The directors are further taught to be result-oriented. However, this aspect calls for them to create a positive environment that would inspire their juniors to accomplish their duties consistently.
The second level, the staff, aims at training the employees to increase performance. It begins with forming the character of the staff members so that their personal values can fit into the organizational values.
The program is also meant to equip the workforce with necessary skills and knowledge to enable them to be competent enough in carrying out their duties. The staff training can be summarized as follows “know yourself, know your job, and be professional in what you do”. Alternatively, know your mission, earn the reputation, and rigorously pursue it.
Conclusion As aforementioned, training is a crucial process in every organization. Regardless of how it is structured, it has a prime role to play in the development and success of all organizations. Training programs are important in improving employee performance as they focus on addressing workplace weaknesses.
They also help in the development of human resources, which ultimately helps the employees to achieve both the organizational and personal goals. Moreover, training programs aim at developing superior personnel that is equal to the tasks of the organization.
The Ministry of Interior of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has adopted the “Be-Know-Do” training model to enhance superior performance in its various departments. The training programs occur at two levels: administrative and staff.
The administrative program is the training given to the directors to improve their leadership competencies, while the staff program seeks to equip employees with more knowledge and skills to improve their performance.
Works Cited Jenter, Dirk. “Security Issue Timing: What Do Managers Know, and When Do They Know It?” Journal of Finance, 66.2 (2011): 413-443. Print.
Lori, Noora. “National Security and the Management of Migrant Labor: A Case Study of the United Arab Emirates.” Asian
Relational Database Management Systems Expository Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The idea of database management systems arose in the early 1970s following research conducted by IBM and university of California at Berkeley. The research intended to provide an alternative to the techniques in use at the time, especially to help reduce the cost of deploying and maintaining complex systems (Seltzer, 2008).
In the modern competitive world, the accessibility, accuracy and timeliness of storage and retrieval of information necessary to meet customer needs ensure an entity’s superior performance (Larson, 1988).
Relational database management systems improve productivity, speed and flexibility of data management in an organization through a design that encourages a clear boundary between the logical and physical aspect of database management system (Codd, 1970).
Most enterprises have embraced relational database management system due to their ability to ensure high levels of data security. Data security arises from the authentication and authorization functionalities of a relational database. Authentication is the process of validating users’ credentials to prevent unauthorized access to the entity’s information.
It requires users to enter their usernames and passwords, which can be encrypted to enhance their security. Authorization is the concept of controlling the information that each users can access by allocating different access permissions for users. This ensures that only individuals with the appropriate authorization can access sensitive information.
Organizations have also embraced relational database systems due to their capability to store huge amounts of information; that is, their data-warehousing capabilities (Seltez, 2008). This helps enterprises record customer transactions over time.
Such customer information can give insight into customer’s purchasing patterns, trends in product popularity, and regional product preferences. The entity can use such information to offer customers products that are more relevant to their needs, thus encourage more purchases (Seltez, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relational databases management systems provide superb directory services. With the increasing dependence on distributed resources, relational database directory servers organize the information in a hierarchical structure similar to that of the physical organization.
An example is LDAP standard that emerged in 1990. The standard is currently used in major companies e.g. IBM Tivoli’s directory server and the Microsoft’s Active directory server. This reduces the amount of time used in locating information in an organization and, for instance, facilitates management of various employee directories.
The relational database’s XML management capacity also provides core tools for entities to grow their business. Most online transactions are encoded using XML documents. These documents require conversion to a relational structure, storage in relational database, and reconversion during retrieval.
Relational database management systems support this workload of queries and traffic as experienced in online transaction processing. While creating data tables, one can define a relational table with a column of type XML that stores an XML document per row.
This means that expressions to search the XML are executed in an opaque manner to the query optimizer. This helps cap the advantages of XML into the data manipulated in the database, for instance, enabling consumer online ordering functions (Hellerstein, Stonebraker
Business college essay help
The world that humans live in today was shaped by the rapid economic growth that was witnessed in Western Europe over the last 1000 years. This growth was attributed to developments in various sectors including political, social and economic sectors in that region. Western Europe went through a period of sustained growth that had never been witnessed before.
This period, which took place between 1500 and 1800, marks the earliest significant sustained divergence in per capital income across various parts of the world. This made Western Europe substantially richer than other regions of the world such as Eastern Europe and Asia.
This paper examines the patterns of social and economic growth in Western Europe over a period of 1000 years. It also looks into some of the important periods in the history of Europe, such as the dark ages, the middle ages, and their impact on modern Europe.
The dark ages describe a period that occurred about a millennium ago that historians have no knowledge about due to lack of accurate records that were salvaged from the era. Thus, this age is usually clouded by legends and myths. During the dark ages, “Western Europe was under the leadership of hundreds of feudal kings and lords” (Greer
Virtual Museum Tour Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Humans have used art for centuries as a medium for secure expression and communication. Through art, artists have been able to explore their imagination, expressing their cultural and historical understanding or simply how they view the world through their artistic eyes.
Their ideas have been captured in portraits, paintings, sculptures, buildings, ornamentals, furniture and many other forms of art and objects branded with art. These products follow a style depending on the period at which they were developed. Art styles have been changing every now and then.
Great museums such as Vatican Museum in Italy founded in 1503 and Louvre Museum opened in 1793 as a museum in Paris; have greatly contributed in the preservation of the art style cultures. Art styles evident in these museums include; Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque and Rococo. Each style was unique. The following are examples of images of the above art styles and their characteristics.
Renaissance Michelangelo (The Accademia Gallery, Florence), David
Renaissance art style was developed in Europe between 1400 and 1600. This style was named after the period of rebirth in Europe commonly known as renaissance. Art work made in this period had more emphasis on human nature than God and other spiritual beings. Oil paint was the medium used for painting. Bronze and marble human sculptures had a high level of anatomical precision.
During this period artists emerged as independent personalities comparable to poets and musicians who did their work with realist goals. Leonardo da Vinci was one of the great artists who spearheaded this revolution during renaissance.
The period was characterized by artists employing perspective in their work to deliver a more sensible presentation. Shortening lines in drawing created an illusion of depth. This is called foreshortening. Also to create an illusion of depth or three-dimensionality in a piece of work; a technique called sfumato, discovered by Leonardo da Vinci was employed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Artists also used strong contrast between light and dark to give the illusion of depth or three- dimensionality. This style was referred to as chiaroscuro and was the opposite of sfumato. This period artists used balance and were proportionate in their work. They carefully considered the size of their materials.
Mannerism Parmigianino’s, Madonna with the Long Neck.
Mannerism is an artistic style that was embraced by artists in the 16th century after renaissance. In this period artists were more interested in creating an interesting piece which expressed emotion with human figures in different poses and unrealistic settings.
This period is characterized by artists painting people in peculiar positions with exaggerated body parts such as the neck and limps creating a denial of harmony and balance in the piece of work. Unlike the renaissance style, mannerism used diagonal and out of line perspective.
Baroque This period of art started around 1600. Artists concentrated on human perfection with strong lighting effects and distinction between lit areas and darkened areas.
Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens
This period is characterized by use of dramatic lights and darks which made the picture look like there was a spotlight; adding some drama to the art. The source of light is well-known as tenebrism. The baroque art depicts reality and naturalism. This is evident in muscular structures made in that period e.g. “saint George and the dragon” by Rubens.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Virtual Museum Tour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In sculptures, movement effects were applied such as a lot of twisting which lacked controlled posses. The artist of this period used time effect in their art. For instance an old man was incorporated in a piece of art to symbolize everybody will once get old. The artwork also had big facades. All these characteristics build up emotions and the intensity of the artwork.
Rococo Antoine Watteau, Pierrot, 1718–1719
This style was developed in France in the 18th –century and spread to other parts of Europe.It is a word derived from French meaning small rocks and shells in an ornamental garden. It was associated with wealthy people; furniture and ornaments were quite costly.
Rococo was diverse and the artists themes were more creative. It made use of materials such as gold and creamy paste-like colors. It was therefore embraced in interior decorations and theatre. Every piece of art was taken to be elegant and pretty. Unlike other styles rococo almost had no religious theme.
This period of art is characterized by a lot of decoration and lightness appearance. Sculptures were irregular and curved. Subject matters are highly highlighted and a sense of motion was created by shifting of the art design e.g. from convex to concave and many openings that allowed the effect of light and shadow.
In conclusion, art is a mode of communication that is interesting and does not require a voice but puts many ideas together in a small space. Art styles have continued to change with time as more people venture into art. The difference in the styles creates one beautiful view and a diverse platform for artists to choose and specialize or exploit.
Evaluation of Assistive Technology Essay college essay help
Table of Contents The Tools
The team composes of the following
The first step is to identify the need for assistive technology
The second step is to Explore Assistive Technology Solutions
The third step is to perform Assistive Technology Tests
The fourth step is to implement the technology trials
The phrase ‘One size fits all’, in this context means that one type of technology can be used by all categories of students. It means that there should be no modification on the types of technology used by normal student s to make them appropriate for students with disabilities (Beard, 2011).
Assistive technology, should not be approached with a “one size fits all” due to different requirements by different students. Assistive technologies need customization and modification depending on the specific needs of students with disabilities.
The greatest challenge for teachers of students with disabilities is to help make reasonable accommodation and modification in the education environment.
Students with disabilities have unique needs from those of other students; in order to meet their needs it is important to supplement individualised techniques with more special services. The risk involved is choosing the appropriate technology for people with disabilities (Wandeman, 2000).
When deciding on an assistive technology one must consider;
The Student: The student is the key issue in this team. The student should actively participate in decision making only constant on the team. His / her opinions should be respected since he or she is the one to use this technology. Student’s goals should be put into consideration, her or his current abilities and disabilities, and special requirement for the student.
Environment: This is also a very important aspect; institutional setting, institutional physical arrangement, available materials and equipments greatly affect a student’s performance under any circumstance and should be considered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tasks: a task that enhances progress towards the IEP goals should be should be put into consideration, identify tasks keeps the student actively involved in the environment (Tracey
Consumer Buying Process Analytical Essay custom essay help
A vast number of existing formulations of consumer decision making assume that consumers go through a specified succession of mental and behavioral stages in their decision processes as they engage in a convoluted search of the set of available alternatives to make a purchase.
A widespread characteristic of many of the formulations is that they are grounded on hierarchy-of-effects models postulating that on their way from identifying the need for a particular product/service to making the actual purchase, consumers move in one direction through a given sequence which involves or incorporates a set of stages (Dellaert
Business Commerce and Consumer Privacy Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Protection of Consumer Privacy
Key Developments in Privacy Protection
Protection of Consumer Privacy The development of new information and communication technologies has had a tremendous impact on individual privacy as well as security. Although previously confined to paper records, personal information ranging from name, address, and telephone number data to sensitive financial, medical, and behavioral information, now exists in electronic form.
Individuals routinely provide their personal details to businesses and employers online or through electronic transactions. In turn, companies use this information for analytics or marketing, and entities share the same information with a wide range of third parties (Horvath et al., 2009).
The ease with which personal information is collected, used, and shared has significant benefits for consumers and businesses. This free flow of information increases convenience, facilitates transactions, enables sophisticated and targeted marketing and assists law enforcement.
These benefits, however, are accompanied with challenges including the potential for a decrease in individual privacy, the possible spread of inaccurate or incomplete information, and the risk of identity theft among other crimes (Pitofsky et al., 1999). Advances in technology have also affected privacy and security in other ways. In particular, the Internet has made personal computers a gateway to an entire world of information.
Key Developments in Privacy Protection The primary catalyst leading to policy discussions about information privacy protection has been technological change (Rule
Cloud Computing Evaluation Essay essay help online free
Cost reduction AWS offers a lot of economic benefits to Ericsson Company by reducing its expenses. Ericsson derives operational advantages including quicker setting up of infrastructure and convenient cost effective finishing of huge computational projects (Malaher, 2009). Amazon provides a free tier which allows Amazon EC2 to get started at no charge.
AWS does not include long-term commitments and up-front costs making its initialization to be easy and cost effective. Amazon cloud computing services allow Ericsson to save a lot of money by providing inexpensive plans for compute capacity consumed.
Amazon allows Ericsson Company to cut the costs by cutting the Information Technology (IT) staff. By obtaining expertise outside the company, Ericsson can lay off its IT staff since its services are maintained by experts from Amazon (Mitchell
Challenges and Human Resource Mechanisms in Multinational Companies Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Multinational companies have operations in more than one country. Therefore, companies employ people from different countries and culture (Feely 2003). These companies have a culturally diverse work force. Multinational companies have subsidiaries in different countries thus have diverse work forces.
Diversity is characterised by religious and cultural differences among employees (Som 2006). Human resource managers are expected to provide an environment where needs of all employees are adequately addressed.
There are several challenges that face human resource specialists in multinational companies. This relates to various aspects of human resource management practice including recruitment and selection, employee training and development and performance appraisal. Therefore, multinational companies are expected to put in place mechanisms which address challenges ensuring that employees remain motivated.
This contributes to the overall organisational performance and realisation of organisational objectives. The following article explores some of the challenges faced by multinational companies in human resource management practice. Similarly, human resource mechanisms addressing the above challenges shall be explored in the article.
Changing Landscape of HRM and Organisational Behaviour Domain
Human resource practice has evolved greatly. There are several challenges that faced personnel managers in the 1970’s and 1980’s. One of the challenges that faced personnel managers during that particular duration, before incorporation of human resource practice is reduced influence in decision making.
Personnel managers input in critical organisational decisions was minimal (Caldwell 2003). This includes decisions of selection of employees where personnel managers were expected provide a breakdown of tasks associated with different positions.
Also, personnel managers had decreased autonomy in decision making. Therefore, they were not in a position to significantly influence the organisational culture. Similarly, personnel managers were expected to harmonize employee and management interests (Caldwell 2003). Managers were not in a position to be highly innovative in addressing emerging employee needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, researchers were keen on justifying the role of the human resource function in organisations. Some of the early human resource management models developed linked employee output and company strategies (Noe 2008). Under the models, emphasis was on management of employees thus ensuring that the organisation was in a position to realize strategic objectives.
Furthermore, human resource management models introduced the aspects of selection, recruitment and performance appraisal as part of the human resource function. Therefore, the human resource function was entrenched in corporate culture and has become an integral part of modern firm’s organisational culture.
The human resource function has greatly evolved including incorporation of technology in modern practice (Becker
International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents What is Globalization?
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis
Benefits of Deeper Globalization
Risks of Deeper Globalization
The recommendation by the IMF for Guidia to embrace deeper globalization aims at increasing the economic opportunities of the country. The IMF believes that Guidia will have an increased volume of trade, more foreign direct investment, and greater transfer of knowledge if it pursues deeper globalization.
The basis of this recommendation is the view held by development economists from the IMF based on the belief that globalization can improve the economic fortunes of any country. Research into this subject does not support a universal positive outcome for countries that embrace globalization.
This paper reviews the specific economic circumstances of Guidia in order to determine whether it will benefit or lose from deeper globalization.
What is Globalization? The term globalization normally refers to the sum total of several forces that are shaping the relationships of nations across the world. It includes political issues, social and economic relationships, and cultural interaction among the peoples of the world. There is no consensus on when globalization started.
Some scholars pin the origin of globalization to the departure of Columbus to the Americas, while others prefer to associate it with the colonial era during the industrial revolution. Others prefer to look at it as the technology driven changes of the latter half of the twentieth century.
For purposes of this report, globalization refers to the current forces shaping global relationships. The recommendation of the IMF to Guidia to pursue deeper globalization assumes this meaning.
In this sense, this report will investigate the actual circumstances of Guidia in relation to its political, social, cultural, and economic realities through a PESTLE analysis. While the IMF offered its recommendation to Guidia to improve the performance of the economy of the country, deeper globalization will precipitate several other changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the political scene, globalization creates a greater desire for political space by the citizens of any country. Depending on the political system in use in the country, globalization can lead to either political instability or political maturity. If the government does not want to become more accountable to its citizens, then globalization can precipitate political instability.
Economically, deeper globalization can create opportunities for profit by meeting the demands of the international market. The IMF foresees this situation for Guidia.
Becoming a player in the international market will ensure that Guidia harnesses its competitive advantages as a country on order to enjoy the benefits of international trade. However, deeper globalization can also lead to deeper exposure of the country to shocks. Events in far off countries that trade with Guidia will have an effect on local economic conditions.
On the social front, globalization tends to increase the expectations of citizens from their governments when they see how people in other countries live. Globalization exposes citizens to new ideas and different viewpoints that at times contradict local customs.
For instance, many African and Asian countries are reluctant to accept same sex unions as an alternative to heterosexual unions. In the West, same sex unions find wider acceptance. Globalization means that the ideals of a country will experience challenges associated with the ideals of other countries.
Technologically, deeper globalization calls for the introduction of new technologies that support globalization. The most significant technological investment needed for deeper globalization is the internet.
It also means that the country will need the human resource to handle the technologies it adopts to support deeper globalization. Increasingly, a free press is becoming an important aspect of globalization. In a globalised economy, it is impossible to control news because people have a multiplicity of new sources.
We will write a custom Report on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental issues are also an important part of the global economy. The main issue underlying global discussions on the environment is global warming and the fight to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
Industrializing countries such as India and China are opposed to emission reduction because they feel that it is unfair to ask them to control their emissions at this point in their development. They feel that no one asked the West to do the same thing when they were industrializing.
Finally, on the legal landscape, international law is becoming more important. The free movement of labor means that every country needs to subscribe to an internationally acceptable code to guide international trade and international relations.
The issue of jurisdiction in cyber crime is a very sensitive topic in online commerce. For instance, what happens when someone located in a foreign country hacks into local systems? Is there a way to prosecute them for cross boarder crimes?
The issues above underlie this analysis. They will form the bedrock for the analysis of the benefits and risks Guidia will experience by taking IMFs advice to pursue deeper globalization.
A Review of Guidia’s Socio-Economic Profile: A SWOT Analysis A SWOT analysis is the best tool for carrying out a socioeconomic analysis of the condition in Guidia. Guidia has a relatively high-income per capita standing at four thousand dollars. This means that with a population of sixty million, the country has a strong local market. The fact that sixty-five percent of the population is in urban areas means that it will be easy for the country to embrace deeper globalization.
Urban communities tend to have better exposure to international issues. A high urban population is a critical sign of the ability of a country to pursue deep globalization. The country also has raw materials, which it currently exports.
The presence of raw materials is an indication that the country can establish local industries through foreign direct investment (FDI) in order carry out value addition for products before export. Finally, the country’s trade in natural gas and the recent establishment of export processing zones are sources of learning for the country that can enable it to pursue deeper globalization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Business Environment: The Benefits and Risks of Deeper Globalization for Guidia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main weaknesses of the country include the potential problems associated with middle and low-income countries that have high population densities. The information provided does not substantiate the population growth rate or the demographic ratios. Therefore, the classification as a weakness comes from the perception that the country has a high population.
High population can hinder the growth of a country because of competition for resources. Secondly, the country will suffer because of little industrial development. The fact that the country exports natural resources shows that the industries in the country are underdeveloped.
The opportunity cost of being a net exporter of raw materials high. It is always better to sell value-added products. Thirdly, the country has limited experience in international trade. So far, the only exports the country makes are natural gas and products made in the newly created export-processing zone.
The two opportunities the country has in the context of deeper globalization the availability of affordable labor and the availability of raw materials. The population of the country is an asset. The citizens can provide labor for business process outsourcing. As a middle-income country, it can compete favorably for outsourcing contracts with companies from high-income economies.
Apart from this, its population is already high enough to provide a market for products from both local and international companies. Secondly, the presence of raw materials makes the country an ideal investment destination for international investors. The country can attract foreign direct investment from investors who can utilize the raw materials in the country to produce products for sale in the international markets.
The threats facing Guidia include the potential for exploitation by international investors, and lack of capacity to deal with the consequences of deeper globalization. Experienced international investors can bind the country in unreasonable contracts. Due to its lack of experience in international trade, Guidia can fall for one-sided contracts.
Elements of one-sided agreements include unreasonably long tax holidays, long land leases, and unfair profit repatriations. Secondly, the country is vulnerable to the disruptive effects of deeper globalization.
People in the country will demand changes in the political and social environment to match the experience of other countries. Such changes can cause political and social instability. If Guidia’s political leadership is not accountable, then deeper globalization may lead to political unrest in the country.
Benefits of Deeper Globalization Based on the SWOT analysis of the socioeconomic environment of Guidia, and the examination of its environment, the country can enjoy some benefits by pursuing deeper globalization.
First, the country can gain from deeper globalization by making use of its competitive advantages. The SWOT analysis revealed that the country has natural resources, and a high population.
In addition, its classification as a middle-income country suggests that labor costs are more competitive in Guidia than in high-income countries. These are potential sources of competitive advantage for the country as it determines the best policies to pursue in its globalization efforts.
According to Faulkner and Segan-Horn (2004) when a country concentrates on using its competitive advantages in international trade, it receives better returns. In turn, the country can access products from other countries, which are more expensive to produce locally.
In this sense, Guidia can enjoy better quality of goods and services by increasing its returns from international trade. It can then use those returns to access high quality goods and services bought at lower cost from competitive producers.
If Guidia chooses to pursue a globalization policy based on the Washington consensus promoted by the IMF, then it means that the country will need to focus on institutional changes as the primary means of economic development. Institution-driven changes usually mean that the country’s development programs will move from personality driven to issue driven policies.
As such, decision-making will move from a centralized model to a more institutional approach. Foreign investors usually feel more confident in institution-driven systems rather than personality driven systems. The benefit that Guidia will experience from such a shift is that it will have a more predictable environment. Therefore, no radical changes take place when new people ascend to the helm of the institutions.
The second model that Guidia can follow is pursing growth spurred by foreign aid. This model will involve finding countries and international lending organizations that can forward development aid to Guidia. The basis for this approach is an economy grows through various thresholds. Each of these levels corresponds to certain operating characteristics of the economy.
In order to grow from one level to another, the country needs a certain amount of capital injection in order to arrive at the next threshold. International aid is an example of the capital injection needed to spur the growth of an economy. An example of a region that benefited from international aid at some point in its history is Europe after the Second World War.
However, the structure of the aid is very important. Some countries in the developing world have found themselves in a perpetual poverty cycle caused by aid. When international debt equals or exceeds GDP, the debt becomes unsustainable. Apart from the debt cycle, international aid may come with conditions. These conditions may not reflect the priorities of Guidia.
For instance, the IMF and the World Bank promote democratic ideals and free market policies in their aid programs. If Guidia does not believe in these ideals, then it must take care as it accepts the conditions imposed on it. Change is very disruptive. Guidia must take such aid with caution if it decides to use this model to pursue globalization.
Risks of Deeper Globalization The global financial crisis of 2009 illustrates the interdependence between global economies. The crisis arose from events in the financial markets and the real estate sector in America. Property prices plunged as many people saw their investment in real estate disappear. Financial institutions suffered most because most of their assets were in the real estate sector.
When more and more people defaulted on their mortgage payments, financial institutions could not remain afloat. These events affected the entire global economy. The countries that had the most globalised systems suffered most from the global crises. This illustrates the exposure Guidia will have if it pursues deeper globalization. Globalized economies are at a high risk of exposure to events taking place in other countries.
Another risk that Guidia will need to address if it takes on deeper globalization is that it will have to deal with the disruptive impacts of globalization. As a country, Guidia has a set of national values, culture, and a generally unified worldview. These elements of the Guidia society will come under scrutiny from outsiders, and its citizens will ask questions.
The Arab Spring is a good illustration of the disruptive nature of globalization. The citizens of the countries that faced the wave of popular dissent found their voice based on information gleaned online. The actual coordination of the protest meetings took place via social media platforms. The demonstrations received support from people across the entire world.
In response to these disruptions, some countries developed controls over the internet to reduce the risk of popular revolt coordinated through the internet. China, for instance does not allow unhindered access to the open web by its citizens. Some commentators refer to the Chinese control over the internet as the great firewall. This is means of controlling the disruptive effects of globalization.
There is debate whether such efforts will remain in place over the long term. The point here is that deeper globalization will have an impact on Guidia. These impacts will be more severe if the country does not embrace democracy, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press. As soon as the citizens of the country learn about the extent of freedom citizens in other parts of the world enjoy, they will revolt.
The success of deeper globalization in Guidia also depends on the financial system of the country. Deeper globalization will force Guidia to conform to international norms of trade. Part of these norms includes market driven currency exchange rates. This means that the strength of the national currency of Guidia will depend on the demand and supply of the currency.
In addition, Guidia will have to develop a tariff system that is in conformity with rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Failure to conform to these rules will lead to the isolation of Guidia from international markets. In addition to these issues, Guidia will stand a better chance of benefiting from international trade if its financial policies conform to the national culture and business practices.
While the World Bank and the IMF previously argued in favor of free market economies, the experiences of many countries show that it is better to develop a national policy in line with the governance systems rather than adopt foreign systems. The Asian financial crisis affected countries with liberal financial policies proposed by the Washington Consensus.
However, China, which still controls many aspects of its economy, did not suffer a lot from the crisis. The lesson here is that opening the markets to the forces of globalization without appropriate checks and balances can result in economic problems for the country.
Conclusion Guidia can benefit from deeper globalization based on the following conditions. First, Guidia must develop policies that affirm its aspirations and its economic objectives, and not the will of external parties. Secondly, the country will benefit from deeper globalization if it can align its political system to conform to the international norms of governance.
This means that the country will benefit more from globalization of it upholds open and accountable governance. Thirdly, there will be a greater reward for the country from globalization if the country uses a capitalist model in its economic planning. The model must take into account the country’s culture and traditions, and the expectations from players in the global markets.
Finally, Guidia will benefit from deeper globalization if it can identify and use its competitive advantages as a country as it positions itself as a global player. The competitive advantages should encompass aspects such as national branding, strategic planning, and any peculiar elements of the population such as availability of skills.
On the other hand, Guidia will face a number of risks associated with deeper globalization. These risks include the disruptive effects of forces of globalization, risk of increased national debt, and the risk of internal economic instability caused by institutional changes demanded by international financiers.
Reference List Bond, P 2008, ‘Global Uneven Development, Primitive Accumulation, and Political Economic Conflict in Africa: The Return of the Theory of Imperialism’, Journal of Peace Building and Development, vol 4, no. 1, pp. 1-14.
Changes in Social Media Essay scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Changes in social media
Introduction With the rapid change in the digital economy observed in the last century specifically in the last decade, the future only looks brighter for this area. The last decade has seen various developments in the way people keep in touch. This move has mainly brought into shape what is popularly regarded as social media.
These changes raise questions of where the social media will be in the next decade of 2020. The essay seeks to find out the changes in the social media in the last decade, and the future of this industry.
Changes in social media The information and communication industry has changed over the last decade with advances and revolution in the way people interact. Some of the most significant achievements in the social media include Skype, email, social networks such as Facebook, and short message texting over mobile devices.
All these have the combined effect of making the world a global village in the year 2020 linking people previously separated by physical and political boundaries. The last five years alone have seen the multiplication of people engaged in social networks with new sites being developed almost annually (Donath,
Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping
Utilizing Cognitive Mapping and Imagery
Mental Imagery and Cognitive Mapping Imagery can be considered a means by which an individual experiences a particular event, perceives a certain object or views a distinct scene all without the event, object or experience being there in the first place.
For example, if a person were to close their eyes and imagine an apple that act would already be a form of imagery given that the perceived apple is not actually there but is viewed utilized stored memories which take the form of an apple.
While the origins of how the human brain is able to accomplish the task of imagery is still a mystery, the fact remains that it is an action that is often utilized in order to remember particular key details about an event, object or scene that is necessary for a particular task to be accomplished.
For example, mental imagery can be defined as a form of mental rehearsal wherein an individual visualizes an action or an event and then subsequently practices the motions within his/her mind in order to better understand how to perform that type of action within a given situation, all of this in absence of actual physical exertion.
One of the first theoretical guides in examining the worth of mental imagery is neuromuscular theory which specifically states that the neuromuscular pattern associated with a particular movement in a sport can actually be “excited” or rather activated through imagery as well thus facilitating the process of trial and error that comes with repeated practice of a specific skill.
The basis of this particular theory can be seen in studies such as those by Knäuper (2009) which show that the activation of neurotransmitters associated with a particular action do not necessarily need to rely on performing an action but can actually be accomplished by thinking of the action itself (Knäuper, 2009).
One of the supposed applications of mental imagery can be seen in the various claims over the past few years which consist of supposed improvements in performance, energy, technique, motivation and the overall enjoyment that an athlete can derive from the sport that they are in as a direct result of utilizing mental imagery in their training regimen (Eddy. 2003).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advocates of the technique claim that given enough time and practice an athlete will be able to determine what mistakes he/she has made in previous games and as a result can practice within his/her own mind in order to determine what to do right next time (Sargent, 2002).
Cognitive mapping on the other hand is an entirely different type of skill that is a form of mental processing which enables individuals to observe, acquire, store then subsequently recall specific types of information collected through observation. From a certain perspective, it can be considered that cognitive mapping is a method of associating a particular cognitive device with a set of information that one wishes to remember.
For example, a specific object such as a tree, home, or lake can be utilized as a means of association regarding a particular type of information. This can come in the form of a type of home and rural background being associated with either one’s parents or an individual’s first love.
It should also be noted that cognitive mapping as a frame of reference is not limited to mental imagery as a means of recalling information, rather, it can encompass other “points on the map” in the form of auditory and textual clues.
For example, the acronym “H.O.ME.S” is utilized in various high school classes within the U.S. as a cognitive mapping method in order to remember the names of the great lakes region (i.e. Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior).
Various forms of mnemonic devices are applications of cognitive mapping and are commonly utilized in order to remember and code large amounts of data into snippets of information that can be obtained from the mind via the use of various mnemonic points in the brain’s cognitive map.
It must be noted though that similar to case of imagery the process by which cognitive mapping is put into practice is still fairly unknown to researchers. One way in which researchers have attempted to explain how cognitive mapping works is through the use of the Baddeley and Hitch (1974) multi-component model.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive Mapping, Imagery and Mirror Neurons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model states that working memory operates via a system of “slave systems” and a central controller which supervises the transmission and coordination of information (RepovŠ
Ybarra v. Spangard Case Case Study online essay help
Introduction People make mistakes and it is obvious that people forgive, however, when it deals with medical malpractice, the mistakes are forbidden, however, they still occur. Ybarra v. Spangard is a case study which deals with a specific situation when doctor’s mistake has lead to patient’s injury.
Clinical negligence is a very serious and one of the most complicated accusing as at one and the same time the fault of a person is difficult to achieve. Having considered the case study Ybarra v. Spangard, the form of negligence that best fits this case is going to be discussed along with the elements for a claim of negligence found there.
Which form of negligence best fits this case?
The duty of care is one of the clinical negligence which perfectly fits the situation.
One of the main reasons for this is the four elements which are included in its definition, which are as follows, “the medical professional had a DUTY OF CARE owed to the plaintiff”, “the medical professional BREACHED that DUTY OF CARE”, “the breach was both the ACTUAL and PROXIMATE CAUSE of the injury”, and “the injury resulted in DAMAGES to the plaintiff” (Negligence, 2009).
In our case, the plaintiff was injured, however, due to anesthesia he is unable to make sure who of the doctors was responsible for it. Being put at the operational table, doctors failed to follow whether the patient is appropriately comforted.
Due to anesthesia, a patient was unable to comfort himself as well as he was unable to say about some problems which made him feel pain. Therefore, the doctors failed to take care of a patient while they had such a duty.
Are all the elements for a claim of negligence found in the case? Identify each of the four Ds.
Before answering a question whether all the elements for a claim of negligence are found in the case or not, it is important to enumerate those elements. Duty, dereliction, direct cause and damages are elements for a claim of negligence (Lynch, Hancox, Happell,
Military Leadership in US Essay best college essay help
The capacity for an organisation to adapt to changing dynamics and effectively discharge duties to the society is dependent on the leadership within it. Such an understanding informs why effective military leadership is paramount for a resilient, dynamic, effective and ethical military. Many scholars are interested in designing parameters that can develop a framework for leadership suited for the military.
On reviewing multiple studies on military leadership, my perspective of crucial elements required for an effective leadership within the military despite many challenges there is wider. Here, leadership must balance between adopting mechanisms that are useful for an effective accomplishment of missions within a supporting environment for the military without compromising core military ethics.
What is military leadership? During an interview after retiring as the United States 29th commandant, the famous General Al Gray (credited with implementing crucial changes that transformed the US military into a modern and effective fighting machine), summarised crucial aspects that must define leadership within the military (Bartone 2002, 494).
Here, Al Gray talked about exerting a positive influence on the military through the use of selected actions as well as by example. Military leadership involves the use of suitable behaviours, personality, and actions that can align the overall behaviour of the military with mission goals without compromising the growth, wellbeing, and development of the military force (Bartone 2002, 494).
Apart from strong mental and performance capabilities, an effective military leader must have a suitable personality that can expand the ability of the military force to do difficult tasks within challenging environments. As it will become clear, a military leader must inspire the military, as well as work within ethical standards (Bartone 2002, 490).
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. While the US government is tightening the military budget, potential threats to the US are on the increase (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
As a result, military personnel overwork due to frequent deployments in places like Afghanistan where they face unseen enemies in an unconventional warfare (Charles et al. 2009, 4). As they face a highly challenging environment of operation, the US military personnel must develop resilience to complete missions within required goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several studies show that people who develop high resilience are more suited to deal with stressing environments than those with low resilience (Charles et al. 2009, 4).
Highly resilient people are able to make out meaning from stressful environments and can create a happy atmosphere despite the challenges they face. Therefore, military leaders must inspire resilience capabilities within the military force to protect mission goals (Charles et al. 2009, 5).
A number of factors, such as separation from friends and family, meeting with continuous threats from the enemy, unclear instructions on how to react to danger, boredom, the death/injury of comrades, and harsh environments can especially create a stressful environment for military personnel working in overseas missions(Charles et al. 2009, 3).
Military leaders must show an example of high resilience to inspire resilience within the military force. Besides, military leaders should carry out measures which are successful for effecting resilience in a challenging environment. Here, leaders must find ways to encourage group members (Charles et al. 2009, 7).
The issue of ethics is significant for a successful leadership within the military. On one hand, the use of ethical standards within the military is helpful in developing a clear chain of career paths as well in clarifying a framework of operations within the military. On the other hand, it is difficult to counter unconventional warfare without putting some ethical considerations into perspective.
The presence of persons with different values and personalities within the military necessitates the need for designing a clear set of ethics to align the conduct of military personnel with mission goals and societal values (Kermit 1980, 47).
One of the main issues that hinder ethical conduct within the military is an assumption that ethics are of less importance than achieving mission goals (Kermit 1980, 52). Fear of superiors by subordinates can also prevent an officer from questioning the conduct of military leaders (Kermit 1980, 52).
We will write a custom Essay on Military Leadership in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another hindrance to embeding ethical values within the military is an overbearing responsibility on the part of an officer to protect the image of the military at the price of ethical values (Kermit 1980, 63).
Moreover, prioritising one’s career path can act to prevent ethical values in the military (Kermit 1980, 48). Leaders, who among other things, bully their subordinates into unethical actions (or give questionable promotions) are unhelpful in promoting ethical values in the military.
Unconventional warfare is a phenomenon that is defining modern war. Such a shift in military warfare blurs the goal of a military operation from annihilating an enemy to fighting an unseen enemy who can hide in the public as well as use other unconventional means to win warfare (Pfaff 2011, 12).
Here, decisions of military leaders must balance ethical considerations in achieving the goal of a military operation, protecting team members, and minimizing damage (Pfaff 2011, 15). It is always difficult to select among the three areas of compromise to protect the goal of a military operation.
For example, while the use of force against an enemy who is hiding in the public could help to protect team members, an angry reaction from the public could make the task of a mission more difficult in the future.
Here, military leaders should stay firm, aggressive, and decisive during the first stages of a military operation (Pfaff 2011, 15). However, later stages of an operation need leaders who can engage the public to build strong institutions that can protect the goals of a military operation after exit (Pfaff 2011, 15).
Conclusion Military leadership is a challenging task that transcends beyond suitable mental abilities to inspirational abilities, effective personalities and a wide database of knowledge and skills. An effective military leader must inspire ethical values in the military by avoiding improper leadership approaches (such as bullying subordinates to take part in improper acts of cover), which prevent ethical values within the military.
The US military has in the recent past faced multiple challenges resulting from the shortage of resources and the changing dynamics of modern warfare. Emerging challenges, such as unconventional warfare, make it difficult for military leaders to make decisions that can balance between conflicting ethical considerations.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Military Leadership in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A military leader who lives in the 21st century is obviously in a more difficult position than his counterpart who lived in previous centuries. Such a direction calls for policy designers in the military to use an effective training and preparation program for the future leaders of the military.
Bibliography Bartone, Paul. New wine in old bottles: Leadership and personality in the military organization. Chicago: Department of Defence Press, 2002.
Charles L. Barry, Paul T. Bartone, Emily, Richards, and Robert E. Armstrong. Build resilience: Leader influence on mental hardiness New York: Defence Horizons Press, 2009.
Kermit, Johnson. Ethical issue of military leadership. New York: Defence Horizons Press, 1980.
Pfaff, Tony. Resolving ethical challenges in an era of persistent conflict. New York: Strategic Studies Institute Press, 2011.
Panera Bread Business Case Study college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Company Background
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread
Strategy that works
Implementation of the strategy
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success
Company Background Founded in 1981 by Ron Shaich and Louis Kane, the famous Panera Bread Company started operating under the brand name Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. It first grew along the United States’ east coast before it was internationalized between early 1980’s to 1990’s.
This immense growth had the implication of making the company a dominant business operator in the category of bakery-cafe. In 1993, Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. bought St.Louis Bread Company. At the time of this acquiring, St.Louis Bread Company had 20 bakery cafes. In 1993 to 1997, the company recorded an increment of 75 percent in its mean unit volumes.
This prompted the alteration of the brand name from Au Bon Pain Co. Inc. to Panera Bread Company. In 1997, the Panera Bread Company recognized its capacity for growth to become a leading bread maker in the United States. However, to achieve this noble potential, heavy investment of monetary resources was required.
Indeed, in 1999, the company completed a transaction involving a sale of the business units of Au Bon Pain Co., Inc. only remaining with those of the Panera Bread Company. With regard to Panera Bread, after the completion of this transaction, “the company’s stock has grown thirteen-fold, and over $1 billion shareholder value has been created” (Para. 5).
The company acquired the title of the best performer under the category of restaurants with 1, 5, and 10-year shareholders’ returns. Later, in 2007, Panera Bread Company also purchased paradise bakery and cafe. As Panera Bread points out, “in March 2012, the company announced that Bill Moreton and Ron Shaich would both assume the roles of chief executive officers” (Para. 2).
Currently, Shaich acts as the co-CEO and the chairperson of the board of directors. On the other hand, Bill Moreton is the co-CEO and the president of Panera Bread Company. As at September 2012, the company had established business presence in 44 states where it operated 1,625 bakeries.
SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis involves strategic planning approaches engineered to evaluate strengths, limitations, and opportunities without negating threats that businesses face in their operation environment. Strengths are the traits that make it possible for an organization to have an advantage in comparison to other organizations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For the case of Panera Bread Company, the strengths include appealing and attractive food menus that comprise a variety of products from which customers can choose. According to Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, these products include “fresh baked goods, made-to-order sandwiches on freshly baked breads, soups, salads, custom roasted coffees, and other complementary products” (10).
Due to the company’s strong financial position, it has managed to invest in cozy cafes, which create a smoothing environment for the customers. This has the impact of making the company build a strong customers’ experience.
The strength is implied in the company’s statement of goals, missions, and aims in which it stipulates that the central goal is to ensure that Panera Bread Company is the first choice of all customers who crave for sandwiches, soup, and salads. In addition to these strengths, the company has an enormous distribution ability covering a large geographic area (44 states as of Septembers 2012).
It has products having relatively better quality while compared to its competitors. It has differentiated its services with the rival companies besides accumulating customers’ beliefs that the company stocks fresh breads. Besides, it has developed a powerful and winning business strategy. Amid the above-cited strengths, Panera Bread Company encounters some weaknesses.
These include the traits of Panera Bread Company that place it at a disadvantage in comparison with rival companies operating in the same industry. One of the weaknesses is the heavy investments in bread centric line of business, which means that Panera Bread Company has a narrow product line.
Other weaknesses are higher prices at the company-owned stores in comparison to the franchises, declining customer service, and customer preferences. In particular, alterations of preferences and customer tastes may make them consider opting for buying more nutritious food items in other restaurants.
Contextualization of this weakness introduces some chances that the company may consider as existing external chances, which, while utilized, may make it improve its performance. They include international expansions and opening of new outlets to tap the growth potential within the suburban markets.
We will write a custom Case Study on Panera Bread Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact that the company has a weakness of narrow product line introduces an opportunity for introduction of new items in the product line. On the other hand, Panera Bread Company encounters external chances that impair its performance. These are threats to the operation of the company.
They include lawsuits, government regulations, and competition from rival companies such as Sturbucks and Mc Donald among other local and international restaurants offering fast foods. In the context of lawsuits and drawing from Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the company admits that it is “subjected to other routine legal proceedings, claims, and litigations in the ordinary course of its business” (10).
This requires heavy commitment of financial resources and management attention. Saturation of the market creates another incredible threat. The company would encounter challenges in getting strategic places for opening new outlets consistent with its strategic plan of enhancing profitability through rapid expansion.
Strategies to attack major problems faced by Panera Bread Panera Bread Company encounters several problems in the derivation of its strategic plans to enhance a continuous growth in an environment that is saturated by a variety of companies offering similar or substitute products. One of the problems of the company is that it offers products in its company-owned stores at prices that are higher than the franchises.
A significant reason for these differences is the need to gain higher profit margins to cater for the costs of running the business-associated issues that are extrinsic from the control of the company such as the cost of settlement of lawsuits filed against the company by past employees.
For instance, in 2009, Nick Sotoudeh filed a case costing the company 5 million dollars in its settlement (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4). In 2010, Corey Weiner, Caroll Ruiz, and Denarius Lewis filed another case against the company costing 1.5 million dollars in its resolution (Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q 2 4).
To meet this cost to ensure that Panera Bread Company is able to offer bread at its own stores at competitive prices, it is crucial that the company results to intensive growth. On the positive side, growth is vital since it will provide the necessary economies of scale. This means that the company will remain profitable amid making small profit margins for every product sold.
The negative side of this strategic move qualifies as a technique of enhancing growth such as forming joint ventures with other big competitors such as McDonald who will deprive the company of its executive control power. Panera Bread Company is likely to experience the problem of reduced profitability due to narrow product lines. To resolve this problem, it is crucial that it focuses on widening its product lines.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Panera Bread Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This strategic move will, on the positive side, help in drawing more customers to its stores. Hence, the revenue will also hike. On the other hand, the strategic move will increase the logistical costs and other costs associated with service delivery at the stores. Therefore, under certain circumstances, increment in revenues would be outweighed by the resulting additional costs.
Somewhat different from the above two strategic moves, to address the challenge of how to increase revenues, the company can resolve to recruit more franchises besides opening more stores that are company-owned. On the positive end, this would increase revenues.
On the other hand, increasing the number of company-owned stores would truncate into recruiting more staff, a case that increases the risk of experiencing more employees’ filed lawsuits. Another strategy that has not perhaps been considered by the company is focusing on extending its services away from America and Canada to other continents of the world.
On the positive side, this would increase the sales of the company since being global implies meeting new fresh markets in which the company can develop products consistent with the demand requirements. Unfortunately, the option would expose the company to different political, legal, and cultural environments.
Consequently, Panera Bread Company would have to change some of its practices to match the new demand. For instance, there might be a conflict between the accounting standards. The company deploys the U.S’ GAAP, which might contradict the national generally accepted accounting principles of the new nations in the global space.
Strategy that works With the current financial and business environment of the Panera Bread, the best option for dealing with the challenge of the need to increase profitability of the company is via recruitment of more franchises besides opening company- owned stores within Canada and America. Hence, I would open 300 new company-owned stores and franchises at the first phase of expansion of Panera Bread Company.
The rationale for this strategy is based on the argument that, as evidenced by the estimations of good will in its balance sheet, the company has an immense market value. Additionally, in comparison to potential competing companies, Panera Bread Company has an incredible market position by virtue of its strengths. However, as argued before, the market is highly saturated with restaurants.
Hence, there is a dominant challenge of acquiring buildings in strategic places within many cities where the company may consider as having the requisite market segment it targets. Additionally, at the entry level, many of these competing restaurants have the will and ability to pose competitive challenges to the company at the new franchises and or company-owned stores since they will have secured their market share.
However, given the brand image and the quality of products and services offered by Panera Bread, the company has probabilities of getting some of this market share to build the clientele level at the new stores and franchises. The claim holds especially when it invests to improve its service delivery experience to levels above those of the existing restaurants in the new markets.
Utilizing the strategy of growth through recruitment of more franchises and company-owned stores is particularly significant in enhancing Panera Bread Company’s competitive position since it will make it develop the capacity to take a full advantage of the economies of scale.
At the current size of Panera Bread Company, attempts to exploit the markets of all continents of the world are found unworthy due to many standards and legal compliance issues, which go into adding the cost of running the company.
Implementation of the strategy In the implementation of the strategy of recruiting more franchises and opening of new company-operated stores, several considerations are vital before the implementation process kicks off. In the first place, this strategy needs financing. It is thus vital to consider whether the financial position of the company and the anticipated incomes can support the strategy.
If not, it is critical to consider whether there are alternative sources of finance. Fortunately, with regard to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company charges a “franchise fee of $35,000 per bakery-cafe (of which it generally receives $5,000 at the signing of the ADA and $30,000 at or before the bakery-cafe opening)” (4).
By noting that Panera Bread Company does not support the construction of the franchises, the money raised through the fees is utilizable in opening of the additional company-owned stores. According to Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K, the company also has accessibility to a loan facility of 250 million dollars as an additional source of capital (3).
Similar to the old food dealers like Mc Donald, the implementation of the strategy proposed above means the focus would entail opening a store or franchise and then waiting for the customer to do the purchasing. Based on the experience he or she gains with the product, he or she becomes loyal and hence a regular customer. Therefore, the strategy is customer-centric.
For the success of such a strategy, it is crucial that an organization possesses the capability to penetrate new markets. It should develop services and products, which create an immense appeal to the customers besides possessing the capacity to offer outstanding customer services (Wheelen and Hunger 851).
Fortunately, these are some of the strengths of Panera Bread Company. With these strengths, the challenges in the implementation process rests in the development of customer-centric growth strategies in the new company-owned stores and franchises. I would accomplish the implementation of the strategy from three customer-centric paradigms.
These are identification of core business, creation of propositions that have high value and impacts, and focusing on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company. Determination of the core business of the new stores starts with the identification of the core business that will be conducted in the stores and the franchises.
In other words, expansion through the opening of new stores and franchises is not done blindly but rather with considerations of geographic areas and channels that would help to generate the highest amount of revenues.
Therefore, before the company’s financial resources are committed to opening and subsequent running of the stores, profitability benchmarking and evaluation of the reputation of the company within the new geographical areas are necessary. In this approach, the stakeholders of the company are fully involved in the implementation process.
Some of the stakeholders that I would include are non-loyal and loyal customers of the existing stores. The views of the loyal customers on why they embrace the products of the company are critical success factors of the strategy implementation. They would help in incorporating the attributes of the company that attract them in the new stores and franchises.
On the other hand, the views of the disloyal customers create opportunities of establishing new stores that have improved customer service experience. This would help to avoid replication of the past mistakes in the new franchises and stores. Arguably, this step of implementation of the project involves planning and analysis stage. It would take six months and an estimated cost of $ 210, 000.
The second implementation step is the creation of propositions that have high values and impacts on the sub-segments of the potential customers.
Based on the results of the first step discussed above, sub-segmentation of the customers’ groups in the new franchises and stores based on the found needs and anticipated buying patterns coupled with the profit contributions of the forecasted sales are vital in setting of a mechanism of reaping most from the new markets.
This mechanism encompasses creation and innovation of value propositions targeting the sub-segments that are likely to be most attractive. This step is followed by conducting a field test of the impacts of the propositions. Based on the results of the field tests, scaling up is done. This step of the implementation process of the strategy is the analysis phase of the project. It is anticipated to take about 3-31/2 months.
Its budget is $1 million. Most of this money caters for the wage expenses of analysts and data collection staff. Lastly, there is a need to focus on businesses that are highly linked to the core business of the company.
The need implies that, after conducting a number of field tests and analyzing the potential of the success of the growth strategy, the next course of action will be to channel the resources of the company to open stores and accept franchise requests in areas that are likely to have large clientele.
The point here is that there is no need of investing in an area where no substantive sales can be made to make the stores break even in the shortest time possible. Thus, the idea is to open stores selectively depending on the competitiveness of the market segments and sub-segments.
Conclusion/Evaluation of Strategy’s success Upon implementation of the growth strategy, it is crucial to evaluate its success capacity. In the context of the proposed strategy for solving the problems of the Panera Bread Company, success refers to the accomplishment of the predicted outcomes when the strategy is implemented.
The desired outcome is the increment of the revenue levels of the new stores and franchises such that the stores would be able to break even in the shortest time possible. On the other hand, it is desired that the new franchises end up being profitable so that Panera Bread Company can get substantive royalties. Measuring success calls for the evaluation of the strategy on its capacity to realize the core objective of the company.
Measuring success in the context of the strategy for growth of the Panera Bread Company takes six approaches. In the first place, the strategy is implemented within fixed timelines. Therefore, one of the measurable success factors is whether the various time schedules for the strategy implementation were accomplished within the set timeframes. The other success factor is the degree to which the scope of the growth strategy has been released.
The original plan is to open 300 stores and franchises. Thus, success is measured in terms of the number of the new company-owned stores and franchises opened. Thirdly, the implementation of the strategy must be consistent with the set budget. Consequently, the degree of success of the strategy is measurable from the context of the degree to which the implemented strategy complies with the budget constraints.
Fourthly, it was argued in the implementation section that the overall goal of the strategy is to focus on opening stores in regions that will attract large clientele only who would get loyalty based on the company’s products. Thus, success may be measured from the dimension of the degree of customers’ loyalty, which is measurable through customers’ satisfaction levels.
Unfortunately, satisfaction is only measurable qualitatively (either happy or unhappy). A subtle strategy of organizational growth needs to reduce the weakness and threats of an organization within the new operational centers.
For this purpose, SWOT analysis is vital in determining whether the threats and weaknesses of the old stores and franchises have been replicated in the new geographical locations of the Panera Bread company-owned stores and franchises. Lastly, the success of the strategy may be measured in terms of the improvements of service quality in the new company-owned stores and franchises.
Therefore, the growth sort for Panera Bread Company is not only in terms of numbers of stores and franchises but also in terms of increased quality service delivery in every new company-owned store or franchise that opens. Measuring success this way is inspired by the argument that learning organizations stand better chances of success than those, which do not learn.
Works Cited Panera Bread Annual Report on Form 10-K. Annual Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) Of The Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For The Fiscal Year Ended December 27, 2011. Web.
Panera Bread Company Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Quarterly Report Pursuant To Section 13 Or 15(D) of the Securities Exchange Act Of 1934 For the quarterly period ended September 25, 2012. Web.
Panera Bread. Company Overview. Web.
Wheelen, Thomas, and David Hunger. Strategic Management and business policy. New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Potential Unreported Income Case Study essay help online
Introduction Individuals and businesses should present a complete disclosure of income in the financial reports. Unreported revenue comprises of certain income that a taxpayers fail to report in their tax returns. The tax payers aim is to avoid paying tax or reduce tax obligation. There are a number of ways that can be used to discover unreported revenue.
They include bank deposit method, net worth method, source and application of funds method, lifestyle audit, third party contacts, and mark up analysis among others.
Selection of a suitable approach to use depends on a number of factors such as industry in which the customer operates, the permanence of assets and liabilities, stability of net worth over a number of years, availability of clients financial information, and banking practices of the customer among others. Indentifying unreported income is commonly carried out by auditors and tax authorities.
Aim of the paper The paper determines availability of unreported income for Mr. Jung. It uses the net worth method, sources and application of funds method, and bank deposit method. It also talks about the reasonableness of the estimates and the drawbacks of the three methods used for estimation.
Net worth method The difference between assets and liabilities for a definite period gives the net worth for the client. The value obtained is compared with the net worth for prior years. unfounded rate of increase of net worth for different periods gives indications for unreported income.
In this approach, it is necessary to compute accuratelty the net worth of the client at the beginning and end of the period. The increase in net worth that cannot be accounted for gives an idea about unreported income.
Computation of unreported income using net worth approach Total assets
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assets 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Chase bank 15,000 112,500 2 TD Ameritrade 50,000 75,000 3 Rental property 400,000 405,000 4 Personal residence 800,000 800,000 5 Vehicles 33,000 55,000 6 Bank of Nova 240,000 230,000 Total 1,538,000 1,677,500 Total liabilities
Liabilities 31/12/2009 31/12/2010 1 Mortgage residence 200,000 188,000 2 Mortgage – Commercial property 300,000 176,000 Total 500,000 364,000 Unreported income
Assets 1,677,500 Less Liabilities 364,000 Net worth of 2010 1,313,500 Less Prior year net worth (for 2009) 1,038,000 Add Living expenses 60,000 Net income (expenses) 335,500 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 28,500 Explanation From the calculation above, unreported income totaled to $28,500. It means that the changes in net worth in the two years could not be supported. The results obtained from the calculations are not reasonable. The method relies on a number of assumptions that are not realistic.
For instance, it assumes that the client keeps money in financial institutions. It also assumes that the records of income and expenses are accurate. These two weaknesses depend on the customer’s readiness to reveal required information. Besides, the investigator may not be able to identify private assets acquired during the year.
Sources and application of funds method The approach evaluates expenses and income of the client. All known sources of funds should be used in this calculation. Undisclosed income is the excess of uses over sources.
Calculation of unreported income using sources and application of funds method
Expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60,000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24,000 Total 172,000 Known sources of funds
We will write a custom Case Study on Potential Unreported Income specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Expenditure 172,000 Subtract Known sources of funds 307,000 Funds from unknown sources -135,000 Explanation
From the calculations, revenues exceed expenses. It means that client did not unreported income. However, the estimates are not reasonable. For instance, the known funds used in the calculations are less than the totoal net chas deposit in the bank.
The difference shows the inaccuracy of the estimates. The approach has several weaknesses for instance, the customer may understate revenue or overstate expenses. Also, the method assumes that the customer will disclose all his spending. These assumptions reduce the effectiveness of the method.
Bank deposit method Bank deposit method bank transactions of the customer these are, debits and credit. Changes are made to remove transfers between banks and non income deposits. The method is is beneficial since shows trends that are essential in giving an indication of the possibility of unreported income.
For instance, it shows the regularity of making deposits into the accounts, transfers made by the customer, period within the subject was involved in income generating activities, and the source of the deposits.
Calculation of unreported income
Chase bank Bank of Nova Scotia Deposits Checks Deposits Checks Total deposits Total checks Jan 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Feb 18,250 10,250 5,000 70,000 23,250 80,250 March 18,250 10,500 5,000 0 23,250 10,500 April 18,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 23,250 23,000 May 28,250 10,250 5,000 0 33,250 10,250 June 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 July 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Aug 43,250 10,250 5,000 0 48,250 10,250 Sept 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Oct 38,250 11,000 5,000 12,000 43,250 23,000 Nov 18,250 10,000 5,000 0 23,250 10,000 Dec 18,250 45,000 5,000 0 23,250 45,000 Total 274,000 158,250 60,000 94,000 334,000 252,250 Cash expenses 1 Estimated living expenditure 60000 2 Mortgage –residence 12,000 3 Mortgage – commercial 24,000 4 Stipend to mother 12,000 5 Suburban 40,000 6 Trip expenses 24000 172000 Funds from known sources 1 Income 207,000 2 Investment income 21,000 3 Rental income 12,000 4 Tax refund 12,000 5 Loan 25,000 6 Sale of a vehicle 20,000 7 Inheritance 10,000 Total 307,000 Unreported income
Total deposits to all accounts 334,000 Less Transfer and redeposits 12,000 Net deposits to all accounts 322,000 Add Cash expenditures 172,000 Total receipts from all sources 494,000 Less Funds from known sources 307,000 Funds from unknown sources 187,000 Explanation
From the calculations, unreported income totaled to $187,000. The result is reasonable because it takes care of all the financial activities of the client. The method assumes that the customer banks all revenues. Also, the method cannot be relied on when the client records are inadequate, do not exist or show possibility of manipulation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Potential Unreported Income by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The paper identifies the availability of unreported income for the client using three approaches. The results of the calculations show that the clien didi not disclose some income. The three methods used cannot be relied on with certainity since they are not effective. However, they give a hint of the availability of unreported income.
In addition, they give information about the client such as regularity of income, sources of income, and how the customer spend his earnings. An investigator should use effective approaches such as unit and volume method and mark up method to determine unreported income.
Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help Exploratory Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Mere movement of inanimate objects is subject to certain mechanisms and principles. However, the principles of movement of various objects need to be analyzed to define the reasons and initial origins of these movements, including the controlling mechanisms and the various meanings they have for people1.
In this respect, it is possible to consider an automobile as an object that moves in accordance with certain principles despite the fact that it is controlled by a human. So far, care is considered as a means of transportation where further development of different models has been defined as an individualized representation. The assigned personality makes car movement even more meaningful.
So, it can be admitted that the car is a mask that a human bears to prove its respectable image. The speed, therefore, is the main sign of the quality of the mechanism, as well as the opportunity that a human can enjoy.
An automobile can be compared with marionettes that are controlled by a superior mind, as it represented in Von Kleist’s account on the Puppeter and his puppets2. In fact, the person who controls inanimate objects is also able to give life to them and make them move in different directions3.
Similarly, people control cars that can ride slowly or with high speed. Some cars can lose control, which indicates humans’ inability to control their movements. The wheels of the car are enacted by means of pushing the foot-throttle.
The car engine can be identified with the heart of the mechanism that influences the rest of automated functions. Together with overall appearance, it is often compared with a unique ‘attitude’ and ‘behavior’ that an automobile can disclose. In the majority of cases, car can have various meanings, depending on the person controlling this mechanism.
By looking at the car, it is possible to find similarities between the car and its owner. During movement, one can also find out the connection between its ‘psychological’ qualities and the owner’s attitude to the surrounding world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similar concepts are discussed in Rudlin’s introductory essay, claiming, “’Mask’ refers to character type and is inclusive of each individual mask”4. Therefore, car image can also be inclusive in the image of its owner who has certain tastes and preferences while driving.
The symbolism and aesthetics of car driving is of high importance because it contributes to the owner’s individuality, just like a human face.
This significance is explained in simplistic terms and is confined to the idea that face has features that allow to understand the human soul5. Similar to these characteristics, car as a mechanism moves under control of human actions and, therefore, it becomes the part of human’s nature and individuality.
In conclusion, movement of inanimate objects is distinct from those of animate ones because it is not controlled by similar powers. At the same time, the mechanism has its own principles that make people’s actions limited. In this respect, the movement of an automobile can be controlled to the extent of the human knowledge about the principles of mechanics.
In addition, the mechanism can also embrace a kind of ‘individuality’ that serves as a mask for humans, as well as a means of representing their uniqueness. Finally, aesthetics is another function that the automobile can perform while enacting certain processes. This is of particular concern to movement, engine sound, and color.
Bibliography Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908.
“Pulling Strings”, New Times. 2012. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Things that Move: Lift as a Mechanism that Moves Without Help specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rudlin, John, “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. edited by John Rublin. 34-48. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”, in Contemporary Aesthetics, edited by Matthew Lipman. 336-357. US: Ardent Media, 1973.
Von Kleist, Heinrich, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012. Web.
Footnotes 1 “Pulling Strings”, New Times, 2012.
2 Heinrich von Kleist, “On the Marionette Theater”, 2012.
3 Craig, Edward Gordon, The Actor and the Uber-marionette. US: The Mask, 1908. 45.
4 Rudlin, John. “The Mask”, in Commedia Dell’Arte: An Actor’s Handbook. ed. John Rublin. (New York: Routledge, 1994), 35.
5 Simmel, George, “Aesthetic Significant of the Face”. in Contemporary Aesthetics, ed. Matthew Lipman. (US: Ardent Media, 1973), 336.
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Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge Coursework best essay help: best essay help
Teacher is a person who implements new curricula and change the people they teach using their ability to initiate and shape in the classroom. There is no doubt that teachers translate theories into practical in class (Westbury 1977). This research elaborates the teachers’ knowledge as practical knowledge.
This is achieved through study of the conceptual backdrop and assumptions underlying the conception of practical knowledge, the methodology of the study, the analysis of data, and data implications.
In the concept of practical knowledge, the researcher concludes the best way to conceptualize practical knowledge should be through direct examination. Thus, a case study on an experienced high school English teacher is carried out.
Five orientations of practical knowledge were identified: situational, theoretical, personal, social, and experiential points of view. This is necessary to put order in the topic of study. To make it more clear rule of practice, practical principle and image were coined. Cognitive style has been used to describe ideas gained as a result of the case study.
The methodology used in the study had to meet practical needs and reach those who know about curriculum field and those concerned with teaching. Other studies in psychology, social science and education were used in the study. They include Wann 1964; Hudson 1972; Giorgi 1970; Parlett and Hamilton 1972; Hunt 1976; Wilson 1977; Smith 1978.
The case study was crucial to give a vivid and account for description of a teacher’s case. It is not only educationally valuable but also particularly called for in the present state of understanding of teachers’ knowledge. It was also essential to give the teachers own perspective of practical knowledge.
How narrative has been used Narrative was most suitable considering the topic of study required interaction with other parties, collecting and analyzing data. The research starts by orienting what drove her to carry out the study. Following her experience as a teacher and a curriculum worker, she was not comfortable with the generalized view of the teacher in the field of teaching and curriculum development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She uses dialogue to gather information for analysis in the study by interviewing an experienced high school English teacher. The researcher has used features of narrative such as dialogue. She carries out an interview on an experienced high school teacher. This builds the idea by providing first hand information. Narrative is evident in the order of events how the researcher carried out activities in order.
One activity led to another. The chronological order of events in the report presents ample time for research and demonstrates order in research. The researcher has used narrative to describe and relate other people’s ideas to her own. For instance, using Connelly’s (1972) view of the teacher as “user developer” concludes the function of the teacher as adopting, adapting, and developing students.
Narratives are used to spotlight on interventions and reflects on the collection of relative factors that pressure outcomes considering research on teaching, like classroom research and the study of curriculum, frequently views teachers in different ways. Narratives have methodically been used to collect claims and information from other independent sources such as Sarason (1971) and Hunt (1976).
The information gathered during the research has been used to compare and contrast with the published work. Narratives data have been accessed for emergent themes such as the adequate approaches formulated against negative and fragmented views on teachers.
The most likely limitation of the study was misunderstandings during the interview which could have made it hard to get the required information. The researcher also states that she was listening poorly.
This is an indication that there was a poor listening skill in the data collection. Another limitation was that the researcher lacked enough information about some parts of the study. Biases in the research could have produced inappropriate results and caused a communication barrier due to disagreements.
The studys validity and reliability are high considering the methodology of research used. It is a suitable position for the researcher to carry out the research being a teacher and a curriculum worker.
We will write a custom Coursework on Conceptual Framework of a Study about Teachers` Practical Knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the use of an experienced high school English teacher is an advantage in improving the quality of the research. From the beginning, the research exhibits the indulgent of the study with literature from other sources. This shows the efforts done to make sure the research is valid and reliable.
In conclusion, the study was a success. The study clearly reflects the fact that teachers’ knowledge is broadly based on their experiences in classrooms and schools and is directed toward the handling of problems that arise in their work but, at the same time, the term reminds us that what teachers know is capable of being formulated as knowledge and of being used to generate consistent practice.
Teachers’ practical knowledge should be used effectively to teach students and make teaching models for use in schools. Teachers themselves should take the study crucially and maximize the findings made improve their skills and realize the potential they have got.
The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change Expository Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Acceptance of change within an organization depends on the emotional state of employees and managers. The behavior, feelings and attitudes of employees within an organization are influenced by their emotions (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). It is important to highlight the interpersonal effects of emotions in order to comprehend the exact influence of emotions within an organization.
The domains of organizational behavior are very essential in understanding the effect of emotions on the performance of employees (Zerbe 2008, p. 173). Organizational behavior domains such as leadership, group decision making and customer service require emotional intelligence from the parties involved.
Emotional intelligence is a very valuable attribute that all stakeholders within an organization need to possess (Zerbe 2008, p. 174). The success or failure of an organization actually depends on the level of emotional intelligence among its employees and managers. This paper will highlight the role of emotions in the management of organizational change.
Discussion Many organizations have always underestimated the effect of emotions in the day activities of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). In fact, the topic of emotions never featured in the past until recently when managers realized that emotions actually play a significant role in the success of an organization (Weick 1999, p. 364). Many organizations are now taking the subject of emotions very seriously after discovering its significance.
Organizations believed that emotions could only be expressed at home but they forgot that employees still remained human despite being at the workplace (Weick 1999, p. 364). The corporate world is now discovering that the positive emotions of employees should not be left at home because they are crucial to the success of an organization.
A recent research indicates that the productivity and creativity of employees is affected in a great way by emotions (Weick 1999, p. 366). Emotional intelligence determines the career success of an employee compared to cognitive intelligence.
Although cognitive intelligence is important for an employee, research reveals that a combination of both cognitive and emotional intelligence is crucial for employees to achieve their career goals (Weick 1999, p. 366). The management of organizations has come to realize that their success depends on their ability to utilize positive emotions of employees to their organizations’ advantage (Weick 1999, p. 367).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers who have mastered the art of stimulating and sustaining positive emotions in their employees have actually been able to witness positive results (Vince 1996, p. 17). The current market is very competitive and it is therefore necessary for organizations to come with strategies that can give them a competitive advantage.
The primary sources of competitive advantage such as intellectual capital, customer service, organizational responsiveness and productivity are influenced directly by employee emotions (Vince 1996, p. 17). The creativity and knowledge of employees are very significant in the success of an organization since the modern economy is knowledge-based.
Employees that are creative and knowledgeable are very receptive to organizational change compared to those who are not knowledgeable and creative (Vince 1996, p. 17). The ability of an organization to harness intellectual capital from its employees will enable it to survive in an innovation driven economy.
The intellectual capital of employees should therefore be engaged and cultivated by management for the expected results to be achieved (Vince 1996, p. 18).
The emotional state of employees determines the organization’s level of intellectual capital (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). The intellectual functioning of employees within the organization is also affected directly by emotions. A smart and innovative workforce is a dream of many organizations and this can only be achieved through proper management of employee emotions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43).
The flexibility and originality an employee’s thinking is normally diminished by a negative emotional state. Flexibility in thinking is one of the key attributes needed in the implementation of organizational change (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). It is the duty of management to ensure that employees remain in a positive state of mind to enhance originality and flexibility in their thinking.
A dispirited workforce loses the interest to innovate and identify new opportunities (Pfeffer 1981, p. 43). Negative emotions make employees lose the energy and drive to be creative. A passionate, confident and secure workforce will always make wise decisions and at the same time create new solutions (Pfeffer 1981, p. 44).
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of Emotions on Organizational Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sharing of knowledge and expertise in the entire organization is very important in a knowledge driven economy (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees in a negative emotional state are always unwilling to help and share information with others.
Implementation of organizational change requires knowledge to be shared throughout the organization and if this does not happen, then organizational change implementation becomes difficult (Neal 2004, p. 60). The intellectual capital of an organization enables information to be disseminated freely.
Organizations that have effective information dissemination systems experience a lot of success because implementation of organizational changes becomes much easier (Neal 2004, p. 60). Employees who are insecure about losing their positions are normally reluctant to share knowledge with others.
Employees who feel safe and valued show high levels of commitment and are always available to share their knowledge with others (Lyubomirsky, King
A New Role for Contrastive Analysis Critical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Language issues seem to have been the stumbling block for people’s communication for centuries. In his article “Cross-Linguistic Awareness: A New Role for Contrastive Analysis,” Carl James discusses the question concerning the contrastive analysis and its application for the comparative studies of two or more languages.
Considering the following quote from Fries’ paper: “The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner,” James makes it clear that, questioning the reasonability of a cross-linguistic analysis, the researchers are most likely to encounter considerable difficulties in reaching to the representatives of other cultures, hence, causing the entire learning process to shrivel.
While the author gives credit to both the arguments of Lado and Fries (Odlin, 1989), it is obvious that James is inclined to believe that Lado’s idea of a cross-linguistic analysis as the basis of successful communication is not reasonable enough, while Slobin’s arguments for the analysis actually make a lot of sense: “Slobin seems to be suggesting that Behaviourism has not been totally banished from language learning contexts after all” (James, n. d., 2).
Therefore, the seed of doubt is planted into the minds of the adepts of abandoning the CA.
It is also essential that James touches upon the related issues, such as culture learning, to prove the point. With the help of real-life case studies, James makes his argument all the more impressive, demonstrating the instances of cultural misunderstanding on an everyday level:
T1: Qu’est-ce que c’est, saucisson?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More T2: Sausage, yes, what sort? What sort of sausage? Wall’s?
T3: Sort of salami type of sausage, that sort of sausage. (James, n. d., 3-4)
Touching upon the Audiolinguialist vetoes, James adds another interesting point to his chain of arguments to consider, such as the existence of other forms of English (e.g., the Irish dialect) the experience of which can also be considered from the cross-cultural point of view.
However, with the cross-cultural analysis no longer in existence, the experience would be impossible. In addition, James touches upon neo-Whorfianism, which presupposes that languages shape the thinking process greatly.
On the one hand, in the preset fast-changing world and the globalization process, the issues of cultural differences seem to have become slightly more insignificant (Suarez-Orozco
Desires in Human Mating Critical Essay custom essay help
Of all the issues which remain just as important for the modern world as they used to be centuries ago, the mechanisms of human mating remains by far the most mysterious.
No matter how many theories have been developed to explain the numerous ways in which people are attracted to the opposite sex, the main question, which is what draws people of the opposite sexes together, remains unanswered.
The author of the article titled Desires in human mating, Buss tries to answer the given question, offering his interpretation of what makes people fall in love.
However, it is necessary to mention that Buss not only tries to discover these mechanisms, but to explain them with the help of a specific theory; to be more exact, Buss obviously chooses evolution theory (Shoemake, 2007) to back his evidence up with.
In addition, Buss asks a number of the questions which are somehow related to the human mating issue: “Why should humans seek similarity or equity? What might be the origins of these motives? What functions would they serve?” (Buss, 2000, 39).
However, when considering Buss’s research in a more general way, one can consider that the answer to the question “Why should humans seek similarity or equity?” summarizes the goal of Buss’s research in a nutshell.
When speaking of the article’s specifics, it is necessary to mention that one of its key peculiarities is the number of curious hypotheses which Buss offers at the very start.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Buss’s suggestion that “biological differences, recurring over millions of years of evolutionary history, fail to select for a sex-differentiated sexual psychology” (Buss, 2000, 40) is a very challenging statement to begin with.
However, Buss goes even further in his research, claiming in his next hypothesis that “parental investment is defined by decrements in a parent’s residual reproductive value” (Buss, 2000, 40).
In addition, Buss also states in his third hypothesis that the choice of a mate depends on not only a momentary sympathy, but also on long-lasting plans: “higher-investing sex can select mates on various grounds, depending on the particular species, to increase the survival and reproduction of her offspring” (Buss, 2000, 40).
The above-mentioned signifies that Buss also incorporates the social exchange theory (Nakonezny
Sonoco Case Study essay help
This research systematically looks at HRM practices and organisational behaviours at Sonoco with aims of identifying current conditions, evaluating practices, providing new designs, and ways of implementing best HRM practices.
The company must restructure its HRM strategies in order to promote new initiatives, meet various functions of HRM such as talent management and support of Sonoco growth strategies, and reduce function’s cost by 20 percent or $2.8 million.
Sonoco is a multinational packaging firm that has over 100 years since its inception at Hartville, South Carolina with a capital of $6000. Sonoco has consumer and industrial packaging as its main business categories. Between 1980 and 1990, the company achieved tremendous success.
However, in the 1990s, Sonoco experienced challenges due to global issues. These factors resulted from the decline in the US manufacturing export economy due to Asian financial crisis of 1997 and 1998. Globalisation created operational challenges and business opportunities to Sonoco.
Sonoco was a highly leveraged company because of its many plants. Therefore, any slight change had severe financial impacts. For instance, between 1995 and 1995, sales fell by six percent (from $2.7 billion to $2.5 billion).
In the same period, the net income increased by 14 percent. Still, Sonoco stock prices fell, which resulted into heavy pressure of restoring shareholders’ value.
Diagnosis Sonoco HRM Situation
Sonoco HRM practices have been highly fragmented. The corporate HR roles are still traditional in which every HR manager focuses on its own initiatives. The HR did not link individual goals and business initiatives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instead, performance and appraisal systems focused on individuals’ benefits rather than the company’s performance. The compensation system depended on the general manager (GM) who used it to favour their employees. In fact, the company lost revenues from these diverse compensation systems.
Analysis Cindy Hartley’s Objectives for Changes at Sonoco
The role of Cindy Hartley as a senior vice president of HR was to introduce new HRM policies that would change performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning.
The aim of this project is to reduce cost, enhance accountability on talent management, and define the role of HRM in supporting strategic business objectives.
The HRM roles have changed to strategic human resource management (SHRM) and strategic human resource development (SHRD) within a global context (Yorks, 2004; Barney and Griffin, 1992; Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012; Scullion and Starkey, 2000; Becker, 1994).
Based on a resource-based theory, the HR manager can use human resources to create competitive advantage that can support Sonoco strategic business objectives (Noe et al, 2012).
According to Barney, strategic advantage entails “when a firm implements a value creating strategy not simultaneously is being implemented by any current or potential competitors” (Barney, 1991, p. 100).
This observation also supports human capita approach, which emphasise the role of HRM in developing human resource for competitive advantage. This implies that Hartley must apply SHRM in HR developments.
We will write a custom Case Study on Sonoco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, some of the Sonoco employees (free riders) perform below the accepted standards. Such employees depend on the performance of other members of the organisation.
First, Hartley must initiate changes in which all employees must provide value and returns to the organisation. HR management must spread various talents across the organisation. Thus, various departments can benefit from diverse knowledge, skills, expertise, and experience of different employees (Mello, 2010).
Second, highly qualified human resources in Sonoco are resources with rare capabilities, which organisations must manage or protect. At the same time, Hartley must insist on high-levels of skills and qualifications of potential recruits.
Wright and McMahan observed that such qualities are scarce due to general distribution ability (Wright and McMahan, 1992). Hartley must ensure that selection and recruitment activities focus on recruits with high qualifications and skills, who can promote Sonoco needed changes and a culture of performance.
Hartley must ensure that HR departments consider changes needed in the organisation (Schuler and Jackson, 1987).
Third, according to Ulrich employees for creating competitive advantage must have inimitable quality (Ulrich, 1991). In this sense, HRM practices must focus on ensuring that Sonoco employees have inimitable qualities.
Finally, Sonoco must reorganise its compensations and reward structures. Currently, every division manager decides on what is best for his team, which leads to excessive spending on employees’ benefits.
The system is prone to manipulation. Still, the performance management also makes it difficult to retrench redundant on non-performing workforce.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sonoco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evaluation Success of the HR Changes at Sonoco and the Sequence of Changes
When Hartley arrived at Sonoco in 1995, she introduced new HRM policies in order to improve performance management, compensation, development, and succession planning. Corporate evaluation shall enable Sonoco to make the required changes in order to realise DeLoach’s Challenges.
Key performance indicators (KPIs) must focus on all line managers and employees in order to create value for Sonoco. Thus, Harley’s focus on key issues shall enable the firm achieve its desired results.
Unlike other HR managers who are unable to define their roles, Harley seems to have identified HRM issues, which affect Sonoco. In order to make her department relevant, Hartley must show values HRM department has achieved through evaluation.
Executives consider HRM initiatives as expenses, which employees must recover in terms of results (Stone, 2010). This argument posits that HRM practices should shape employee’s behaviours and consequently contribute in achieving goals of the organisation.
Hartley can apply Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework to enable her account for effects of the HRM strategies on performance management, employee development, and succession planning (Kirkpatrick, 1994).
This framework focuses on the trainees’ reaction to training, learning outcomes, changes in job behaviours and performance, and results of HRM practices based on return on investment (ROI).
Hartley must note that effective HRM practices must influence employees’ behaviours and attitude by developing appropriate programmes, which encourage the best performance among employees. Scholars believe that HRM practices can have positive effects on employees and improve a culture of performance in an organisation.
Hartley must perform cost-benefit analysis on her practices. This is necessary because DeLoach wants Hartley to restructure the HR department and save the company 20 percent ($2.8 million).
At the same time, Hartley must recognise that Sonoco is a highly leveraged company due to fixed costs of its many plants. Therefore, HRM initiatives must minimise direct and indirect costs.
The HRM departments must conduct thorough auditing and benchmarking in order to evaluate progress against HR initiatives. Audit ensures that HR department is on track.
This shall enable Hartley to assess current employees’ performance and develop action plans and future objectives for Sonoco. Hartley must collect information from employees for purposes of improving Sonoco strategies and practices.
Design The Right HR Structure for Sonoco – Evaluation of Centralization and Hybrid Options and Justify Your Choice of Option
Hartley must transform HRM practices at Sonoco. Her new design must meet three objectives:
Implementation of a talent development process
Even distribution of HR talent across the company’s large and small divisions
Support of the company’s new growth strategy with strategic deliverables—all while reducing the function’s cost structure by 20%, or $2.8 million
Given the above objectives, Hartley must align HRM practices with objectives of Sonoco through appropriate design and implementation strategies. Hartley presented two options, which were hybrid and centralised models of staffing Sonoco. Thus, we have to evaluate the best method for the organisation.
Centralised model allows management to have direct control over employees and staffing functions. A centralised model shall allow Hartley to exercise control over processes, strategies, budget, and resources.
On the other hand, hybrid (decentralised model) shall allow line managers to control staffing practices, have local recruitment processes, and create their own strategies and processes at every plant in order to meet their local needs.
Lermusi notes that most organisations favour “centralised model (59 percent) while only nine percent of companies deploy a fully decentralized structure” (Lermusi, 2003). About 32 percent of organisations use both centralised and hybrid models simultaneously. In this case, some aspects of HRM practices take place locally and centrally.
Centralised model shall enable Hartley to pursue a consistent strategy, goals, processes, and achieve economies of scale. Conversely, hybrid model shall allow line managers and other managers to pursue their own needs and give them flexibility in staffing issues.
This model shall create a major challenge for Hartley in terms of establishing corporate strategies, standards, and evaluation of the progress of HRM activities. Nevertheless, it is imperative for Hartley to understand how the HRM department is progressing, in spite of the HRM model chosen.
Therefore, the design of these models must reflect the structure of employees’ functions, effectiveness, and reliability. The model should be:
Aligned with Sonoco business strategies; this enables the HR department to align corporate business objectives with HRM strategies and then change them into tactics for implementation.
Consistent; this provides clear ways of evaluation and measurement with specific methods of gathering data for effective comparison.
Actionable; Hartley must develop a suitable metric that can provide useful information for action.
Tracked over time; the design must allow for tracking over time in order to obtain HRM information and trends.
Centralised model shall enable Sonoco to have:
Reduced organisational and transaction expenses
Concentration of the firm’s skills
Effective knowledge management and learning
Effective coordination of organisational main goals
Cater for organisational skills and needs
Allow for consistency in practices and processes
However, centralised model can limit globalisation aspects such as various cultural needs, languages, hiring and firing practices, and regional needs.
On the other hand, if Hartley considers hybrid model, she can achieve the following advantages:
Favours various cultures in the organisation
Responds to diverse needs of regional managers and regional needs
May advocate for local talents, skills, and experiences among others
This model may increase organisational costs, limit knowledge and talent management, and provide inconsistent processes and procedures in executing Sonoco initiatives.
Given these diverse pros and cons in both models, Hartley should consider both options. However, she has to centralise most of the HRM practices in order to maximise benefits and reduce disadvantages.
In this sense, Hartley must implement a corporate (central) HRM practices on issues like performance management, compensation and benefits, talent management, and cost management strategies.
HRM must also review its reward, benefits, and recognition design. This should be a centralised practice. Agency theory focuses on tension between employees and shareholders. Executives want to reward themselves heavily as a way of pursuing self-interest and not interests of the organisation (Bernthal and Wellins, 2006).
For instance, Hartley established that most divisional mangers often manipulated performance rating to wangle salary increments for their staff. Costs in Sonoco have increased due to evaluation processes, rewards, benefits, and through other indirect ways, which mangers manipulate (Jensen and Meckling, 1976).
Agency theory aims to ensure that all stakeholders in an organisation are content with reward and benefit systems in the organisation. The HRM must be aware of varied interests in the organisation. From Sonoco, we have observed that it was difficult to link performance with individuals and there were free riders.
The agency theory shows that some employees have habits of limiting their outputs and relying on roles of other employees (free ride) in cases where the organisation does not provide incentives to motivate them.
Therefore, HRM practices must include motivational practices by understanding behaviours of various employees in order to empower them (Randolph, 2000). As such, HRM must implement effective ways of motivating all employees.
Therefore, HRM must ensure that there are KPIs for evaluating performances and developing appropriate reward and benefit systems for such staff (Mathis and Jackson, 2011).
Hartley must strive to integrate HRM design with succession and development of employees in order to promote growth of Sonoco. Growths and cost reductions are the main priority of DeLoach. Thus, the only solution for Hartley is to integrate talent management with the HRM design.
Talent management is difficult in a large organisation like Sonoco. Talent management goes beyond the traditional roles of HRM and may create difficulties for some HR managers.
Talent management meets employees’ needs and serves organisational needs (Vaiman, Scullion and Collings, 2012). First, Hartley must design a talent management model with all essential elements.
These elements must demonstrate relationships among themselves.
Second, HRM department must establish the scope of talent management model. This is because organisations have various ways of defining talent management. For instance, some firms may view talent management as a way of attracting and retaining high performing workforce.
Others may consider it as a method of attracting and retaining senior executives while some firms take it as an organisation-wide practice.
These methods have implications for HRM practices on talent management. Hartley must consider her three objectives in her design.
To increase GM’s accountability for talent management
To distribute HR talent and support more evenly across the company’s divisions and make HR systems and processes consistent
To optimise HR’s ability to provide customised and strategic support to the GM’s business
Hartley must develop the best model for Sonoco. This may focus on succession planning and aggressive training of existing staff.
Third, Hartley must also consider the available resources for implementing talent management model. Sonoco is a large organisation that may require a complex model (Evans, 1986).
Lastly, Hartley must determine appropriate ways of talent management necessary to ensure effective implementation of the model. The GM must conduct regular performance appraisal for the entire organisation (Marchington, and Grugulis, 2000).
Therefore, all line managers must be accountable for their employees’ talent and performance because they have strong influences on employees’ behaviours and attitude (Purcell and Hutchinson, 2007).
Implementation Sustaining Changes Based on Advise for Cindy Hartley and Harris DeLoach
The focus is on how GM shall implement and sustain HRM initiatives. In this sense, we can apply the vertical, horizontal, and temporal linkages of Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles, and Truss (Gratton, Hope-Hailey, Stiles and Truss, 1999).
The model shall help GM accounts for different HR practices. These include performance management, rewards and benefits, training and development, recruitment, selection, retention of employees, talent management, and succession.
The main aim is to link these practices with HRM strategies for positive productivity and employee retention (Guthrie, 2001). This is a vertical relationship. Conversely, a horizontal linkage accounts for HRM practices and their relationships to one another.
Therefore, the HRM department has a significant function to play in the implementation of HRM practices for sustainability. However, this requires all line managers and employees to play their roles for successful implementation of HRM initiatives organisation-wide.
Effective implementation requires a 360-degree feedback mechanism, which should minimise cases of employees’ dissatisfaction (Carson, 2006).
The GM must centralise important aspects like employee recruitment, selection, and retention in the entire organisation. GM shall also ensure that employees learn strategic objectives and culture of Sonoco in order to add to value strategic goals of Sonoco.
Performance management and development must focus on individual employees, strategic objectives of Sonoco, and motivational needs of employees (Miner, 2005).
Line managers must actively participate in the implementation of performance management, appraisal, talent management, and needs of individual employees.
Therefore, GM must make them accountable for talent management in their divisions. This shall enable such managers identify employees for succession, those who need improvement, and employees for retention and dismissal.
Employees’ performance is the main indicator of success in the organisation (Becker and Gerhart, 1996). Therefore, performance management must reflect effective KPIs of Sonoco. Divisional managers must be responsible for performance appraisal and designing of effective KPIs.
Sonoco must link its reward and compensation system to performance. This shall enable the company to save costs. This is because managers shall not be able to manipulate the process to increase salaries of their preferred employees.
Reflection This case study has provided an opportunity to understand the role of HR in a real organisational setting. It shows that roles of the HR have changed due to globalisation issues and economic conditions. Therefore, the core roles of HR managers have become formulating strategic business objectives.
Analysis of the case reveals how different factors, which relate to employees’ selection, recruitment, performance management, and retention, can influence the overall business outcomes.
However, these roles have become ambiguous, complex, and shifting in directions of other business needs, workforce’s welfare, change agent, and leveraging human capital. It shows that HRM requires clear planning and set objectives based on realistic practices. This enables the HR manager to gauge outcomes based on the objectives.
This cases study shows that the future roles of the HR shall change based on prevailing economic conditions. Therefore, it highlights how functions of HRM shall be crucial in future for achieving strategic business objectives. In addition, it also highlights the need to work closely with line managers and senior managers to manage their staff effectively.
Reference List Barney, J and Griffin, R 1992, The management of organizations: Strategy, structure, behavior, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
Barney, J 1991, ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management, vol. 17, pp. 99-120.
Becker, B and Gerhart, B 1996, ‘The Impact of Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: Progress and Prospects’, The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 779-801.
Becker, G 1994, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 3rd edn, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Bernthal, P and Wellins, R 2006, ‘Trends in leader development and succession’, Human Resource Planning, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 31-40.
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Evans, P 1986, ‘The context of strategic human resource management policy in complex firms. Management Forum, vol. 6, pp. 105–107.
Gratton, L, Hope-Hailey, V, Stiles, P and Truss, C 1999, ‘Linking individual performance to business strategy: The people process model’, Human Resource Management, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 17-31.
Guthrie, J 2001, ‘High-Involvement Work Practices, Turnover, and Productivity: Evidence from New Zealand’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 180-190.
Jensen, C and Meckling, W 1976, ‘Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure’, Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 305-360.
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Stone, R 2010 Human Resource Management, 7th edn, John Wiley
Bisphenol A Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives
Introduction For over a long period Bisphenol A (BPA), which is a chemical product, has been used in the industrial manufacture of plastics. The plastics include polycarbonates and epoxy resins. This compound is usually produced in large amounts. Polycarbonates are used in very many ways.
The uses include making the bottles that are used in the packaging of water and food. They include medical devices, compact discs, infant bottles, and safety equipment. Manufacturers use epoxy resin in coating metal products. The products are food cans, water pipes, and bottle tops. Composites of dental sealants also have elements of BPA.
Toxicology Bisphenol A mainly gets into the human body through the diet. Other possible ways include water, air, and through exposure to dust. Food and beverages account for the highest percentage of BPA consumed daily by people. Bisphenol A leaches into the food through the internal coated layer of epoxy resin in products.
The products include food storage containers, baby bottles, polycarbonates tableware, and water bottles (Cooper, 2011). The temperature at which the product is stored determines the degree of the leakage of BPA into the food.
The exposure of BPA to people has spread so widely that the issue has become a concern to governments, health institutions and the manufacturing industries. The impact of BPA affects even the unborn and this is likely to lead to the birth of deformed children.
BPA has very toxic effects to people if they are exposed to it at very high levels. Researches carried out on animals revealed lose of weight along with the consequences that come with weight loss.
Government institutions, production industries, and academic research groups have carried out the research surrounding the toxicological effects of BPA (Deligio, 2010). The different groups came to an agreement that there are no adverse effects if people are exposed to BPA in some circumstances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Exposure resulting from normal industrial production, safe environmental use, and levels below any expected effect are some of the circumstances.
In the reproductive health, children are not affected unless the level of exposure is very high to be considered systematically toxic. The BPA components used in the treatment of parents do not affect negatively on off springs.
The mammary glands including other reproductive organs of parents are also not affected when exposed to BPA during treatment (Soto, 2010). Experiments performed in various laboratories in an attempt to ascertain the use of BPA as a replacement for estrogen have shown that the two have similar estrogenic activities.
The researchers have however failed to confirm its use due to the unknown extreme effects on human beings. Research emanating the above fear reveals that when BPA is used in amounts that induce maternal toxicity then pups from the animals exposed to BPA will have reduced weight in addition to producing less number of live litters.
The number of live litter and postpartum dam weights also reduced. Among the male animals and the off springs of dams, there was a decrease in the weight of reproductive organs and sperm concentration.
A study on rats concerning the sub chronic and chronic toxicity of BPA showed lower weight as the main effect of using BPA in treatment.
The BPA Debate from Two Perspectives In the early 1990s, Dr. David Fieldman almost discovered the migration of Bisphenol A from polycarbonate test tubes he was using into a test-specimen and looked like estrogen.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Bisphenol A specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since then debate has been hot on the BPA’s chemical safety (Weiss, 2011). This controversial debate has been fuelled by bans imposed on the use of BPA and its PC.
The discovery occurred when Dr. Fieldman and his team saw estrogenic activity develop in cultures of yeast that they had not added precursors. Subsequent experiments showed that the estrogenic activity came from the polycarbonate flasks they were using for the growth of yeast and not the yeast that was being used in the experiment.
The journal discusses the response from Dr. Fieldman over the safety of BPA and includes the defense by Steven Hestges from the industry of the BPA Global Group.
In the Journal Dr. Fieldman admits that the first discovery of BPA was accidental. The chemical was first discovered as it looked like an estrogen molecule. It was leaching from the plastic they were using in the synthesis of yeast.
Further prove came when the experiment was done without the yeast as the activity was seen again. Experiments using glass flasks did not show the estrogen activity. According to Dr. Fieldman, the continued use of PC containers to pack food and drinks is a serious health problem that has not been explored well.
It is still not safe to carry out experiments on people though its adverse effects on people are not clear. Based on the results of diethylstilbestrol (DES) it is confirmed that changes caused by BPA are inheritable (Winas, 2011).
The successful use of DES to stabilize risky pregnancies resulted in high risks of vaginal cancer in the DES babies when they approached their late twenties. This carcinogenic effect led to a stop in its use. This proved that the use of the molecule affected the offspring.
Analysis The similarity between BPA and DES showed that BPA changes the epigenetic profile of the animals exposed to it. BPA alters the proteins that cover the DNA and in the process determines what parts of the DNA are to be used.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Bisphenol A by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The long-term effects include causing various types of cancer i.e. uterine, breast, and vaginal among others. (Sato, 2010) BPA is a bioaccumulative chemical making it a high risk factor. Its effects spread fast if it combines with other endocrine disruptors.
Steven Hestges on the hand defends the use of BPA products. He believes that the issue of BPA and endocrine disruptors is fascinating to scientists. He agrees with facts put forward on this matter saying that government legislations are base on them.
To him the use of BPA in its current is safe to human health and therefore acceptable. The new findings on BPA are mere updates of the views previously put forward.
Hestges quotes DR. Joshua Sharfsten of the FDA who argued that banning the use of BPA was acting from the legal perspective but medically it is still safe. No legislation about BPA is new. To him it should be used as the scientists find more facts on it.
Conclusion Analysis of various articles about the safety of BPA I am convinced its use is still safe. The conflicting statements from various scientists do not serve to make matters clear. Even Dr. Fieldman himself in conclusion acknowledges that there is still more to be done to unearth more facts about BPA.
The structure of DES and BPA are very similar hence, the effects of DES cannot be used to rule out the use of BPA. Scientists must dig deep into the matter to make precise differences and similarities are understood.
The regulations surrounding the use of PC containers are currently enough to manage their use. It will be very difficult to develop new packaging products. The loss on the manufactures could be very huge.
References Cooper, J. E (2011). Assessment of Bisphenol. New York: Chemosphere abstract.
Deligio, T. (2010). The BPA debate from two Perspectives. New York: Plastic Solutions.
Soto, A M (2010). Environmental causes of cancer. New York: Endocrinol abstract.
Weiss, B (2011) Endocrine disruptor as a threat to neurological function. New York; Neuroscience abstract.
Winas, B. (2011). Environmental toxicants and the developing immune system. New York: Repro Toxicol abstract.
Leadership Style Emotion Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help
Table of Contents Article Summary
Links Between Performance and Leadership
Case Study, Hypothesis
Best Leadership Models
Quality of Work Life, QWL and Its Effects
Article Summary The article on Leadership Style Emotion has broadly explored the impact of negative and positive organizational behaviors. According to the authors, all leaders aim at maximizing the ultimate performance of their workers in regards to achieving their organizational goals (McColl-Kennedy
Critical Marketing Expository Essay essay help: essay help
Critical marketing has recently become one of the most popular objects of research and analysis.
With the growing body of marketing literature and increased relevance of marketing strategies in business, more scholars are willing to reconsider the relevance of the most popular marketing concepts and advance the role of ethics in strategic marketing.
In this sense, critical marketing is believed to be intended to challenge the existing status quo and promote a more objective view of the postmodern marketing realities. Yet, the meaning of critical marketing is not as comprehensive as it may seem.
On the one hand, researchers need to re-evaluate the intent and approaches of critical theory in the marketing field. On the other hand, critical marketing requires a stronger emphasis on application.
Despite the growing body of critical marketing research, the exact meaning of critical marketing remains extremely ambiguous; one of the greatest problems facing critical marketing is that its findings are rarely translated into practical applications, being used mainly to criticise old ideas rather than propose new ones.
Critical Marketing: Defining the Boundaries Critical marketing is a popular object of scholarly analysis. Different researchers proposed their vision of critical theory in the marketing field.
Hastings and Saren (2003) suggest that critical marketers follow the traditions set by Arnold and Fisher, famous reconstructionists, and use diverse approaches to question marketing processes and outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These approaches may include but are not limited to feminism, sustainability, ethics, and discourse analysis (Hastings
Public Sector Financial Management Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction The quality of service delivery in any public service institution is determined by the effectiveness of its internal structures. One of the structures used in the monitoring and evaluation of public accounts is the audit procedure. The main role of an audit procedure is to assess, evaluate and monitor the systems in a public service institution (Moeller, 2007).
Generally, any accounting department in a public institution has to have an audit committee. The committee is normally an independent body comprising of non executive members of the public institution. The committee is mandated to oversee the overall audit programs. In some cases, the committee is tasked to review the internal audit process (Roberge, 2011).
It may involve testing the internal controls for their accuracy and effectiveness. It may also perform operational audits on the overall operational systems. This provides information on the integrity of the accounting and the information systems (Menzel
Houston Air Pollution Essay essay help site:edu
Introduction Air pollution is one of the forms of pollution that affect the environment negatively. Air pollution results from chemical emissions from companies and human actions that pose health risks to individuals as well as to the environment. Furthermore, air pollution may destruct the ozone layer leading to global warming.
Though pollution is virtually everywhere, the paper focuses on Houston, one of the major cities is the US that have unacceptable levels of pollutants that pose health risks to the lives of people, plants, and animals. It addresses the sources of pollution in general besides identifying a major air pollutant in Houston. Further, the paper will present the various bodies put in place to fight air pollution in Houston.
Sources of Air Pollution In Houston, various sources of pollutants cause negative effects to the environment and human beings. Sources of these emissions include toxic pollutants, which are emitted to the environment from chemical manufacturing facilities that surpass 400 in number in Houston (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3).
Two among the four largest refinery companies in the US include the port of Houston and the Petroleum Complex both of which are located along the Houston Ship Channel in Houston. Other companies that contribute to these emissions include dry cleaners, printing processes, coating process, restaurants, gas stations, gasoline fueled lawn maintenance equipment, and charcoal barbecues amongst others.
Other important sources of these pollutants are tailpipe emissions that come from trucks, buses, and cars. These emissions are spread to the air. Often, they are inhaled by human beings unknowingly.
Other particles from emissions diffuse into the air. These emissions from these companies have negative implications to the ozone layer in the higher atmosphere. When this layer is impaired by the particles, it becomes a health hazard causing global warming, which increases temperatures on the earth surface.
Air Pollutants In Houston, various air pollutants cause environmental pollution. These air pollutants include “fine particular matter, 1-3 butadiene, the Ozone, asbestos, chromium VI, diesel particle matter, nine hazardous air pollutants, chlorine and hexamethylene diisocyanate, ethylene dibromide, acrolein, benzene, acrylonitrile, acrolein and formaldehyde” (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 3) amongst others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ozone air pollutant has high effects on the environment as well as on the health of the people, as revealed next.
The Ozone The Ozone is one of the air pollutants that have raised a lot of concern in Houston for a number of years. The Ozone is a form of gas that usually reacts under the influence of light. Ozone is a two-fold substance implying that it has two layers: one in the high atmosphere and the other one at the ground level that is mostly considered as a pollutant. This air pollutant continues to affect the health of people in the city of Houston.
Measures have been put in place to ensure that the prevalence of ozone gas is minimized. Therefore, the danger inherent in this air pollutant has triggered relevant stakeholders to come up with ways of reducing its levels in the environment (Lezon, 2012, p. 2). The most dangerous areas are Brazoria and Galveston in Houston.
What compelled the issuance of this alert were the atmospheric conditions that indicated that Ozone pollution was in the offing. The Ozone is categorized as a definite risk in Houston because it surpasses the required standards of 8ppm (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 6). The ratings indicated that it has the highest potential of causing air pollution.
It is among the critical causes of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that affect people in Houston. Thus, it is an issue that Houston should be concerned about and work hard to bring its level down. The Ozone appears in two forms. One is formed in the atmosphere while the other is formed on the ground level called tropospheric.
The ground level ozone is formed from the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/Oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and the solar energy. For the Ozone to be formed, the most favorable conditions include high temperatures, low speed of the wind, and a low cloud cover (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). Surprisingly, Houston reveals all the conditions. The Ozone shields the higher layers of the atmosphere.
It protects people on the ground from the high levels of ultra violet radiations that emanate from the sun. These rays are very strong, as they cause health effects when people, plants, and animals are exposed to them. Furthermore, the ground level ozone is formed from other pollutants. It is able to react with other substances when exposed to light (Lezon, 2012, p. 2).
We will write a custom Essay on Houston Air Pollution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Concentration of the Ozone is mostly higher under the aforementioned conditions. In most instances, busy urban centers of Houston experience low concentrations while suburban adjacent rural areas usually experience higher concentrations of ozone. This scenario is mostly exhibited during sunny summers in Houston.
The Ozone formation varies across cities and the time of the day (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 5). Usually, peak occurs in the afternoons. Ozone is air borne. It is “transportable over a long distance through the air and across the borders” (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). Therefore, the pollutant may affect many people following it capacity to cover wide distance.
Trends Houston city is one of the cities in Texas that have been affected by high levels of Ozone. Environmental protection agency has been in the forefront trying to ensure that all areas and regions in the US remain clean. The enactment of the clean air act was one of the efforts by the EPA to ensure that all regions are free from any form of pollution.
Therefore, in line with this act, various standards have been set up by EPA to ensure that air pollution is minimized. Some of these standards were aimed at reducing the ground level ozone, which has had significantly tampered with the lives of people in Houston. The standards of the Ozone have taken quite some time for Houston to implement.
The notable reasons for the delayed enactments are the variability of emissions in the city. Efforts in Houston seemed to bear fruits in the last 35 years because of adherence to the strict control measures. The clean air act that came into effect in 1970 besides the subsequent amendments to the act has contributed to reduction of the Ozone levels in Houston during the period (Donaldson et al., 2004, p. 5).
However, the level of ozone is feared to have increased after the year 2000 because of various reasons. There is much concern that the issue may become unbearable. This is a worrying path even as the population of Houston continues to increase each day. For this trend to be managed, experts and concerned parties need to collaborate and find the way forward.
Identification of every particular pollutant that poses health effects to people should be investigated and dealt with. For instance, the efforts put in place by the Environmental Protection Agency should be stepped up with regulations and standards being put in place for the state to comply. This will ensure reduction of these pollutants thus making the city of Houston a place that every person will desire to visit.
Sources The source of Ozone is the high temperature that causes the higher atmospheric layer to be prone to ultra violet rays. This layer is important in deterring sunrays from reaching the earth. On the ground level, sources of Ozone emanate from air pollutions and other substances that are toxic in the air. The interaction of these substances causes the effects of Ozone (Coleman, 2012, p.3640).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Houston Air Pollution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, low speed of wind and low cloud covers contribute to the high Ozone levels. This therefore implies that the level of pollution emitted to the air through combustion of substances and chemicals emitted from industries play a crucial role in exacerbating the effects of Ozone.
Therefore, human actions may play a key role in the Ozone air pollution. Studies have revealed that exposure of the Ozone to nitric oxide helps to reduce the levels of the pollutant. This qualifies as one of the strategies that need to be employed to reduce the high concentration of the Ozone, as well as its effects. The Ozone pollutant also results from the meteorological patterns and conditions in Houston.
For instance, between the month of April and that of October, the climate is usually warm and sunny characterized by quiescent breezes that cause the ground level to build up air pollutants that concentrate and cause health effects. Furthermore, high ozone levels are caused by wind especially when it rotates continuously. The Ozone is transported from one place to another as the wind propels.
The wind taps unmoving air in the towns hence transporting it to other areas (Darby, 2005, p. 1788). This therefore makes it difficult to control the spread of the Ozone pollutant.
Apart from the major companies dealing with emissions, other small aggregate airborne emissions have emanate from many other small sources that are spread in Houston such as gasoline-fueled lawn machine maintenance equipment and surface coating processes amongst many others.
Managing the Ozone pollutant Managing the Ozone pollutant has turned out to be a very complex process for policy makers. However, if they want to deal with the solution amicably, they need to trade off between the cost of ensuring that the problem is solved and or whether the problems should continue affecting the health of the people.
Because of the many air pollutants that are in Houston, policy makers should make decisions implicitly or explicitly to determine which pollutants pose higher health risks to be able to strategize on ways to manage them.
Consequences of exposure: Health Risks Various consequences are brought by high exposures to the Ozone. These consequences may affect human beings, plants, and animals. According to Donaldson et al (2004), protection of the health of Houstonians from the effects of environmental pollution and other health risks has always been the agenda and the central goal of the city of Houston (p. 3).
The city adopted various measures to ensure that health of people of Houston is upheld (Green Facts, 2012, Para. 2). These measures include setting up of standards concerning emissions in the environment, requiring the sources of pollutions to limit their levels of emissions, and educating members of the public on the required actions to take to protect their own health besides ensuring that they limit environmental pollution.
These measures have been achieved because the city has experienced a number of risky health implications. Various health risks are associated with the Ozone air pollutant. The consequences of exposure in Houston are evident in the health of those who have been exposed to it.
The vulnerable populations include people who are more sensitive to air pollutants and those with a genetic predisposition, young children, old people who have developed increased sensitivity due to various diseases, environmental and socio-economic factors, and those who are exposed to extremely high levels of air pollutants (City of Houston, 2012, Para. 2).
People who are exposed to the short-term Ozone usually suffer from respiratory diseases, lung, and eye problems. The Ozone level further “increases the level of susceptibility to allergens that are inhaled” (Hackney, 2010, p. 638). When individuals are exposed to the Ozone for longer periods, relatively low concentrations of ozone may affect the functionality of their lungs.
According to Donaldson et al, from the Environmental Protection Agency, many health problems are caused by exposure to high ozone levels (2004, p. 8). He noted that the Ozone poses health problems to children, the elderly, and healthy adults. Asthma is one of the health effects of exposure to high ozone levels. It also causes acute respiratory problems when a person inhales air that is polluted with high levels of Ozone.
It also aggravates emphysema and bronchitis besides impairing the immune system defenses of an individual (Hackney, 2010, p. 639). The other effects of over exposure to high levels of ozone may make an individual have other complications in the body that may make him/her a frequent visitor of health facilities and hospitals.
Ozone Standards under the Clean Air Act The clean air act requires the environmental protection agency to set standards and regulations that should be adopted to ensure that air pollution is minimized. The clean air act requires standards to be established to limit exposure of potentially harmful pollutants in the environment. Six criteria pollutants have been set up by EPA to ensure that environment in various cities, Houston included, is kept clean.
The six criteria standards include “particulate matter, ground level ozone also called smog, lead, Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide” (Lisa, 2012, p. 30088). So far, most of the standards concerning the pollutants have been met successfully by the Houston city. However, the ground level ozone is the only one remaining to be successfully met.
Efforts are underway under the hospice of EPA to revise the standards concerning the Ozone. The proposed plan is to phase out one-hour standard approach to replace it with eight-hour approach to the menace. Since the establishment of the standards, Houston did not comply. Rather, it indicated in its states implementation plan (SIP) that it was planning to attain the standards by the end of 2007, which was the deadline.
Under the one-hour standards that had been set by EPA, every region of the country was not supposed to exceed 125 parts per billion (Schade, Khan, Park,
Product Manager in Mexico and the U.S. Report custom essay help: custom essay help
Being a Product Manager Basically, being a product manager entails developing a particular product in such a way that it appeals to a specific target demographic. What must be understood is that consumer demographics each have their own unique “tastes” when it comes to specific products. As a result, it is necessary to develop products in such a way that they appeal to specific consumers by way of taste, smell, appearance, functionality etc.
For example, a product manager of a soft drink company would attempt to market different classes of soft drinks to suit differing consumer tastes. Examples of this can be seen in the differences between Mexico and the U.S. when it comes to the overall flavor of a soft drink that is being sold in each country.
Consumers from Mexico prefer a certain degree of tartness when it comes to their soft drinks while Americans prefer a greater deal of sweetness. As such, it is the responsibility of the product manager to ensure that the type of product that is being sold in each individual location conforms to the flavors that local consumers enjoy.
Influencing Factors in Getting into this Field The most influential factor in getting into this kind of work comes in the form of the desire to develop a product as if it was your very own child. From conceiving the idea of the product on a drawing board to eventually manufacturing it and having it on store shelves creates a certain amount of pride in a product manager since the idea they initially conceived of is now being bought by consumers.
Should the product become a considerable success this would of course create a feeling of happiness comparable to witnessing your very own child graduate from college.
What type of education is necessary for this job? Should someone wish to enter into this particular type of career it is generally advised that they focus on becoming a product manager within a specific field.
For example, the requirements for a product manager in the food services sector are drastically different to that of a product manager within electronics or social media services. As such, it is advisable that students combine a business degree in management with a secondary degree in whatever field they wish to specialize in.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advice to College Students The best advice I can give to students in becoming a product manager is to gain as much experience in the field as possible. Academic literature can only get you so far, it is important to develop a sufficient understanding of various consumer demographics in order to understand how to best develop a product that they will buy.
It is due to this that experience will be your best teacher rather than theories and literature which may or may not be able to give you the necessary information you need.
What difficulties can students expect when entering into this particular career? The main problem that students can expect when entering into this field is that they will be unable to rise quickly without sufficient experience. While in other career fields employees can rise quickly given enough hard work and diligence, the world of product management often will not promote an employee unless they have accumulated a certain number of years within the company.
The reason behind this is due to the span of time it takes to understand a consumer demographic and know what does and does not appeal to them.
Ethnic Polarization and the Duration of Civil War Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The article discusses the relationship between the civil war duration and ethnic polarization. The arguments in the article provide that civil wars are key barriers to the development of the economy. Civil wars lead to the destruction of infrastructure, loss of human life and have an effect on future prospects for investment.
The causes of civil wars can be analyzed in relation to their onsets, the duration of the wars, as well as the incidence of civil wars. Civil wars may start randomly, after which conflicts emerge. Factors such as a country having mountains where rebels can hide also contribute to the onset of civil wars.
Civil wars may also emanate from low per capita income; this makes a civil war last longer than it would have lasted if the per capita income was high. Lack of democracy may also trigger a civil war as rebels form militia groups in order to oust an undemocratic regime (Montalvo