Recent trends in education are more focused on developing various intelligences of students rather than on dedicating more time to physical education and sports.
In fact, a one-dimensional direction at educating students is not the best solution to professional development and intellectual growth of students. What is more important is that current educational policies restrict children’s creativity. There is also as evident misconception concerning the importance of sporting activities in educational system that is premised on stereotypical vision of future careers.
Sport and education are often regarded as different spheres of children’s development. However, these two branches are closely connected because they complement children’s comprehensive intellectual and physical development. There is a false assumption that talented students are those who excel in intellectually driven disciplines, such as mathematics, biology, or physics.
However, sporting activities, including dances, football, and gymnastic directly relate to physical education that is also premised on a number of theories, strategies, and models. So, physical excellence should not be disregarded in the light of students’ difficulties in scientific field. In fact, children will not play football equally well because of different levels of skills and talents. This kind of sport is based on specialized knowledge about athletics, physical training, game rules, and strategies.
Underestimating physical education will not contribute to normal intellectual development of a child. There should be a balance between body and mind, which is heavily discussed in various philosophical movements. As a proof, Sir Ken Robinson discusses the negative influence of traditional education on creativity, which is also closely connected with the restrictions imposed on sporting and fitness.
The point is that the government has established priorities in expanding children’s skills by emphasizing the advantage of intelligence over physical fitness. However, students’ capacities could not be measured by their ability to write, read, or solve problems, but on their interests, creativity, and major preferences in study. So, the equal status should be given both to literacy and creativity to exterminate the stereotypes in education and develop advanced pedagogical practices in all spheres of student learning.
The above-presented assumptions are congruent with my personal experience in learning. Being an international Chinese student, I used to think about education in a traditional way, implying no creativity, but strict discipline only. Sports are also about discipline, but creativity is as important as discipline because it allows students to go beyond the standards and discover their personal talents and gifts. Hence, although discipline and strict rules are foundational in education, creativity should also play a crucial role in intellectual and physical development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, education should not be about knowledge of formulas, historical figures, and chemical substances because they do not contribute to our multi-faceted development. Human mind is diverse enough to explore alternative paths in cognizing the world. I also agree with the idea that education should be accompanied with constant change to make children realize the actual purpose of studying and future fulfillment.
My experience of studying in China differs from that of studying in California because teachers encourage students’ independence. They have also made me understand that thinking process is successful when people are in constant searching. Therefore, dynamics of learning is a priority for promoting skills and widening our perception of the surrounding world. Human brain develops constantly, regardless of what activities it is involved in.
Sherlock Holmes Films Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience
Betrayal of Holmes
Introduction Although we may not typically consider a trailer released months before the film’s debut or a quote from an interview as a part of an actual movie, these do serve significantly to shape how we approach our viewing of the film for the first time as well as how we reflect upon it while viewing, after viewing, or upon revisiting it.
To many diehards of Sherlock Holmes, Benedict Cumberbatch appears to be the definitive figure in this contemporary work. Playing Arthur Conan Doyle, Jeremy Brett complicates the detective in the adventures of Sherlock Holmes up to 1994. On the other hand, most viewers observe that Benedict has honored the great man who defined Holmes for the current generation.
Although Genette discusses the paratext in reference to literary works in particular, the concept can easily be applied to the filmic text. Cumber batch provides a writer’s eloquence in relaying Brett’s impression.
A literary paratext might include a book’s cover, title page, preface, or even reviews about a book, whether quoted upon its jacket or encountered by a potential reader in a magazine. In the analysis of this paper, a film paratext could be a movie trailer, DVD cover, title sequence, reviews from the press, or interviews with the writers, directors, and cast.
Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience Sherlock’s creators, Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss, anticipated an international audience of newcomers as well as a homegrown Holmes fan base. This is amid Brett’s public battle with a bipolar disorder that almost ended his career in acting.
The first episode’s title is a variation of A Study in Scarlet, Conan Doyle’s 1887 novel that introduced Sherlock Holmes to readers; it is an appropriate choice for the episode that introduces 21st century Sherlock to television audiences in Britain. Brett’s death in 1995, after a heart failure, was a major blow to other members of the cast.
The murdered “pink” lady reflects not only a color and story connection with the original text but twists the tale into a modern commentary about eye-catching colors for women working in the media and the victim’s need to be perfectly groomed and color coordinated in order to be acceptable for her job and her lovers (Aumont 38).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even her accessories, such as a mobile phone, are in, as Sherlock refers to them as being of an alarming shade of pink. In every version of this episode, whether broadcast in the U.K. or internationally, in edited or full format, the story begins not with Sherlock but with Jeremy Brett, who becomes the character with whom the audience is expected to identify and thus is an appropriate entry character to get viewers involved with the story.
Brett’s flashback to an Afghani war zone, also appropriate to the original Watson’s war record (another plus for traditional Holmes fans), makes him a sympathetic modern character who might be a returned veteran like someone viewers know in real life.
The news-style flashback modernizes Watson’s pre-Sherlock experiences, as does his visit with his therapist and comments about writing a blog.
His final line before the opening credits, “Nothing ever happens to me,” may be appropriate for the couch potatoes watching this episode; vicariously, their lives, too, are about to change as they enter the world of Sherlock’s adventures (Aumont 29). The opening theme immediately follows this line, overlaying the rush of London traffic and pulling Benedict Cumberbatch, and the viewers, into the story.
They, walking alongside Watson, become pulled into Sherlock’s world, learning a lot about the detective’s “science of deduction” as well as his personal history within the scope of the first episode. This Victorian setting in England brings forth Downey Robert Jr. as Holmes opens up to the 21st Century tales of sensibility (Aumont 34). Beyond the television series, new viewers can also “play Watson” by visiting Sherlock’s website, The Science of Deduction, which appears the same as on television.
Betrayal of Holmes Appropriating Ritchie’s initial vision for the films, Downey has on multiple occasions promoted the adaptations as potentially homoerotic. During the first film’s production, his suggestion to the press that Holmes and Watson would wrestle and share a bed attracted critics’ and audiences’ attention.
On the other hand, Brett’s appearance in the 41 episodes of Holmes from 1984 to 1994 allows the audience to comment on his betrayal of Holmes. They observed that He would have continued with such line of action had he not died at the young age of 61 (Aumont 42).
We will write a custom Essay on Sherlock Holmes Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although Ritchie has never declared Holmes as gay-rather, he has elaborated “while these guys are sort of in love with each other,” they are “a hetero-sexual couple that at moments could seem gay” (Aumont 46). Downey’s inferences have dominated, serving as the defining paratext for the films.
Genette’s theory of paratextuality posits seemingly external materials as an inextricable part of a text, with the prefixpara- at Once denoting that which is “separate from or going beyond” while also serving as “analogous or parallel to,” according to the OED (Aumont 48).
Works Cited Aumont James. L’Analyse des films/Analysis of Film. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. Print.
International supply chain Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction According to Chrismopher, to understand an international supply chain we have to define a simple supply chain. The components of a supply chain involve the parties that respond to a request made by a customer. Here, a supply chain does not only constitute the manufactures and the suppliers. It also constitutes retailers, transporters, customers, and warehouses (14).
According to Logan in the past two decades, the supply chain networks have developed and extended in scope and application. This has resulted to more interrelated as well as complex networks. The reason underlying such development is associated with globalization of the world’s economies. It is the emergence of competitors across supply chains that compete in the international arena for market place dominance.
This competition has resulted to establishment of international supply chains (59). According to Chrismopher, organizations have to establish an international supply chain because of the global business environment that expands on a daily basis. Here, organizations have to respond to consumer expectations that are beyond the confines of their traditional expertise (20).
According to World Economic Forum, in the past 20 years global sourcing as well as supply has become a reality. According to Logan, the local for local manufacturing patterns have been done away with. In turn, the closing of the local patterns pave way to establishment of a global village (15).
An example is the migration to China that has become the favorable destination. China has become a force in international trade. During 1990, its trade activities increased three times faster as compared to the global economy. Between the year 2000 and 2002, when the world was suffering a stagnated trade it was enjoying a 30% rise in imports and exports (Mentzer 34).
The market today has fierce global competition that entails an excess of supply over the demand. According to Mentzer, businesses undergo such risks because of quantitative anomalies and qualitative effects. The qualitative irregularity comes about because of principal components and biasness in the selection.
On the other hand, qualitative effects come about because of the pressures associated with productivity enhancement, duplication removal, minimization of costs and elimination of waste. Businesses address the risks by balancing these priorities. Employing real time data, risk mitigation strategies, as well as use of analytical tools are some of the strategies a business can use when balancing these priorities (9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risks in the international supply chain
Risks in the supply chain are the products of consequence and incidence. Globalization has resulted to a business environment that is complex and interrelated. In turn, the complexity of the supply and demand networks has intensified (Mentzer 10). In reviewing the risks that come with global supply chains, we will review real events around the world that brought about challenges in the global supply chains that brought about risks in the sector.
Political instability in North Africa specifically Egypt and the Middle East resulted to short-term hiccups in the supply of oil and natural gases. In Egypt, there was political instability in early 2011 whereby the president Hosni Mubarak stepped down because of military pressure. Demonstrations and protests filled the country advocating for better living conditions and transparency in governance. The region has 61.1% of the total oil reservoirs and 45% of the natural gas reservoirs in the world.
In addition, it dictates 35.3% and 18.8% of the world’s oil and natural gas production and supply (D
Snowstorm Causes Accidents In North Dakota Essay essay help online
A sudden snowstorm surprised the North Dakota area on Monday morning, causing many accidents around the area. One of the accidents had happened at around 9:40 a.m. at Interstate 94. “Two cars and a truck wrecked at about 9:30 a.m. and left motorists stuck on the highway for 70 minutes,” Lieutenant Bob Boone, the Fargo Fire Department spokesman reported.
This was evident with the many cars packed up half a mile on both sides of the scene. At the scene were two fire engines, a water-tanker truck, a rescue squad, a paramedics unit, a tow truck, and state and county troopers. Boone confirmed that the truck driver got minor injuries but was rushed to MeritCare medical Center.
John Washburn, an undergraduate in a local university, was lucky to remain uninjured after driving into a mailbox. He reported that he had just pulled off his snow tires the previous week. “The ground froze fast last night when it was near zero. The concrete was so cold this morning that instead of melting, the snow turned to ice,” said Dotty, who witnessed the accident.
A 68-year-old woman died on impact when her vehicle slammed into a mailbox. There were no witnesses to the accident. On a separate incident, students taking driving lessons collided but remained unharmed. However, the driving instructors suffered broken bones.
The National Weather Service at Fargo’s Hector International Airport reported about the source of the snowstorm. The forecasters had only expected mere flurries. Boone reported that the accidents occurred since the drivers had removed their snow tires. In total, sixty vehicle accidents occurred between 9 a.m. and 11 a.m.
Competitive Advantage in Companies Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Companies strive to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Environmental conditions are some of the major factors that determine the competitiveness of an organization.
Analysis of the internal strengths and weaknesses of a firm helps in determining the competitiveness of the firm. For an organization to gain a competitive advantage, it should have the ability to add value to various products and counter threats by its competitors. In addition, the resources and capabilities of the organization should be rare and inimitable.
The organizational structure is also a critical success factor of an organization. An efficient organizational structure helps in coordinating various capabilities and resources of the organization. This increases the competitiveness of the organization (Barney, 1995). The sole aim of the existence of any organization is the production of goods and services that fulfill the needs of their customers. Therefore, it is vital for an organization to have an efficient production system.
Lean production is an efficient production system that helps in improving the competitiveness of an organization. Lean production leads to a significant reduction in the cost of production. Lean production strives to minimize the amount of inventory. This reduces the costs of managing inventory. Keeping low levels of inventory frees up capital for other income generating activities. This increases the profitability of an organization. In addition, lean production helps in reducing the duration of the production cycle.
However, an organization may face several challenges during the implementation of a lean production system. Lack of a reliable supply chain limits the efficiency of a lean production system. Disruptions in the supply chain may have adverse effects on an organization due to the low levels of inventory in lean production systems. In addition, the organizational culture may limit efficient implementation of a lean production system.
Toyota credits its success to its lean production system – the Toyota production system. In fact, Toyota was the first company that introduced the concept of lean production. The Toyota’s production system leads to production of defect free products. In addition, the system strives to reduce the batch sizes of the production cycle.
This minimizes wastage. Toyota’s lean production system strives to minimize the level of inventory. The company receives various components just before it uses them in production lines for the manufacture of vehicles. Toyota has an efficient supply chain that enables suppliers to access the company’s database and determine the components that the company needs. However, Toyota has spent decades to develop and perfect its production system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational culture of the company facilitates efficient running of the production system. Toyota’s production system enables it to make efficient use of resources and add value to various products. Toyota’s lean production system is inimitable. The company has spent several decades to perfect the production system. This has enabled Toyota to identify skills, abilities, and resources that are essential for the smooth running of the production system.
The management and employees of Toyota make numerous small decisions that lead to the ultimate efficiency of the production system. The uniqueness of the production system makes imitation by other companies impossible. Companies can only use certain aspects of the Toyota production system to improve the efficiency of their production systems. Therefore, Toyota’s production system is one of the major factors that give the company a competitive edge over other automobile manufacturers.
Reference Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49-61.
Religion and Politics Essay essay help free: essay help free
Religion is closely related to politics in a number of ways. In the traditional society, religious leaders were both temporal and civil leaders. In 1648, a treaty of Westphalia was signed, which separated politics from the Church. However, religion has always influenced policy making process and decision-making in government. In many parts of the world, religious leaders influence political leaders to come up with policies that are in line with the provisions of religious beliefs.
However, the main question is how religion influences politics. In the United States, there is a clause in the Bill of Rights referred to as the disestablishment clause, which provides that politics must be kept separate from politics. In established democracies, somebody with questionable religious record stands no chance of being elected. The populace believes that a religious leader would always be willing to listen to the wishes of the majority (Settimba 9).
A non-religious leader is believed to be indifferent to the sufferings of the majority in society. In other words, a non-religious leader would fulfill his or her own interests instead of serving those who elected him or her. During campaigns at state level in the United States, local leaders quote the Bible whenever they want to bring out a certain fact.
In human life, each group has a belief system that is established with the help of religious values. These beliefs influence the political standpoint of an individual in a political system. The media will always evaluate the life of a politician using certain religious principles.
These principles are derived from religious morals and beliefs. In this case, a candidate in an election is identified as a Christian or a Muslim. The religion of a political leader determines the number of votes he or she would gunner in an election. In the United States, politicians associate themselves with Christianity because a majority of voters are Christians.
In the Arab world, a political leader must associate himself with Islam because it is a dominant religion in the region. Furthermore, the religious sects must be stated clearly before a political leader is elected. In other countries, religion is the major variable in every electioneering year. It is believed that certain religious affiliations are related to cultural beliefs that affect the performance of leaders in any political system. Recently, the issue of religion emerged in the United States when Obama was said to be a Muslim.
Many people were much worried that Obama was a Muslim. Islam has always been associated with extremism meaning that Muslims are accused of using warped means to attain justice. It was feared that Obama could support Muslims once he became president. However, the president dispelled fears by declaring that he was indeed a Christian. This nearly cost him the presidency (Johnstone 64).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a popular belief among Christians that good leaders are usually sent by God. This is based on the Bible whereby many kings and prophets were sent by God to lead Israelites in the times of war and calamities. Political leaders have always presented themselves as leaders sent by God to accomplish certain missions.
Through this, they have been able to ascend to leadership positions. Whenever political leaders make speeches, they quote the Bible to show the electorate that they understand the Christian principles. The idea that political leaders must come up with policies favoring the poor is based on the teachings of the Bible. The Bible and the Koran teaches that people must always be assisted to achieve their potentials in society.
It is not the interest of the ruling class to help the poor. The main aim of the ruling class is to amass wealth and use the proletariat to ascend to power. Political parties that tend to favor the poor in their manifestos have always clinched political power. Social justice ideology is based on the teachings of the Bible because the poor must have equal access to resources including healthcare, education, and employment.
Religious Fundamentalism Religious fundamentalism was first used in the United States to refer to those individuals who opposed the principles of the mainstream church. Those who subscribed to the ideas of the Protestant Churches were perceived as religious fundamentalists. In other words, fundamentalism was interpreted to mean diverting from the mainstream faith.
However, what should be clear is that fundamentalists had pertinent issues with the mainstream church since the mainstream church never allowed competition. Religious fundamentalists observed that it was critical to follow the teachings of the Bible instead of subscribing to the interpretations provided by the religious leaders. Religious leaders interpreted the teachings in the Bible to suit their interests.
Many people were not happy with this behavior. The mainstream church interpreted the Bible in accordance to the new dynamics of the modern world. However, fundamentalists were never happy about this. They believed that it would be better to stick to the teachings of the Bible. In the modern society, fundamentalism is used loosely to mean diverting from the normal beliefs and principles of major religions (McGuire 76).
Fundamentalism is a relatively new term in the sociology of religion because it was first used in the 19th century. The modern society is complex to understand because of the changes brought about globalization and technology. Therefore, fundamentalism in the modern society has a different meaning. Religion in the modern society serves a different purpose as compared to its role in the traditional society. Religion is an instrument that brings people together.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, it must be used to bring about understanding and unity. This implies that religious teachings are usually interpreted to simplify the complexities in life. Religious fundamentalists do not believe that anything has changed as far as religion is concerned. In this case, modern interpretations must not be accepted because they go against the traditional teachings of religion (Weber 22).
When other people embrace change in society, religious fundamentalists encourage conservatism. To them, religion is absolute meaning that it dictates everything in society. There is a controversy among scholars regarding the use of the term because fundamentalists are perceived as people who are not intelligent.
Others view them as uneducated individuals who believe religion is everything in society. Religious fundamentalists believe that some things should not be allowed to go on in society. For instance, they oppose science, abortion, feminism, the use of family planning drugs, and homosexuality.
Recently, the term has been associated with Islamic extremists who believe that justice should be sought through terrorism and violence. For Islamic fundamentalists, the main problem in the world is exploitation. The west has always exploited people in other parts of the world, including the Middle East. To them, the main issue is that the west has always neglected the presence of Arabs.
Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
McGuire, Meredith. Religion: the Social Context. New York: Sage, 2002. Print.
Settimba, Henry (2009). Testing times: globalization and investing theology in East Africa. Milton Keynes: Author House, 2009. Print.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Los Angeles: Roxbury Company, 2002. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion and Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics Essay online essay help
The relationship between religion and politics is normally interpreted differently by different people due to the presence of a wide gap between religion and politics.
However, the most important aspect of religion is that it plays an important role in the world of politics. Religion has been used for many years to legitimize regimes, build support for social movements, deflect social complaints, and also to provide definition and understanding of justice (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 1). The relationship between religion and politics is dependent on the type of religion and political system in question.
Most nations in the modern world have put up measures aimed at separating religion and the state. However, this has been almost impossible due to the fact that there are myriads of religious aspects that have been borrowed by the state. Religion has been used by many politicians to assert their influence on the people.
In the United States when the 2012 presidential campaigns were underway, Former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum came up with policies based on religious beliefs. He believed that the Republican Party was on the side of God (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 2). Religion has great influence in the moral thinking of people and thus affects how people view political policies. Throughout President Bush’s term, he based most of his principles on religion.
United States is one of the few countries that have the oldest democracies in the world. Religion is still a major influence in political decision making. The influence of religion in politics is undeniable. However, these influences can either be positive or negative. This depends on how religion is used to influence politics. Politicians are known to use religious excuses when advancing their political agenda (Johnstone 198).
Politics are controlled by the constitution. Most of the information found in the constitution is based on some religious background. The ethical issues, moral obligations, justice and several other aspects of the constitution have religious inclinations.
The use of the constitution in managing a country’s politics therefore incorporates religion into politics. Most constitutions are religious in nature. For instance, the swearing functions of political officers require the use of religious books and religious statements. For a United States president to assume power, he or she must be sworn in using a Bible and the mention of the word “God” in the swearing in statements is very conspicuous (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current world has witnessed reduced religious influenced in politics as the world becomes more secular than it used to be in the past century. The increased level of secularism has tried to separate religion from state. Politicians who are not religious can now be voted into offices.
Besides, religious leaders no longer influence political directions (Norris and Inglehart 25). In any case, the current world religions have influence on politics although the influence is not as strong as it used to be a century ago. Religious subjectivity has also reduced across the world. This has resulted into minimal influence of religion on people’s lives.
The influence which the clergy had in state affairs has declined significantly especially in the industrialized and democratic nations (Norris and Inglehart 25). Currently, religion is still influential among people from poor countries since they are the majority in the world.
It will be wrong to conclude that religious influence in the world politics will be completely eradicated since most people still have strong religious affiliations. Therefore, religion will always be part and parcel of politics. The only issue of importance is that the world has come up with two major groups namely the believers and the non-believers. As a result, there is increase in the gap between these two extreme groups (Norris and Inglehart 25).
Religious fundamentalism The word ‘fundamentalism’ is normally used when referring to a requirement by a group to firm devotion to certain theological principles (Global researcher 11). Modernization and e globalization have had a negative effect on fundamentalism. This has weakened people from observing religious doctrines although modernist theology has continually increased in terms of influence. Fundamentalism is still being observed by several people around the world.
Fundamentalists have a strong belief in their religions and the Holy Scriptures (Johnstone, 164). Hence, they possess a strong desire of replacing the current secular law with a law that is more religious (Global researcher 1). This has resulted into cropping up of some religious extremists all over the world. Such individuals inflict harm on others in the pretext of religion. The world is currently undergoing sporadic changes some of which have been influenced by religion (Global researcher 1).
Before the pre-modern era, religious fundamentalism was a way of life for many societies around the world. When modernization and secularism became pronounced across the globe, the impact of fundamentalism had significantly reduced in many nations. Analysis of fundamentalism in the modern world reveals the presence of religious fundamentalists in all the world’s major religions (Global researcher 5).
We will write a custom Essay on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principles that are observed by these religious followers may be different in some cases although they share other beliefs that define their fundamentalism ideals. Their views on aspects such as abortion, homosexuality, adultery, feminism, and science reveal a lot of similarities and differences.
Political liberalists do not advocate for fundamentalism. They associate bad aggressive behaviors such as extremist with fundamentalism. This argument may possess some backing due to the recent attacks by Muslim extremists on Christian nations and the infiltration of Israelites into Palestine. Most acts of war and terrorism in the world are linked to religion and fundamentalism (Global researcher 4).
Religious fundamentalism influences the social and political practices of any society (Global researcher 20). For example, the dressing code, gender roles, marriage, and the rule of law are some of the aspects that are influenced by fundamentalism. The levels of influence of fundamentalism on human life are widespread and cannot be discussed exhaustively. This spans from the American world and Europe.
On the other hand, Christian fundamentalists are dominant in Africa, the Middle and Far East. As much as the world is becoming secular, fundamentalism has become more intense since the past 30 years (Global researcher 4). The number of fundamentalists is regularly increasing. The problem is that as these numbers increase, there are increasing instances of violent attacks on other groups or non-believers.
Fundamentalism in the world began in the 16th century. It was later amplified in the 19th and 20th centuries when political leaders approved the existence of state religions (Global researcher 14). This gave fundamentalists more power and vigor to spread their influence. The decline of religious influences in state affairs across the world came with radical fundamentalists since secularism was seen as un-Godly.
This explains why the fundamentalists decided to take such dangerous measures in an attempt to restore the influence of religion in society. Some fundamentalists often go an extent of misinterpreting the Holy Scriptures in an attempt to justifying their deeds. Currently, fundamentalism has more negative effects compared to the positive effects that are known to humanity.
Works Cited Allen-Dell’Amor, Julene, Book Review: How Does Religion Influence Politics. 2012. Web.
Global researcher. Religious Fundamentalism: Exploring International Perspectives. 2009. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. New York: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.
Norris, Pippa and Ronald, Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Ethics is not Based on Religion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The purpose of the study and my opinion
General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning
How ethics is earned and its benefits
The philosophical perspective on the issue
Introduction The relationship that exists between religion and ethics is an issue that draws varying opinion from various individuals. This is evident due to the wide spectrum of views that are presented by religious personalities and non-Christians. Indeed, there are those who believe that religion has obvious historical connection to ethics.
They affirm that the connection between the two aspects are deeply rooted and morally founded. They also state that ethics is not only tied up with religion but religion settles ethics. That is they believe that religion is the bedrock of ethics and that religious persons are individuals with immense moral principles.
However, another school of thought states that religion and ethics has no direct correlation. Individuals under this school of thought argue that ethics is not based on religion. They state that one can be ethically sound even without religion or attending Christian teachings.
They hold that ethics is a concept that is based on strong humanistic assumptions. The assumptions are justified through reasoning and understanding that most people including secular individuals practice ethical principles or live under moral values. The reasoning seems to be factual, realistic and true in my view since not all religious personalities embrace ethical guidelines. This paper discusses the relationship that exists between ethics and religion based on the varying schools of thought that are presented.
The purpose of the study and my opinion This paper gives insightful and credible information on the relationship that exist between religion and ethics that studies human conduct. It seeks to equip those who believe that religion has a historical connection with ethics and those who believe that ethics is not based on religion with pertinent information on the issue. In review of the two schools of thought, I agree to the reasoning that ethics has no basis in religion.
This is because it is just a means to achieving ethical values but not an absolute means of being morally sound. This is evident since even non-Christians live under strong ethical guidelines more than some religious individuals. This explains why the reasoning that ethics is not based on religion may hold absolute credibility.
General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning As noted, there are individuals who believe that religion has a strong connection to religion. They state that religion forms the basis of ethics and that ethics is a key component of religion. They reason that individuals with a strong religious background automatically develop ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, prudence and kindness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because religion teaches noble ideals and principles that foster good life and interrelation ideals. The principles that are socially relevant and culturally acceptable have been instrumental in enhancing cohesiveness in most settings. However, the second school of thought overrules the idea. The thought depicts that ethics or moral values are not based on religion.
Individuals who believe in this school of thought reason that being a religious person is not a guarantee to adopting ethical lifestyle. They affirm that religion is not an end but may just bet a means to an end. The individuals state that it is mythical for one to believe that religion contributes to the development of ethical principles.
This is wrong since developing moral values is a strict humanistic perspective that is intrinsically informed. Ideally, it is proven that even those who do not subscribe to any religious setting live under immense ethical guidelines. The secular individuals live ethically more than some of the persons who attend religious teachings.
This aspect has been proven through observation and studies that shows that there are religious people who practices ethics while others do not. Consequently, there are secular people who live a morally upright lifestyle more than Christians do while others do not. Therefore, it is right to conclude that developing ethical or moral values is dependent on humanistic perspective. It is an individual’s choice and determination since practicing noble principles of life requires total dedication.
How ethics is earned and its benefits Indeed, ethics that is a central aspect to good life or a satisfying life can be earned without going to church. Various individuals have earned it across the social divide including secular individuals who knows very little about religion. This quells the notion that those who live ethically are individuals with strong Christian background. As indicated by scholars, moral values or ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, kindness, cautiousness and prudence are essential for human life.
The principles foster peaceful coexistence and intercalations that is noble for effective integration. They facilitate economic, social and cultural growth among individuals in the societies. Evidently, an individual who hold no ethical value and principles lives in the brinks of destruction. Such a person cannot meet his social and economic obligations with ease.
The philosophical perspective on the issue As noted by philosophers, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on one’s understanding. They state that the issue is a polarizing topic that has led to great divisions across social strata. This is because every group that supports either of the views does not always want to give in on the issue.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics is not Based on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The groups want to gain prominence or dominance over the issue and to be heard. That is every group is keen to supporting their basis of argument without the willingness to compromise their stand on the issue. This calls for sobriety and immense caution when this debate is instigated due to its sensitiveness especially among Christians and secular personalities.
The philosophers also state that, one cannot flourish ethically by virtue of being a Christian or a strong member of a certain religion. Flourishing in any aspect by embracing these ethical principles is more than a religion. It calls for effective decision-making and determination to living a satisfying life.
It is a choice that is made by both Christians and secular individuals who are keen to changing their lifestyle. The philosophers affirm that the reasoning behind the two schools of thought have not found credible answers since there are morally sound personalities who holds distinguished characters in both sectors.
That is, there are religious individuals who are ethically poor and who do not treat others with dignity that they deserve. They fail to recognize the rights of others due to acute selfishness and negative attitude. The same way there are good and bad individuals in the secular world. Therefore, the relationship between the two concepts is a debatable issue.
Conclusion Imperatively, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on an individuals understanding. This is due to the complicated nature of the topic. This is evident as presented under the two schools of thought that various individuals subscribe to in the modern world.
The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The challenge of nuclear waste
Introduction Wastes derived from nuclear reactions are a health hazard with long-term effects on people who are exposed to them. While it is possible to assume that all people know this fact, the nuclear waste question attracts heated debates among scientists, politicians, and other interest groups of health hazards that people create everyday (Wald 12).
Politicians campaign for enactment of policies to resolve the nuclear waste question that they do not understand. On the other hand, scientists make incredible attempts to research on the possible strategies that can be put in place to dispose nuclear wastes (Gwyneth 35). From the public eye, the challenge is even more amplified since the public absorbs all information it receives with a presumption that it is correct.
The dilemma that rises is knowing the extent to which nuclear wastes are dangerous and or what the way forward can be to handle the problem. As the paper unveils, all people engaging in the nuclear waste debate are not so correct yet not too wrong. This position is discussed in the paper by considering Richard Muller’s article on how important the subject of nuclear waste is relevant in the scholarly and contemporary world.
The challenge of nuclear waste At first glance, Muller’s Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing seems inclined to the face of anti-nuke while engaging in the arguments about the problem of nuclear wastes. In his arguments about his position on nuclear wastes, he presents enormous number of disputes that favor his position about the significance of handling nuclear wastes in an appropriate manner particularly waste disposal.
His readers are incredibly persuaded by his argument by interrogatives, which send readers consistently looking for the answer about particular debates on nuclear waste. For instance, he poses the question of how “we possibly certify that this material can be kept safe for 100,000 years” (Muller 207).
This question is strategic in defending his positions on nuclear waste. The question calls readers to take on the subject of debate of nuclear waste by helping to reinforce the magnitude of the problem. It also makes readers assume and speculate on particular actions to curtail the problem. By creating this atmosphere, one wonders how people would create such an immense health hazard and yet remain non-cognizant of its implications.
From the point of Muller, production of nuclear waste seems like the worst mistake that people have ever made in the history of the human race. Muller argues that he is so concerned about the problems since, even without presenting a large number of facts, people would still draw conclusions (Muller 209). Nevertheless, Muller continues to provide statistical evidence on the negative implication of nuclear wastes on human health.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Muller seems convinced about the health hazards of nuclear wastes at the beginning of his book, he later provides statistical evidence that contradicts his position. For instance, he claims, “to present the facts and just the facts, and let you draw the conclusions” (Muller 209). In this extent, he does not provide a consistent position about nuclear wastes disposal.
Although he thinks nuclear waste is problematic, he is not convinced about how serious the problem is to people. For instance, towards the end of his book, he posits, “if the Yucca Mountain facility were at full capacity and all the waste leaked out of its glass containment immediately and managed to reach groundwater, the danger would still be 20 times less than that currently posed by natural uranium leaching into the Colorado River” (Muller 212).
The impression created in the reader’s mind is that the position taken earlier in his book is not the appropriate one. However, this confusion on the subject of nuclear wastes reinforces his argument that the subject attracts valid views among different people (scholars, politician, and other interest groups) for which none of the views can be considered right or wrong.
Based on this argument, nuclear waste is not perhaps the only threat that people face. In comparison with some other threats, it does not top the list. Nevertheless, the emphasis of Muller on the dangers of nuclear wastes through statistical evidence makes the problem stand out as a harmful risk with the potential of causing death.
In this regard, Muller’s work may be interpreted as endeavoring to forcefully draw the attention of people to focus on the dangers that may emanate from improper disposal of nuclear wastes. Orientation of the attention of people to look into a mechanism of handling the nuclear waste question may provide substantive grounds for looking early into the problems of nuclear waste before the problems escalate to levels that make them produce more adverse effects (Vennessa Para.3).
Muller deploys rhetoric strategies to enable him drive his point home. Through his facts, evidence, and arguments that connect with his viewpoints on the topic, the reader gains mixed reactions on the topic.
On one hand, the reader may argue that the challenge of nuclear waste needs to be resolved with the best option involving a scientific approach. On the other hand, engagement of the political aspect in the problems prompts the incorporation of political strategies such as enactment of policies to regulate the handling and disposal of nuclear wastes.
We will write a custom Essay on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue that concerns Muller is whether the existence of a way of disposing nuclear wastes is better in relation to having none at all.
He argues that one of the alternatives to dispose nuclear waste products is through placing it at a secure facility that is far away from human civilizations. According to Muller, Yucca Mountain is one of such places. Indeed, he confirms that the government of the United States has established a prototype nuclear waste facility at Yucca Mountain.
Through this confirmation, he creates rhetoric to the reader who endeavors to know the impacts of such toxins on people given that Yucca Mountain is not much populated. Responding the rhetoric, Muller reasons out that people living in the area face the risk of being poisoned through drinking water in case nuclear containers leak.
He further evidences that uranium takes 10,000 years for its radioactivity levels to decay to levels similar to just before its mining. To ensure that he does not take a stand on the issues of nuclear waste, Muller argues that, as time moves on, Uranium, which comprises the major bulk of nuclear wastes, decays progressively. Therefore, it is not necessary that nuclear wastes are maintained secure for the whole period of 10,000 years.
Based on his calculation results, Muller argues that, in case nuclear toxins are maintained safe for 300 years while maintaining a 1% chance for the escape of the wastes during the time, the risk of contamination of drinking water by the wastes is incredibly reduced. However, the argument has to be in relation to when the waste is just placed at Yucca Mountains in its natural state. This argument creates a rhetoric dilemma to the reader.
Should people leave the risks of lives of others at mere chances? Many readers of Muller’s work would contend that it is not appropriate to leave the lives of thousands of people to dangers that pose potential health risk to them based on the arguments of chance. In case people know that radioactivity that takes place in rocks would pose threats to their lives, they would adopt any possible option that is within their power to eliminate the risks or even curtail them.
The arguments raised by Muller also open his work to criticisms. One of the criticisms is whether the fact that the water flowing in the Colorado River poses the risks of contamination from radioactive material found in the rocks is enough to justify disposing nuclear wastes at the Yucca Mountains.
Unless the waste that is disposed off at Yucca Mountains is from the radioactive material that was extracted in the mountain, and which could have found its way into the Colorado River, any attempt to dispose nuclear wastes from materials obtained elsewhere would go into adding more nuclear wastes into the Colorado River. Therefore, the existence of a risky situation does not justify any attempt to magnify the magnitude of the risk.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rhetoric analysis of Muller’s arguments on the problems of nuclear waste is a challenge of the question on the best scenarios for storage and disposal of nuclear wastes. Nuclear plants, which generate nuclear wastes, are not found in an area that has many people. This fact raises the question of whether the place of disposal of nuclear wastes needs to bother politicians and scientists in the extent that Muller would want people to embrace, or more focus should be on the safety of the nuclear plants themselves.
The leakage of the nuclear power plants in Japan (Foster Para.2) evidences that the problem of nuclear material-related risks is bigger than the challenge of disposal of the nuclear wastes and the place of storage of the wastes once they have already been produced. The challenge is whether the creation of nuclear energy justifies the risks that are associated with the process of creation and the wastes produced.
This argument is based on the incapacity of people to get rid of the levels of nuclear wastes that have already been produced. Why then should people produce more of the refuse? Muller insists that many people are inclined to the line of thought that nuclear energy is an ardent solution to the reduction of reliance on the fossil fuel energy. However, is it an acceptable answer bearing in mind the risks involved?
Conclusion In his book Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, Muller gives readers who are not well acquainted with science an opportunity to synthesize the problems related to nuclear waste generation, storage, and disposal.
Although it is acceptable that problems exist, it is debatable whether a good scenario exists, which can be provided to explain efforts to reduce nuclear waste risks to levels that are slightly lower. Can people afford to trade their right for living in a safe environment with energy sources that are superior? If it is possible, what are the costs? Muller addresses these perplexing issues.
Works Cited Muller, Richard. “Nuclear Waste” They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. New York, NY: W.W. Norton
Road to Revolution Essay scholarship essay help
The American Revolution was one of the key events that took place in America during the second phase of the eighteenth century. In 1607, the British brought many drastic changes in the American society that interfered with their civilization. During this time, Britain was much preoccupied with advancing its economy. In this regard, Britain enacted colonial policies that would favor its maximum exploitation of its colonies. This paper discusses the road to American Revolution.
The revolution started in 1763 when the ‘French and Indian war’ ended. The British Proclamation of 1763 was meant to help them create governments for the new colonies, forester peace among vanquishers, and facilitate British commercial interests in the colonies (Allison 2-17). The British government had incurred many expenses during the war and it was keen on regaining its lost resources through taxing its colonial subjects.
Accordingly, many taxation measures were implemented in order to generate revenue for the British army in America. The Sugar Act was implemented in 1764 and it was meant to reduce tariffs charged on non-British merchandise sourced from West Indies. It was also supposed to facilitate the collection of those goods. This act was followed by the first Stamp Act, which was implemented from 1765 in order to provide income for the army (Brinkley 23-105).
Soon after the enforcement of this act, the Quartering Act was also put in place in 1765, and it was intended to enable the British army to have access to social amenities. More taxes were levied on goods that were imported through the enforcement of the Townshend Act that was introduced in 1767. The British also implemented the Navigation Acts, which further strained the economy of the Americans.
The Americans resisted the new taxes imposed on them through various methods. For example, they refused to buy goods imported from Britain. The harsh economic policies led to serious economic disillusionment, which sparked off violence in various parts of America. In March 1770, a serious picketing incident in Boston led to the gruesome massacre of five Americans by the British troops.
This was followed by the burning and sinking of a British mercantile vessel in Rhode Island in 1772. “On 16 December 1773, some colonialists destroyed many tons of tea in Boston and the event was termed the Boston Tea Party” (Middlekauff 56-89). In reaction to the spate of violence, the British government immediately responded by imposing more punitive measures on its subjects.
In mid 1774, the Boston Port Act was sanctioned and it led to the cordoning of the Boston Port, which later resumed its operations after the compensation of the East Indian Company. “The British Congress further proclaimed Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act and Massachusetts Government Act in the same year” (Guevara 78-109).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Americans argued that these Coercive Acts were arbitrary infringement on their prerogatives. Consequently, in late 1774, the colonists organized a demonstration during the First Continental Congress.
As the hostility escalated, many colonists engaged in chaotic protests that culminated to American Revolution in 1775. Independence was finally granted to the American colonies in 1776. From 1777, the Americans started making constitutional changes that would enable them develop their country. The struggle for independence was very difficult for the Americans. However, through a concerted effort they managed to dislodge the British from their territory.
Works Cited Allison, Robert. The American Revolution: A Concise History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey, New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hil, 2009. Print.
Guevara, Che. The Economics of Revolution, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Companies Ethics: Benzene and Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Benzene exposure
The Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure
Scenarios of Bribery/Gift Giving
Benzene exposure Benzene is a toxic substance if consumed above the recommended minimum levels. The company understands all the regulations that are intended to keep the environment clean and non-toxic to human beings and other animals. The decision by the company to release benzene into the local water resources used for domestic purposes is a real issue of concern.
Professionally, the company will not break any laws by releasing the toxins into water resources. The concentration of the toxic substances will be far much below the recommended levels. This implies that if the toxins are released into water, no harmful effects are anticipated (Harris, Pritchard
Summary of concepts/ideas by Christine Matheson Essay college essay help online
The article by Christine Matheson emphasizes the importance of consumers being environmental conscious in their purchasing patterns. Specifically, the author highlights the need for consumers to adjust their buying behaviors by refusing to support firms and businesses whose operations contribute to environmental pollution.
For example, she opens the article by noting that her writing is “…a bunch of ideas to help you become a greener fashionista “(Matheson 116). Therefore, the author outlines the need of consumers to employ green shopping strategies. Such an adjustment will contribute towards elimination or minimization of the opportunity cost incurred in the process of undertaking waste management.
The author asserts that it is imperative for various industries to adjust their production processes. Some industries that contribute to environmental pollution according to the author include the fashion industry and the transport industry. The author calls for consumers and producers to appreciate the importance of recycling in lowering the rate of environmental pollution.
Additionally, she underscores the importance of industries in diverse economic sectors embracing sustainable technology and adopting renewable energy in their production processes. For example, car and vehicle manufacturers should adopt hybrid technology.
Additionally, the author is of the opinion that limiting the high rate of environmental pollution, which is currently being experienced, requires collaboration of individual and government efforts. This assertion arises from the fact that the government will be required to institute laws, institutions, and infrastructure to enhance reduction in the current rate of environmental pollution.
Summary of concepts/ideas by Collin Beavan Similar to Christine Matheson, Collin Beavan emphasizes the importance of protecting the environment. Collin identifies consumers as the most effective agents of change. The author asserts that it is fundamental for consumers to adjust their consumption behaviors. He alludes to the importance of consumers establishing an ecological balance in their consumption processes.
For example, he asserts that consumers should design, implement, and adhere to environmental friendly rules that guide their consumption processes. Rather than focusing on the incorporation of systems that contribute to minimal or no environmental pollution such as adoption of sustainable technology and use of renewable energy, the author is of the opinion that social change is the only missing ingredient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He posits that he believes, “…in rising to the challenge rather than shrinking from the obstacles” (Beavan 61). Therefore, to achieve this goal, consumers should develop a comprehensive understanding of what they need in life, which should form the basis of developing the necessary technical and social systems. Thus, consumption should be based on socio-technical design.
Despite the contribution of the government and other institutions in limiting climate change, Collin Beavan is of a different view. The author cites change of culture as the most effective avenue of countering environmental pollution and climate change. The author appreciates the fact that cultural change can have a significant effect compared to instituting legislations and systems to deal with the same.
The author further opines that despite the perception that individual effort is minimal in tackling an enormous challenge such as climate change, individuals’ input can lead to the development of a positive culture towards climate change within society. Consequently, individuals, as opposed to systems, are the agents of change “because it is upon the definition of a good life that our socio-technical designs must be used” (Beavan 62).
Conclusion In a recap, the two authors try to illustrate the role of consumers in limiting the high rate of climate change. Adjustment of consumption behavior has been highlighted as one of the most effective ways through which consumers can aid in countering the high rate of climate change. However, to be effective, it is necessary to develop effective systems.
Works Cited Beavan, Colin. “The Year without Toilet Paper.” The New York Times, 22 March 2007: 61-62. Print.
Matheson, Christie. Green Chick: Saving the earth in style, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2008. Print.
The Importance of Value Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
From a psychological perspective, values can be presented as broad preferences of individuals about various actions and outcomes. At this point, they express individuals’ sense of morally justified action. Values also allow people to distinguish between right and wrong, as well as shape their attitudes and perceptions about other individuals. Shared beliefs have influenced the formation of social norms under which people should observe behavioral patterns accepted in society.
As a result of social development, belief systems have been premised on different norms in terms of morale, ethics, and individual choices. These discrepancies are predetermined by the presence of cultural values that influence people’s perceptions of such issues as the good, evil, or justice. Due to the emerged differences, a number of value theories have been developed. In sociological studies, value theory is associated with individuals’ views that are shared by a community, as well as how those views change under certain conditions.
While discussing the importance of value, many Western theorists, including Max Weber, Talcott Parsons and Emilie Durkheim inclined to believe that values are regarded as independent variables. However, the supporters of traditional sociologists withdrew the concept of value and focus on cultural dimension that builds the foundation for value creation. At this point, although values are often identified with common notions and concepts, their meaning is differently represented across cultures, leading to subjective and objective judgments.
This is of particular concern to religious norms that often influence people’s attitude toward the political power and social norms. For instance, some countries consider the important role of religion in shaping social, cultural and political relations whereas other societies insist on the separation of religion and social system because the former is more associated with personal values.
In fact, considering social values as products of individual behavior, the emphasis on behaviorism and observational philosophy should be placed. The introduced theoretical frameworks are influential for development of educational systems that encourage a learning process as a set of activities focused on understanding morale, ethics, and law. The learning process reflects individual’s engagement in gaining experience about acceptable norms of behavior, as well as deeper understanding of self-image.
Finally, learning provides individuals with the accepted definitions of the right and wrong. In order to control value creation, social sciences refer to the political, social, and cultural institutions studying various dimensions of human organization based on empirical evidence. The proposed framework contributes to comprehending the common values that are accepted in societies, as well as those shaped in various cultures.
As it has been mentioned before, social values can refer to cultural norms that are considered in a broader context. Hence, norms create rules and principles of behavior in various situations whereas values define what actions should be considered as morally right or wrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cultural norms base on broader meanings, their understanding differs in various societies. Although cultural values are regarded as objective principles, they are still premised on individual’s attitudes toward specific traditions and norms recognized in a particular culture. Hence, values reflect the human ability to analyze and synthesize various aspects and principles that bear especial meaning to them.
For instance, various communities have a specific set of principles and rules that distinguish them from other communities. This is of particular concern to professional communities in which members adhere to specific philosophy and vision of an organization. Hence, although many company’s values differ, the development of global standards influence their normative systems. Due to the globalization process, organizations often address such issues as cultural diversity, human equality, and individual values.
Values can change across time to adjust to new conditions and challenges. If a member of a community adheres to a value that contradicts the commonly accepted norms, the community’s authority can impose certain regulations that encourage adherence and conformity to accepted behaviors.
As a result of such violations, fixed values are often controlled by legislature. The development of the legal system has contributed to the development of the international law that introduces global standards in such fields as healthcare, education, culture. There are many non-governmental organizations, including the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization, that provide consistent frameworks for shaping global principles of accountability and legitimacy.
In conclusion, values constitute overwhelming definitions that encompass personal belief systems and socially accepted norms. They also refer to the preferences about such concepts as moral action, ethics, and human behavior. In the course of social development, theorists have worked on various frameworks that can justify value creation across cultures and communities. Although the presence of diverse value systems, there are specific standards that should be followed by the world community.
These standards are monitored by international organizations and, therefore, violating rules can lead to imprisonment and punishment. In general, the existence of fixed values is not justified because societies are constantly developing, introducing new norms, perceptions, and preferences. At the same time, acceptance of diversities in belief systems is also important because it expands individuals’ perception about moral and immoral actions.
Death Comes to the Archbishop Essay college essay help: college essay help
In the article Death Comes to the Archbishop, Norman Cantor focuses on the life of Thomas Bradwardine. Cantor details how the archbishop’s endeavours in science and psychology made him one of the greatest scholars of Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. As a young boy, Bradwardine was a bright student.
He later joined Oxford University where he studied mathematics, philosophy, and theology. By the age of 30, he had become a faculty member of the university. In the year 1323, Bradwardine joined Merton College where he studied Masters of Arts. At Merton College, Bradwardine met a group of scientists who were devoted to studying astronomy, physics, and mathematics.
With the help of these scholars, Bradwardine published several scientific treatises, which made him one the best-celebrated philosophical and theological persons in Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. In the next paragraphs, this article describes the philosophy of the Oxford school towards the relationship between faith and the natural world.
As illustrated by Cantor, the philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that God was a supreme and infinite being. This implied that from their perspectives human beings could not question God’s deeds. Equally, it was believed that human beings could not understand God’s actions clearly. However, Bradwardine and his fellow scholars believed that human beings had the capacity to investigate and understand the natural world.
Based on Bradwardine’s treatises, it is apparent that philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that there were relationship between faith and the natural world. For instance, Bradwardine asserted that God created the earth and several other planets in the universe. This view contradicted with the religious doctrines that were widely upheld by the public. As highlighted by the article’s author, Bradwardine’s innovative doctrine was little known outside Oxford.
Although Oxford school of thought philosophers had developed innovative theories on nature, these theories were never developed during their lifetimes. For instance, the Bradwardine theory of the universe implications was never developed because the theory could have contradicted with the then religious and moral beliefs.
Similarly, deeper understanding in the field of biomedical sciences was blocked by the people’s faith. By then, medical theories developed were ineffective since they had no basis on science but rather on faith and psychology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the Black Death had not struck down Bradwardine, the modern science would have been different. Although some of his theorists on nature were never developed until the 16th century, it should be noted that some of his innovations such as his experiments on optics led to the inventions of eyeglasses.
In this regard, if Bradwardine lived longer he could have come up with more innovative theories and inventions. Similarly, his death marked the end of Oxford School of thought. Therefore, if he could have lived longer he could have influenced his fellow elites to advance his theories and inventions.
Equally, by the time of his death Bradwardine was 50 years old. This implies that at the time of his demise he was still in the productive age bracket. Therefore, if Bradwardine had lived longer there are higher chances that he could have convinced those in power to believe in some of his scientific theories. As evident from bibliographies of great inventors such as Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, Bradwardine’s great ideas could have created an intellectual revolution if he could live longer to expand and implement his ideas.
The Phantom Menace of Sleep-Deprived Doctors Essay college application essay help
The article written by Darshak Sanghave is aimed at discussing the causes that underlie medical errors in hospitals. In particular, the author focuses on such a problem as sleep-deprivation experienced by many interns. Furthermore, the author mentions the lack of coordination among different practitioners.
Yet, this article can be related to various economic aspects of economics. One should first speak about health economics that evaluates different strategies implemented by medical organizations. For instance, Darshak Sanghave discusses the advantages and disadvantages of 30-hour overnight shifts. The author shows that this approach is largely ineffective because it greatly impairs the quality of healthcare services that patients receive.
Additionally, Darshak Sanghave touches upon a question that has long been studied by many economists. In this case, one should focus on the relationship between demand and supply. Judging from the examples given by the author one can say that many medical organizations cannot meet the demand for their services. This is why interns have to work almost round-the-clock. This is one of the problems that should be addressed by hospital administrators.
Furthermore, economists often focus on the efficiency of investment that is aimed to improve the quality of products and services. Despite the increasing cost of healthcare, patients still fall victim to medical errors. Therefore, it is vital to develop strategies that can improve the work of medical institutions.
These issues are relevant not only to hospitals, but to many other organizations, including private businesses. On the whole, Darshak Sanghave’s can be assigned in a course of economics, because it shows how different economic concepts such as production of services, supply, or demand can be applicable to various fields of human activity.
Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din (commonly known as Saladin) stands apart as the single most prominent figure in the history of the Middle East. Because of his exploits in the Crusades, Saladin is perceived as the chief “hero” of the Crusades by both his Islamic side and the Christian side. Saladin was able to establish a strong dynasty and lead his army to victory against the Crusaders. This paper will set out to discuss Saladin with emphasis on his military expeditions, and his encounters with the crusaders.
Early Life Saladin was Born in the village of Tirkik, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) in the year 1137 to a prominent and influential Kurdish family from the area. A few years after his birth, his family immigrated to Aleppo (which is modern day Syria). Saladin grew up in modern day Syria and he was an avid scholar of the Islamic religion. He embarked on religious studies until the age of 18 when he was appointed deputy to his uncle, Asad Ad-Din Shirkuh, who served as a military governor for Nur al Din, the emir of Syria (Grossman 303).
Early Expeditions Saladin’s first military expeditions were carried out in the north of Egypt under his uncle Shirkuh’s command. Saladin engaged in a military expedition in support of Shawar, the caliph of Egypt, who had been driven out of Egypt by powerful local lords.
Shawar had asked for help from Nur al Din to regain his position as Fatimid in Egypt. This military campaign was a success and Shawar was able to defeat his rivals and reestablish himself as Fatimid. Following this victory, Saladin and his uncle remained in Egypt to represent the interest of the Syrian Emir.
Shawar was opposed to the presence of Syrian forces in Egypt and this led to his falling out with Saladin’s uncle. As a result, Shirkurh and Saladin engaged in military expeditions against Shawar. Shirkurh commanded four military expeditions into Egypt to fight against the Fatimid and the local lords who were resisting Syria’s over-lordship (Grossman, 303).
These rebellious local rulers were acting with the support of the Crusaders in the Holy Land who also feared Syria’s overlords. With Saladin’s help, Shirkuh carried out military expeditions against these local rulers as well as the caliph of Egypt therefore establishing Egypt as a Syrian stronghold. Shirkuh’s death in 1169 gave Saladin a chance to become the head of Syrian forces in Egypt.
Saladin’s Personality Historians record that Saladin was serious and contemplative by nature. In his early years, he was not enthusiastic about the military expeditions by his uncle but took on active fighting roles during the invasion of Fatimid Cairo. He established himself as a courageous soldier and a brilliant strategist. Saladin was a just ruler and he was often personally involved in the grievances brought forward by his subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gibb documents that in reaction to the abuses carried out by his governors and officers, Saladin issued decrees prohibiting illegal taxes and other oppressive practices against his subjects (48). Saladin’s justice can further be demonstrated by his decision to spare all the Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem even though his army was far superior to the Christian forces and he could have destroyed them if he wanted to (Byfield 73).
Saladin was a modest person, owing to his religious background. He wore simple clothes and he treated the men of religion with whom he regularly associated himself with as colleagues in spite of the fact that he was the Sultan. However, he commanded great discipline among his subjects and did not condone unruliness.
Byfield states that Saladin has an instinct for iron discipline and when his Sudanese guards were accused of being disloyal to him, he massacred them (74). Rioters in Cairo were hanged and the unruly Bedouin Arabs were engaged in battle under Saladin’s command.
Saladin’s Mission in Syria, Egypt and Palestine Nicolle observes that Saladin’s prominence began when he took on the role of Nur al Din’s governor in Egypt (15). As the governor of Egypt, Saladin set out to change the official faith of the country from Shi’a to Sunni effectively abolishing the Fatamid caliphate in Egypt. The conversion of Egypt from Sunni to Shiite was very significant since it made it bridged the division that Syria and Egypt had had for centuries because of religions considerations.
Saladin also embarked on an ambitious recruitment effort for a new army that would be loyal to himself and not the Fatimid Caliph who had died in 1171. At the same time, Saladin tried to foster loyalty to himself instead of Nur al Din, the Emir of Syria under whom he served.
When Nur al Din died in 1174, he was succeeded by his ten-year-old son. In the months following the Emir’s death, Saladin marched from Egypt with his loyal army, took over Syria, and proclaimed himself Sultan of the vast territory (Byfield 74). Saladin ventured into Palestine in 1177 following the breakdown of the truce with the Crusaders. He hoped to recover some of the territory that the Crusaders had taken and establish a Muslim stronghold in Palestine.
War against the Crusaders Saladin’s first engagement with the crusaders was in 1170 when he tried to capture the southernmost fort of Jerusalem. This early efforts were unsuccessful and the Crusading knights were able to rebuff Saladin’s forces. A truce was signed and this fragile peace deal was able to last for a decade.
We will write a custom Essay on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fragile truce lasted until 1180 when the Frankish Prince Reynald of Chatillon attacked Holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina. In retaliation to these attacks by Prince Reynald, Saladin vowed to vanquish the Christian forces and execute Reynald for his action against the Muslims. Saladin’s victory over Frankish forces at Hattin is regarded as one of the most spectacular in military history. He was able to defeat the Frankish knights in the battlefield and force them to abandon their quest to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Having destroyed the Christian army, Saladin continued to seize the remaining Christian strongholds. In a few months, Saladin was able to launch an attack against Jerusalem. His attempts at breaching the walls of the City of Jerusalem using siege engines was thwarted by Christian defenders who protected the city. However, the Christian force was weak and they therefore bargained for a peaceful surrender with Saladin. Following this surrender, Saladin was able to seize Jerusalem on October 2, 1187.
The Third Crusade was prompted by the great defeat of the second Crusade by Saladin in 1187. On hearing the news of how Saladin had decimated the Christian army, Richard I (popularly referred to as Richard the Lion Hearted) declared that he was staging a Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem. In the first clash between Saladin and Richard the Lion-Hearted, Saladin’s Army was defeated. A serious of battles continued with Richard pressing Saladin’s forces until they withdrew to Damascus.
The Ayyubid Dynasty Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty and established Egypt as its power base. This dynasty was able to survive though to the 13th century. As the governor of Egypt, Saladin was able to establish an Ayyubid army that was solely loyal to him. With this Egyptian Ayyubid army, Saladin set out to expand his empire first in Egypt, and then next to Syria where the Emir had died. This expansion missions were successful and Saladin was able to establish himself as the ruler of vast territory in the Middle East.
The Death of Saladin Saladin died in 1193 after a period of brief illness. By his death, he had succeeded in creating a vast and strong Dynasty that would last for over a century. Historians record that because of his irresistible impulse for giving; he did not even have enough money left to pay for his funeral when he died since his vast wealth had been given to his poor subjects.
Saladin was buried by his subjects in a magnificent tomb in Damascus with an inscription reading, “Oh mighty God, let his soul be acceptable to thee” (Grossman 304). Following Saladin’s death, his brother al Adil took over the leadership of the Dynasty.
Conclusion This paper set out to provide an informative discussion on Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, who was one of the most fascinating personalities in the history of the Middle Ages. The paper has highlighted Saladin’s early life and his early military expeditions. It has highlighted that through warfare and diplomacy, Saladin was able to bring Egypt into harmony with the Syrian government. However, this great figure will always be remembered for his military conquest against the Frankish Knights and the seizing the Holy City of Jerusalem.
Works Cited Byfield, Ted. A Glorious Disaster: A.D. 1100 to 1300: The Crusades: Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith. New York: Christian History Project, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gibb, Hamilton. The Life of Saladin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Print.
Grossman, Mark. World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Boston: Infobase Publishing, 2007. Print.
Nicolle, David. Saladin and the Saracens: Armies of the Middle East 1000-1300. London: Reed International Books, 1986. Print.
Colonialism and Economic Development Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal
India’s Take on the Matter
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal
Introduction Most developed countries are opting to stop the aid they give to various developing countries. This is due to the fact that countries which were once colonies of various nations from the west are now economically stable. Many of the countries which depended on foreign aid for their development are now able to individually fund their projects.
Consequently, many developed nations have opted to reduce or even permanently eliminate the foreign aid. Britain is one of the countries that have announced its intention to stop its foreign aid to India by 2015. However, contrary to the expectations of many that India would get disturbed over that move, the reverse has been actually the case.
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal It has been realized that developed countries which were once economically stable are now facing financial crises. On the same note, the donor countries have gone back to the drawing board to determine if actually the aid is as important as deemed, and if the aid achieves its expectations. Given the economic problems that are facing many developed nations, their economies need money to spend.
In this regard, these nations have to choose between giving aid to foreign nations and solving their own internal problems (Mandhana par 3). Therefore, emerging markets have found themselves on the receiving end when any decision to reduce aid is taken. On the same note, though India used to be among poor countries, it has now turned to be among the world’s economic power destinations with the ability to donate money to other low income countries.
India’s Take on the Matter For a country that has been receiving aid since its independency, the information was expected to come as a rude shock. On the contrary, this information was not received by India as negatively as it would have been for developing countries due to several factors. To begin with, the amount of money that Britain has been injecting into India’s economy to fund various projects, is very little compared to the amount that India injects into the same projects.
On the same note, despite the economic difficulties that are facing almost every country in the world, India’s economy has been growing at an impressive rate for a relatively long period of time. As a result, India has been able to elevate its status to a lower middle income country (Mandhana par 7). Similarly, India can afford to donate to other countries for example, the Philippines, implying that India is not that poor. As put by the then Prime Minister, India does not depend on the foreign aid for its economic development (Mandhana par 8).
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal Though India did not seem concerned about the announcement that the foreign aid will be withdrawn, there are economic repercussions of the decision by Britain. Firstly, though India’s economic growth is impressive, there are still a lot of people living below the poverty line (Mandhana par 15). These people highly depend on the aid from foreign countries for their basic needs. Secondly, Britain’s aid has highly influenced the health sector and its withdrawal will have significant implications.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The article brings into the forefront issues that are emerging between former colonies and their masters. Countries that were once dependent on foreign aid have now turned into economic giants and can no longer be considered as being underdeveloped. On the same note, it highlights the trends that are most likely to be taken by most developed nations, the United States of America being one of them. Developing nations should therefore take caution not to be too dependent on foreign aid because no one can tell what is in store.
Works Cited Mandhana, Niharika. “A Global Shift in Foreign Aid, Starting in India.” New York Times. 2012. Web.