Air Pollution: Human Influence On Environment Research Paper Essay Help Online

Introduction Air pollution, as the name suggests, is the condition by which the atmosphere becomes contaminated by other foreign substances thus becoming unsuitable for living things and the environment. High concentration of different pollutants in the air causes a number of adverse effects to both living things and the environment.

Some of these effects in the case of living things include discomforts, illnesses, and death. Air pollution also instills serious damages on both built environment and the natural environment, among other aspects of life.

This research paper examines at least twelve topics under the subject of air pollution in an attempt to bring valuable insight on the complex issue and its vast impacts on humans and the environment.

The Importance of Air This topic is of great interest as far as this subject is concerned, simply because it revolves around one of the most important things which humans need to know about the air they breathe and the role it plays in their lives.

This topic is significant in that, it highlights some of the ways through which humans and other living things benefit from air as a key necessity of life.

Living things, comprising of human beings, plants and animals cannot survive without air used for breathing and photosynthesis purposes, among other processes of life (Gurjar, Molina


Corporate essay help

The accounting scandals that have rocked the United States in recent years continue to raise profound questions on the viability of the rules and structures put in place to enforce compliance with international accounting standards.

Although the 2001 Enron debacle is possibly the biggest high-profile scandal to be reported in history, other corporations such as Tyco, Quest, Adelphia and WorldCom have had their share of corporate and accounting scandals, involving the rigging of accounting records to inflate profits, insider trading to enhance stock sales, fake bankruptcy claims, and excessive executive compensation (Champlin


REFLECTION PAPER ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS For this assignment, you will write a 800 to 900 word reflection paper in current APA format that focuses on electromagnetic induction and its app essay help: essay help

The paper must include biblical integration of the theories of electricity and magnetism. You must reflect on how your worldview affects discovery your understanding of the science of electricity. 
This reflection must include the following elements and answers to the questions:
1. Describe the operation of electromagnetic induction and list applications of this process in electronics.
2. Can a biblical worldview enhance one’s understanding of the science of electronics?
3. How does an understanding of electricity and magnetism illuminate the phrase “by Him all things consist” in Colossians 1:17?
The paper must be in current APA format, and does not require an abstract. It must also include a reference page with at least 3 scholarly sources, in addition to the Bible. 


Major Global Corporation: Toyota Research Paper college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota’s production or operations management system

Use of teams in production and operations management at Toyota

Toyota’s ability to adjust to a major crisis



Introduction Operations management deals with all the aspects of goods and services production. Operations management involves supervision, design and if necessary redesigning of business processes with the sole aim of achieving efficiency with minimal resources while meeting the requirements of customers.

Management and direction of a firm or organization’s physical functions forms the core concern of operations management (Greasley, 2009, p. 47). Though operations management is wide and includes fields such as equipment maintenance, industrial relations and systems analysis, this discussion will focus on processes related to manufacturing and production systems in a particular industry (Stevenson, 2008, p. 56).

Operations management has increasingly become a critical component in corporate world today. Increased consumer awareness thanks to education coupled by stiff competition has led to major corporations implementing exceptional management systems to ensure maintainace of the market share.

Outstanding performance on a global scale entails heavy investment in both labour and capital-intensive systems in order to maintain relevancy. This analysis will focus on various aspects of operations management and production at Toyota, a leading Japanese car manufacturer with a considerable share in the global auto industry.

The analysis will especially lay emphasis on a brief overview of the company, a somewhat detailed description of Toyota’ s operations management system, an evaluation on the use of teams in its production and operations management and a brief evaluation of the company’s ability to deal with a major crisis.

Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational car maker with headquarters in Aichi Japan and, also the largest automaker in terms of production. In 2010, Toyota employed slightly over 317, 700 people worldwide. In 2010, the Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA) ranked Toyota a head of General Motors and Volkswagen, in car sales.

According to the OICA, Toyota sold 8.55 million units representing a market share of 11% while GM came second with 8.4 million units representing 10.9% (Jones


Components of a Research Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Importance of a formal format in a research paper

The research problem

Significance of the problem

Research questions

Importance of the study


Introduction A research proposal comprises of introduction, literature review and the research question under investigation. Preliminary materials such as title page and table of contents, which is optional, copyright page, abstract, the page containing the committee signature, list of tables and figures used precede the main body (Baron, 2008).

Importance of a formal format in a research paper A formal format is important in writing a research proposal because students require writing a formal document after spending a considerable time researching on a particular area. This is a requirement for all students in all courses and grades.

The introduction is important because it introduces the reader to the study and defines the focus of the research. It also includes the background information and the problem the learner is investigating to give a wide perspective of the paper.

The research problem is important because it gives the research question and hypothesis, which suggest the methodology to be used in the study. These are important in helping to draw conclusions of the study. This section contains definition of terms and acronyms used (Baron, 2008).

After the introduction, the researcher provides the related literature about the problem under investigation. This is generally an expansion of the introduction given in chapter one. The components of the literature include theories and models related to the research, significant data that has been published and related to the problem, an overview of the history of the problem and the recent and current trends of the problem.

This chapter contains information by previous researchers as well as their conclusion about the problem. Direct quotation should not be overused to ensure transition and smooth flow as well as make the paper easy to read (Baron, 2008). After the learner has written the Literature review, he or she should provide the methodology to be used in data collection for the research.

The researcher restates the problem of the study and gives all the sections to be covered in this chapter. Data collection is part of research methodology and it outlines how the researcher will obtain the data within a specified period. This indentifies the materials to be used on how they would be distributed to all the participants.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such materials include the surveys to the respondents as well as the follow-up survey to the participants who would not respond after a specified time (Baron, 2008). Data analysis is another component of the research methodology, which provides the information about how the data will be interpreted.

The analysis of the data is determined by the data hypothesis or the research problem. In case there are many hypotheses then there should be data analysis for every question. Descriptive statistics used in data analysis are means, percentages, standard deviations, and frequency counts (Baron, 2008).

Curriculum and instruction is an important area discussed by researchers with an aim of improving learning in a classroom environment. It focuses on the student’s perception and understanding of the content taught by the teacher through various learning activities (Dunn


Book Review: “The Plum in the Golden Vase” Response Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Plum in the Golden Vase or Chin Ping Mei is a five-volume series that is embedded on the Chinese culture through a scintillating look into the life of one wealthy man.

The man amasses a lot of wealth in highly mysterious ways. He uses the wealth to dazzle the society and does not fall short of racial and personal show off.

The work, which is a 16th century translation into English of a Chinese literary, reflects characteristically on this man. Being a merchant, highly corrupt, and subsequently successful, the man marries everywhere. This is meant to consolidate his grip on power and to stamp his authority in the immediate society he lives.

Marrying many wives is a show of might. He marries six wives on record and keeps numerous concubines off record. The book is a dramatic twist of sex, eroticism, corruption, power, and the focus on social interactions based on the life of this wealthy man.

This paper focuses on the first three volumes of this book with a broad interrogation of the major themes, discussions, and literary focus. This is intertwined with a broad analysis and consolidation of ideas with the aim of forming a single story.

Volume One Analysis: The Gathering This volume focuses on the initial rise of Ximen Qing. As a 28 year old, in the 12th century china, Ximen Qing meteoric rise into stardom is clearly outlined. He marries Jinlian at an early age before he has any influence, either monetary or social.

However, in a quick and dramatic twist of events, he is soon established as the cock of the walk in the rural area of Qinghe. This change of events culminates in him marrying four other wives. He is soon connected in the political, judicial, and business arenas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because of these connections, Ximen Qing can easily bribe his way into favors and cozy positions. Ximen Qing quickly amasses a lot of wealth in the 12th century china.

He engages in the business of shipping merchandise across the seas and is involved in the business of trafficking illegal goods such as smuggled expensive metals too.

The metals may range from diamonds to gold, platinum to copper. Ximen Qing does this business so blatantly that he oppresses the native and landless Chinese. However, he is always getting away with it considering his immense network in the powerful circles.

Ximen Qing’s rise to power is therefore uninterrupted in this environment. He soon has too much to handle and is getting old. However, the first wife who is considerably in a better position to bear him an heir is unable to do so. Ximen Qing is uncomfortable with this.

In the meantime, he is greatly involved in many sex scenes with daughters of his business partners, the house cleaners, and workers.

The drama is also centered upon the inherent discomfort that Ximen Qing suffers when he finds out about the ensuing relationships and affairs happening between the members of society, his workers and his wives and concubines. Using his local government connections, he results upon great punishment to those involved.

After marrying the sixth and fifth wife, Ximen Qing’s dreams of having an heir to his immense wealth is finally realized. The sixth wife bears him a son. He is highly elated and he constantly holds parties to celebrate.

We will write a custom Book Review on Book Review: “The Plum in the Golden Vase” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He obsesses over the sixth wife w here he now constantly spends. The book describes great sex scenes in which he is involved with the sixth wife. In the meantime, he leaves wide open the door for possible manipulation of sex hunger the other women experiences.

During his time with the sixth wife, the other wives are engaged in affairs with members of society, Ximen Qing’s workers, and even local government official whom he buys. The dramatic twists unfold to a point where it seems he is the only one in the dark. It happens right in front of his nose as he goes about his business.

There is also the drama that surrounds the fact that his first wife Jinlian insists on been referred to as the first lady. This is despite the fact that she is unable to bear Ximen Qing’s heir. This insistence rubs some people the wrong way including Jinlian’s own sisters. The sisters envy her.

They think that she is painstakingly proud and arrogant. Through many attempts at getting to pay back her arrogant nature, they resort to other plans. This includes a one sided attempt to gain favors from Ximen Qing behind Jinlian’s back. These favors are purported to have entered into erotic grounds.

The only person who knows about one of the sister’s involvements with Ximen Qing is a house cleaner who works for Jinlian. However, Jinlian treats the house cleaner badly and she finds hard to tell her about the affair happening right in front of her nose.

This volume forms the basis of the other volumes, which describe other interactions between Ximen Qing, his first wife Jinlian, the affairs, the power, and the money. It also describes the eventual ending of Ximen Qing’s perceived dynasty.

The Plum in the Golden Vase or, Chin P’ing Mei: Volume 2: The Rivals In this part, there is rivalry in all corners. The rivalry unfolds where more sex scenes are described. This is the case where more and more power plays of Ximen Qing are described in more detail. Additionally, there is more sex with very different partners. Jinlian continues to stamp her authority in Ximen Qing’s dynasty.

She punishes anyone who steps into her shoes. In one instance, Jinlian punishes one of her workers for a missing shoe. Ximen Qing defends the worker and Jinlian accuses him of having affair with her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Book Review: “The Plum in the Golden Vase” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The shoe is finally found and the trouble cools down. However, the damage is done and Jinlian does not apologize. This is what characterizes the family.

In the business world, Ximen Qing is involved with more and more shady deals. These deals affect his relationships adversely and the people who are engaged with him in business seek to exact revenge.

However, because of Ximen Qing’s connections, they can do little. Their plans keep being discovered. When their plans are laid open, more and more punishment is exacted on people.

This volume is a characteristic power play that shows the rot in 12th century Chinese society. Although there is an established local government and a thriving class of business people who have the ability to hold accountable the local government, they use it to their advantage.

This culminates in a vicious cycle that serves to entrench the power of few people in society. Such people are in the class of Ximen Qing. However, even in that class there is notable rivalry that threatens the peace of Qinghe. The top class has an insatiable desire to control resources of Qinghe.

These resources include rocks with potential for producing valuable metals, the human resources including slaves, the local government. The latter is considered a resource since with little bribery and blatant corruption a person like Ximen Qing can own it and use it to advance special interests.

Hence, without having considerable amounts of wealth and resources another person form your class can outdo you bid. This creates enmity and sometimes may culminate in fierce fights.

The Plum in the Golden Vase or, Chin P’ing Mei: Volume 3: The Aphrodisiac This is a 16th century set up. It focuses on themes manifested quite largely in the other volumes too. However, this one is more erotic and dotted with hot sex scenes and romance. The broad theme about this volume is sex, wealth, and how to use the latter to obtain the former, without struggle. Ximen Qing is already dead.

However, his dynasty lives on with all the wealth. The inheritors of Ximen Qing’s wealth use it to stamp their power and manipulate the government. However, at this stage the manipulation is at a lower level compared to Ximen Qing’s days.

The family is greatly intertwined. There is no way to find out who belongs to which family. Additionally, there is no way of finding out who inherited what.

The above case presents a warm situation that is prone to manipulation and great metamorphosis. The power and money breeds hatred and grandstanding from among the heirs. They seek to control the best interests at the expense of anyone who comes in their way.

Additionally, the thriving sex life of the heirs, which knows no boundaries, is a characteristic that draws great interest from the author. The author depicts a situation where there is blatant disregard for familial ties when it comes to the need for sex and money.

The affairs are between nieces and uncles, neighbors, fathers and unknown sisters and brothers. These affairs breed killings as is depicted by P’an Chin-lien and Wu Sung.

In the end of this volume, the author depicts a situation where the once insurmountable Ximen Qing dynasty of 12th century quickly crumbles. There is no definitive heir as was the desire of Ximen Qing. However, it is also important to note that this crisis started in 12th century.

Ximen Qing had so many wives and concubines. This formed a situation where every one of the wives and concubines’ children felt they deserved a stake at the big cake.

As it became clear that this stake could not be peacefully taken, the whole family engaged in personal and familial hatred, which spawned deaths and the quick crumble of Ximen Qing’s wealth. Additionally, as opposed to 12th century, this was 16th century and many things had changed.

The people that Ximen Qing would blatantly bribe had gone. There were new generations with little stronger institutions. The slave trade and valuable rocks that dotted the Qinghe area had quickly reduced.

The population had increased. Hence, to gain a favor effectively, you had to own everyone. This intricate and sophisticated society ensured you had to minimally bribe or play a fair game. This Ximen Qing’s family had not been used to.


Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations Analytical Essay college essay help near me

Executive Summary Organizations are established to perform different functions. For profit-making organizations, the main motive is to increase profitability to their owners. On the other hand, nonprofit-making organizations are mainly concerned with increasing the social welfare of the people they are established to serve.

While there are many criteria for distinguishing the two types of organizations, in the current paper, financial accounting as a mode of financial reporting and governance approach is used to distinguish between profit and non-profit-making organizations.

While nonprofit-making organizations prepare statements of financial position of the organization, profit-making organizations prepare balance sheets.

There are also differences in governance approaches in the two types of organization in that nonprofit-making organizations are headed by boards of trustees while the profit-making organizations are led by the board of directors.

Introduction Profit and nonprofits making organizations adopt different approaches in preparation of their accounting statements.

In the context of this paper, the term accounting is deployed to refer to “a process of identifying, recording, summarizing, and reporting economic information to decision makers in the form of financial statements” (Hartigan, 2010, p.357).

In the bigger discipline of accounting, financial accounting aims at satisfying particular needs of various decision makers who are external to an organization. Such stakeholders encompass suppliers, government agencies, stockholders, and banks among others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For both nonprofit and profit-making organizations, stakeholders who are interested in the financial statements of the different organizations are different since they (stakeholders) also anticipate organizations’ financial statements to be prepared differently.

In this perspective, the focus of the paper is to discuss the differences between financial management approaches in nonprofit and profit-making organizations.

Financial management in the profit-making organization in comparison to nonprofit-making organizations

In both profit-and nonprofits making organizations, preparation of financial statements is necessary to aid in informing the decision-making processes.

However, in the preparation of the statements, differences are reflected in many aspects right from the terminologies applied, documentation of sources of funding, and subsequent allocation of the proceeds realized from the operations of an organization.

For nonprofit-making organization, finances for running the activities of an organization are obtained from a variety of sources including government grants, contributions made by members, program revenues, investments incomes, membership dues, and fundraising events among others (Haddad, 2011, p.12).

In case of profit-making organizations, financial statements itemizes things such merchandise sales, fees levied from services offered, gains realized from investments, and investment incomes as some of the sources of financial resources to run the business.

It is crucial to note that the application of the term business is restricted to discussion of profit-making organizations (Tyler, 2011, p.220).

We will write a custom Essay on Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, some of the financial statements prepared by profit-making organizations are not applicable to nonprofit-making organizations. Where such statements are similar, the contents of the statement may also vary.

Preparation of Balance Sheets

In the preparation of balance sheets and other financial statement of the profit-making organizations, a reflection of the financial position of organizations is made in the effort to provide an insight to the owners of organizations on the success of the business in increasing returns to them.

A profit-making organization operates such that its profit and loss account reflects higher profits and hence better gains to the owners based on the goal of profit-making organizations of maximizing “profits coupled with forwarding them to the company’s owners and shareholders” (Alnoor, 2012, p.192).

Comparatively, since the noble objective of nonprofit-making organization is to deliver value in terms of increased social welfare to the people, profits, and loss accounts are not prepared.

However, it is crucial that a nonprofit-making organization utilizes efficiently and effectively the financial resources contributed by donors and the members.

As a requirement, to aid in the financial management, profit-making organizations must prepare balance sheets at the end of a fiscal year or on a quarterly basis.

It provides lists of an organization owner’s equity that comprises the “assets, everything the company owns and liabilities the company owes to others (Alnoor, 2012, p.191).

Indeed, “owner’s equity has a direct impact on the company’s common and preferred stock, if applicable” (Alnoor, 2012, p.191). The fact that nonprofit-making organizations have no persons who are considered true owners, the concept of balance sheets is not applicable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rather, nonprofit-making organizations prepare statements of financial position of the organization as at a particular date. The statements of financial position only contain lists of liabilities and assets. When these two items are summed together, net assets are obtained.

Depending on the magnitude of the net assets, accountants can assess the size and threshold of the extent to which the organization achieves the purpose for which it was established. An example of the structure of statement of financial position of a nonprofits making is shown in appendix 2.

The differences between balance sheets for profit making and the statement of financial position for nonprofit-making organizations are clear by considering appendices 1 and 2.

In the analysis of the balance sheet shown on appendix 2, the equation that assets are equal to liabilities plus surplus of income over expenditure must hold. Alternatively, the equation can be represented as surplus of income being equal to assets minus liabilities.

Assets encompass all the resources that are available to an organization, which can resort to or cause a future increment of cash flows for an organization. Put differently, all assets are things that a nonprofit-making organization owns (Alnoor 2012).

Liabilities are the obligations placed to an organization by outsiders, or claims of the outsiders on a nonprofit-making organization’s assets. These debts of a nonprofit-making organization are incorporated or converted into the organizational assets.

The goal of the financial managers of nonprofit-making organizations is to ensure that there are adequate assets, which are not in liability if a nonprofit organization has to run smoothly.

A self-sustaining nonprofit-making organization must have a statement of the financial position indicating surplus of income over expenditure.

Income Statement Accounts

Apart from the preparation of balance sheets, as argued before, profit-making organizations are required to prepare income statements. Depending on the jurisdiction in which a profit-making organization operates, income statements are prepared on either a yearly or a quarterly basis.

The income statements reflect the revenues of an organization, losses, expenses, and or gains. In this extent, Hartigan (2010) asserts, “the main purpose of an income statement is to assess the company’s financial performance on a quarterly basis” (p.357).

Such an assessment is critical in making financial management decisions. In fact, implementation of new strategies such as business expansion for continued increment in the organization’s capacity to deliver more values to its owners in terms of profitability cannot be attained without clear and precise knowledge of the available financial resources at the disposal of an organization to cater for such strategic decisions.

The shareholders and other stakeholders of a profit-making organization are interested in the income statements of an organization since profit levels play pivotal roles in indicating the share price and value of a company.

The management of a profit-making organization has an obligatory role to avail income statements to the shareholders as a matter of legal right in all jurisdictions.

While income statements for a profit-making organization must be elaborately prepared and subjected to scrutiny and audit, non-profit organizations do not prepare them.

Rather, they are required to prepare a statement of activities only. Comparatively, the statements of activities are not as elaborate as the income statements prepared by profit-making organizations since they only list the organization’s revenue generated.

Net assets are then added to the results to give an indication of the performance of the nonprofit-making organization in question.

Taxes Management

Elaborating the nature of the income statements prepared by the profit-making organization makes the owners not only to digest the analysis of the performance of their organization but also to form an integral part for other issues such as taxation.

In fact, profit-making organizations have a mandatory responsibility to a state in helping it in running its affairs through payment of taxes (Green


Anapanasati: As a Method for Reading the Buddhist Goal Proposal writing essay help: writing essay help

Thesis statement By examining both canonical and modern sources about the Buddhist tradition, I will explore the role of Anapanasati as a meditation method for achieving the state of nirvana and enlightenment.

On the whole, one can say that this technique emphasizes by mental and physical experiences through which a person can eventually become liberated from his/her earthly desires and enter the condition which is called mindfulness (Alexander 2010). These are the main aspects that I would like to discuss in this paper.

This discussion is important for better understanding the practices that Buddhism involves and the major goals that a person intends to attain through Anapanasati.

The main elements of Anapanasati Overall, it is possible to argue that Anapanasati is one of the mediation techniques that exist in various Buddhist traditions (Melton 2011, 34). This method can be employed by people living in different countries.

It should be taken into account that the descriptions of this method are present in canonical treatises such as Satipatthana Sutta which is a source that is accepted by Buddhists throughout the world (Soma and Pereira 2004, 7).

Furthermore, a variation of this technique is described in later texts such as The Three Pillars of Zen which is also very popular among the adherents of Buddhism (Kapleau 1989). It is vital to remember that this technique is now widely adopted by many people who are interested in Buddhism.

Moreover, the scholars and adepts of Buddhism believe that Anapanasati is vital part of this tradition (Boccio 2010; Burke


Global Trade and Financial Institutions Case Study essay help

Defining the issue In 1999, something peculiar happened in Europe under the auspices of European Union. Some countries in Europe came together to set up new economic policy arrangements that will govern them economically.

This was one of the most momentous occasions happening in Europe since the adoption of the common market protocol way back in 1957. Chief among the economic policy arrangements was the adoption of a single currency – the euro.

Most European countries believed that by adopting this single currency, there would be a positive impact to not only the operations of European banks, but also currency traders (money exchange bureaus). Additionally, the adoption of the euro as a single currency meant to ease trade between countries in the region.

The biggest question however is how the euro will manage to break into currency hegemony. There is no doubt that for over five decades now, the dollar has been the most dominant currency in global trade and financial institutions.

In fact, its performance in international markets has always influenced the prices of commodities such as oil. This scenario has attracted a series of criticism from financial institutions and international traders. On international trade platforms, the criticisms of the dollar hegemony are getting louder and louder by the day.

China has indeed led other countries opposed to the dollar hegemony by practicing quantitative easing, which in turn keeps eroding the legitimacy of the dollar as number-one global reserve currency. T

he euro, most probably the second global reserve currency, has tried to break the U.S. dollar hegemony, but with little success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper is a case study on whether the euro has succeeded in breaking the dominance of the dollar in global trade and financial institutions.

The case study will discuss the impact of the euro as a single currency in Europe, and assess its influence in International Monetary System. The case study will also examine factors that led to the international acceptance of currency, vis-à-vis the Euro (Chinn


The Comparison of Montessori Education and a Regular Mathematics Program in Kindergarten Essay writing essay help

Every student has special skills and learning needs. According to Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences, children can gain knowledge in various ways because they have different capabilities and competences. Teachers often fail to identify these capabilities in part because of the conventional teaching methods that they use in kindergartens.

The goal of this study is to gather evidence concerning the positive and negative aspects of using Montessori education system to teach mathematics in kindergarten. Concisely, it will compare the Montessori system with the conventional education system in order to identify the model that best suits learners’ needs.

A consensus on the best way to help students can be reached through discussions that articulate the distinctive needs of every student. The discussions can be conducted through team-meetings that bring together teachers of mathematics. There is strong evidence in support of the effectiveness of Montessori education, which include the following:

First, it facilitates rapid progression through the learning system by eliminating wastage of time that might occur due to stagnation in one glass.

Second, it enables educators to mix students of different age groups because it focuses on the students’ ability to learn rather than age or gender.

Third, Montessori education is offered in an open learning environment, thereby encouraging freedom in learning.

Fourth, it minimizes the interference of teachers in the learning process. Generally, teachers act as facilitators, thereby creating an environment that suits each child’s needs.

Finally, the system promotes respect for the personality of the student, thereby facilitating achievement of the desired learning outcomes.

As a Montessori teacher, I intend to conduct this action research in order to find better teaching strategies. Several modern teaching methods such as literature-based reading and self-directed learning have been developed and used in classrooms in order to meet the needs of gifted students.

Research indicates that students work well within a well-prepared learning environment, which enables students to learn by exploring and engaging in different learning experiences. Montessori education fulfills this requirement. Consequently, this research seeks to analyze the extent to which an authentic Montessori mathematics environment is compatible with the regular mathematics classes in order to fulfill the needs of all students.

I will analyze the results of formative assessments and evaluations such as students’ homework in order to answer the research question. This is because this source of data can shed light on the performance of students. Moreover, focus group discussions will be used to collect data concerning students’ learning experiences and opinions.

I will also get new ideas from the teachers who will be participating in these discussions. Other data sources will include using rubrics to measure students’ performance and observing students during class time. The data obtained through these sources will be used to compare the effectiveness of Montessori education with the traditional mathematics programs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, I will use videotaping to monitor my performance in various lessons in order to identify my strengths and weaknesses in teaching. Additionally, my notes and lesson plans will be peer-reviewed by other teachers in order to identify their weaknesses or any mistakes made in them. These strategies will enable me to get new information concerning teaching mathematics in a Montessori class. Consequently, I will be able to improve my teaching skills.


Review: “Moon Over Buffalo” by Ken Ludwig Critical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction This is a review of Moon Over Buffalo, which is a farce set in Buffalo, New York in 1953. It has a repertory of Cyrano de Bergerac and Private Lives, which the couple, George and Charlotte struggle to perform as they face challenging family affairs with the hope of a visit from a Hollywood director.

Description of the plot Moon Over Buffalo shows George Hay who is an actor and tours small theaters with his plays like Cyrano de Bergerac and Private Lives. George acts with his wife Charlotte Hay, who wants to have a career in movies.

Rosalind (Roz), the daughter of George and Charlotte, also acted alongside her parents and dated the manager, Paul. However, Roz leaves for a ‘normal life’ where she meets a weatherman presenter on television, Howard.

Eileen replaced Roz as an actor, but set the drama through her illicit affair with George. Other characters, who influence the play, are Ethel, a near-deaf mother-in-law to George, and Richard, the family lawyer, who has admired Charlotte for long.

Moon Over Buffalo uses a situation comedy approach accompanied with humor, slapstick elements, and sexual allusion. George must achieve some physical vigor in the play as he takes on a mock fencing match alongside Charlotte.

High-levels of physical performances are also in a wrestling match between George and Howard. George draws viewers’ attention by his physical and emotional aspects in the drama. The actors use fast-paced conversation and actions because of endless backbiting and hysterical efforts to end confusion among themselves.

The news about the coming of the Hollywood director, Frank Capra to watch a play by George and Charlotte, heightens comical moments within the drama. These actors cannot believe their luck because this is what they crave for and deserve.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, these actors do not accept their difficult financial conditions. This element contributes to constant bickering in the play. The two plays within the play (Cyrano de Bergerac and Private Lives) reveal how Charlotte and George discuss issues about film and theater.

The tension and discussions about the illicit affair, alcohol consumption, and mistaken identities, wearing wrong dresses, and a fall in the pit all draw the audience’s attention. Finally, in this chaotic play, actors shall resolve their problems after the show.

Discussion of the main characters and actors and their performances Robbie Shafer captures the audience’s attention by portraying Charlotte Hay as a jealous wife who wants to elope with Richard over her husband’s affair with Eileen.

Shafer portrays Charlotte perfectly well in a manner she engages George about their family troubles and a sword-fight. Shafer and Miller portray the characters at their best as they keep the audience laughing all along.

John Miller did an incredible job in the portrayal of George Hay. Miller grabs viewers’ attention in his drunken stupor and acts, the wrong costume, the wrong drama, later arrival and the pit accident.

Miller plays George’s role perfectly well by matching bodily and expressive aspects of the character because of comic acts with his wife throughout the drama.

Phil Parker plays the role of Howard, Roz’s nerdy fiancé. The best moment of Parker’s portrayal of Howard is when he sets a major confusion in the drama as Ethel, Charlotte’s hard-of-hearing mother, introduces him as the famous director, Frank Capra.

We will write a custom Essay on Review: “Moon Over Buffalo” by Ken Ludwig specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kim Parker portrays Rosalind (Roz) at her best when she grabs viewers’ attention through her decision to the theater for a ‘normal life’, away from her family problems. However, Kim’s role becomes significant at the end of the play when she agrees to engage Paul on the spot.

Laura Price acts as Eileen. Eileen changes Georges’ life after the illicit affair in which she conceives. However, Laura portrayal of Eileen becomes important towards the end of the play when Howard says that he has met a former love, who is actually Eileen.

Philip Parker acts as Paul, stage manager of the actors. Philip grabs viewer’s attention when he turns out to be the true love of Roz.

Ann Sowby plays the role of Ethel, Charlotte’s hard-of-hearing mother who heightens confusion in the play by using malapropism of every word said. In fact, this role fits Ann as Ethel because of the confusion she brings to the drama.

Ron Roberts acts as the lovesick Richard who wants to rescue Charlotte from her unfaithful husband. Ron as Richard only becomes relevant in the play when Charlotte leaves George.

Discussion of the Blocking The director manages to develop blocking through certain actions that depict normal behaviors of performers. The director achieves blocking by making actors available at certain points at appropriate moments.

For instance, we have George who falls in a pit and ends at the hospital. Howard’s visit heightens confusion in the play. Meanwhile, George reacts in a self-defense by tying Howard.

The director has managed to be active and inventive in order to enhance blocking as he encourages performers to enhance blocking by their creativity. As a result, actors have manipulated physical movements to enhance blocking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Review: “Moon Over Buffalo” by Ken Ludwig by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, the use of mistaken identities of various characters and malapropism also contribute to blocking in the play.

Blocking helps performers to act within their roles because they do not create their own characters from scratch. As a result, they are able to produce a cohesive and successful play.

Discussion of the scenic elements The play has all the right scenic elements to make it a farce. There are many doors in the play as a part of the settings, which control movements of characters and enable actors to miss one another. The performers use these doors to perfection.

There are also sections that involve the use of doors, which lead to various areas of the house. The living room provides a scene of a family house with many sections to accommodate precise movements that fit a physical play.

Discussion of the lighting The lighting design of Moon Over Buffalo aimed to serve two purposes. These included illuminating the stage and actors and creating a favorable mood and controlling the focus of the audience.

Moon Over Buffalo does use indirect sources of light with general illumination to create a scenic element of a living room. The lighting design presents direction on the stage, visibility, color and composition strength, dark shadow, mood, and movements of performers.

The first three elements transform to reflect outside setting on a balcony during the night in which lighting focuses on the actors.

Moon Over Buffalo lighting design enables viewers to see actors at all times as three-dimensional. The technical aspects of lighting account for the right visibility, movement, direction, and mood as they match other design elements.

The basic type of lighting in this play creates a lighting system of a house for performers. These sources of lights are before, at the sides of, and over the stage.

Discussion of the costumes All actors have various costumes in the play. However, in a farce like this, costume creates confusion. We look at whatever all the actors wear during performances. We also look at clothing and accessories together with wigs and makeup of these actors.

George dresses appropriately for the Cyrano de Bergerac rather than Private Lives. Costumes used in the play aimed at portraying the real time in history.

We also focus on various elements of costumes such as color, cut, fabric, and weight of George and Charlotte’s costumes. They aim to simulate the physical nature of the play and reflect professional lives of struggling actors, especially George in his drunken stupor.

These costumes have formalized performers to reflect their everyday lives. This is why choices of cut, color, fabric, and design all reflect the nature of this drama, as they have to match the 1950s fashions.

Discussion of the sound The sound production of Moon Over Buffalo was fine and successful because it met qualities of a physical drama. The notable element of sound in Moon Over Buffalo is the ringing telephone, which is a single call from Frank Capra.

There are also sounds of shattering glasses. The crew perfectly timed these elements of sounds to match other production elements like movements.

The constant shouting and bickering of actors made the sound designer kept the microphone at a good level to minimize effects of shouting. This created a seamless sound effect and musical segues, which enhanced ambiance of the play. As a result, sound did not distract viewers.

All the design elements in the play work together to develop a production that is cohesive, credible, and perfect because they all match the overall vision for the farce.

Discussion on preferences of the performance The actors have a lot of experience for a physical drama. The director matched the speed of a physical through quick timing especially in a show with multiple doors where actors have to run in and out with energy and engage in constant talks.

However, the play leaves viewers to wonder whether George and Charlotte have any true feelings of love between them. George only shows that Charlotte bemuses him while Charlotte puts artificial feelings towards George. This makes the audience not feel any emotions for the actors.

Apart from the hilarious moments of the play, the play makes theater life look almost outdated because George and Charlotte depict that theater life is a dying form of art. As a result, actors only dream of a life and success in the movies. In general, the comedy achieves it purpose by making the audience laugh as it progresses.

However, it seems most of the Act I elements are just for rehearsal because it is in Act II where actions begin to develop as actors adopt physical elements of the play.

It is in Act II where we see confusion in the play, which depicts wrong lines and costumes for another. The play also achieves its comic effect through acting, blocking, and design element.

Moon Over Buffalo, as a farce, offers us comic moments with outstanding performers, who exploit hilarious misunderstandings, mass confusion, and comic characterization to their best. It has a great script with well-coordinated design elements that result in a cohesive production for slapstick lovers.


Liability in Food Illness Cases Essay a level english language essay help

The legal approaches of food-borne illnesses are highly dependent on the product liability law. This is an implication that a plaintiff has to have substantial proof that the food substance in question had blemish and that he or she suffered verifiable impairment or damage as a result of its consumption.

Despite the fact that quite a number of food-borne illness victims have succeeded in numerous lawsuits in the United States of America, there are certain interrelated complications that might hinder the success of such lawsuits (Angela, 2008).

In most occasions, low success rate of food-borne illness cases demoralize victims. Recent researches conducted in over fifty states in USA have indicated that the success rate of such cases is way below 10%. That notwithstanding, there is always a minimal deterrent effect on such cases.

The costs charged on the society are also overwhelmingly high. These hindrance factors play an imperative role in derailing the success of food-borne illness cases (Angela, 2008). In as much as some of these cases deserve hearing and even compensation, it is sometimes difficult to come up with a dependable link between the allegedly harmful food substance and its related illness.

This is because most disease-causing pathogens have incubation periods of a couple of days. This implies that symptoms will only appear after the plaintiff has consumed several other foods hence linking a disease to a particular food product becomes tricky.

The relatively long time between the onset of symptoms and the intake of the food in question makes the plaintiff subject to poor recall or even inaccurate recall. Another hindrance to the success of food-borne illness cases is the chain of commerce associated with food products.

Quite a number of food products become edible after an amalgamation of a series of ingredients. Additionally, consumable foods undergo numerous processes before eventually reaching the consumer. This is an indication that one cannot quite tell the point of contamination or inappropriate preparation of the food (Angela, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The multiple possibilities of contamination in the various processes and ingredients involved are major deterrent factors to a successful food-borne illness case. In spite of the relatively wide prevalence of food-borne ill ness cases across the United States of America, food producing firms are doing so little to counter the menace.

Most of practices and policies in relation to the risks for which individual food processing firms are most unlikely to compensate for consequential damages or injuries are not given the attention they deserve. For instance, a company that manufactures an ingredient may not be willing to come up with a safety policy for which it will not be directly liable for in the event of food contamination (Angela, 2008).

This is an indication that a company is less likely to invest in alleviating risks whose consequences are unlikely to be linked to it. This, in conjunction with the chain of commerce involved in food products, makes it almost impossible to identify a culpable food producing firm.

As a remedy, food industries should put in place measures and policies that can be in a position of directly linking food contamination to their specific suppliers. Additionally, defendant food processors should be in a position to present verifiable proofs to show that they are not a culprit in the event of food poisoning.

This may be done by conducting prior tests to its foods and storing the data for future reference. Prior laboratory testing of foods may not only help in proving innocence but also in avoiding cases of food poisoning (Angela, 2008).

Reference Angela, H. (2008). Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law. Alternative Liability theory: Solving the mystery of who is liable in food-borne illness cases, 38(2), 1-10.


Management of Water Supply Projects in Malaysia Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Water is one of the fundamental elements that supports life and forms part of the resources that influence human economic development. Water is not readily available in some parts of Malaysia and its abundance is largely determined by climatic changes, geographical positions and political environment to some extent (Yong, 2004).

The world today is facing a serious fresh water crisis due to the pressure exerted on water catchment areas of the ever-growing population. Research shows that the majority of highly populated regions have a high water shortage (Renganathan, 2000).

In Malaysia, the Integrated Water Resources Management, IWRM was introduced in the early 1990s being the sole water management initiative in the country (Global Water intelligence, 2003). It led to the formation of management groups later in 1997 such as Malaysia water partnership My WP, and later the Malaysia capacity building network for IWRM, MyCapNet (Clark, 1991).

Water sustainability in Malaysia is very well covered in a number of policies. In Sabah, the local authorities have put in place plans to enhance and mange forest sustainability such as the integration of the river basin management plans (Chan, 2000).

These will greatly improve the quality of the state’s water supply as well as enhance sustainable water management, hence, stabilizing water supply. Integration of the river basin will also ensure that land, water, and biodiversity are protected for the benefit of the locals. Borneo, an island in the state, is characterized by biodiversity.

The state has formed platforms to engage the non-governmental organizations as well as the locals to address the issues that affect the environment. All the measures are aimed at protecting and preserving natural resources to avoid extinction, which can have adverse effects on the livelihood of the locals.

These initiatives also have improved the quality of life for the locals hence increasing the life expectancy. The management plan includes guidelines on how to return wastewater to the environment (Chan, 2000). It also engages protecting and rehabilitating water catchment areas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To show its commitment, Malaysia is a signatory to a number of environmental conservation declarations. One of them is the international conference on water and the environment in Dublin in the year 1992 (Renganathan, 2000). Others include the earth summit, world water forums to mention but a few (Global Water intelligence, 2003).

The department of drainage and irrigation is the major custodian of the IWRM implementation working together with the My WP (Yong, 2004). The country has made remarkable progress in implanting their initiative and the benefits are immense.

The local villagers can take an opportunity provided by the water conservation programs and increase their economic activities through agriculture. With a sustainable water supply, farmers in the village will not have to depend on seasonal rains to farm.

To enhance the village’s life expectancy requires a full implementation of the water management policies and innovative economic activities that take advantage of the available water. Protecting water catchment areas and forest increases the life expectancy by a reasonable percentage since fresh and clean water enhances good health.

Water is the source of life even for a crop, creating a cycle of dependency between plants and animals. Therefore, sustainable farming can be well supported by these initiatives hence improving the economic status of the locals. Farming is one of the most feasible economic activities for them.

References Chan, N. W. (2000c) Current Environmental Issues in Malaysia. Web.

Clark, R. (1991) Water: The International Crisis. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Management of Water Supply Projects in Malaysia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Global Water intelligence, (2003). The Malaysian government to manage water supply projects. Market-Leading Analysis of the International Water Industry, 4 (9), 1.

Renganathan, M. (2000). Taking Care of Water, the Responsibility of All. Web.

Yong, F. T. (2004). Water Engineering. Bulletin Ingenieur, 22 (01), 56-86.


The Caregiver Burnout Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Caregivers often experience the long-term stress which is rather difficult to overcome because of the constant psychological and physical pressure and necessities to take care for clients regularly. That is why the caregiver burnout among the persons who take care for the other people is a usual phenomenon.

The symptoms of the caregiver burnout are different, but all of them are associated with the person’s stress and impossibility to assess and control the situation. The physical and emotional exhaustion can lead to the situation when the caregiver cannot help the client because of symptoms of the burnout.

The stress and depression along with the negative moods can be prevented or treated with references to the definite interventions which help caregivers feel better and change their negative attitudes with positive ones.

Thus, there is a range of interventions which can be proposed to help caregivers, and they usually depend on different kinds of assistance such as the financial, emotional, and physical help and support.

The effective interventions are connected with the social and financial support and physical help. Caregivers should not reject any kind of such help in order to prevent the stress and anxiety and to use any information about the available services.

The other rationales can be explained basing on the fact that there are many organizations which provide the necessary assistance in relation to the relevant social and financial programs, utilizing the local resources (Sherman et al., 2006).

It is important to increase these programs’ role in the process in order to make the life of the client and caregiver easier. The separation of the tasks and the usage of many available programs and services can help the caregiver manage the time and energy effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social support is necessary for caregivers and relatives that is why it is important to implement the support group programs. Caregivers and relatives should have an opportunity to discuss their concerns with the people who are in the similar situation and ask questions to feel the support (Maurer


Play Review: “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry Critical Essay essay help

“A Raisin in the Sun” was the first play by an African American woman to be staged on Broadway. This play was written by Lorraine Hansberry fifty-four years ago and its plot borrows heavily from her own experiences.

This play addresses the hottest topics of the 1950s including white skin privilege, gender roles, patriarchy/matriarchy, and poverty. This thematic content is one of the reasons why this production has continued to garner critical success. The play also acts as a teaching aid to the later day “hip hop” generation.

The story’s plot revolves around the Younger family. The family is living in a shabby South Chicago apartment and each of the family’s members is on the pursuit of his/her dream. There is Travis who dreams of opening a big business that will change his life.

His wife Ruth takes care of their little boy while Travis spends most of his time either complaining or dreaming. Beneatha is his sister who dreams of becoming a doctor although everybody else thinks she has better chances of getting into nursing.

The matriarch of the Younger family is Lena whose only goal is to provide her family with a foundational home. Lena’s husband Walter is recently deceased leaving behind a substantial life insurance check. All the family members’ dreams are pegged on this ten thousand- dollar check.

Lena is the one who has the responsibility of adjudicating over this insurance money. All the players in “A Raisin in the Sun” are African Americans except for Karl Lindner the neighborhood association chairman. Beneatha attracts two suitors in the characters of Joseph Asagai and George Murchison.

The family’s life is turned upside down when Lena decides to use the insurance money to purchase a house in an all-white neighborhood.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When this play first debuted in 1959, it had a significant political message. However, half a century later this political message is no longer a hot topic. The recent staging of this play under director Bill Duke took on a new dimension by reminding the audience about the black culture.

The first producer of this play had a hard time raising funds for its production because most people felt that only African Americans were able to relate to the themes of the play.

However, when the play finally made it to Broadway it was able to attract sizeable crowds from all races. Duke fashioned his production in such a manner that the play was able to maintain this original momentum.

The play features very prolific actors whose expertise is a major attraction during the staging of this play. The actors give a stage presence that cannot be compared with any other visual media. Dan Glover who plays the character of Walter Lee the patriarch of this family delivers a convincingly isolated performance.

As an experienced actor, Glover shows a strong sense of direction. In the scene where he gets down on his knees to beg for money, he is able to capture the audience with his portrayal of immense tension. Glover is charged with portraying a hardworking man whose progress is bound by the chains of racism.

The play is based on how the situation used to be in 1950s. Therefore, Glover has to convey to the modern audience what it meant to be a man in those times. Glover does not disappoint because he is able to depict what manhood meant in relation to his family and to the rest of the world.

His performance is as rhythmic as a heartbeat. No one in the audience wants to miss any part of his crowning portrayal of the resilient Walter Lee.

We will write a custom Essay on Play Review: “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lena, played by Ester Rolle is the play’s centre of attention. Rolle’s character interacts with almost every other character in this production. This makes the level of her performance much more noticeable than the rest of the players. A flaw in her performance is likely to have an irreparable effect on the entire production.

Being the seasoned actress that she is, Rolle takes her character in a stride. She is able to avoid an “over portrayal” of Lena. She is also able to supply the audience with a very even performance. Rolle’s performance is not meant to be the spice of the play.

She realizes this and leaves the spicing to the rest of her cast mates. During the beginning of the play, Lena is more of a matriarch but in the second and third acts, she is supposed to be more of a patriarch. However, Rolle is not able to strengthen this transition.

Her performance as the chief decision maker of the Younger family could be more solid. In the scene where she is urging her son to be more like his father, there are glimpses of a more solid performance.

Nevertheless, Rolle’s performance attracts more attention given that the other actors who have taken up this role have been excellent. Phylicia Rashad for instance won a Tony Award for her portrayal of Lena in the 2004 production.

Beneatha is an opinionated young girl whose sole goal is to make it to medical school. The fact that there is money coming to the family makes her believe that her dream is about to come true. Kim Yancey is the beautiful actress who is supposed to make the audience connect with Beneatha.

During the 1950s, youth always ranked above beauty for African-American women. This trend has however changed and this makes the director’s job more complicated. It was upon Duke and Yancey to make sure that they connected with the present day audience.

To achieve this connection Yancey’s is forced to add more “sex appeal” to Beneatha’s character. This was not something that the playwright intended. Although by doing so she is able bring about a more relatable Beneatha, her performance seems to undermine classic theatre.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Play Review: “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This performance also contradicts her interactions with Asagai and Murchison. The two are obviously drawn to her beauty but their interactions are mostly intellectual. This ensemble is a bit confusing for the audience.

Beneatha’s brother Travis (played by Kimble Joyner) is essentially the center of conflict in this play. The fact that Travis is always frustrated does not make Joyner’s work easier. His interaction with other players is supposed to be very technical. His wife Ruth played by Starletta bears the blunt on his inadequacies.

Even when bestowed upon the task of delivering conflict on stage, Joyner is able to keep the audience interested. His character is also the subject of several themes in this play. When he is on stage, part of the audience is likely to wander away in thought.

Joyner steps up to this challenge by ensuring that he delivers jolts of exalted performance every now and then. By the end of the play, the audience has already learnt to pay attention to Travis. His interactions with his son also provide the audience with a rare insight into his paternal abilities.

The most outstanding performance in this production is by Glover and Rolle. Glover is able to jam-start the play with his opening performance while Rolle maintains the play’s tempo from start to finish. The only non African American performer in this play is John Fiedler.

Fiedler plays the role of the scheming neighborhood association head Karl Lindner. Fiedler is able to supply a lot of humor to the stage. This makes him the standout performer in the play.

Given the nature of all the other characters’ challenges, his goals seem a bit ridiculous. This gives him the ammunition for bringing comic relief to the stage.

The director of this play is forced to work with a relatively small stage. Most modern productions feature magnificent stages that accommodate an upward of three different scenes. However, the design requirements of this play put this stage to maximum use.

This play requires an intimate stage that is representative of the Younger family’s situation. Freddie Slavin’s set announces the Younger family’s situation to the audience the moment the curtains go up. The play takes part in only one scene at the family’s apartment.

Slavin’s set design symbolizes the heartlessness of Karl’s kind and the hopeless of Lena’s kind. Even when Karl enters the Younger’s humble apartment, he tries not to appear scornful with his offer to the family. The set designer also upholds simplicity in his design in line with the play’s motif.

By the time the performance reaches the middle, the audience is already familiar with the Younger’s living conditions. Because the set design does not change, the props in the stage almost become additional actors. From the old wallpaper to the tray table, all these props are already too familiar by the end of the second act.

The costume designer of this play must have had an easy job. This is because most of the audience in the theatre only knows the 1950s through television. All the costume designer had to do was to avoid being too “radical” fashion wise and the audience was easily pleased.

The costumes are also evenly balanced for all characters except for Walter who is supposed to be ghostly. The costume designer ensured that Walter’s costume stood out from the rest of the characters as well as the set design. To achieve this, the designer used yellow as the contrast color.

This tactic seems to work as it highlights the patriarch’s role as well as his status. However, Beneatha and Travis’ costumes could have been more relevant in terms of their generation gap. The make-up artists had their work cut out for them in this production.

This is because the play needed a more weathered Walter Younger. In addition, there is a clear difference in energy levels between Ruth and Beneatha’s make-ups.

The stage lighting is not as enhanced as the ones used in most of the modern day performances. However, this lighting may have been a complement of the play’s mood. The simple nature of the Younger’s apartment would also be compromised by elaborate stage lighting.

The blues music between acts also complimented the play and its classic nature. There are very little sound effects in this play and the few that are used seem unnecessary. The play could flow more naturally if no sound effects are used.

The hand of director Bill Duke in this play is manifested in the cast, the natural performances, and the transitions. Duke’s directing style is classic to say the least. The director is also careful not to erode the issues that Hansberry wanted to convey.

Moreover, Duke’s directing is able to maintain a fresh feel on the issues exemplified by the Younger family. The directing in this play also ensures that each cast member’s stage presence is felt across the audience. It seems like Duke’s goal was to focus more on each actor’s contribution and ensure a simple appraisal.

This would explain the simplicity in lighting and set design. The hallmark of this drama is the Younger family’s resilience and intimacy. Every director tries to accomplish this in his/her unique way. Duke seems to have chosen simplicity as his means of illuminating the exemplary Younger family.

The dramatic exploits in “A Raisin in the Sun” are well represented by the production’s ardent cast. Every performer does his/her part and the combined performance results into a great production. The excellence of the cast is best explained through Glover and Rolle’s performances.

The simplicity of the set and costume designs helps the audience focus on the important aspects of the play. With the expert direction of Bill Duke, “A Raisin in the Sun” is one of the best productions this season.


Pearl River Delta Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

For the case, your team will be required to complete and present the following aspects in a 2-3 page case report. Use any market attractiveness framework ( including that which was discussed in the course) to analyze the case.

Include the following in your analysis:
Identify and frame five problems and issues that the case study confronts (see module 3.3 reflection assignment for list of challenges).
Develop your team’s recommendations to resolve the issues presented in the case.


The Real World of Management Qualitative Research Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review






Introduction It is common for people to use the phrase ‘it is just a theory.’ People use this phrase when they are looking for something practical. Real life experiences help in answering difficult questions. On the other hand, most theories consider ideal situations (Trivedi, 2002, p. 31). However, in real life, there are no ideal situations.

Various factors may affect the outcome of an activity. Research helps in the development of theories. The information from the research helps the researchers to formulate a theory that might apply to similar situations. There are various theories that help in explaining various phenomena in the workplace.

Managers use these theories to solve problems that their organisations face (Dessler


Journal 3 Essay cheap essay help

The newspaper article presented in this week’s required readings reported that

Higher-than-expected death rates among middle-aged white Americans are largely being driven by stagnant progress against heart disease and other common illnesses, according to new research into a crisis that is increasingly worrying healthcare officials and policymakers.
What types of epidemiologic research could help to explain the reasons for the new mortality trend? In your one- to two-page journal entry,

Propose and briefly describe an observational epidemiologic study to illuminate reasons for slowing progress against chronic diseases.
Formulate an experimental intervention study (e.g., a quasi-experimental study for reducing heart disease or some other form of chronic disease morbidity).


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Table of Contents Critical Review

The Response System Technology

Family School Partnerships

Experiential Learning

Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPCK)

Speech and Language Therapy (SLT)


Learning and teaching are believed to be two sides of the same coin; the best accepted standard for gauging effective teaching is the extent of student learning that takes place. Most literatures on how to teach effectively are packed with thoroughly researched approaches through which teachers can offer both skills and content to ensure efficient student learning.

However, researchers in the field of education are yet to come up with a rule book regarding which teaching methods can complement the content and skills that are taught in schools. In light of this, the paper seeks to propose solutions to the instructional problem from five different perspectives including: the response system technology, experiential learning, family school partnerships, technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPCK), speech and language therapy (SLT), and the use of concept maps.

Critical Review The majority of research findings show that whole-class teaching still has a significant role to play in the learning process. The concept of whole-class instruction offers teachers numerous prospects to provide feedback to students regarding their thinking pattern.

More specifically, after the students have been exposed to a hands-on encounter with any new topic, they become more prepared for lectures about these concepts or for demonstrations, which involve addressing their pre-conceptions regarding particular units.

The Response System Technology The response system technology is the most suitable approach teachers can use to instruct learners in the areas of mathematics and sciences. Research shows that most developments in the two subjects have been geared toward improving student work in laboratories and in small groups.

Through this strategy, instructors are able to incorporate questions arising from students, together with wide-reaching and instant reactions from them, into their teaching instructions. Consequently, they are able to utilize the technology for various purposes such as provoking the initial ideas of students, constructive assessment, informed decision making, sampling students with regard to their areas of interest and preferences, and quizzing (William, Christy, Boscardin,


Cultural Immersion of Homeless Veterans Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online

Soldiers adopt a new culture the moment they get out of the country for war. It is believed that soldiers develop a new set of beliefs and values while they are away and therefore completely depart from their original cultural orientation (Rubin, 2012).

War veterans completely feel out of place when they return from combat with most of them remaining in a state of despair. The majority of these veterans roam on the streets because they do not have somewhere to stay.

This kind of situation makes them feel as if they are no longer true citizens of their own country (Rubin, 2012). The culture of veterans is normally associated with soldiers returning from combat and a lot of effort is needed to accommodate this group of people back to the society.

Homeless veterans have their own gathering places, language, symbols and are completely united because of their similar experiences (Lauter, 2010). This paper will discuss the cultural immersion of homeless veterans.

The most surprising statistic is that veterans form one third of all the homeless people on the streets (Lauter, 2010). These are patriotic citizens who put on service uniforms to serve and defend their nation. Homeless veterans suffer from post-traumatic stress syndrome that subsequently leads to depression.

Substance abuse is part of the culture of veterans and this poses a great challenge to the health care system (Lauter, 2010). All veterans appreciate the value of basic necessities because of the difficult conditions that are associated with war.

Veterans do not take things for granted especially when it comes to basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing (Rothman, 2007). Veterans value their country and therefore the Department of Veterans Affairs should make an effort to ensure that the lives of all veterans are improved.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Homeless veterans feel as if their country has abandoned them and this is normally exhibited in their sense of hopelessness and low self-esteem (Rothman, 2007). The fact that veterans are left out in the cold makes them to communicate with a lot of hatred and anger.

Homeless veterans struggle in settling down socially because it is not easy for them to form close relationships back at home after staying away for a very long time (Rothman, 2007). Homeless veterans associate with fellow servicemen and this makes them feel isolated.

Physical and emotional isolation frustrates homeless veterans and this can lead to mental disabilities. Many veterans can not remain in any job for long because of substance abuse. It is very difficult for homeless veterans to completely have stable lives without employment (Miller, 2010).

Most companies require their prospective employees to have a permanent address and this completely locks out homeless veterans.

Cultural immersion is necessary for homeless veterans because it a way of helping them feel comfortable in their country (Miller, 2010). Cultural immersion takes place in different forms to ensure that homeless veterans do not have feelings of cultural, emotional and physical isolation.

Homeless veterans encounter numerous health risks because of their poor hygiene and diet (Miller, 2010). Health care providers have a very critical role to play in enhancing cultural immersion of homeless veterans. Many homeless veterans are very reluctant to inform the authorities that they are homeless and sick.

Health care providers should not in any way be judgmental when attending to homeless veterans (Rothman, 2007). Homeless veterans have been a subject of ridicule and therefore professionals like health care providers should show some compassion by listening to their side of the story.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Cultural Immersion of Homeless Veterans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homeless veterans would feel appreciated if everyone interacted with them without a non-judgmental attitude (Rothman, 2007). Homeless veterans can only share their story and information about their lifestyle if members of the society are willing to listen to them.

Social support is very important for homeless veterans because most of them are exposed to unclean behaviors such as substance abuse (Lauter, 2010). Health care providers should be aware of the plight of homeless veterans because they need some special attention.

Stereotyping is another reason why homeless veterans feel isolated and therefore the issue of having general assumptions that all of them are lazy and responsible for their problems should be avoided at all costs (Lauter, 2010).

There are quite a number of programs that have been put in place by the government with an aim of assisting homeless veterans. These programs assist homeless veterans to access health care and readjustment counseling services.

A housing program to support homeless veterans in securing transitional and permanent housing is very critical in enhancing their cultural immersion (Rothman, 2007).

Many of the health risks associated with veterans are caused by lack of shelter. It is also important for the society to understand that some veterans are homeless because of the common reasons that everyone faces (Rubin, 2012).

In conclusion, homeless veterans encounter a lot of cultural, emotional and physical isolation the moment they come back from war. The support that they used to enjoy in the course of their duty immediately disappears the moment they return home (Rubin, 2012).

Cultural immersion is therefore necessary for homeless veterans because they develop different values and believes while away and continue to identify themselves with the culture of veterans after they return home (Lauter, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultural Immersion of Homeless Veterans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Homeless veterans need both social and emotional support from the society for them to overcome their social, economic and cultural challenges.

References Lauter, P. (2010). A companion to American literature and culture. New York, NY: John Wiley


“A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner Critical Essay online essay help: online essay help

William Faulkner’s 1930 short story A Rose for Emily concerns the tragic life of the last remaining survivor of a powerful southern family, the Griersons, and the unhealthy relationship she has with memory and the past.

Miss Emily Grierson, the daughter of the overbearing and self-important southern gentleman Mr. Grierson, preserves a proud haughtiness in the face of her neighbors and refuses to pay municipal taxes, thanks to an arrangement made 30 years earlier with the former mayor of Jefferson, Colonel Sartoris.

Miss Emily Grierson’s unwillingness or inability to let go of the past and the prison of her father’s beliefs about her social station cause her to become a recluse. A man much beneath her social station takes an interest in her, but eventually leaves her, and the townspeople of Jefferson grow to feel sympathy for her and attempt to protect her from the reality of her situation – poverty, isolation, and spinsterhood.

The following essay analyzes the setting, characters, plot development, and symbolism of A Rose for Emily to demonstrate how William Faulkner uses these devices to develop the theme of memory and the past in the short story.

The fictional town of Jefferson, Mississippi provides the setting for A Rose for Emily. In Jefferson, William Faulkner creates a town steeped in a storied pre-Civil War past that it struggles to relinquish. Though the Civil War and all of its supporters and participants are long dead, their memories crowd the pages of the story.

William Faulkner tells the reader at the story’s outset that Miss Emily Grierson has now “gone to join the representatives of those august names where they lay in the cedar-bemused cemetery among the ranked and anonymous graves of Union and Confederate soldiers who fell at the battle of Jefferson” (Faulkner 49).

Miss Emily Grierson occupies a house of former grandeur on a street of former renown; both are dilapidated at the time that the story takes place. William Faulkner describes Miss Emily Grierson’s house as “a big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But garages and cotton gins had encroached and obliterated even the august names of that neighborhood; only Miss Emily’s house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps” (Faulkner 49).

The frozen in time quality of the setting, combined with the images of “coquettish decay,” underscore Miss Emily Grierson’s inability to free herself from the memory of her father and of the past.

The characters in A Rose for Emily occupy two generations: the elders, including “the mayor, Judge Stevens, eighty years old,” who understand Emily’s faded grandeur and think of her as “a tradition, a duty, and a care,” and the more youthful characters (Faulkner 51; Faulkner 49).

The members of the younger generation of characters do not understand the elder obsession with decorum and propriety, let alone why the town allows this woman to default on her municipal taxes. When a noxious odor envelops Miss Emily Grierson’s homestead, William Faulkner demonstrates the difference between these two generations.

“The next day [Judge Stevens] received two more complaints, one from a man who came in diffident deprecation. We really must do something about it, Judge. I’d be the last one in the world to bother Miss Emily, but we’ve got to do something. That night the board of aldermen met – three greybeards and one younger man, a member of the rising generation.

It’s simple enough, he said. Send her word to have her place cleaned up. Give her a certain time to do it in, and if she don’t…Damn it, sir, Judge Stevens said, will you accuse a lady to her face of smelling bad?” (Faulkner 51). In this example, we see that through the use of character, William Faulkner shows how the obsession with propriety that transfixes Miss Emily Grierson’s generation is completely lost on the other generation.

William Faulkner describes the Griersons as a family that “held themselves a little too high for what they really were. None of the young men were quite good enough to Miss Emily and such. We had long thought of them as a tableau; Miss Emily a slender figure in white in the background, her father a spraddled silhouette in the foreground, his back to her and clutching a horsewhip, the two of them framed by the backflung front door.

We will write a custom Essay on “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More So when she got to be thirty and was still single, we were not pleased exactly, but vindicated” (Faulkner 52). Thus, both generations eventually develop pity for Emily as she sinks into decrepitude after the death of Mr. Grierson.

William Faulkner’s plot development uses the associative quality of memory to align the plot points in a non-linear fashion and tell the story as though it were being recounted from memory. After Miss Emily Grierson sends the aldermen away, William Faulkner tells the reader “so she vanquished them, horse and foot, just as she had vanquished their fathers thirty years before about the smell.

That was two years after her father’s death and a short time after her sweetheart – the one we believed would marry her – had deserted her” (Faulkner 50). William Faulkner uses seamless transitions between past and present, similar to the non-linear movement of memory across time, to move the action of the story.

The most potent use of symbolism in A Rose for Emily occurs in the description of the toiletries that Emily buys for Homer Barron. William Faulkner uses the strange admission from the townspeople that “we learned that Miss Emily had been to the jeweler’s and ordered a man’s toilet set in silver, with the letters H.B. on each piece.

Two days later we learned that she had bought a complete outfit of men’s clothing, including a nightshirt” (Faulkner 55). These symbols set up the idea in the reader’s mind that the marriage between Emily and Homer will take place.

When the story later describes Miss Emily Grierson’s death, whereupon the townspeople learn the appalling secret that the town’s last southern belle has been harboring for over forty years, the reader revisits the chilling symbolism of the “man’s toilet things backed with tarnished silver, silver so tarnished that the monogram was obscured…The man himself lay in the bed.

For a long while we just stood there, looking down at the profound and fleshless grin…What was left of him, rotted beneath what was left of the nightshirt” (Faulkner 57). The tarnished silver and rotting nightshirt symbolizes the death and decay that Emily’s obsessive refusal to release the past created.

Works Cited Faulkner, William. “A Rose for Emily.” Selected Short Stories of William Faulkner. New York: Modern Library, 1951. Print.

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Policy Analysis: Homelessness Proposal college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Problem Identification

Policy Solution and Alternatives

Process Activities

Policy Analysis and Evaluation


Problem Identification The term refers to a state of affairs whereby some members of society do not have places they can call home. Such individuals survive through assistance from government and well-wishers. Homelessness is associated with so many societal evils, which calls for immediate solution. The public, as well as government, is endangered with the issue of homeless.

Policy makers in government and in private sectors must come up with ways of solving the problem completely since they are both affected. The private sector suffers from insecurity and other forms of crime while the government is unable to design a viable budget for the country. Many factors cause homelessness but this paper will highlight some of the consequences.

The effects are so severe hence calling for sound policies that can bring relief to the public. People who stay in the cold are vulnerable to diseases such as tuberculosis, skin diseases and nutritional deficiencies. This leads to overspending of resources in curing such complexities.

Furthermore, life in the streets is brutal meaning that physical attacks and muggings are prevalent. Such attacks affect the well-being of society, for instance women are exposed to sexual assault while children are taken through inhuman processes.

It is therefore true that homelessness is a serious issue that needs to be tackled with gravity. This paper identifies some of the solutions to the problem and analyzes the viability of each solution. It is identified that policy analysis is an important aspect of any project. Homelessness needs policies that are practical that is, attainable. Such policies can only be achieved through proper analysis.

Policy Solution and Alternatives There are a number of solutions to the problem of homelessness such as political, perceptual and personal solutions. Perceptual policy is more costly and time consuming because it relates to changing the views of members of society. As an alternative, the policy is applicable only after solving political problems.

Personality policy is another alternative to the problem but it is more specific meaning that individuals themselves can come up with ideas on how to improve their lives. Community-based organizations can help individuals accomplish personal missions. Political solutions are more important because they consist of governmental action. It is about coming up with sound policies that aim at eliminating the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It takes place in government that is, in the legislature, judiciary or executive. In this paper, more emphasis will be put on the executive branch because it is concerned with public policy.

The government must come up with policies that guarantee affordable housing, timely prevention and rapid re-housing plans, all-inclusive mental health services and increased social help (Drake, 2002). Policy makers from government are the only officers charged with designing all public programs.

Process Activities There are some steps followed in designing policies both in government and in the private sector. Six steps must be followed keenly when creating or formulating a public policy. The first step would be to classify general understandings and fundamental regulations for working together. Any solution to homelessness would involve cooperation among various stakeholders, both in government and private sectors.

All parties involved in solving the problem must understand some concepts. Second step pertains to laying the groundwork. Each party or stakeholder should be informed his/her role and responsibility. Existing gaps must be sealed through consensus meaning that differences must be sorted out before setting up the project.

As it is has always been the case, information is power. Policy formulators cannot do much unless enough data is provided. This means that some research on the problem is very important for project prosperity. Without funding, the policy is bound to fail. Sources of funding should be identified in advance and each department allocated sufficient capital and human resources.

The fourth step is more practical because it pertains to execution policy execution. Policy makers at this stage must build strategies and work plans to guide the project. For efficient participation in public policy process, all stakeholders, mainly communities that are new to the project, should sketch their model in advance.

Typical processes should as well be staged to enlighten each group of what to anticipate, and of what is required of them in terms of contribution to the process. After clear coordination of activities, it is now appropriate for policy makers to put strategies and processes into action. Joint ventures demand that all parties must adhere to the set standards and processes. Each office must strive to deliver the best results.

We will write a custom Proposal on Policy Analysis: Homelessness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The last stage is the most important because it gives feedback to policy makers. The stage is crucial in determining the success of the project.

The stage is evaluation of joint process and measuring outcomes. Through evaluation, policy makers can identify what has been working and what needs to be adjusted in order to eliminate homelessness (Kraft,


House of Fraser and the United Kingdom’s Department Store Industry Case Study essay help

Introduction Department stores majorly sell a variety of products from a large retail premise. The range of products offered by the department stores includes furniture, home appliances, cosmetics, jewelers, toys and clothing.

The department stores resort to selling a range of products as a protection measure incase sales of a single product fall in the market. This perhaps makes the difference between department store and specialized chain stores (Wittner 2003, p. 320).

Five giants that control 89 percent of the market share categorically dominate the department stores industry in the United Kingdom. Other minor companies control the 11%.

The dominant company in the department store industry market is Marks and Spencer, which has an outstanding market share of 55%. John Lewis, Debenhams, House of Frasers and Harrods control 15%, 12%, 4% and 3% respectively. It is estimated that department stores industry generated about 15.1 billion pounds to the UK financial system in the year 2007.

Debenhams With about 140 department stores across UK, Debenhams chose to specialize in fashion other than putting more weight on home wares. The customized products offered by the company merely target the middle mass market. Although the products offered are of high quality, Debenhams chose to offer them at affordable prices (Peteraf 1993, p. 180).

Debenhams perhaps have the best designers considering that its styled clothing and collections have attracted quite huge number of customers. The company as well has managed to sell products of its own label. In the year 2009, John Lewis witnessed an increase of 0.2 % in sales in the company.

Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer has about 685 department stores across the United Kingdom, which makes it the largest company having great control in department stores market. The products offered by M


Cooperative Exporters: The Enhancement of the International Assistance Synthesis Essay essay help online: essay help online

Among the aspects concerning the sphere of international business, the phenomenon of cooperative exporters is one of the most recent and enticing. The activity that presupposes “a large range of arrangements from simple ones without strong commitment” (654), as Tuusjarvi, E. (2005b) defined it, the issue involves selling both the products of the given company and the ones of the other entrepreneurships.

Since the phenomenon has been introduced into the world market comparatively recently and deals with the issues concerning business rivalry, its effect on the economics can be considered questionable, which means that the given issue demands thorough exploration. Hence, it is required that the results of the cooperative export on the world economics should be considered.

Out of the most important concepts concerning the sphere of cooperative export, one must mark several essential issues concerning the given phenomenon.

It is necessary to remember that cooperative exporter owns an export organization, sharing it with the other exporters, and introduces the goods created by the manufacturers to the other countries. Because of the specifics of the institution, the question of the exporter cooperation efficiency arises.

One of the most detailed and all-embracing studies on the issue of cooperative exporters is the research offered by Tuusjarvi, E. (2005b), who explores the mechanism of the cooperative exporter work.

Offering his own understanding of the role of cooperative export in the world economics and assessing its impact on the economical situation of a certain country, the author clarifies that the partnership between the members of the cooperative enhances the efficiency of the companies, increases the revenues and contributes to the overall economical development of the country in question.

Therefore, the necessity to encourage the development of the operative export development is a part and parcel of the present-day economics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relation of the article in question to the topic of the research is obvious. With the help of the results provided by Tuusjarvi, E. (2005b), it becomes clear that the cooperative export concept has become a major issue in the modern world and is currently influencing the world economical situation.

Hence, the paper by Tuusjarvi, E. (2005b) helps considerably in clarifying that the phenomenon of cooperative exporters may be the turning point of the modern world economics.

It is also necessary to emphasize that the research conducted by Tuusjarvi, E. (2005b) correlates with a number of other researches conducted on cooperative exporters. Borst (1990) offers his predictions concerning the given sphere and further on (Borst 1993) comments on the results.

Tuusjarvi, E. (2005a) provides a specific example of modern application of cooperative exporting, while Spratz (1994) offers the postulates for the efficient cooperation. In addition, IPCRI (2000) provides certain examples of the problems that cooperative exporters might face.

According to the results obtained, the necessity to encourage the world cooperative exporters is absolutely obvious. Helping the world market to prosper and at the same time increasing their own revenues and the revenues of their partners, cooperative exporters are bound to change the world market for the better.

With the help of efficient cooperative exporting, one can reach considerable increase in the company incomes, which means that corporate exporters have to be given credit for their impact on the economical situation in the world in general and in certain countries in particular.

Annotated Bibliography Borst, A. D. (1990). Guide for prospective agricultural cooperative exporters.

We will write a custom Essay on Cooperative Exporters: The Enhancement of the International Assistance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Washington, D. C.: Agricultural Cooperative Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Web.

Commenting in the 1990ies situation in the sphere of agriculture, Borst emphasized the necessity to create cooperative exporting relationships, which proved to be correct a decade later.

Borst, A. D.,


Ethical issues in Apple Inc. Problem Solution Essay essay help online free

Introduction Apple Inc. is an organization that manufactures and markets computer hardware, software and electronics. It was established in 976 and its headquarters are located in California. Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs and Ronald Wayne were the founders of the company. Steve Jobs worked as the president of the company during its early years and left the management of the company after conflicts arose from the board of directors.

He later joined the company in 1997 as the CEO. Steve Jobs worked as the president of the company until he passed away in 2011. The company has dominated the local and global markets. Apple has been renowned for its innovative strategies, and this has made it achieve global recognition.

Despite the stiff competition in the computer industry, apple Inc. was able to overcome the competition in the market by developing innovative products.

There are other strong companies in the market such as Microsoft, IBM, and others but they were unable to stop Apple from dominating the global markets. Apple has been able to win the loyalty of consumers globally because it offers the best quality products in the market (Imbimbo, 2009).

The success of Apple Inc. is attached to Steve Jobs because it is during his reign that the company achieved great successes. Steve Jobs was successful in implementing his leadership strategies because he made the company achieve competitiveness in the global markets. It is under his leadership that the company was able to develop innovative products such as iPod, iPad, iPhone and others.

However, Steve Jobs was reported to suffer from pancreatic caner, and this caused his death. The information about his health status was not disclosed until it was inevitable to provide the public with the actual details concerning the health status of Steve Jobs. In some instances the directors of the company miscommunicated about the health status of Jobs.

The idea of miscommunicating the health status of Steve Jobs has been challenged on ethical backgrounds (Imbimbo, 2009). In this paper, the author discuses the ethical issues relating to miscommunication about Steve Jobs’ health status before his death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A brief description of the ethical or social justice issues

The manner in which the directors and the CEO communicated about Steve Jobs health condition caused a lot of ethical questions. It was reported that Steve Jobs suffered from hormonal imbalance. In other situations, it was reported that Steve Jobs suffered from nutritional imbalance.

The health conditions of Steve Jobs had remained a secret until when it was impossible to hide. He was given a medical leave after the company realized that his health was at stake (Kahney, 2011).

In December 2010, the company reported that Steve Jobs was to take six months leave because he had complex medical issues. Many people were questioning whether the leave was caused by nutritional balance or a serious medical issue. The facts were that in 2004 Steve Jobs was identified to have suffered from pancreatic cancer.

It appeared as if Steve Jobs had recovered completely until 2008 when he lost weight swiftly. In the real sense, he was undergoing a liver transplant prior to his death. A liver transplant was done to him but his life could not be salvaged, and he succumbed to death out of the transplant in October 2011 (Kahney, 2011).

According to Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), Apple Inc. was not ethical when it failed to provide full disclosure about Steve Jobs health conditions. It is a requirement of SEC that all public companies should provide full disclosure to information that may affect the stakeholders. The liver transplant done to Steve Jobs was material and there was need to provide the accurate information about his health (Kahney, 2011).

It was feared that when the shareholders of the company realized that Steve Jobs was unhealthy, the company would suffer a lot of losses because the shareholders would withdraw their assets from the company.

However, this contravened several ethical issues. Shareholders have a right to “full disclosure of all material information” concerning a company. The health condition of the president was material and there was need to disclose all the information (Kahney, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Ethical issues in Apple Inc. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apple was not ethical in miscommunicating health information relating to Steve Jobs. This behavior damaged the reputation and the trust that stakeholders had to the company.

The issues concerning the health of Steve Jobs were of great concern to all stakeholders because the company had a good public image, and shareholders relied on the reputation of the company. The employees and customers of the company were also affected by the unethical behavior of the top management (Kahney, 2011).

The ethical or social justice issues in terms of one or more of the philosophical theories/theorists from the course

Full disclosure of material information is a requirement of all public companies. Information is considered material if it affects the stakeholders of a company. The managers of a company have an obligation to provide all information that may affect the stakeholders.

Failure to disclose any information is unethical and may cause legal action. SEC provides that providing full disclosure alerts shareholders about the performance of their investments, and that they can react promptly to safeguard their interests.

Investors need all the information concerning the performance of a company to avoid making losses. The Securities and Exchange Commission requires that the managers of a public company should disclose all the insider information regarding public companies (Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011).

Investors rely on the insider information provided by the management and directors of a company to decide on the actions to take. Failing to provide all the information may affect the decisions made by investors.

SEC was introduced to protect the interests of all stakeholders against misconduct of public companies. It requires that all public companies should communicate accurate information about their operations (Securities and Exchange Commission, 2011).

Relationship of the issues relating to Apple Inc. to the four themes of social justice

The issue surrounding Apple Inc. is related theme of social justice. Miscommunication of material information that may affect a public company is related to the justice theme of social justice. It relates to unfair business conduct because it does not allow the stakeholders to have make decisions depending on the prevailing conditions in the company.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical issues in Apple Inc. by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is the right of all investors to be informed about all the activities of a company that may affect then performance. All stakeholders require the information provided by directors to make decisions concerning their interest in the company. It is not fair to provide false information about a company because it can cause the stakeholders to make wrong decisions (Harvey, 2009).

The stakeholders of a public company are at liberty to obtain any information pertaining performance. It is an ethical requirement that the directors should offer the accurate information concerning the performance of the company. It is illegal information to stakeholders, and this may cause legal action to be taken against a company.

The major challenges presented to Apple Inc. as a result of the ethical or social justice issues

It is my perfect believe that Apple Inc. experiences a major challenge in securing the trust of all stakeholders after the directors miscommunicated about the health status of Steve Jobs. Investors of the company have lost trust on the directors, and this affects the performance of the company. Investors provide capital to the company by buying stock and other assets; and their withdrawal can affect the capital base of a company.

The overall effect is that the profits of a company are reduced when investors withdraw. In return, the customers are affected because the company cannot perform effectively and efficiently. As a result, employees are affected when the profits of the company are reduced (Hopkinson, 2011).

Consumer loyalty to the company and its products will reduce and this will reduce the profits made by the company. The company has used consumer loyalty as one of its core competences, and this has made the company achieve great success in overcoming stiff competition in the global markets. However, the unethical conduct of directors will reduce consumer loyalty towards the products of the company.

The behavior of the director of Apple Inc. to fail to provide accurate information about the health conditions of Steve Jobs will affect the trust that all stakeholders have to the company.

This will not only affect the internal stakeholders but all stakeholders affiliated to the company. The reputation of the company has reduced, and it risks losing most of its investors. Therefore, failure to provide full disclosure of information affects all stakeholders of a company (Harvey, 2009).

Recommendations for addressing the issues

The directors should rebuild the reputation of the company by providing accurate information concerning the company. All material information should be communicated when they happen ton avoid any other instance like the one that affected the company during the reign of Steve Jobs.

It is also important that the directors should apologize to its stakeholders for miscommunicating to the public about the health conditions of Steve Jobs. This will be an indication of the willingness to correct the mistakes done, and to continue managing the company ethically.

The damage about unethical behavior of the company has already been done, and what should be done is to correct by accepting the mistakes. Apologizing will indicate that the company is ready to avoid such mistakes in future.

Factors that would affect the implementation of the recommendations

Implementation of the above recommendations may be affected by legal actions against the company. It is illegal for any public company to miscommunicate any information that may affect its stakeholders.

The act of accepting the mistakes done by the directors will be an indication that the directors are legal liable for the unethical behavior. This will cause legal actions to be taken against the company. As a result, the company will be required to pay damages to all stakeholders affected by the behavior of the directors.

It is also possible that investors may withdraw from the company when they realize that the directors of the company were aware of the health conditions of Steve Jobs. This will make the stakeholders lose trust with the directors.

This will cause the profits of the company to reduce because there will be no adequate resources/ capital to run the company. In addition, the employees and customers of the company will be negatively affected because the company will not operate at its optimal level.

Expected outcomes of the recommendations

The reputation of the company will be affected, and people will no longer have trust on the company and its products. Most of the shareholders would withdraw their investments from the company, and new investors would not be willing to invest in the company. The company will incur losses by losing capital that is required to finance the operational and development activities of the company.

This will not only affect the profitability of the company in the short run but also the long term sustainability of the company will be affected. As a result, the company will lose its customers because it will not be able to carry out its innovations. The employees will be affected such that some will be retrenched when the company starts to make losses.

The overall performance of the company will be affected, and it will be difficult to regain the reputation and performance of the company.

It is expected that customers will have loyalty to the products and brands of the company because disclosure of the information will be an indication that the company is concerned about the welfare of its customers. Therefore, the recommendations will have both positive and negative aspects to the company and its stakeholders.

References Harvey, D. (2009). Social justice and the city. New York: University of Georgia Press.

Hopkinson, M. (2011). The Project Risk Maturity Model: Measuring and Improving Risk Management Capability. England: Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Imbimbo, A. (2009). Steve Jobs: The Brilliant Mind Behind Apple. New York: Gareth Stevens.

Kahney, L. (2011). Apple Broke the Law By Lying About Steve Jobs Health. Web.

Securities and Exchange Commission, (2011). Final Rule: Selective Disclosure and Insider Trading. Web.


Glasses Direct Company Strategies Case Study argumentative essay help

Table 1: strategic characteristics of the industry players

Company (market share) strategy price Breadth of products Quality/styling Number of stores Advertisement ($M)

Glasses Direct 25% Broad differentiation Below average limited superior 1390 1.5 Boots 10% Low cost Below average range good 1300 6 Vision Express 6% Broad differentiation Above average limited good 300 6.2 Specsavers 16% market Low cost strategy Below average limited good 700 9 Dolland


Sustainable Tea at Unilever Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Market differentiation remains as one of the most reliable ways through which businesses gain market share leadership and outwit their competitors. Sustainability programmes and plans play a critical role in ensuring that brands regain and maintain their market positions against competition onslaught.

One company that has applied sustainability programme in its efforts to maintain its market leadership position is Unilever Plc. A world’s top consumer goods manufacturer, ranging from home care merchandise, food products, to personal care goods, Unilever introduced a ‘Sustainable Living Plan’ that intended to achieve a number of strategic goals.

Firstly, it targeted improving consumers’ well-being and health, limiting the environmental impacts of its activities, as well as sustainably sourcing its entire agricultural raw materials by the year 2020. One area of focus that was of particular interest to the company was its tea product line.

Although it registered positive results in some international markets, the sustainable tea program encountered challenges in other markets. This paper seeks to discuss in detail Unilever’s ‘Sustainable Living Plan’, putting more emphasis on its sustainable tea program.

Unilever global tea market Unilever sells its processed tea in more than 180 countries worldwide. The tea is sold under different brand names, with Lipton Tea being the company’s largest brand. The brand records an annual sales figure of about €3.5 billion, making it the world’s leading tea brand in terms of sales. Other additional brand names through which the company markets its tea include Lyons in Ireland and PG tips, mainly for the United Kingdom market.

India, Pakistan, Poland, and Russia also form part of Unilever’s extended international tea market. Lipton’s closest competitor in the global tea market is Tetley Tea, manufactured and marketed by Tata Beverages. However, the global market share enjoyed by Lipton is three times that of Tetley (Henderson


Innovation In Health Care Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

The Case of Brigham and Women’s Hospital



Introduction Health care providers are under pressure to improve the safety and quality of the services offered to patients. Health care institutions are striving to cut on costs, reduce patient cycle times in hospitals, improve laboratory and post care services. Change and innovation do not fail because the new strategies and goals are inappropriate but because organizations lack proper implementation mechanisms.

Patient data security and privacy have been a challenge for many health institutions. Many institutions have concentrated on improving electronic health systems to enhance reconciliation, storage systems, drug administration, and recording systems among others. They are implemented to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety (Ciampa


Cultural Differences and Ethics of International Trading Case Study essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Overview of Cultural Differences in international Trading

Cultural differences in shared values

Cultural differences in communication

Cultural differences: Valuing Time

Gifts and Personal favors

Meritocracy, Decision Making and Seniority

Ethics of International Trading


International trading simply refers to the way of exchanging goods, capital and services across the world. In other words, this is the trade between countries on a global context.

One outstanding benefit of this type of trade is that, it plays the important role of increasing the gross domestic product (C G D) of the countries involved.

It is also important for the purpose of globalization to continue to ensure enough supply of goods and other services among nations. International trade creates jobs and also generates more improved and new goods from other nations, thus promoting trading affairs among countries (Hill and Jain, 2007).

Despite all these outstanding benefits, international trading is associated with many cultural differences as well as ethics that would tend to impact the nature of the trading affair, either positively or negatively.

As it would be observed, it is wise for the countries taking part in any form of international trade to have a sound understanding and knowledge of the cultural differences and ethics existing between them and their partners in trade.

Understanding the culture of others in business is always important in that, it is likely to attract maximum respect, thus helping people interact well with each other in all aspects. This informed approach plays a key role in promoting and enhancing peace and harmony among the players.

Differences of ethics and cultural settings in international business will also tend to have a direct impact on the partners involved, in terms of profitability or performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, improving levels of cultural understanding is likely to make participants be more globally sensitive thus establishing strong international competencies. This paper examines various cultural differences and ethics of international trading with some concern on how these would tend to impact trading affairs.

In order to be able to understand better the requirements of this paper, there is a need to first of all have informed knowledge on what is meant by the terms culture and ethics in the case of international business or trade.

Culture simply refers to a specific way of life normally followed by a country or community, as it is defined by aspects of religion, social, political, and economical. Cultural differences in this case would refer to the way different communities in their countries live and belief in terms of these aspects.

On the other hand, ethics of international trade refers to the moral conduct that governs and sustains the rules of trading.

Basically, the key to business success on global levels relies on constructive and acceptable ethical standards as established by the international community and regulating bodies on global business (Cass, 2011).

International business should adhere to ethical trade practices that are certain to promote macroeconomic potential between the participating countries. More importantly, ethical trading practices should be effective in eliminating poverty levels and promoting sustainable growth in business.

In this regard, the significance of constructive ethics in international business cannot be overestimated. However, the variation of ethical beliefs and standards across the world has been a substantial factor of the many ethical differences observed in today’s global business.

We will write a custom Case Study on Cultural Differences and Ethics of International Trading specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, having a sound knowledge of the individuality of ethics as they are formulated by different countries taking part in the international business is substantial in successful trading on the global levels.

Overview of Cultural Differences in international Trading The practices of international trading are often influenced by a number of cultural factors (Markusen, 1995). As seen in the above paragraphs, culture would encompass aspects such as language, religion, shared values, sensitivities, and social conventions.

In most cases, these cultural factors or aspects would tend to vary according to geographical locations of the participating countries, among other aspects, thus resulting to significant cultural differences across various setting of human interaction.

If left uncontrolled, these cultural differences are likely to trigger serious repercussions socioeconomically, on international trade. Therefore a sound familiarity with cultural norms and values ranging from business ways, religious and history to diet and dress customs can bring forth good international relationships.

Cultural differences do matter a lot in the global business environment, for they influence the buying and selling decision of the participants (Braithwaite


Caterpillar’s Strategy in Foreign Markets Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Caterpillar Inc. (CAT) is the global leader in the manufacture of mining and construction equipment, industrial gas turbines, and diesel and natural gas engines. Caterpillar’s machineries are popular around the globe due to their efficiency in heavy commercial activities. Strategic decisions have enabled the company to conquer the market.

Caterpillar has operations in all six continents. The foreign direct investments of the company in these locations increase the company’s global presence. Caterpillar has a multi-country strategy that attempts to build the brand name of the company in foreign markets. The strategy strives to address the needs of the customers in these markets.

CAT strives to improve the company’s presence in foreign markets. The company is committed to providing high quality products that enable their customers to increase their productivity. High quality products provide the company with a competitive edge.

In addition, high quality products improve the company’s brand name and improve the trust and relationships of the company with its customers (Thompson, et al., 2011). Availability of funds provides the company with a competitive edge over its rivals. Acquisition is one of the major strategies that enable CAT to build its brand name. In addition, acquisition increases the product range of the company.

This increases the competitiveness of the company. CAT uses the strategic importance of a certain foreign market in determining the strategy that it would pursue in the country. In so doing, CAT takes into consideration the specific needs of the country. This enables the company to develop strategies that would enable the company to improve its presence in the markets.

China is one of countries that have a strategic importance in the future development of the company. Huge infrastructural development in the country provides a huge demand for the company’s products. Therefore, capturing this market would make the company reap huge financial rewards.

CAT has undertaken steps that would lead to the increase in the production of excavators in China. This would help in meeting the huge demand of the company’s products (Dugan, 2010). However, successful venture of the company in the market necessitates it address issues that face the Chinese society rather than enforcing the ‘American way.’ Marine and Petroleum customers are the major customers of CAT in Brazil.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The continued growth of the industries necessitates the company to increase its presence in the region. The recent discovery of a significant amount of gas and oil off the Brazilian coast guarantee the continued growth of the oil exploration industry in the future.

Development and expansion of Brazil’s petroleum reserves promise to increase the demand of CAT’s products significantly. This has spurred CAT to establish a local plant that is involved in the packaging of generator sets and diesel propulsion systems (Dugan, 2011). This plant would serve the needs of the marine and petroleum customers.

CAT also strives to increase its presence in developing countries. These countries have a huge potential for growth. In addition, the market of these countries is not saturated. On the other hand, the North American market is highly saturated. Therefore, this market has very limited growth potential.

Successful entry of the international market necessitates the company to take into consideration the specific needs of the market. It is extremely difficult use the same strategy in different markets.

However, the strategies strive to build a strong brand name through the manufacture of high quality products, which increase the customers’ profitability (Kotler


Using the 10 steps marketing plan Plan an event for the Miami store with a 4th of July 2022 Essay best college essay help

Using the 10 steps marketing plan

an event for the Miami store with a 4th of July 2022 Celebration theme and make 200,000 people aware of the event,

the store needs to make $200,000 in additional sales from the event. You have
10 months to plan and a budget of $85,000.

Present this portion of the 10-Step Marketing Plan, as either a report (MS Word) or as a slide presentation (Pdf)
Pay particular attention to Step 7 – Strategies – with details on achieving your goals.
Complete the posted marketing budget (excel file) for Step 9.

Step 3.
4. Target Audience
Step 5.
The 4Ps
of Marketing: Product, Price, Placement,


International Entry-Mode Choices Report online essay help: online essay help

Executive Summary It is surprising that the profitability of large retail booksellers in Japan is relatively poor with their sales being small compared to other countries in the world (Directory of Japanese publishing and bookselling, 1982). One of the major players in the market is the Saihan system that ensures market control by fixing the price of the products in the industry (Directory of Japanese publishing and bookselling: a guide to the market for British books, journals and literary rights in Japan (1st ed), 1978).

According to Farrell, this system deters the entry of new retailers into the bookselling industry, and has often been labeled as “anti-competitive,” and “collusive” (2005, p. 29). A comparison is therefore necessary with other countries and especially the United States to establish the validity and effects of the system to the bookselling market.

Introduction The impact that the introduction of the Saihan system in Japan has had on retail booksellers is an issue that has aroused a never-ending debate. As Farrell states, there are advantages and disadvantages of having the system in Japan since the effects are different for the various companies (2005, p. 29). Some of the companies operating in this country include Bookoff and Amazon Japan both of which have recorded mixed returns with the system in place (Govindarajan,


Emirate Airline General Business Model Case Study essay help

Introduction Internationalization has been the driving force behind E-business in the Arab airline. This case study focuses on the internationalization process and its role in creating an environment that can support E-business and E-commerce with respect to Emirates airlines.

E-commerce and E-business are, also, evaluated with respect to value creation. The essay is based on two models when analyzing the E- business and E-management. These models are Osterwalder and Pigneur’s Nine Building Blocks framework, and Amit’s and Zott’s Value Creation model.

The objective of the essay is to capture the connection between internationalization of Emirates airline, its E-business and E-management. This relation will be in terms of value creation and value delivery to the intended customers. The essay will not, therefore, expound on the internal mechanism of the firm.

Brief Description of the Case The company that is under study is Emirates airline. The airline is based at Dubai international airport in Dubai. It is the chief airline in the area with about 2500 flights per week. The airlines operate in 122 cities of 74 countries. The company offers some of the world longest flights.

The Emirates airline is fully owned by the government of Dubai since it is a subsidiary of the emirates group. The company is subdivided into two segments where one of the segments handles good transportation whereas the other handles passengers. The company has 4 subsidiaries namely Arabian Adventures, Congress Solutions International, Emirates Holidays and Emirates Tours.

In the mid-80s, the company received backing from the Royal Air wing of about 10 million U.S. dollars. The company, also, received two aircrafts from the royal family. The company was required to operate from outside the government subsidies as a condition that was put across by the financers.

The first managing director was Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum who is currently the chairperson to board of directors. In the consequent years, the company began expanding its routes and fleet of airplanes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The airplane shifted its operational bases to terminal 3 in Dubai International airport. This terminal was created with a sole purpose of facilitating growth of the airline which was remarkably rapid.

The airline is ranked in the top ten lists of the most successful airlines by both revenue and kilometre coverage. It has risen to be the largest airline across Middle East basing on different aspects of development. The companies became the fourth large airline on handling passengers and total distance coverage in the year 2011. The company holds the third position on the side of freights schedule.

The airline was recognized by Air Transport world with the award of the airline of the year 2011. The reward is based on the effectiveness of the company in enhancing safety and commitment to operational excellence. In addition, the award is reliant on the financial status of the firm, customer service and pace setting.

Internationalization The world is changing rapidly whereby the business models that were applied traditionally have become outlived. This is because companies are facing challenging and complex factors that affect their business. Over the last two decades, Emirates airlines have entered the global market at a high rate.

Before the beginning of this phenomenon, Emirates airlines participated in global trade but were limited to certain segments of the global economies. The main reason why globalization of Emirates airline has occurred is the liberation of the United Arab Emirate economy (Gupta, 2007).

In this country, the government has changed policies and laws that have allowed the company to be a participant in global trade.

As a result, the company has redefined its mission and strategic position to cater for the renewed interest of the investors. This has resulted to airline executives seeking of a larger market shares in the global platform.

We will write a custom Case Study on Emirate Airline General Business Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emirates airline stands to benefit from its globalization in various ways. First, the company will expand its market share. The expansion of the market will aid the company to enjoy economies of scale, larger consumer pool and other advantages.

The company will manage to benefit from numerous opportunities that are there in the gulf region. One key benefit that is available in the gulf region is the availability of capital. The combination of this fact and reality of the limited domestic market motivate the airline to seek global participation.

Additionally, the globalization process exposes the firm. This means that the organization will have a global appearance that will attract many skilled and multi-talented workforces.

The availability of this employee calibre fosters creativity and establishes absolute advantage to the firm. This is because the hired employees are among the best hence their creativity and innovation will be of global standards.

The company will, also, spread various business and operational risks among several regions. Risk management is one of the key tools that determine business success.

In this regard, the airline has established various subsidiaries all over the world. In addition, the company will capitalize on its core competencies in the new established markets.

The final advantage that accrues to the airline is that it will compete effectively in various fronts. As such, the airline will have a fair share of the competitor’s domestic market.

Global Expansion and Orientations The global expansion of the emirates airline is faced by several challenges ranging from technological, cultural, economic and political categories. Similar to other company, the Emirate airline managers have to confront these challenges diligently. There are no standard ways of managing this challenge.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Emirate Airline General Business Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The solution that the managers adopt is guided by various factors. These may include corporate management culture, literature that relates to management of foreign-based subsidiaries, hiring consultancy firms, and any other method that is deemed appropriate by the management.

On a general scale, there are two prominent orientation models that determine how the managers will manage foreign based subsidiaries. Ethnocentric orientations focus on bombarding the subsidiary with beliefs and corporate culture that is associated evidently with the parent company.

Polycentric orientations stipulate that the managers will use the factors and that are in the country where the subsidiary company is located to develop a solution. Geocentric orientations stipulate that the managers will evaluate the factors that prevail in particulate regions and formulate a solution for the subsidiary.

Geocentric orientations will compel the managers to apply global best practices to generate a solution. The Emirate airline has adopted a matrix that combines geocentric, geocentric and ethnocentric orientations (Larimo


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) at AstraZeneca Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Company Background

Describing Corporate Social Responsibility

Integrating corporate social responsibility

Monitoring corporate social responsibly

Criticisms of the AstraZeneca’s performance




Introduction This paper discusses the concept of corporate social responsibility using AstraZeneca Plc. as the case study. Specifically, the paper analyses AstraZeneca’s employees who are part of the company’s stakeholders.

This analysis is based on the safety, health, and environment (SHE) program which the company considers as a major component of the corporate social responsibility (Turner 2005, p. 38). The data in this report has been obtained from members responsible for promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in AstraZeneca and also from previous articles and books on corporate social responsibility.

Company Background AstraZeneca Plc. was established in 1999 after the merger between Zeneca Group Plc and Astra AB. The corporate headquarters of the company are in the United Kingdom. AstraZeneca Plc was formed with the aim of generating long term growth and value to all the shareholders using the strength from two companies.

Currently, AstraZeneca Plc is among the leading combined pharmaceutical companies. AstraZeneca has a strong emphasis on both innovation and research, and on commercial and manufacturing activities. AstraZeneca Plc. produces medicines for treating different ailments such as cancer, infections, pain control, gastrointestinal, and other ailments that affect the central nervous system.

The company’s operations are spread in more than one hundred countries while the manufacturing process takes place in twenty countries. Presently, AstraZeneca Plc employs close to 54000 workers globally (Turner 2005, p. 38).

Describing Corporate Social Responsibility AstraZeneca Plc defines corporate social responsibility as the efforts and initiatives undertaken by a company in order to facilitate sustainable development. The company takes sustainable development as the ability of a given economic activity to meet the requirements of both the present and future generation.

Currently, the company has put in place a lot of effort to improve its corporate social responsibility framework and in order to establish an appropriate technique for implementing and controlling the effectiveness of CSR. This is an indication that the structure for managing corporate responsibility issues has not yet been developed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, much of the work or activities of the company are based on the safety measures that were adopted sometimes back. However, the newly established safety, health, and environment (SHE) program is considered as a major component of the corporate responsibility that the company expects to launch. The program mostly targets the employees of the company who are part of the stakeholders.

The executives of the company believe that such a program will go a long way in promoting shareholders’ interests. This is in line with stakeholder theorists who assert that the executives of a given company should ensure that shareholders’ interests are promoted. This should also be done to other groups that may be affected by the activities of the company.

The social approach demands that all corporation responsibilities be directed towards the company stakeholders and also ensure the safety and health of the general public (Boeger, Murray


Procurement Practices for Efficient Procurement Processes Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract Procurement is one of the most important business processes in any given business organisation. The success of this practice can make or break the competitive advantage enjoyed by the company in the market. In this paper, the author looked at procurement practices of two companies operating in Victoria, Australia.

The two companies are Montana Foods Limited and High Country Meats Limited. The author settled for the two companies given that their operations mostly revolve around Victoria. It was found that the success of these two companies is informed by their procurement practices.

Both companies have automated their processes. However, it was found that the participation of other employees in the procurement process varies in the two companies.

Introduction Every organisation makes purchases, including for services and commodities, to meet most of its objectives. The procurement process is, therefore, meant to add value to a company’s operations (Garrido


Review: “Persepolis” by Marjane Satrapi Critical Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction








Introduction Some people burry their heads in the sand and pretend they are not seeing the evils consuming their societies. However, literature presents all evils through various means and makes sure everybody knows what is happening next door.

This has led to bans and even imprisonment of writers and human rights activists to stop them from broadcasting the evils tearing the fabrics of their societies.

Persepolis is a novel written by Marjane Satrapi and has generated a lot of controversies that have seen most schools in Chicago pull it down from being a study book.

Background Marjane Satrapi was born and raised in the Arab world and is now a renowned English writer. She witnessed the tribulations most Muslims went through during the Islamic revolution and was motivated to express her feelings through writing.

Her major concern was the way women and young girls were mistreated during the war and the serious consequences the war had on them (Satrapi 2004). Today, she vividly recalls what her society went through and prays that this should never have happened.

Persepolis is a novel about a young girl who struggles in a war society. This is a graphical story that describes tribulations related to religion and politics that left the Arab land void of its rich natural heritage (Satrapi 2004).

The author uses simple graphics to ensure children understand their world through plain illustrations to express what happens around them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Controversy This book was commissioned by the Chicago Public Schools Association to be used by the seventh grade students and later became a subject of debate due to its contents. Therefore, it was immediately pulled down from schools’ curriculums causing major uproars from various quarters.

School authorities and education instructors have expressed their dissatisfaction with the contents in this book and this they argue is the reason it was pulled down (Ahmed-Ullah 2013).

However, not everyone was happy with this decision and some students and publishing stakeholders threatened to hold public demonstrations to protest this directive. This is an evaluation of the perspectives held by different groups regarding the appropriateness of the book as a seventh grade curriculum tool.

Proponents This book has faced various criticisms since its publication due to the contents and themes covered by the author. The author’s work met a hostile reaction regarding cultural and religious viewpoints of various stakeholders.

According to Time Magazine this book was banned from all public forums in most Arab countries including the United Arab Emirates, Lebanon and Iran (Wettli 2013). Most Muslim leaders argued that it focused on blaspheming Islam which was against their teachings.

Religious groups all over the world consider blasphemy a sin beyond forgiveness since it amounts to ridiculing their supreme beings. Therefore, they argue that the book is not fit since it ridicules and prejudices Islam without considering the importance of respecting religious beliefs.

The Chicago Public Schools department presents the second argument that this book contains messages that are not suitable for seventh grade students (Wettli 2013). There are many scenes that depict sexual perversion and extreme social behavior according to these proponents.

We will write a custom Article on Review: “Persepolis” by Marjane Satrapi specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, they advocate that the book should be withdrawn from school curriculum. This argument is presented by the Chicago Public Schools chairman Mr. Barbara Byrd-Bennett after being informed that the book has unrated contents.

The department ensures that all books used in education curriculums meet the standards required before they are accepted as school books. However, he acknowledged that this was not considered when selecting this book to be used in Chicago schools.

It is necessary to state that this department is opposed to the inclusion of this book in the seventh grade curriculum and argues that these students are not old enough to understand this book according to its intended purpose.

Opponents It is evident that the decision to pull down this book from being in the education curriculum was met with resistance from various groups. First, the author expressed her concern over what she termed primitive democracy and infringement on the freedom and right to speech and expression.

She argues that the book expresses what young girls experience when growing up in a society full of violence and male dominance. Nobody complained when she was growing up in Iran during the Arab Revolution and so nobody should stop her from expressing her experiences (Wettli 2013).

She argues that her book expresses the tribulations civilians experience irrespective of the ruling regime. Arabs suffered under the Persian rulers and the situation has not improved now that the region is ruled by Arabs but is facing violence and political unrest.

Secondly, she argues that the book presents the challenges facing the relationship between parents and their children, importance of faith in restoring hope, modernity and fundamentalism and class consciousness.

She argues that these issues are not restricted to grown ups and should be taught to children to ensure they grow and develop positive relations and attitudes towards one another.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Review: “Persepolis” by Marjane Satrapi by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the heads of the Chicago public schools should not demonize the contents of this book but instead embrace the dynamics and criteria used to portray the evils that surround social and moral developments.

Secondly, Satrapi’s publicist argued that The Young Adult Library Association recommended this book as suitable for young adults since its contents were appropriate.

This association could not have recommended it for study if its contents were not fit for children in the seventh and eighth grades. In addition, the Times of London acknowledged Satrapi’s creativity and hard work by naming this book among the “100 Best Books of the Decade” (Wettli 2013).

Moreover, the director of the Chicago-Based American Library Association’s Office for Intellectual Freedom (CBALAOIF), Barbara Jones confirmed that this book had been adopted by many schools and condemned the Chicago Public Schools’ move to pull it down from study.

She argued that it should not be judged by one word but instead as a whole and its impacts on learners (Ahmed-Ullah 2013).

Lastly, children and parents expressed their dissatisfaction regarding this move and planned to stage demonstrations. In another move students engaged in a “Persepolis Reading Session” to express their interest in the contents of the book (Wettli 2013).

Opinion The arguments presented above are not sufficient to warrant the removal of this book from school curriculum. The efforts to express the evils facing modern societies should no be suffocated by minor details.

Children are exposed to a lot of unrated contents in the internet, television and movies without anyone raising a finger about this.

However, the Chicago schools must prepare learners to grasp the intended concepts from various readings. Literature presentations may have a million interpretations; therefore, teachers must train students to make informed analyses.

Conclusion People get shocked at what happens in their societies and wish that they were never born there. Some wish to die or escape to a place where humanity is respected and states fulfill their pledges to the people.

However, this will not happen any time soon and people have to live with the reality that the world has become a dungeon where all evil and antisocial activities take place.

References Ahmed-Ullah, N. (2013). CPS Tells Schools to Disregard Order to Pull Graphic Novel. Chicago Tribune News. Retrieved From

Satrapi, M. (2004). Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. New York: Pantheon Books.

Wettli, P. (2013). ‘Persepolis’ Memoir isn’t Appropriate for Seventh-Graders, CPS Boss Says. Lincoln Square and Ravenswood. Retrieved From


Buddhism in a Post- Han China Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Han Dynasty

Attraction of Buddhism


Works Cited

Introduction Buddhism is one of the religions, which has played an important role in the history of China. This religion, which spread to China from Central Asia, moved from being an insignificant religion to enjoying widespread acceptance by many Chinese. However, the influence of Buddhism was because of the collapse of the Han dynasty in 220 AD.

Williams suggests that this collapse created a spiritual vacuum that the popular religions of the time tried to fill (131). Of all the competing religions and philosophies of the time, Buddhism was able to obtain the greatest support. This paper engages in a critical analysis of the attractions that Buddhism offered to Post-Han China.

The Han Dynasty The Han dynasty, which existed between 206 BC, and 220AD was characterized by a centralized administration with an emperor who expanded the boundaries of China through conquest. The empire had a strong army that was used for expand the territory under the administration’s control. In the course of the Han dynasty, Confucianism influenced the structure of government and this philosophy was the most influential in society.

During this era, Central Asian missionaries who styled the religion as a sect of Daoism introduced Buddhism to China (Chey 125). In its early years, Buddhism was viewed as a foreign religion and periodic persecution of Buddhists was common in the Han dynasty (Williams 131). As such, Buddhism played an inferior role in China over the cause of the Han dynasty.

The fall of the Han was precipitated by political instability caused by conspiracies among empresses and court officials. This instability led the military to overthrow the Han dynasty in 220 AD therefore ending the four-century rule of the Han.

After the fall of the Han, most of the scholars in China abandoned the Confucian philosophy that had been followed by the Han dynasty. In its place, many followed Buddhism, which offered a number of attractions to the Chinese population.

Attraction of Buddhism The early centuries following the collapse of the Han dynasty post were characterized by widespread chaos and violence as warlords sought to assert their dominion in various regions. In these chaotic times, Buddhism brought about some sense of order for the Chinese people. Historically, religion has been used as a means for validating the authority of the ruling class.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the same way, Buddhism enabled the rulers to solidify their authority over their subjects (Williams 130). The religion stipulated what it entailed being a good citizen and outlined the responsibilities that the subjects had to fulfill to their rulers. Buddhism brought about a sense of identity to the people of China.

A major cause of the fall of the Han was religious rebellion, which plagued China up to the overthrow of the Han dynasty. Tang notes that post-Han dynasty China as characterized by an extended period of division and civil war (170). The absence of an organized government in China encouraged the rise of warlords who tried to establish their own rule over China.

As Buddhism spread all over the land, the Chinese people had a common ground and they could once again exhibit a sense of unity. Buddhism offered a means of personal deliverance since it was a doctrine of personal salvation. Duiker and Spielvogel suggest that the collapse of the Han Empire “had a market effect on the Chinese psyche” (312).

The Confucian principles, which had been at the core of Han leadership, came under severe challenge. Confucianism had emphasized on hard work and the giving up of individual interests for the common good. The fall of the Han dynasty suggested that these values were not solid and individuals started to seek out messianic creeds that emphasized individual effort and the supernatural or the promise of earthly or heavenly salvation.

The disunity and political fragmentation facing post-Han China made individualism appealing to most people. Williams documents that most people attempted to live in harmony with the Source of Things and if necessary alone (131). Buddhism exhorted this kind of lifestyle and it therefore gained a foothold with the society.

Individuals no longer had to concern themselves with the communal good since the religion only held them responsible for their own personal conduct. Buddhism was attractive since it did not require major cultural changes for its new Chinese converts. In its introductory years, Buddhism was presented as a Daoist sect; a fact that increased its popularity since Daoism was already well known by the Chinese.

Tang notes that for a while, there was a clash between Buddhism and Daoism due to cultural differences between the two religions (170). However, these conflicts did not last since Buddhism was able to adapt successfully. By the post-Han period, Buddhism had completely merged with traditional Chinese culture and had become a part of Chinese culture.

We will write a custom Essay on Buddhism in a Post- Han China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kuiper confirms that the early translations of Buddhist text into Chinese utilized Daoist vocabulary, which made them easy to follow to the Chinese (119). As such, new converts did not perceive Buddhism as a religion that tried to being about a new way of living for the Chinese. Instead, Buddhism was perceived as a part of Chinese culture and the sect produced had a Chinese spirit in it (Tang 170).

Buddhism offers an emotional satisfaction that was sort after by many especially in the intellectual circles. Confucianism which had been practiced in the Han dynasty emphasized moralism and complacency. In the post-Han era, the intellectuals began to reject this ideology and sought emotional satisfaction in hedonistic pursuits and philosophical Daoism (Duiker and Spielvogel 312).

However, the hedonistic pursuits and Daoism did not satisfy the deeper emotional needs that the people continued to feel. Buddhism inspired the people through its sophisticated meditative practice and they were able to enjoy the emotional satisfaction they sort. It continued to receive inspiration from the sophisticated meditative practices of the Indian

Another attraction of Buddhism in China was its emphasis on the values of charity and compassion. The post-Han China was characterized by a lack of virtue as communities went to war against each other. Buddhism taught of the values of humanity and exhorted individuals to treat each other in a neighborly fashion.

Through the concept of Karma, Buddhism taught that a person would be punished or rewarded in their next life based on their actions in the present life (Kuiper 118). The concept of Karma, which revealed that each person determined their own destiny through their individual actions, was attractive to the Chinese who were moving to a more individualistic form of society.

The teachings of Buddhism were able to provide solace in times of sorrow in a way that the other popular beliefs could not. Chinese Buddhism taught the indestructibility of the soul and this enabled the people to bear with the hardships that war brought about (Kuiper 118).Buddhism gave the people hope of a better life in the hereafter and this made the religion appealing to the people who were undergoing turbulent times.

Buddhism taught that life was suffering and this was a reality that many Chinese could relate to. However, Buddhism revealed that if one lived a good life, then they could attain Nirvana, which is a state of eternal bliss. Buddhism provided a means for the masses to acquire a formal education. In the post-Han centuries, Buddhism established itself as a powerful intellectual force in China.

Buddhist schools from India were set up in China and monastic establishments became widespread. For this reason, Buddhism became well established among the nobles and peasantry alike since it provided a means for education. Kuiper states that this attraction of Buddhism made the Sui dynasty of 581-618 take Buddhism as the state religion (120).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Buddhism in a Post- Han China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Religion has played a major role in the development of human civilization. This paper set out to analyze the attraction of Buddhism in post-Han China. To this end, the paper has demonstrated that Buddhism was able to emerge as a sufficient substitute to Confucianism in post-Han China.

Buddhism was able to meet the needs that the Chinese people faced following the state of unrest that followed the collapse of the Han dynasty. Because of the numerous attractions that Buddhism offered, the religion was able to obtain a large following throughout China and continue to play a crucial role in Chinese society for many centuries.

Works Cited Chey, Siew. China Condensed: 5000 Years of History


The 99 Cents Stores Company Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Problem definition




Introduction Information Technology is said to have both tangible and intangible benefits to a business (Senn, 2000). It helps a business make profits while producing the results the customers want. It also promotes efficiency while saving time and resources to achieve greater output.

The 99 Cents Stores Company has been described as a leader in embracing IT in its stores and this has differentiated it from the competitors. The company uses technology to ensure efficiency in the way business is conducted. For this reason, they always make greater profits.

Overview The 99 Cents Only Stores has been seen to be a leader in championing the use of IT in its business ventures. The ‘pickers’ are directed by an automated voice control that ensures efficiency in goods selection and transportation. The 99 Cents Stores also employed different approaches when doing their business.

Instead of only targeting the population with low and medium income earners, they targeted the rich. They knew full well that the rich equally valued the idea of saving. Therefore, they made the most profits in stores that were located in rich neighbourhoods such as the Beverly Hills.

The former CEO and founder, Mr. Gold together with his executives had one objective of developing the simplest way of identifying the correct customer for their inexpensive items. In order to make this happen, they employed the IT team to drive all decisions relating to this.

Therefore, IT ensured efficiency in identifying the proper goods and efficiency in distributing them into their stores. At the same time, IT ensured that there was no overstocking or under-stocking. This way, the 99 Cents Stores Company remained the leader in its industry.

Despite the fact that Gold does not fancy computers and technology himself, he appreciates the role of IT in his company. He describes Adams as the perfect choice for the company since he has a big IT team (Oz, 2008). He delegates much authority to the team, which ensures that the work is done.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was also impressed when the IT team wrote the whole code (software) for the POS systems. The IT team also ensure that the information systems are flexible so as to accommodate modifications in-house.

Problem definition Some businesses have not realised the importance of using IT and embracing technology in their undertakings. The dollar stores were described to be slow in adopting some of the cutting edge technology available.

This describes the difference between these stores and the 99 Cents Stores since the latter seemed to be ahead of them (Oz, 2008). Whenever they could not develop software in-house, they employed software companies to design systems specific for the operations in their chains.

For this reason, the 99 Cents Stores managed to build big stores and made much more profits as compared to their competitors.

However, David Gold did not fully understand the importance of technology and the need to invest heavily in it. He rarely used his personal computer. Despite the company’s great profits, it spent a very small fraction to invest in technology.

Recommendation Technology is said to improve efficiency of operations in businesses (Stephen, 2000). It helps a business preserve its resources such as space and time. Businesses also depend on technology when it comes to issues such as the Point of Sales systems and information management systems.

These systems should have the capability to handle all kind of information. Such information may include accounting and tracking, and the automated systems.

We will write a custom Case Study on The 99 Cents Stores Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Automated systems are usually used in large-scale production of goods. Packaging, sorting and other forms of communication and marketing are also assisted by the use of technology.

Globalization was also made possible due to the use of technology (Stephen, 2000). Technology made it possible for businesses to grow and expand in the way it has today. The importance of technology (IT) has made it a huge industry in itself.

This explains the existence of software design and development. Computer hardware manufacturing and robotics have also developed for this reason.

Technology is a vital tool in improving efficiency and increasing profits. Computers are efficient due to their speeds and ability to provide up-to-date information. Technology also makes automation possible.

This way, it reduces or replaces physical employees. Doing business manually may increase human errors and consume valuable time.

Therefore, automation may be important when a business needs to save time and reduce errors. The 99 Cents Stores, for example, has used automation in directing the staff to pick the items in the stores.

Conclusion Technology (IT) is vital to any business today. It is important in that it ensures efficiency of operations. Technology has made it possible to automate services where humans are now replaced with more efficient and accurate machines.

In 99 Cents Stores, technology has been used to save time and improve accuracy and efficiency. This explains why it makes greater profits than its competitors do. It has also managed to grow its business steadily.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The 99 Cents Stores Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, businesses should embrace technology and understand the importance of technology in their operations. The 99 Cents Stores Company should also consider investing more of its profits in technology.

References Oz, E. (2008). Management information systems (6th ed.). New York: Course Technology Ptr.

Senn, J. (2000). Information technology in business: Principles, practices and opportunities. Upper Saddle River: Printice-Hall, Inc.

Stephen, C. (2000). Information technology in business processes. Business Process Management Journal, 6(3), 224, 237.


Relationship Between Language and Culture Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What is culture?

Language and its role in culture

Role of language in cultural diversity


Reference List

Introduction Language and culture are intertwined. One cannot define or identify cultural orientations without citing variations in language. The purpose of the essay is to clearly highlight the issue of intercultural communication with reference to language.

What is culture? Culture describes variations in values, beliefs, as well as differences in the way people behave (DeVito 2007). Culture encompasses everything that a social group develops or produces.

Element of culture are not genetically transmitted and as such, they have to be passed down from one generation the next through communication. This explains why it is easy to adopt a certain language depending on the shared beliefs, attitudes and values.

The existence of different cultures can be explained using the cultural relativism approach which stipulates that although cultures tend to vary, none is superior to the other (DeVito 2007).

Learning of cultural values can be done through enculturation whereby individuals learn the culture of their birth. Alternatively, one can be acculturated into a culture that is divergent from their basic culture (DeVito 2007).

Language and its role in culture Language is the verbal channel of communication by articulating words that an individual is conversant with. This is aimed at relaying information. In other words, it is the expression of one’s culture verbally (Jandt 2009).

Language is the first element that helps an individual to distinguish the cultural orientations of individuals. Through language, we are able to differentiate between for example, a Chinese national and a Briton. The main functions of language are generally for information purposes and for the establishment of relationships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Different cultures perceive the use of language differently. Whereas an American regards it as a useful communication tool, a Chinese will use their language to relay their feelings and to establish relationships.

It is through such variances of language that different cultures have placed on the usage of their language show the link between the two study variables (Jandt 2009).

Role of language in cultural diversity Intercultural communication refers to communication between people from different cultural backgrounds. Due to the differences in cultures, there is a high probability that a message will be misunderstood and distorted.

Difference in languages leads to challenges in the interpretation of for example, politeness, acts of speech and interaction management. Normally, differences in languages lead to impediments in understanding. This is due to the difference in perception in as far as values are concerned.

Language shapes our lines of thought and as such, it is the core element that shapes how people perceive the world. The way people communicate is largely due to their cultures of origin. Language increases the rate of ethnocentrism in individuals thus furthering their self-centeredness in culture.

As a result, they are less responsive to the different means of communication that are not similar to their own values and beliefs (McGregor eta al 2007).

Language further heightens the aspect of accelerating cultural differences as it openly showcases the variations in communication. In turn, this view tends to impede negatively on intercultural efforts, thereby having a negative impact on the communication between individuals of different cultural orientations.

We will write a custom Essay on Relationship Between Language and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion There is need for individuals to evaluate the usage of language in order to effectively interpret the shared meanings that are meant to be communicated. It is important therefore that individuals from a multi cultural context look at each other beyond their differences in order to enable effective communication.

Reference List DeVito, J A. (2006) Human communication the basic course, 10 th edition. Boston, Mass: Pearson / Allyn and Bacon.

Jandt, F E. (2007) An introduction to intercultural communication: identities in global community. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Mohan, T, McGregor, M T, Saunders, H


Porter’s Five Forces Analysis of Kraft Foods Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Bargaining power of suppliers

The bargaining power of buyers

The threat of the entry of new competitors

Rivalry among established competitions

The threat of substitute products or services

Financial analysis

Works cited

Bargaining power of suppliers The food and beverage industry is truly towering and aggressive when it comes to the pricing part. Manufacturers of such products usually keep the prices of their products very competitive. The suppliers of these kinds of products don’t have much of a say in the pricing matters.

The bargaining power of buyers The buyers have an inclination to buy good quality products at cheaper prices. As such, they don’t mind changing the suppliers and buying from the one that offers good quality at better prices. In other words, buyers want best value for their money. There is a noteworthy chance for the purchasers to concentrate on the industry and its firm benefits.

The threat of the entry of new competitors The increasing world population and the consequent increase in demand of various commodities, has led to more and more manufacturing companies joining the fray. The current situation of markets can be put as being saturated where there is no place for any new companies.

Companies that have already been in the market for the past couple of years and have established customer bases have a stronghold of the market and it is very difficult for the new entrants to make a mark.

Unfortunately, Kraft has till late neglected some of its brands and has failed to create a proper brand image for such products.

This might be benefitting to the local or generic brands. “If Kraft is to generate solid long-term growth the company must re-engage with consumers, addressing the issues surrounding its typically under-invested brands” (Askew 15).

Rivalry among established competitions Likewise other industries, there is severe competition in the food and beverage industry as well. It has become very difficult for companies to survive and maintain their respective market share. Two things that are crucial for survival in the competitive markets are brand loyalty and variegation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The products of such companies have a flexible marketing policy; quality and prices of the products are of utmost importance. Customers have become very smart and they don’t think twice to switch suppliers based on better quality and better price.

So companies have to be very vigilant and careful while deciding the price structure of their quality products. It has also been observed that companies having branded products in the markets often team up to stop the local suppliers from usurping their market share.

They create such hype about their branded products that people don’t care for the local products. The branded products are portrayed to be far superior to the local products in value and grace.

As far as Kraft Foods is concerned, the company has been in the pursuit of excellence in the food and beverage industry.

Even though the company is experiencing increased costs of production, slow top-line augmentation, and incessant growth in the pension payments, it is trying hard to increase its production and the profit margin.

Like for example, the cost of production of Kraft Foods (North America) for the year 2010 was 12.3% and that of Kraft Foods Group for the year 2012 was 8.7%. It is notable that the best performance shown by industries in this class was ~8% (Kraft Foods Group 2013).

Some of the main competitors of Kraft Foods are J


Ethics in the American Hospitality Industry Dissertation argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Literature review

Reference List

Abstract Ethical challenges have of late been a big issue in the business community. Despite many initiatives in the business world, the issue of ethics has prominently featured. This dissertation focuses on the role of enhancing ethics in employees’ job satisfaction in the American hospitality industry.

This research met its aims of assessing the prescription of common organizational work ethics in the US hotels on employees’ job satisfaction. Secondly, it aimed at assessing the impact of prescription of common organizational work ethics within the U.S hotels on employees’ job satisfaction.

These aims were met through extensive study of the relevant literature as well as through the implementation of the practical research. Establishments used in this research were Ritz Carton, Four Season’s Group of Hotels, Millennium hotels and W. Hotels.

Questionnaires were deployed to the human resource management and further use of relevant literature. Data were subjected to the rating index.

This research came up with a number of findings: the surveys confirmed that ethics played a major role towards job satisfaction by employees on top of increasing brand loyalty that eventually led to the success of the hospitality establishments.

It was recommended that ethical structure should be established and conformity sought as this ended up boosting the morale of the employees, hence, great productivity commitment achieved.

Introduction Compared to other industries, the hospitality sector is one area where many dynamics are taking place. It is for largely labor intensive with many workers spread in hotels, restaurants, resorts among other closely related enterprises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of ethics in the hospitality industry is linked to the many trends that are taking place in the world sectors. Most of the media is awash with stories related to some sort of crime or the other. The business world has faced the challenges of being profit driven only.

This means that, no matter what it takes, the end result is post profit. By this, many organizations have had to adopt a culture where ‘shortcuts’ are taken to maximize profits without much care to the need for morally gaining that profit (McCain et al., 2010).

Again, most businesses do not mind committing these crimes as long as they are not caught. Some business schools have even gone ahead to teach their graduates that profit should be the final goal no matter the cost.

This great hunger for profit, regardless of the ethical considerations, has characterized many industries including the hospitality sector.

The effect of the insatiable thirst for profit has greatly impacted the very core of many businesses. The effect, thus, manifests itself in manipulation of rules and set regulations in several ways. What is strange is that such practices have been considered justifiable by the business managers whose eye is always set on profit only.

What has exacerbated this further is the advent of great competition in the market. However, this practice has eventually ended up affecting the core financial viability of several businesses.

Most businesses have felt greatly affected as their financial viability has taken a serious beating, hence, the need to consider their current business policies.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Ethics in the American Hospitality Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Better managed companies have seen it important to reevaluate their business policies. On a bigger picture, they have started reexamining the ethics of their organizations (Swanger et al., 2009).

This means that not only are they concentrating on the ethical considerations of the business put, but also those of the particular members and all the players in the industry. Ethics is now becoming a crucial element in the success of many businesses.

Over time, the hospitality industry and the educators have deemed in crucial to embark on addressing the critical issues that bedevil their organizations.

Webster’s online dictionary ethics includes a set of moral principles: a theory or system of moral values.

In a nutshell, ethics stands for a set of moral issue used in and also serve as a guiding philosophy that governs individuals or organizations in relating to others. Morals, on the other hand, stand for what an individual considers right based on their beliefs (Forsey, 2010).

It is therefore crucial to note that for one to fully create a workplace that is ethical, there is a need to consider the various differences that arise in relation to the workforce itself, and also those differences that do exist between the workforce and the general society at large (Lynn, 2010).

But it is crucial to note that the organization’s moral standing is usually determined to a major extent by individuals. These could include the top management or the actual owners of the business (McGehee et al., 2009).

Due to their position, they do come up with certain policies that trickle down to the whole organization, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization runs, thereby, creating the picture of how that organization stands out morally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in the American Hospitality Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This brings to the fore the importance of the influential individual in the organization. If the individual in the organization has a high moral standing, this can impact the organization positively and, if the reverse is true, then the organization tends to have low moral standing (Simola et al., 2010).

This means that the influential individual should not be one who tells the employees to everything they can as long as profit, work and customer satisfaction are achieved. This is quite a dangerous path to go.

It is against this backdrop that this research endeavors to investigate the relation and impact of the concepts of business ethics in the American hospitality industry in a view of the employee satisfaction and subsequent performance.

This means in a nutshell, the research is attempting to unlock the relation between employee satisfaction due to set code of ethics and general success of the hotel. The hotels in the study are renowned hotels.

Literature review Several researches have been conducted on the aspect of ethics in the hospitality industry (Walker, 2010). The human resource direction has actually recorded several ethical issues in the hospitality industry.

They have mentioned a range of problems which include employees being disrespectful to each other, racial conflicts, cultural differences, gender troubles, dishonesty and issues that majorly deal with the differences emanating from the different sexual orientations of the different players in the industry, among others (Pettijohn et al., 2008).

This research majorly identified the types of ethical challenges that are found in the hospitality industry and listed them in terms of the most common ones.

However, in this research, the researcher is going to, on top finding the ethical challenges in the four hotels, look into the interrelationship between the set code of ethics, employee satisfaction and the general success of the specific hotels.

According to another research, Liao et al (2009) ended up recommending how important the ethics should be used. The research reported recommendations, for instance the management discussing the ethical issues with employees, including the use of open dialogue.

This is unlike what the research undertook to cover. This research undertakes a look into the common organizational workethics on the U.S. hotels, employee’s commitment to the employing organizations (Muijen, 2008).

Lynn (2010) has greatly looked at ethics in the hospitality industry. In this report, which involved a survey on 26 establishments, reflected that there was a relationship between leadership of the managers and the job satisfaction by the employees such that if managers were ethical, there was a marked satisfaction by the employees; hence, a decrease in the turnover.

In yet another survey by the same study in which about fifty employees in a casino were surveyed, it was established that distributive justice (that is a case where equal pay, workload, incentives etc.) leads directly to a marked rise in ethical behavior of the employee reduced turnover (Jung et a., 2010).

Further, it was found that frontline employees, who projected ethical behavior to their customers, ended up having a high level of job satisfaction. This means that the employees were able to explain to the customers why certain rules were applied and generally.

It was found that in such cases perceptions of unfairness were clearly minimized and this made the employees greatly satisfied.

This is unlike in this research since it does not undertake to study as many establishments. The research is restricted to only four establishments. What is more, the above study focused on the ethical leadership only.

This is unlike in this research where the undertaking is limited considering the issue of ethics in relation to employee satisfaction.

In another study conducted on, about 788 Korean food service staff in hospitality establishments run and managed through contract to determine whether worker -organization fit would reduce subsequent turnover, it was found that the most reliable fit emerged when the values of the employees did match the company values were ethical (Lee


Introduction to Acts as Background to the Life of Paul Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me

In the authorship of Acts, Luke depicts one of the most important issues being discussed by biblical analysts trying to produce critical scholarly works on the sources of the New Testament. According to the biblical traditions, the society believes that Luke who was a companion of Paul wrote the scriptures in the book of Acts.

In the We passages of Acts, Luke uses the first person plural without referring to himself as “I” or “Me.” Some biblical analysts believe that the We passages are the remains of medieval manuscript that was later integrated into the book of Acts by the author (Bleek


Ethics in Psychology Research Studies Term Paper college essay help: college essay help

Psychology scientists often misinform participants of their research details in an attempt to mitigate placebo effects, reduce bias in self-reports and reduce risks on the safety of the researcher (Weiten, 2012).

Well documented and reported in the results of the study, deliberate deception may be admissible in scientific studies if the validity and independence value of the research result in positive outcomes.

Whereas critics fail to decipher how ‘lying’ could enhance results in a psychology study, certain subjects inevitably benefit from the inclusion of deceptive concepts.

Most defenders of deception hold the opinion that intentions of the involved ‘white lies’ causes no harm to the participants, but aid in obtaining crucial results that would otherwise not be possible to obtain.

Assessment of participants at the end of study further supports the opinion that deception does not necessarily cause harm to the participants as discussed below. However, scientific principles remain that a study must always uphold responsibility to the life and the psychological safety of the participants (Ortman, 2008).

Ethical questions arising from the Milgram’s study highlight the debate of the extent to which research must observe human dignity and respect. One of the most prominent ethical issues in research touches on the quality and nature of informed consent.

The rule of thumb in obtaining permission to conduct research on an individual requires their voluntary willingness to participate, which becomes the basis of accepting to take part in a research.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To this end, the quality of the informed consent cuts across how informed the participant gets at the end of the initial briefing (Cozby, 2012). All material information relating the studies carried out in the research must facilitate determination of quality of obtained informed consent.

This implies that the respondent must not feel coerced to participate by the slightest element of the information given to them to ask for their acceptance.

Relaying information in acquiring informed consent contributes to acceptance of the study by the participant. Withholding material information about the study compromises the ability of the participant to make an informed choice to participate.

Alternatively, withholding material information on the study subjects the participant and the image of the studies to potential harm. From Milgram’s study outcomes, the subjects seemingly experience an unpleasant and stressing handling (Cozby, 2012).

Other than exposing the participants to feelings of embarrassment and distress, studies withholding crucial information can affect participants’ relatives, friends and members of the family. The general feeling may potentially touch on the attitude that people have on the intended outcomes of psychological studies.

People may feel used and disrespected, which flouts the tenets scientific research on humans. In this regard, deception may generate resentment of future scientific studies on accusations of lack of honesty and respect for participants.

Perhaps, one of the most relieving aspects of the study by Milgram revolves around post-study assessment on the subjects. In post research assessment, Milgram found that the participants did not have regret complaints with the treatment sustained (Cozby, 2012).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Ethics in Psychology Research Studies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In certain study outcomes, deception may form a pivotal concept in arriving at the right results. Human beings intellect tends to stand in the way of several psychological tests, by behaving differently thereby compromising the desired results.

Withholding the material information from the participants during acquisition of informed consent may dramatically increase the independence score of the study from the reactions of the subjects (Resnik, 2011).

Done within the admissible deception mitigation measures, such studies may reduce the negative impacts associated with deceiving human subjects in studies.

Instances of human behavior compromising the outcomes of a psychological study include for instance, in testing the psychological influences of drugs done with monitored scenarios using control drug and the real drug.

Informing subjects on every detail of the study may lead to certain undesired outcomes, which makes it imperative that certain information remains withheld.

In all cases of deception that scientific studies can accommodate, potential damage must fall within the minimum possible limits allowed by the standard mitigation measures. Among the prominent measures to reduce deception impacts, standard procedures entailing pre-consent treatment must suffice.

In pre-consent procedures, subjects get informed that certain critical information on the study would remain concealed without necessarily stating its nature. In such a move, informed consent encapsulates the willingness to continue amid potential unpleasant detail of the study.

On a different level, reduction of the deception detail facilitates the mitigation of potential damage emanating from a study with deceptive elements.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Psychology Research Studies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In reducing deception, researchers seek to obtain informed consent using deliberate statements such as “probably” and “potentially” among others that incorporate a degree of accurate relaying of the deception element (Shuttleworth, 2008).

However, in all cases of deception, researchers must protect the life and dignity of the subjects, by ensuring that the study does not expose them to dangers prohibited under the laws of natural justice.

Ordinarily, exposing human beings to electrical shock would amount to violations involving the law of torts.1 Such an attempt subsequently raises issues of violations of duty to care for people who entrust their lives to scientists.

Some studies would involve dangerous procedures, which even if not performed on an individual, mere simulation might expose respondents to psychological distress. The law of intentional torts covers protection of individuals from not only physical, but also psychological and emotional violations.

Withholding information to the details of the nature of the distress would amount to aiding violations of human rights.2

In defending the use of misleading information, scientists must also ensure that the responsibility of safeguarding the integrity of human life remains as a critical part of the studies.

Some studies cannot continue without elements of deception to the subjects, which does not hold back scientists from exploring the scientific topics and themes in those subjects (Weiten, 2012).

As illustrated below, in a world with increasing threats from terror groups and organized crime syndicates, the life of the researcher does not only face a threat but also interest in future studies hangs in the balance.

In a deliberate deceptive design, psychology researchers can engage threatening situations and deliver valuable results that matter to the world without necessarily endangering their lives thereby preventing cutting off interest in such potentially dangerous topics.

Seemingly, a significant group of defenders of deception in psychological studies holds the opinion that the cost of potential harm to participants is worth making when considered in perspective with the importance of the subject in life saving scenarios.

The advancement of knowledge justification provides a leeway to this school of thought that deception is unavoidable in the research society.

As mentioned above, when subjects obtain certain material information with the ability to alter their reaction and affect the outcomes of the study, deception comes in handy to such studies.

Debriefing the subjects upon completion of research and obtaining their perception of the study raises the confidence of the study among the public that science guards them against harmful procedures (Resnik, 2011).

Various contentions emerge, for instance when dealing with dangerous criminal groups in psychological studies to understand their obedience defects. Perhaps studying the elements of defiance among terrorists fits well in such an illustration of ethical issues.

As an illustration, some of the most prominent questions of research on terrorist ideologies would touch on the reaction in behavior of the subjects once they realize that the study intends to unearth such a sensitive issue.

Issues of trust may emerge leading to violent reactions since the group apparently suffers from systemic defiance and violence. Potential reaction would entail taking advantage of the research to propagate terror ideologies and bias in the intentions of the defiance behavior.

Equally, the life of the researcher would face threats as the dangerous outfit could be potentially endangering the life of the researcher. In an optimized scientific approach, seeking informed consent would characterize the risks involved and incorporate safety measures to overcome harm and reduce bias (Cozby, 2012).

In conducting such potentially dangerous studies dealing with deception, security of the researcher must also form part of the preparations for the study to counter violent reactions.

The participants may take the study as a tool of governments’ intervention against terror activities thereby reducing the cooperation of researchers in future attempts to involve such respondents.

This inherent distrust of researchers by the subjects spreads across several psychology studies where respondents feel used to deliver information with damaging outcomes, either psychological or physical as the reliance on such information by third parties may expose them to the perceived risks (Resnik, 2011).

Exposure to distressing experiences makes it difficult for respondents to admit regret, in studies where the overall benefit to the person and the society may outweigh individual displeasure. Certain studies produce higher resentment than others, which characterizes the degree of regrets and resentment along subject lines.

In terms of personal justification of psychology research using deception, the benefits of the study will always act as sufficient justification of the procedures.

On a personal note, exposing participants to risks will always be justified if the deception concept does not result in a grave violation of personal and human rights upon disclosure.

Alternatively, reduction in the degree of deception during pre-consent procedures may also act in favor of deception in studies where absolute deception would lead to resentment.

Personal view also touches on the possibility of compensation and mutual settlement of disputes where deception seemingly leads to violation of personal values, even when standard human values hold true (Cozby, 2012).

In all cases of deception, personal opinion leans on the premise that the value of the results will depend on the benefits obtained for the advancement of human life.

References Cozby, P. C. (2012). Methods in behavioral research (11th ed). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Ortman, A. (2008). Deception in experiments: Revisiting the arguments in its defense. Ethics and Behavior, 18(1), 59-92.

Resnik, D. B. (2011). What is ethics in research and why is it important? Web.

Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Milgram experiment ethics. Web.

Weiten, W. (2012). Psychology: Themes and variations. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Footnotes 1 Buckley, W. R.,


TRIP Policies and Regulations Descriptive Essay essay help

The development of businesses and corporations worldwide has created a market that is property and rights oriented. There is a lot of scheming and fraud that governments and private companies have to develop protection for, in a form of copyrights and patents.

Not only are there ownership rights for products and physical property but also, for ideas and potential goals, plans and strategies. An idea is worth much more than the finished product because it is the basis for all production.

One of the regulations that protects inventions and inventors, consumers and businesses is the TRIPS Agreement- which is Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. It takes control over trading and selling privileges in the market, regulating and enforcing guidelines for fairness and honesty.

The purpose of this paper is to take a detailed look at the regulations and the process that govern transfer, sale and the general movement of products.

An important aspect related to rights for these products and issues that could come up will be closely examined, which will clarify the problems that presently exist in the market and trading industry.

The power of laws will be examined, through the example of TRIP, as it is a global agreement, which covers the whole market and is equally applicable to all people and organizations.

Since profits and potential future success are one of the key points in trade and businesses, the reasons for agreement such as TRIP will be analyzed. The difference between countries globally, is very noticeable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The developed countries have an established order and control of goods and intellectual property, while developing countries might have some setbacks or limitations that can be used by others to their advantage.

The agreements are also made for a purpose to treat all members equally, to the point that if a certain favor or a special condition is offered to one participating side, everyone must receive the same treatment without exceptions.

Previously, the world trade was not as regulated as it is today, which led to a number of unfair and unbalanced transactions. The transport and use of certain products might be regulated as well. For example, some products or technologies or even concepts, will not be allowed to be used in some parts of the world.

This might be due to cultural differences or specificity of a product. Some businesses would not want to suscept the market to their ideas or product or they might want to keep it exclusive for their own country.

The stability of the country, as well as relations between countries depends on governments, their communication and cooperation. The paper will also focus on the technology and information that might be taken out or taken into the country.

The intricate relationship between the government, business and the economy directly affects the trade and the criteria which set up the framework and structure of the economy.

When new countries join and become members, they are bonded by the same agreements and provisions. The governments take an active part in the enforcement and control of the established rules and regulations.

We will write a custom Essay on TRIP Policies and Regulations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The need for agreements and laws that regulate trading and property possession are a necessary attribute of the global economy and businesses. Governments, private corporations, as well as individuals, all participate in the establishment and continuation of fair and respectable trade.


Banking Regulation and Taxation Essay essay help: essay help

Banks play a pivotal role in the financial system of any nation. Due to the scope of activities of the banking industry, it is vital for governments to regulate the industry. The global financial crisis portrayed the importance of banks in the financial system of any country.

The collapse of the banking industry led to the ultimate collapse of other industries (Ciro, 2013, p. 84). Governments use taxes as a source of revenue and for regulatory purposes. In the banking industry, governments should use taxation for regulatory purposes.

Since the global financial crisis, various governments have introduced various taxes on the financial sector. These taxes are at the domestic and international level. One of the major purposes of these taxes is to increase the Tier 1 capital of banks. This helps in solving the liquidity problems that banks may face.

In addition, increase in Tier 1 capital enables banks to support their risks (Alworth


Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of Indigenous Movements

Major Grievances

Features of the Indigenous Movements

Strategies Employed by Indigenous Movements

Works Cited

Introduction The twentieth and the twenty-first centuries have been characterized by the emergence of indigenous movements in Latin America. Analysts and scholars have been engaging in thorough research to establish the real identity of these groups due to their demands.

These groups refuse to be included in the existing political and economic discourses, something that have given the administrations of Latin America a rough time.

Research shows that indigenous groups represent an approximated forty-five thousand people whose main objective is to institute legal and constitutional amendments that would allow their recognition in society.

These groups claim that they should be allowed to come up with their own administrative units that would govern their territories since they feel that they are misrepresented in the current governments. In other words, they push the government to grant them their rights that have been denied for years.

Just like any other freedom fighting group or a group seeking justice, indigenous groups have to go confront economic and political processes, which are the main causes of their disadvantaged position (Kearney 89).

Political and economic policies that the governments of Latin America put in place deny the indigenous people the right to own land, as well as their sovereignty. Globalization and the developments in the international system pose great challenges to the indigenous people of Latin America.

For instance, the emergence of multinational, which threaten to take away their land, is an issue of concern that forces them to form formidable social movements. These multinationals are in need of extra land for exploration of oil, gas, practice of agriculture, and acquisition of other national resources (Harvey 115).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper talks about the effects of the indigenous movements to the politics of modern Latin America. The paper discusses these effects through examining the ongoing activities of indigenous movements in Mexico.

To examine some of these effects effectively, the paper will first talk about the history of indigenous movements, the major grievances of the groups, some the basic features, and the measures that these indigenous groups have put in place to mitigate the problems affecting them.

History of Indigenous Movements Studies show that the indigenous groups started demanding for the rights in 1960s owing to the global national liberation processes that started in the United States and spread to other parts of the world.

In the African continent and the Asian region, indigenous groups started demanding for their independence in matters related to self-governance. The indigenous groups noted that their freedom had to be granted since they had the capacity to manage their affairs, including the problems affecting them.

In Africa, the indigenous movements were in the form of revolutions whereby some few individuals led the movements with the use of arms.

In early 1970s, the indigenous people in Latin America demanded for representation in government since subsequent regimes implemented policies that were detrimental to the lives of many locals (Rus and Collier 89).

The indigenous groups resorted to the formation of social movements to put pressure to the oligarchs to concede power. The main problem affecting the indigenous people was forceful evacuation from their homes since multinational corporations were in need of their natural resources.

We will write a custom Essay on Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first social movement was under the banner of worker-compesino alliance. Under such alliances, the locals demanded for cultural recognition since the government never cared for these displaced groups.

In 1980s, the demands of the indigenous people were more specific as compared to those of a number of social movements. Their main concern was the right to self-government and administration of justice.

Moreover, they wanted the government to respect their territory and allow them to exercise their democratic rights of electing their own leaders. Through this, the indigenous groups noted that they would manage their own affairs if given the chance to exercise self-rule.

This would as well allow them to own property and even engage in business. After 1980, the demands of the indigenous movements were very different from those of other social movements, which were fighting for inclusion in government.

As social movements were fighting for involvement in governmental matters, the indigenous groups were demanding for nation-states meaning that they wanted to secede from the main land. They were questioning the structure of power in the state since no indigenous group was represented in government.

Since the main government always sidelined them, they were not after forming a government of national unity, but instead they demanded to be given the power to form their own governments, which would be autonomous.

The groups were against the idea that they are the minority group, but instead argued that they were the real people of Mexico and they should have their own government.

In this regard, they should not have the same government as that of other groups because their culture and history is very different from those of other groups existing in Mexico (Santín 65).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of the Indigenous Movements to the Politics of Modern Latin America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More By demanding self-government, the indigenous groups in Mexico were of the idea that they have the right to determine their own destiny meaning that they should not be given delegated authority.

Through the formation of their government, the indigenous people of Mexico would achieve their interests without necessarily bothering the national government.

In 1989, the international labor organization designed some of the policies that encouraged the indigenous people to demand for their right. Convention 169 demanded that the indigenous and tribal people were to be involved in the management of state affairs regarding employment.

The international law on labor recognizes the existence of the minorities and the indigenous people. Moreover, it also distinguishes the territories, the legal systems, and the administrative units set by the indigenous people. This law gave the indigenous people an advantage as regards to the demand for self-governance.

The locals should identify the most viable economic strategies and apply them to improve their standards of living. The law states that the central government or any other external power should not force the locals to engage in economic processes that do not support their culture.

Apart from the international law that recognizes the rights of the indigenous people, the regional laws also respect the views of the locals. The locals should not be dragged into supporting economic or political policies that do not match their socio-cultural life (Stavenhagen 81).

Major Grievances In Mexico, a number of groups including the Chiapas and Mayans have risen up to fight for their rights claiming that the government is doing little to protect their interests. In early 1990s, armed gangs confronted the government for supporting neo-liberalism.

In other parts of Latin America, such as Columbia, other indigenous groups led by U’wa people were willing to lose their lives in case the government allowed the oil companies to enter their territories without their permission.

In 2000, the indigenous groups in Bolivia lobbied the legislature to terminate the term of the sitting president since he was suspected of supporting multinational organizations, which were accused of rendering the locals landless.

This means that the grievances of the indigenous people in Latin America are concerned with resource allocation. In particular, the locals are more concerned with the activities of the multinational corporations who use the government to deprive them of their rights.

Multinational corporations are given access to exploit the forests and the local land in search of natural resources such as oil and timber. This forces the indigenous communities to seek alternative land since their ancestral land is taken away.

In 2002, the Inter-American Development Bank instituted some policies that would isolate the indigenous people economically. Plan Puebla Panamá was a free trade policy that would allow the free movement of people and goods.

This would definitely give other traders undue advantage, which would mean that the indigenous people would not have adequate opportunities in the economy (Gutmann 34).

Since the indigenous people could not allow this to happen, they organized various demonstrations to force their respective governments to withdraw their memberships in the union.

Some analysts would argue that the opposition to the FTAA came from students and professionals, but the reality is that indigenous groups were more opposed to the formation.

The argument of the indigenous people was that the trade arrangement among various regional governments would not benefit since they did not have equal opportunities in terms of academics and capital resources.

Those to benefit in the labor market under the new arrangement would be those from developed countries such as Canada and the United States. The indigenous people are mostly marginalized, impecunious, and uninformed implying that they cannot match the skills that people from North America possess.

In 2002, the CIA suggested that the influence of the indigenous groups was posing a new challenge to the stability of the region. In fact, the report noted that the activities of the indigenous groups were meant to increase owing to the global networks reinforced by international human rights groups, as well as ecologists.

One wonders why the indigenous groups are against the new trend in the international system, which is related to regionalism.

There is a popular belief that increased foreign investment encourages economic development in the country. However, foreign investments rely on exploitation of natural resources, which is highly contested by the indigenous communities (Nash 76).

Due to foreign investments, pollution in Mexico is inevitable while forests are being depleted. Indigenous communities are the only ones sitting on natural resources, which is the main target of foreign companies.

The International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the IDB have always encouraged privatization of some of the communal resources owned by indigenous communities.

The Breton Hood organizations come up with some of the policies that affect the normal lives of the locals since they encourage private ownership of property. In this regard, the rights, sovereignty, and the territoriality of the indigenous people are under threats.

The locals depend on their natural resources for survival since the main economic activity is agriculture. They cannot afford to lose agricultural land to international private investors whose major aim is to expatriate resources to their home countries.

The indigenous groups have come up with some of the strongest human groups to defend what rightfully belong to them. In fact, some groups have gone a notch higher to suggest some of the economic options that would put off foreigners from admiring their natural resources.

In this regard, the sovereignty of the national government is always under threat, forcing them to adopt policies aimed at incorporating the indigenous groups into governmental decision-making processes (Leyva 78).

Features of the Indigenous Movements Even though some scholars believe that the word indigenous is misleading, it has always been used to refer to those categories that feel their culture is not respected in any political system.

Others view it as an ethnic group with distinct culture. Indigenous movements are characterized by two major themes, including political consciousness and political actions aimed at liberation.

The indigenous groups have developed unique identify mainly because of subordination and subjugation as witnessed in the political systems. Therefore, they aspire to force the government to listen to their grievances through application of force.

Another feature that distinguishes indigenous groups is the application of Marxist ideas in interpreting their situation. Marx noted that the interest of the rich in society is to acquire governmental power and subjugate the poor.

Indigenous movements concur with the ideas of Marx since the central government has never provided equal opportunities that would uplift the standards of the locals. Therefore, they aim at restructuring the existing social structure to reflect the interests of all, including the minority (Lynn 80).

According to indigenous groups, globalization serves to extend the interests of the ruling class because it does not provide chances for the poor. Multinational organizations engage in massive production without considering the plight of the poor.

Based on Marx’s class analysis, the indigenous people will one day form a movement that would overthrow the existing status quo and institute a social structure that caters for the interests of all people. The capitalists are represented in central government meaning that the indigenous people cannot rely on the state for solutions.

In other words, they believe that the state is a property of the ruling class because state machineries are always used to intimidate the indigenous groups. For instance, the locals are often harassed when they attempt to demonstrate against the idea of exploiting the natural resources.

The elected leaders in government do not represent the interests of the people, but instead they represent the wishes of foreigners and multinational corporations.

Based on this idea, the indigenous can determine their own destiny by uniting against the common enemy, which include the central government (Van der Haar 112). This idea encourages the indigenous groups to engage the government in constant conflicts.

Studies show that indigenous groups have regained their power as far as the management of state affairs is concerned. They are now considered the major state actors before they force the government to change its domestic and foreign policy.

Indigenous groups are against globalization, even though the government of Mexico supports it. Indigenous groups are always the leading opponents of status quo whereby they demand for an economically just society. Indigenous movements are known for demanding a number of changes.

One of the demands is that the international law should be adjusted to reflect the wishes of the poor. All laws related to global trade should be reviewed because they do not benefit the poor in the global society.

In this regard, they support convention 169, which states that the poor locals have the right of determining how their resources would be used. Domestically, they demand that the state should design policies aiming at liberating the indigenous people from the ongoing problems brought about by globalization (Martínez 21).

Multinational corporations are polluting the environment yet the government is doing nothing to stop them.

A law should be designed, which prohibits foreigners from exploiting the local people.

The third demand is that the indigenous people should be granted their rights regarding sovereignty and territoriality meaning that they should be allowed to form their own governments that would oversee the exploration and distribution of natural resources.

The fifth demand of all indigenous groups is that the central government should withdraw the military from the zones they occupy and ensure that peace prevails. This would allow the locals to engage in commerce and other economic activities (Lynn 826).

The presence of the military in their zones is an economic impediment to the realization of their goals. Since the central government has always advocated for policies aiming at displacing the locals, a law should be designed, which would illegalize displacement of people.

Moreover, the central government should stop threatening the indigenous people with military attacks and fumigation.

Finally, the government of Mexico should respect the UN declarations giving the indigenous people the right to coexist. These are the major concerns of the indigenous people, which have always brewed controversies over years (Vlachova 98).

Strategies Employed by Indigenous Movements Indigenous movements have ensured that the locals are sensitized to form strong local councils, which oversees the exploration processes. These councils force the government to consult the locals before implementing some of the policies.

In Mexico, there are various groups including the Council of Nahua Peoples of the Alto Balsas, the Council of Tlapaneco Peoples of the Guerrero Mountains, the Union of Indigenous Communities of the Isthmus (UCIRI), the Chinanteco Indigenous Council, and the Traditional Council of Indigenous Peoples of the state of Sonora.

All these groups aim at safeguarding the interests of the locals in Mexico at the council level. At the provincial level, indigenous movements have ensured that the interests of the locals are also well catered for.

Indigenous groups are able to influence the national politics through provincial councils because they are more diversified (Lee 30).

Through the provincial councils, a number of national councils have been formed, which are mostly the result of the mergers between provincial councils. In Mexico, National Indigenous Plural Assembly for Autonomy (ANIPA) is one of the national bodies in charge of overseeing the interests of the indigenous communities.

It has achieved a lot, even though it experiences a number of challenges. Other groups fighting for the rights of the indigenous in Mexico include the human rights groups, which operate globally and regionally.

Studies show that feminist organizations have also contributed a lot in ensuring that the indigenous people achieve their objectives (Puechguirbal 15). However, feminist groups are not yet well developed. The formation of the production associations is viewed as landmark in the fight for independence.

The associations are determined to ensure that the indigenous people improve their economic standards in order to catch up with the rest of the world.

Works Cited Gutmann, Matthew. The Romance of Democracy: Compliant Defiance in Contemporary Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Print.

Harvey, Neil. The Chiapas Rebellion: The Struggle for Land and Democracy. London: Duke University Press, 1998. Print.

Kearney, Michael. Regional Impacts of U.S.-Mexican Relations. La Jolla: University of California. Print.

Lee, Van., “Understanding Ethnic Politics: The Role of External Variables in Brazil and Colombia,” Airpower Journal, 3.1 (1998): 30-89. Print.

Leyva, Solano, and Ascencio, Franco. Lacandonia al filo del agua. Mexico City: Fondo de la Cultura Económica, 1996. Print.

Lynn, Stephen. “Redefined Nationalism in Building a Movement for Indigenous Autonomy in Mexico.” Journal of Latin American Anthropology, 3.1 (1997): 72–101. Print.

Lynn, Stephen. “The Construction of Indigenous Suspects: Militarization and the Gendered and Ethnic Dynamics of Human Rights Abuse in Southern Mexico.” American Ethnologist, 26.4 (2000): 822–842. Print.

Martínez, Carmen. “The Making of Vulnerabilities: Indigenous Day Labourers in Mexico’s Neoliberal Agriculture.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 11 (2004): 215-239. Print.

Nash, June. Mayan Visions: The Quest for Autonomy in an Age of Globalization. London: Routledge, 2001.

Puechguirbal, Nancy. Women and War in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Signs. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28.4 (2003):1273-1290. Print.

Rus, Jan, and Collier, george. Mayan Lives, Mayan Utopias: The Indigenous Peoples of Chiapas and the Zapatista Rebellion. New York: Rowman


Parking Solution in Driving Report custom essay help

Driving to the necessary destination is pleasant and convenient. People manage their time and get to their destinations on time. However, this pleasant experience is often overshadowed by the chase after a parking lot. Parking has become a burning issue nationwide. Notably, representatives of parking businesses gathered earlier this year to discuss the most topical issues in the sphere (Malone, 2013).

Notably, numerous solutions were suggested. These solutions can be applicable in different areas. One of the areas that require special attention is parking spaces at schools. Students have to face a lot of troubles due to the lack of parking lots. The present research is aimed at developing effective solutions to address the parking issue at the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT).

In the first place, it is necessary to note that the lack of parking spaces in FIT is really pressing. Being students of FIT, we understand that and are committed to help the school solve the issue. I have been in the school since 2011 and I have spent a lot of time looking for a parking lot. My major is electrical engineering and this will help me contribute to the development of the necessary strategy.

Thus, the number of students enrolled has been increasing steadily (Targeting the top ten, 2012). Many of these students use cars to get to their classes. At the same time, the parking area has not been expanded significantly. Though, it is necessary to note that some parking areas have been increased and new facilities are built with parking lots (Targeting the top ten, 2012). Nonetheless, these measures do not suffice. Malone (2013) stresses that t is a frustrating experience to look for a free parking lot. When it comes to students and campus area, this experience is also associated with more serious issues.

As has been mentioned above, students of FIT have to spend a lot of their time looking for a parking space. Even though student try to manage their time properly, it is difficult to calculate the time necessary for getting a parking lot. This leads to increased rates of tardiness and can have detrimental effects on the students’ academic performance. Besides, the lack of parking lots is hazardous for safety as heavy traffic is often associated with accidents.

Importantly, construction of a trolley line within the campus area is a good incentive and it can help significantly as students will be able to access distant facilities without using their cars (Targeting the top ten, 2012). At present, students need cars to access different facilities during a day. Nonetheless, the construction of the line will not address another aspect of the problem, i.e. off-campus students will still need their cars to get to the school.

The purpose of the present research is to consider the issue and come up with effective solutions to address the lack of parking spaces at FIT. The target audience of the present research is rather wide as students as well as faculty and administrators can be regarded as stakeholders. All these groups will be interested in the results provided as it can help the school achieve its strategic plan. To achieve the major goal of this research, it is possible to consider solutions exploited at other schools. University of Central Florida and University of South Florida have developed quite efficient policies to address the issues associated with parking. It is possible to analyze these solutions to ensure their efficiency when exploited at FIT.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Observations from the two schools mentioned above enabled the group come up with a number of efficient solutions. The present research will include a detailed description of the use of parking companies at UCF. The paper will include an analysis of the use of the company ZimRide at UCF. The research will also contain an in-depth analysis of possible use of parking companies (e.g. ZimRide) at FIT. The paper will include advantages as well as possible downsides of the cooperation with such businesses.

The research will also contain analysis of another option, i.e. launching shuttles. Students living off-campus will definitely benefit from this incentive as they will be able to access the necessary facilities without spending time on the search of a parking lot. Notably, this is a usual practice at USF and student benefit from it (Parking general guidelines, 2013). The present research will include an analysis of possible use of shuttles at FIT.

Finally, the present paper will also contain suggestions on constructing parking areas at FIT. Being students of this school, we understand students’ needs and know areas where parking spaces are especially needed. Besides, the school has a considerable amount of grass area which can be used more efficiently. Importantly, the present research will take into account environmental issues and the school’s plan to have green open spaces for recreation. After the analysis of the solutions mentioned above, we will provide a brief strategic plan to implement the solutions in the most effective way.

Reference List Malone, K. (2013). Parking industry tries to make your life easier. Web.

Parking general guidelines, registration, penalties,


Process Involved in Choosing a Measurement Tool for Variables in Research Exploratory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

According to Santayana (2008, p.1), “measurement is at the core of doing research”. Generally, after conducting research, researchers have to reduce their finding to numbers in order for people to understand their study findings. Such measurements are exceptionally essential in the measurement of hypotheses. Researchers therefore must come up with sound measurement tools for both independent and dependent variables.

Measurement is not as easy as it sounds. It is composed of four basic principles. The first two, conceptualization and operationalization are a bit simple. The other two are more advanced and complicated. They include determining the levels of measurement and measuring validity and reliability. Conceptualization involves defining a concept.

Thus, researchers must define that particular concept in a manner that is understandable by the scientific community. Researchers are allowed to borrow conceptualization from their predecessors and other researchers. On the other hand, operationalization involves making the conceptual definition more precise. This often involves linking the conceptual definition to one or more indicators.

The indicators chosen must reflect observable reality in numbers. For example, in the parent involvement study, the conceptual definition is ‘parents’ involvement’. However, the operational definition is ‘parents’ role construction’. It is also important when giving an operational definition to establish the unit of analysis.

In addition, a researcher needs to evaluate the level of measurement. Santayana (2008, p.1) indicates that “the level of measurement is the precision by which a variable is measured and there are four levels of measurement namely nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio”. The four levels are named from the lowest to the highest. On the other hand, Stevens (1951, p. 1) states that “everything that can be measured falls in the aforementioned levels and the higher the type, the more the precision in measurement”.

Variables that are categorical in nature usually fall in the nominal level while those that have significant importance fall in the ordinal level. Variables that have significant distances between their ranks fall in the interval level. On the other hand, variables that have fixed intervals and a fixed reference point are grouped in the ratio level.

It is for these reasons that Creswell (2011) holds the opinion that researchers must define their variables conceptually and operationally while putting into account the levels of measurement since these factors eventually determine how the data collected is analyzed. In the parent involvement study, ‘parents’ involvement’ falls in the ordinal level.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creswell (2011) also notes that accurate researches are accurate and valid. Validity can be measured using four methods namely face, content, criterion and construct. On the other hand, reliability can be estimated using the following methods test retest, multiple forms, inter rater, and split half.

Therefore, in order to locate an instrument that is to be used to measure a given variable, a researcher must put into account a number of factors. First and foremost, according to Slavin (1984), the researcher must define his concept conceptually and operationally. After that, the researcher must establish the level of measurement in which his or her variable falls.

In addition, the researcher must detect the rationales he or she will use to estimate validity and reliability. The achievement of this goal relies on having proper conceptual and operational definition and the establishment of the level of measurement of the variable.

References Cresewell, J. (2011). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New York: Pearson.

Santayana, G. (2008). Measurement, Reliability, and Validity. Web.

Slavin, R. (1984). Research Methods in Education: A Practical Guide. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stevens, S. (1951). Handbook of Experimental Psycholog. New York: Weley.

We will write a custom Essay on Process Involved in Choosing a Measurement Tool for Variables in Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Solid Waste Management Case Study college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument on Privatization of Solid Waste Management

Privatization and Improvement of Service Quality

The Community and Management of Solid Waste


Introduction Solid waste management has significantly gained attention in the present century. With the impacts of globalization, there is a persistent need for transformative mechanisms of solid waste management. Evidently, most nations continue to experience challenges in solid waste management. Particularly, the developing nations are the highly affected (Singh


The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? Cause and Effect Essay essay help site:edu

Introduction Mangroves are woody plants that thrive in shallow seawater in coastlines and estuaries. The plants are salt tolerant and only within the last decade did scientists acknowledge their significance towards the marine environment. For instance, a Florida survey in the 1970s referred to the mangroves as “…freaks of nature… and a form of wasteland…” (Anon 2011 p. 1).

The mangroves have been in danger from human destruction and their global distributions have been on the decline. During the past fifty years, mangrove distributions have been on the decline across the globe (Valiela, Bowen and York 2001). Experts predict that by 2025 mangrove distributions will be lost by twenty-five percent in the developing countries.

The paradox of mangrove loss is that the mangrove ecosystems provide human beings and other species with many benefits yet the ecosystems continue to experience destruction year in year out. Human activities account and will continue to account for the largest reasons for mangrove loss in the world. In addition, climate change will also contribute to the loss of mangrove distribution.

The essay paper is organized into four sections. The first section is the introduction and the causes of mangrove ecosystems loss in the world. The second section looks at the mangrove ecosystem benefits, the third section looks at the consequences of mangrove ecosystem losses, and the final part looks at the reaction to mangrove ecosystem conversion. The implications of the loss of the mangrove ecosystem such as food insecurity, loss of human life are discussed. The loss of mangroves has dire global implications.

Disappearance of Mangrove ecosystems in the world The Mangrove ecosystems in the world are declining even though the rate has been on the decline lately. The coastal wetlands are disappearing due to anthropogenic reasons and the climate change and natural disasters. The statistics on mangrove losses are not conclusive but the available data shows that close to thirty-five percent of the mangrove forests have disappeared.

The annual lose of the mangrove forests is estimated at 2.1 per cent annually and the highest lose is reported in the Americas at 3.6 per cent annually as shown in Table 1. The mangrove forests are the most threatened habitats in the world (Valiela et al. 2001).

Table 1: Current mangrove swamp areas, per cent loss, annual loss rate, and percent of original area lost per year, for the mangroves of the continents and the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current mangrove area (Km2) % loss of mangrove forest area Annual rate of loss (Km2y-1) % of original area lost per year Asia 77, 169 36 628 1.52 Africa 36, 529 32 274 1.25 Australasia 10, 287 14 231 1.99 Americas 43, 161 38 2,251 3.62 World 166,876 35 2, 834 2.07 Source: Valiela et al. 2001.

Causes of mangrove distributions decline Communities from all over the world have had a negative perception towards the mangroves. They have undervalued the mangroves and seen them as useless plants that take up land that they would otherwise use for agricultural activities. The perception of the people towards the mangroves is caused by lack of knowledge about the usefulness of the plants (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008 ).

The only communities that knew about the significance of the mangroves were the scientific communities that had not shared the knowledge with the wider society hence the negative attitude towards the mangroves. Moreover, many governments had also been ignorant as the rest of the communities and thus did not protect the mangroves from destruction earlier on, as they should have done.

Mangrove ecosystems are not easy to protect because they are a shared resource. However, recently there has been a change of the negative perception of the mangroves by the people and governments as they have learnt about the usefulness of the mangroves. The change in the perception has led to a decline in the loss rate of the mangroves since 2000.

The proof of the change in the perception is the mangrove conservation projects that have come up across the globe. Furthermore, legislation regarding the protection of the mangroves has also been enacted in many areas. However, in spite of the change in perception mangrove ecosystems are still at risk of extinction (Valiela et al 2009).

Population increase Population increase is the other cause of the declining mangrove distributions. It is estimated that about thirty-five percent of the mangrove forests are lost through deforestation by humans since 1980. The loss of the mangrove forests has been due to the increase of people living at the coastal areas. The pressure of high population density causes destruction of mangroves for human settlement.

Moreover, due the increase in human population more mangroves are lost as large portions of mangrove forests are cleared to create agricultural land so that people can grow food for consumption. Tracts of land are cleared to grow crops such as rice or for other economic activities such as salt production (FAO 2007). Once land is reclaimed for agricultural use, rainwater is used to reduce the salt content and embankments created to prevent seawater from accessing the reclaimed land.

We will write a custom Essay on The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to population increment, more land is required for urbanization as well as industrialization hence tracts of mangroves are destroyed. Urbanization has also contributed to the loss of mangrove forests in place of urban areas. Mumbai is an urban area that shows how destructive urbanization can be to the mangroves as all its islands were once mangrove ecosystems. Other urban areas created from the destruction of mangroves include, Jakarta, Lagos, Bangkok, Doula and Singapore among others (kathiresan n.d.).

Human beings also destroy the mangroves for firewood and charcoal and timber. Large tracts of mangroves are cleared to provide fuel for the people living around the coastlines and as the wood is very rich in calorific vales hence forms very good source of firewood.

Paper millers and chipboard makers prefer to use mangrove trees in manufacturing their products as the tree gives out quality products. Thus, many paper-milling factories have been opened around the mangrove ecosystems. For example in Indonesia, many such paper companies have contributed to destruction of about 1, 37, 000 ha of mangrove area in a period of two years (kathiresan n.d.).

Oil spillage Oil pollution is another human factor that contributes to the loss of mangroves in the world. Through gas and oil explorations, mangroves are cleared to create space for the production such in Nigeria where many oil wells are located in areas that were once mangrove forests. Oil spillage in the sea through accidents also devastates mangrove forests.

The oil covers the mangroves trees and causes them to die, as they cannot carry out photosynthesis. Furthermore, the other species living in the ecosystems also die. It is difficult to recover from the destruction caused from oil spillage as it takes a minimum of ten years to grow back the mangroves although full recovery cannot be attained.

Mangroves also destroyed through pollution. The industrial companies near the coastline dump their wastes into the mangrove ecosystems. For instance, mangroves in Panama have been affected negatively by pollution (Duke, Pinzon and Prada 1997).

Wars Other human activities such as wars lead to destruction of mangroves significantly. The Vietnam War between 1962 and 1971 is a good example of how wars lead to mangrove destruction. Many litres of chemicals destroyed large tracts of the mangrove ecosystem during the Vietnam War (Ross 1974).

Tourism Tourism activities also lead to the loss of mangrove distributions across the world. Tourism is a great earner of foreign exchange for many countries and thus tourism development is vital in order to attract more visitors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Implications of Global Loss of Mangrove Ecosystems? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tourism development especially in Africa leads to the loss of the mangroves as land is cleared to build infrastructure such as beach resorts, hotels. Mangroves also cleared to create boat ways for the tourists. Tourism is a major economic activity but it also contributes greatly to the loss of mangroves (Valiela et al. 2009).

Aquaculture Aquaculture contributes greatly towards the loss of mangroves worldwide. Shrimp aquaculture since the 1980s rose and hence more land was required to build ponds to grow the shrimps. The ponds created for shrimp rearing also leads to pollution of the surrounding areas.

The aquaculture has led to dramatic loss of mangroves for instance in Asia about fifty to eighty percent of the mangroves have been lost to aquaculture. Other regions greatly affected by aquaculture are Latin America and the Caribbean (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Climate change Climate change in addition to human activities is a major future long-term threat of the mangroves. The change in the climate poses various threats to the mangrove distributions. The change in climate leads to sea level rise, which is the major change that poses a major threat to the mangroves. The rising sea level leads to increased water levels that decreases the land available for human beings hence they clear mangrove forests in such of land.

The success of mangroves depends on adequate sediment accretion that can counter the rising water hence the rise in sea levels is the greatest threat to the survival of mangroves as at one point they may not cope with the rising water levels hence they may die back. The other threat of climate change is atmospheric and ocean warming. The rise of temperatures leads to the expansion of mangroves in the poles.

Precipitation is a form of climate change because when it reduces the mangroves do not grow properly and their overall survival is threatened. The precipitation changes also leads to a change in the composition of the mangroves. Extreme reduction in precipitation can also lead to extermination of the mangroves (Valiela and York, 2001).

Diseases Diseases cause devastating loss of mangroves. One of the diseases has led to the damage of about 45 million Huritiers fomes species of the mangrove trees. The disease destroyed about twenty percent of mangrove forests in Bangladesh (Hussain and Acharya 1994). Mangrove diseases are caused by salinity, which occurs when the flow of water to the mangroves is reduced.

Sedimentation also causes diseases to the mangroves. Parasites and pests affect mangrove ecosystems. For example, certain caterpillars may eat the mangrove fruits. The caterpillars hinder the mangrove seeds from germinating. The mangrove species affected by the caterpillars is the Rhizophora.

Animals such as sheep, camels, and buffaloes affect the mangroves when they graze in the mangrove ecosystems. Other organisms such as the crabs feed on the leaves of the young mangrove plants hence destroy the mangrove ecosystems.

Benefits of mangroves Mangroves are very important to the community because they help in biodiversity, economic activities because they are productive ecosystems and coastal protection. The mangroves act as coastline protection. The mangrove trees protect the coastlines against hurricane and storms hence save lives.

Mangroves have other benefits such as soil formation, habitat for marine life and filters of upland runoff. The mangrove trees stores up the sun energy and nutrients carried by silt in their leaves. The mangroves shed their leaves and grow new ones continually throughout the year. The falling leaves forms a foundation for food chain for the surrounding terrestrial and marine life.

Due to the huge constant foods, supply by the mangroves, many commercial and fishes thrive very well in the mangroves ecosystems. In addition, about $ 1.6 billion is generated from the mangrove ecosystems globally (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Implications of global loss of mangrove ecosystems The loss of mangrove ecosystems has negative effects and communities yet the communities continue engaging in activities that threaten the mangroves. The continued destruction of mangroves occurs because the communities are more concerned about their current economical survival and even though they may know about the future dangers of their activities in the mangrove ecosystems they have no choice but to think of today. The mangrove ecosystems have an estimated economic value of $ 1.6 billion per year worldwide (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

Loss of fisheries One of the implications of mangrove ecosystems loss is the loss of fisheries. Mangroves ecosystems provide nurseries and breeding habitats for fish and other species. The community depends on the marine life such as fish, which they sell and make a living. Thus, the destruction of the mangroves affects lives of the people who depend on the economic activities that are related to the mangroves such as loss of fish.

The decline in the numbers of fish and prawns has had a negative impact in El Salvador (Daugherty 1975). Other fisheries in Venezuela also reported a decline in fisheries related to the mangroves in spite of the efforts put in increasing the fishing sector since the 1980s. Thus, loss of mangrove ecosystems leads to a decline in the fishing sector and loss of income.

Climate change The loss of mangrove ecosystems leads to changes in the climate. The change in the climate is severe and affects even the shrimp aquaculture that is responsible for the destruction of large tracts of mangrove forests for conversion to shrimp ponds such as in Bangladesh where the total mangrove forest today is less than half of its original size about two decades ago.

Shrimp growing is very uneconomical because it requires farmers to utilize extensive operations that hurt the mangrove ecosystems further. The farmers result to methods that are unethical as they aim to make a profit at the expense of climate. The shrimp ponds put environmental pressures on the land beyond the farms.

According to studies, one hectare of shrimp pond which produces an estimate of four thousand kilos of shrimp annually “requires the productive and assimilative capacity of between 38 and 289 hectares of natural ecosystem per year” (Islam and Wahab 2005 p. 175). The fore mentioned shrimp farming is semi-intensive that means intensive shrimp farming requires even greater land.

Furthermore, shrimp farming relies on shrimp fry. The shrimp fry is fed to the shrimps. The impact of the shrimp fry is felt because many people along the coastline who do not have another source of income engage in shrimp fry catching and during the process, they catch fish and shrimps, which are destroyed in the process before catching the required shrimp fry.

The exploitation of the marine ecosystem for the shrimp fry leads to a decline in the number of shrimps harvested every year. The decline in shrimp has to be recovered hence more dangerous methods are employed that pose a threat to commercial fishers and artisanal. Moreover, the shrimps grown in semi-intensive methods require to be fed on fishmeal-based pelleted feeds.

The feeds puts more pressure on fishing as people look for the fishmeal feeds all over the world as more fishing and shrimp growing area becomes necessary putting more mangroves at risk of destruction. The pressure further leads to a decline in the coastlines. The pressure in the fishing areas occurs because only a small portion of the total catch constitutes the required tiger shrimp.

Hence, other species die in the process of catching the tiger shrimps. A report shows that about 12 to 551 post larvae of other shrimp species and 5 to 152 macrozooplankton finfish larvae are lost during the catching of one tiger shrimp (Hoq et al. 2001). In other words, the people involved in catching the tiger shrimp only have a success rate of one percent and a failure rate of ninety nine percent.

The report urges that a hundred thousand tiger shrimp collectors contributed to a loss of an estimate of one hundred and eighty thousand other aquatic species (Kamal 2000). Thus, the shrimp fry fishing posed a threat not only to the other fish species, but also to the other aquatic organisms through reduction of their food for instance, the reptiles and birds.

Destruction of marine species Harvesting of shrimps leads to destruction of marine species. Reports say that the shrimp trawlers represent wastefulness in fishing. The shrimps caught by the trawlers represent less than two percent of the global seafood yet during their catch about a third of fish are wasted as by catch. The shrimp anglers have to destroy fourteen pounds of fish plus other organisms to get a pound of the prized shrimp.

Turtles are the biggest casualties of the shrimp trawlers that kill them more than any other human activity (Rodriguez 2001). The shrimps need to be fed continually to grow and their food is thrown into the ponds. They also require to be sprayed with antibiotics, chemicals to prevent diseases. The ponds are washed using detergents and all the things added to the ponds contaminate them and must be removed.

However, it is difficult to remove all the accumulated wastes from the ponds and the wastes spread to the adjacent marine ecosystem and leads to their degradation. The adjacent ecosystems are degraded and the species that inhabit them put at risk as the degradation is irreversible (Anon 2001). Thus, the destruction of the mangrove ecosystems have short term benefits to the commercial companies that grow shrimps but long term disadvantages to the communities and the entire countries’ economies.

Destruction of biodiversity Besides, shrimp farming leads to a negative effect on the biodiversity. Mangrove ecosystems create unique biodiversities that are very productive. The biodiversities acts as a habitat for various species such as birds, marine creatures and flora. The mangroves’ aerial roots harbour a host of creatures and acts as breeding and refuge for many species such as crustaceans and fish.

Some of the species that breed and thrive in the mangrove ecosystems are a source of food for the communities living around the coastlines as well for economic activities. Birds such as the kingfishers, herons and eagles find their food in the mangroves. The mangroves hence benefit both animals and human beings who live in their surroundings.

Once the biodiversities are destroyed, they cannot be reclaimed and the community that depends on them suffers in the process. The communities living near the mangrove ecosystems feel the implications of destruction of mangrove ecosystems firsthand, as they no longer have a source of livelihood once the mangroves disappear under the hands of commercial growers of shrimps.

The communities come together and try to stop the invasion of the mangroves as their lives are affected greatly by the destruction as the artisan fisheries loss their way of life. In the fight for the mangroves, some members of the community have lost their precious lives in regions such as Mexico, and Honduras (Rodriguez 2001). The communities also lose their source of firewood and building materials (Anon 2001).

In addition, countries also lose because the benefit from the mangrove ecosystems (Rodriguez 2001). The shrimp ponds that lead to destruction of thousands of mangrove hectares are consequently abandoned once their usefulness has been exploited.

The people leave behind an impoverished mangrove ecosystem and communities (Anon 2001). The loss of mangrove ecosystems affects the whole society as all economic activities supported by the mangroves are lost by the destruction of the mangrove forests for other activities.

Change in coastline Destroying the mangroves contributes to changes in the coastlines such as coastal erosion. The rapid destruction of the mangrove forests for economic activities leads to the increase in the sediment load in the water that leads to the increase in siltation. The surrounding land becomes useless for any other useful activities leaving the locals in problems.

The locals may be forced to migrate and look for other places to settle because they need to live in a place that is economically viable for their basic survival. Another reason that may force the locals to migrate is the danger posed by storms and they have to move to safer grounds. Thus, the lives of the people are disrupted as they start life all over again in the new places.

Loss of mangrove ecosystems exposes the coastline to storms and hurricanes, which causes loss of life and property. The roots of the mangrove trees are massive as seen in Figure 1 and very effective in dispersing wave energy away from the shorelines (Massel, Furukawa and Brinkman 1999).

Fig. 1. Photograph Theo Allofs/Corbis.

The mangroves roots silt the sediments hence create a fertile environment suitable for the aquatic marine. They also reduce the accumulation of sediments in the surrounding marine environments in addition to the protection of the coastal shoreline. Thus, the destruction of the mangroves ecosystem puts human beings at the risk of death from tsunamis, hurricanes and storms due to lack of a barrier.

Several storms have led to loss of lives in many parts of the world such as in Australia where mangroves have been cleared due to urbanization. Furthermore, destroying the mangroves also means a threat to the aquatic life that depend on the ecosystem such as fish, some reptiles, birds, insects and amphibians among others.

The people who depend on fishing suffer as the fish declines hence they lose their source of livelihood. For instance, communities in West Africa depend on the mangrove ecosystem to earn their livelihoods. They fish and sell the fish found in the mangrove and sell the salt they collect in the mangroves. To extract the salt they use mangrove woods to heat it and in the process contribute to the destruction of the mangroves.

If the destruction trend continues, it means they will destroy their source of livelihood and find themselves in deep poverty. Fortunately, conservation projects are underway and the community is being taught the importance of the mangroves and ways of protecting the valuable resource (Mintzer 2010).

Destroying mangrove ecosystems indiscriminately affects the environment negatively because the mangroves act as the balancing tool. They balance the environment by absorbing the excess nutrients together with pollutants and prevent them from entering into the seawater. Moreover, the mangroves help to transport organic matter through the tidal current to the adjacent marine environment in the form of detritus and increase the productivity of the areas.

The mangroves serve as a sewerage plant that treats the water and improves its quality. However, when the mangroves are destroyed their natural processes of silting the sediments and only realising important nutrients into the water is compromised. In addition, the mangroves also help in oxygen and carbon release and fixation and if cut down the process is interfered with and carbon dioxide is not fixated through the photosynthesis process, yet it is not necessary for the marine life and human beings.

The mangrove forests are very efficient in sequestering carbon more than tropical forests hence cutting down the mangrove forests increases the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that leads to global warming. Therefore, cutting down mangrove ecosystems leads to loss of an opportunity to address the issue of greenhouse gases (Mintzer 2010).

Destroying the mangroves interferes with the process of soil formation because as the mangroves decompose its biomass improves the soil matter and helps in improving aeration (Hazarika 2000).

Decline in tourism The tourism sector is also affected by the global loss of mangroves ecosystems. The ecosystem acts as habitats for some unique species that can only survive in the mangroves. The species attract tourists who come to view the fauna and the birds that live in the mangroves and once the ecosystems are destroyed, the species perish.

Besides, the mangrove ecosystems form beautiful sceneries that tourists enjoying watching and riding boats along the waterways but once the mangroves are destroyed, the tourists have nothing more to watch as the sceneries are taken over by shrimp ponds or urban areas and an area loses its ecotourism potential (Valiela et al. 2009).

The people who had been employed by the tourism sector in such areas risk losing their jobs as visitor turnover declines. The lost job opportunities lead to problems to the dependants of the workers and the people are left unable to meet their basic needs. The loss of employments leads to many other related problems hence the whole community suffers.

Food insecurity Destruction of mangrove ecosystems leads to the problem of food insecurity. The locals living along the mangrove ecosystems depend on the food they get acquire from the ecosystem in terms of fish. Others buy their food from engaging in economic activities related to the ecosystem. Hence, a whole community has a source of food.

Conversely, the food security of the community is threatened when mangrove ecosystems are destroyed to pave way for shrimp ponds. The owners sell the shrimps harvested, the locals are left without food, and even if they could afford to buy the shrimp, it could not sustain them as the shrimp makes up a small percentage of the total seafoods.

The money made from the sell of the shrimp may not go back to the community. On the other hand, animals that depend on the mangrove ecosystems also face food insecurity because their source of foliage is destroyed (Valiela et al. 2009). The animals die due to lack of food and those that can are forced to go and look for food elsewhere but those that only survive in wetlands perish together with their habitats.

The animals that inhabit the mangrove ecosystems acts as a source of food for the locals and once they lack food they cannot continue being a source of food for the people and the threat of food insecurity heightens. Thus, the global loss of mangrove ecosystems has far-reaching implication such as food insecurity.

Social effects The other implication of the global loss of mangroves ecosystem is social effects. Mangrove destruction leads to lack of employment. Unemployed people may result to criminal activities because they do not have food. The rise of crimes in an area lead to many other negative effects such as use of violence by the gangs and people are injured.

The injured people require medical attention and the cost maybe unaffordable because of lack of finances. It is also important to note that the local people derive medicines from some of the plants that grow in the mangrove ecosystem. For example, the mangrove species called Bruguiera gymnorrhiza is used to treat blood pressure and diarrhoea, the Acantanthus ilicifolius treats rheumatism and asthma, Excoecaria agallocha treats leprosy, Lumnitzera racemosa treats itches and herpes (Upadhyay, Mishra and Sahu, 2008).

The mangrove species also treat other ailments such as skin, headaches and abdominal pains. The plants disappear as the ecosystems are cleared for other uses. Businesses in such areas are affected because investors lack faith in such environments and pullout their investments. Investors who may want to come to such places fear because of the bad reputation associated with the area due to crime.

When businesses close down people who had found employment in the closed firms, lose their jobs. Such an area suffers from lack of development because people are not able to send their kids to school hence they never learn any skills that can make them employable in the future. The future of a whole generation can be affected by the loss of mangrove ecosystems.

Mangrove conservation The effects of the loss of mangrove ecosystems around the world have been negative and thus action has been taken to try to reserve the loss trend by mangrove expansion and protection. Awareness about the significance of the mangrove ecosystems has increased and people realise the economic and social value of the mangrove ecosystems.

Moreover, they are now aware of the ecological values of the mangroves and are willing to protect them. However, it is important to note that recourse action to protect the mangroves is still outweighed by the rate of mangrove loss due to various human activities, the cost of mangrove reforestation is high, and some rare species cannot be replaced.

Various governments have started reforestation programs for the mangroves. For example, in Bangladesh extensive reforestation of the mangroves along the coastal area began from 1966, many mangrove plants have been planted, and the area under mangroves has increased significantly (Alongi 2002). In other countries such as Senegal in West Africa, conservation groups have been established to educate the locals about the importance of the mangroves and the ways of conserving them so that they can continue reaping the benefits of the mangrove for a long time.

The group provides the locals with stoves that do not require the use of firewood in their salt extraction activities to save the mangroves that are used as firewood. In Australia, the people have learnt about the value of the mangroves and reforestation has been done increasing the area under the mangroves as shown in table 2 below.

Table 2: Area of mangrove forest, 2003 and 2008 (’000 hectares)

2003 2008 difference Difference % Mangrove forest 749 980 231 31 Source: NFI (2003).

Most countries active legislation regarding the protection of the mangrove ecosystems such as in Asia and Australia but in Africa there is little legislation. Thus, there is a big challenge regarding the conservation and protection of the mangroves in various parts of the world as the mangroves continue to decline in spite of the knowledge about their values.

Conclusion Mangrove ecosystems are under threat of disappearing if the human anthropogenic activities continue to destroy them at the rate the destruction is occurring. The importance of the mangroves ecosystems cannot be over emphasised because they are vital for the biodiversity they create and benefits to adjacent environments. The loss of the mangroves have been massive the world over in the last fifty years and more than half of the total mangrove area has already been destroyed.

The implications for the global loss of mangrove ecosystems are huge as they affect the communities and animals living along the coastlines greatly by disrupting their normal lives. All the stakeholders need to be involved in the mangrove conservation and protection efforts so that the level of awareness about the value of mangrove ecosystem can translate into equal level of conservation and protection of the invaluable trees.

In addition, there is the need of getting accurate statistics on the global distributions of mangroves so that people can get a clear and real picture of the extent of mangrove destruction. Hence, the urgency of their conservation and protection to try to curb the already negative implications that communities are experiencing because of clearing mangrove ecosystems for other activities.

People need to learn how their activities affects the mangroves now and in the future so that they can know the possible behaviour of the mangroves in the future and take corrective measures now before it is too late. The current expansion of the mangroves is a step in the right direction that may allow even the tomorrow’s generations to enjoy and reap the vast benefits of the mangrove ecosystems.

Therefore, all must join hands in protecting and conserving the mangrove ecosystems because failure to do so is declaring a blink future for the current and future generations. Mangrove ecosystems are very important and as Rodriguez puts it “Mangroves are life, long live mangroves” (2001p. 1).

References Alongi, D. M. 2002. Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation, 29, pp. 331-349.

Anon. 2011. Mangrove Conservation through Education. Web.

Anon, 2001. Mangroves and their uncertain future. Web.

Daugherty, H. E., 1975. Human impact on the mangrove forests of El Salvador. In G. E. Walsh, S. C. Snedaker and H. J. Teas (Eds.). Proceedings of the International symposium on biology and management of mangroves pp. 816-824. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Duke, NC Pinzon, ZS and Prada, MCT., 1997. Large scale damage to mangrove forest following two large oil spills in Panama. Biotropica, 29, pp. 2-14.

FAO 2007. The World’s Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) no.153

Hazarika, M. K., 2000. Monitoring and impact assessment of shrimp farming in the East Coast of Thailand using remote sensing and gigs. International Archives of Photogrammetry and remote sensing, 33 pp. 504-510.

Hoq, M. E., Islam, M. N., Kamal, M. and Wahab, M. A., 2001. Abundance and seasonal distribution of penaeus monodon post larvae in the Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh, Hydrobiologia, 457pp. 97-104.

Hussain, Z., and Acharya, G. (Eds.)., 1994. Mangroves of the Sundarbans, Volume 2: Bangladesh”. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 257 pp.

Islam, S. and Wahab, A., 2005. A review on the present status and management of mangrove wetland habitat in Bangladesh with emphasis on mangrove fisheries and aquaculture. Hydrobiologia, 542 pp.165-190.

Kamal, M., 2000. Assistance to fisheries research Institute- A report prepared for the Assistance to Fisheries research Institute. Consultancy report on Marine Fisheries resource Management. BGD/89/012. FRIGOB/UNDP/FAO.

Kathiresan, K. Threats to mangroves. Web.

Massel, S. R.; Furukawa, K., and Brinkman R. M., 1999. Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests. Fluid Dynamics Research 24(4), pp. 219–249.

Mintzer, R., 2010. Destroying mangroves in West Africa detrimental to people, climate, and wildlife. Web.

NFI (National Forest Inventory). 2003. Australia’s State of the Forests Report 2003, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.

Rodriguez, E. L., 2001. Mangroves are life, long live mangroves. Web.

Ross, P., (1974). The mangrove of South Vietnam; the impact of military use of herbicides. In: Walsh, G.E., Snedaker, S.C. and Teas, H.J. (Eds.), Proceeding of International Symposium on Biology and Management of Mangroves, 8‐11 Oct. 1974, Hawaii, Gainsville, Unit. of Florida, pp. 126‐136.

Valiela, I., Kinney, E., Culbertson, J., Peacock, E., and Smith, S., 2009. Global losses of mangroves and salt marshes. Web.

Valiela, I., Bowen, J. L.


Osteoporosis Treatment. Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Being that the patient is 60 years old, she is past menopause. Menopause is a time when women lose their bone density very fast. This leaves them at risk of developing osteoporosis within 5 years of reaching menopause. The best advice after bone density tests is to encourage the patient to take up care for the prevention of extension of her bone loss.

When the bone density of a woman gets low, it is appropriate to start treatment to avoid any further risks that the situation may cause later in life (Moen and Keam, 2011). At the age of 60, treating the woman is a convenient move and that leaves her with little risk exposure for bone fractures. It is important to encourage the onset for treatment instead of waiting for her years to advance.

Such a patient needs encouragement and enlightening about the commonality of suffering hip fractures in old age. It is a good time for introducing the woman to the necessity of having adequate calcium in her diet (Banu, Varela and Fernandes, 2012).

Since her T-scores show osteoporosis, it is necessary to let her know that it simply means that the tests she went through showed her bone mass. T-scores give indications about the variations of one’s bone mass through averaging it against the bone mass of a healthy person. Testing bone density is relevant just like any other biologic test.

The average score determines the level of a healthy person’s bone density. The testing of osteoporosis shows in a T-score point of deviation from normal mean for bone density. That helps in doing a mathematical calculation for the determination of the degree of deviation of bone mass from the mean of normal bone density.

The results that a bone mass density test provides is the extent of deviation from the mean and that is referred to as the T-score. When the T-scores deviate from the mean, to a point below -2.5, it means that there is a loss of bone mass. In her case, the woman is already in post menopause and there is a need for treatment or else, there could be risk of developing secondary bone loss conditions as well as risking fractures.

Since one of the main risk factors of having, untreated osteoporosis is suffering hip fractures. She will need to use medications with calcium supplements to help her in the reduction of bone mass loss and for strengthening her bones. It is advisable to take them at night to allow for effective absorption and they are effective for those whose intestinal absorption of calcium is efficient.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Oestrogens are also effective for woman past menopause like the patient in this case. Their administration requires some care to avoid chances of developing other complications such as breast cancer. Some of the medications used in the treatment of osteoporosis are such as Conjugated equine oestrogen, oestradiol valerate (Progynova) and piperazine oestrone sulphate.

The available medications support patients differentlywith the main responsibility being the reduction of fractures (Laliberté, Perreault, Jouini, Shea and Lalonde, 2011).There are injections, which help in the minimization of pain. For example, Strontium ranelate is a compound currently used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in places such as Australia.

It helps in the reduction of cases of vertebral fractures. After commencement of therapy, it is important for a patient to ensure that she is consistent with medication for the management of bone loss. This also requires timed density measurement, so that any cases of declines can be effectively intervened upon (Sanford and McCormack, 2011).

References Banu, J., Varela, E.


Organizational Learning in Management Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free

Organizational learning Work force within an organization needs to be developed, sharpened and its skills improved with time; organizational learning is a strategic managing tool that is used to nature, tap, develop, and utilize human resources potential. The main aim of organizational learning is to improve employees’ skills and expertise (Meinolf, Ariane, John and Ikujiro, 2003). This paper discusses how managers can use organizational learning to improve their organizational performance.

How managers utilize organizational learning and knowledge to construct better work systems

Organizational learning takes the form of three main forms, training, mentorship, and coaching; different situations calls for different systems and approaches, when new systems have been adopted, then an organization needs to inform their staffs and train them on how they will utilize the new ways of doing business for the good of the company.

For example at John Hospkins Hospital, after the facility adopted a health Record Management System (HRMS), the management had to organize some training lessons to ensure that employees use the system as expected. At this point, organizational learning is seen to facilitate change (Dulewicz and Malcolm, 2003).

Organizational learning is also used for strategic movements within an organization; this move was used by Barclays Bank in United states in 2008, were they embarked on training their human force on the effects that globalization has on the banking industry; they then asked employees to think of policies that could see the company through the hard economic time successfully.

With time, the company came up with stringent lending policies, embarked on debt collection and mobilized sales a move that saw the company succeed. Organizational learning has been used as a tool to nature creativity, invention and innovativeness.

Apple inc. used this approach in 2007 when it trained and mentored their staffs on the developments in the industry; with time, staffs were able to come-up with cost management policies, new products were developed and saw the development of a positive working environment (Parker, 2009).

Organizational learning frameworks

Human resources department assisted with line managers should be responsible of enacting appropriate policies that enhance learning within an organization (Schilling and Kluge, 2009). Learning should be a continuous process that occurs formally and informally, the following are the main forms that an effective organizational learning should have:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Training: when developing something new in an organization or there is a change in the business environment, management should ensure that its human capital are well trained on the new processes, for example Mitsubishi Motor Company has embarked on massive staff training on the need to conserve the environment.

Mentorship: this takes the form of guidance and instructing was leaders offer intellectual and technical assistance to their employees; this means that an organization should have leaders and supervisors who can mentor and show their subordinates the right pathway and direction to follow. It helps to share experiences and grow knowledge of both the leader and the employee.

Coaching: coaching mostly comes with something special with an employee or a certain point of strength that a company adopts; it calls for employees to be shown the right way to operate and undertake functions. For example, new entrants at Starbucks are trained on how to operate a fair business trading policy to ensure the company remains respected for its ethical business approach (Hornsby and Warkeoczeski, 2000).

Conclusion Organizational learning is a strategic management tool that assists managers to improve their business through human force; it takes the form of training, mentorship, coaching, and sometimes counseling. When well managed, it offers an organization some competitive advantage.

References Dulewicz, V. and Malcolm, H. ,2003.Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. International Journal of Organizational Analysis 11(3),pp. 193-210.

Hornsby, T. and Warkeoczeski, L. 2000. New roles for leaders: A step-by-step guide to competitive advantage. Franklin: Hillsboro Press.

Meinolf, D., Ariane, A., John, C. and Ikujiro, N.,2003. Handbook of Organisational Learning and Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Organizational Learning in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Parker, G. ,2009.Team Leadership: 20 Proven Tools for Success. New Jersey: Human Resource Development Press.

Schilling, J. and Kluge, A.,2009. Barriers to organizational learning: An integration of theory and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(3), pp. 337–360


Writer’s Choice Essay essay help: essay help

Assessment 3 Instructions: Course Evaluation Template

Develop a standardized template for evaluating courses in a selected program. Include a 2-3 page executive summary containing the rationale and justification for the methods selected.

The purpose of a course evaluation is to ensure that your course is, in fact, serving the intended purpose and assessing the learning outcomes and instructional content. Standardized templates are useful for learners, faculty, and the organization because they allow you to establish expectations and ensure data collected give you the right kind of information upon which to make evidence-based decisions related to meeting learners’ and the organization’s needs and goals.

This is a two-part assessment. The first part is the development of a standardized course evaluation template. The second part is an executive summary addressed to a workplace supervisor.

As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.

What are the key components of an end-of-course evaluation?
How can you determine if educational outcomes meet the needs and goals of a health care setting?
What are examples of alternative evaluation methods for learning outcomes in nursing education?
What types of questions should be included in a clinical evaluation questionnaire?
Use the Capella University Library and the Internet to ensure you are familiar with the following:

Explore a variety of methods that can be used to evaluate the achievement of the learning objectives as well as program outcomes.
Understand the steps in assembling and administering the tests for learning outcomes.
Examine how validity and reliability of evaluation methods for courses and program outcomes are measured and established.
Find examples of course evaluations. If you choose to incorporate ideas from other examples, you must provide proper APA citations and format.
The following resources are required to complete the assessment.

Assessment Formatting Guidelines [DOCX].
Part One – Standardized Course Evaluation Template
Determine the best approach for evaluating whether the learning objectives and program outcomes are being assessed adequately in your course. Make use of your work from the previous assessments in the creation of your standardized course assessment template.

Create a standardized template that clearly measures the course’s ability to achieve the learning objectives and outcomes stated in your earlier assessments in this course.
There is no page limit for this template. Page length should be appropriate to the context.
Note: You are encouraged to integrate feedback received for your earlier assessments to continue tweaking your application of the concepts in this course.

Part Two – Executive Summary
Once you have completed your standardized template, construct an executive summary to discuss the rationale for it.

In the executive summary, include the following critical elements that align with the grading criteria:

A summary of how the course evaluation aligns with the stated learning objectives and program outcomes.
A justification for the methods chosen to evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes.
A description of how validity and reliability of evaluation methods will be established.
Additional Requirements
Follow the Assessment Formatting Guidelines [DOCX]. In addition, your assessment should meet the following requirements:

APA format: Use correct APA style and formatting for the executive summary, paying particular attention to citations and references.
Document format: Include a cover page and a properly formatted APA style reference list.
References: Include at least five peer-reviewed scholarly resources from the last 5 years to support your rationale.
Executive summary: 1–2 double-spaced pages (excluding cover page and reference list).
Evaluation template: No page limit.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Competencies Measured
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 2: Apply a variety of strategies to assess learning in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains.
Ensure that the appropriate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains have been addressed in a course evaluation.
Competency 3: Engage in the development of a classroom examination.
Select an evaluation format that adequately assesses learning and program outcomes.
Competency 4: Evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes.
Create a standardized course evaluation template that can be used to evaluate the achievement of learning outcomes in a program offering.
Support the validity and reliability of evaluation methods used in a course evaluation form.
Competency 6: Communicate as a practitioner-scholar, consistent with the expectations for a health care professional.
Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
Correctly format the assessment, citations, and references using APA style.
Use the scoring guide to understand how your assessment will be evaluated.

VIEW SCORING GUIDE Click for more options


Reducing Cyber Bullying Evaluation Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Information Dispersion

Materials Distribution

Initial Assessment

Reception and Provision of Materials



Introduction Strategic implementation of the processes that aim at reducing cyber bullying relies on proper arrangement of the activities. When we identify concise activities, we improve the chances of evaluating the constituents without leaving some unattended. It is, therefore, necessary to identify what should be performed to support the system effectively. McDavid and Hawthorn (2006) postulated that proper organization is the stem of high performance.

For this reason, program constituents must be organized to warrant successful results. Identifying and planning the activities are ways of ensuring program organization. Therefore, I will evaluate the program to determine the areas that require establishment of activities. In a bid to show this, I will table and describe the activities expected in reduction of cyber bullying.

Table of Activities

Activity Significance Assembling parents/guardians, students and teachers to announce and explain the program in the institution To enlighten parents/guardians, students and teachers about the rules and regulation enacted due to the threat of cyber bullying Distribution of the regulation materials To provide regulation reference documents to the students Assessing cyber bullying at the initial stages of the program by use of questionnaires To determine the level of cyber bullying in the institution so that the administrator can determine the strategies of acting. Reception of cyber bullying reports and provision of the reporting documents To collect reports and ensure that students have efficient access to reporting materials/documents Information Dispersion It is crucial to create awareness and a strong foundation when the program initiates. Otherwise, if the pace of the program seems weak at the initial stages, the students might assume or ignore the seriousness of the issue. The administration must be ready to enforce the program into action.

Probably, it can arrange for a meeting with parents/guardians, students and the staff. This meeting could target on enlightening them about the program, and warning those who bully others about the impacts of their actions.

Materials Distribution Implementation of the program must consider planning how program materials will reach the people. Information about the program will be published and provided to all involved parties. One way of distributing the materials is by supplying them during the meeting mentioned in the previous paragraph. In this way, parents/guardians will, also, have copies of the program details.

The students can, also, receive copies of the materials in classes. This activity of distributing the materials will warrant that the entire school is aware about the restriction made by the administration. Awareness will lead to low cases of cyber bullying and high performance in the school.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initial Assessment The other activity will involve assessing the level of cyber bullying in the school. It could be done by using questionnaires to assess bullying incidences. The questionnaires can be presented to students during class proceedings. This step will assist the administrator to identify the strategies of responding to cases of cyber bullying at the initial stages. The school management has to evaluate its steps and actions to prevent the rise fatal consequences (Andras, 2011). It is, therefore, vital to evaluate its status before handling new cases.

Reception and Provision of Materials Once the three steps are performed, materials that will be used to report new cases can be made available to students. The materials could be statement forms that students will fill information of bullying experienced. After filling, students will return the forms to a discipline department where appropriate measures will be enacted.

Conclusion Learning institutions must take the role of reducing cyber bullying at all cost in the institutions (Hunter, 2012). They must determine the factors that fit in the fight against cyber bullying. Clear and concise determination of activities to be performed in the program will mark the credibility of the results. This activity will, therefore, mark the beginning of success in the program.

References Andras, P 2011, ‘Research: metrics, quality, and management implications’, Research Evaluation, vol. 14 no. 3, pp. 90-106.

Hunter, N. (2012). Cyber bullying. Chicago, Ill.: Heinemann Library.

McDavid, J. C.


Strategic plan. Tiffany and Co Evaluation Essay college admissions essay help

Executive summary Strategic planning involves the analysis of changes in the environment, formulating objectives of the organization. It also involves establishing activities to allocate resources. The strategic planning framework includes an organizing team of management, planning staff, and auditing the environment or situation. Brand names used by companies place them above their competitors in the global markets.

A unique brand name is very influential especially in expansion of businesses both locally and internationally. Focusing on strategies that put the organization in a competitive position is a key to success for all organizations. Organizations that employ strategic planning in their operations are ever in a better position to do or perform well.

It is easy for them to introduce new products to the market as well as to expand their business both locally and globally. Setting strong goals, vision and mission that direct them in achieving the set goals is critical for all organizations’ performance. Consequently the value statements are crucial in motivating the workforce and the organization at large.

Environmental scanning provides analyses of the internal and external environment. It involves owning and using information about occurrences within the environment. Environmental scan aids managers in making decisions regarding their company. In the internal environment, the scanning lingers the trends to be followed to make the internal operations a success.

It also determines how the trends should affect the work and the workforce. In the external environment, the scanning is done in the immediate, national and broad socioeconomic environment. It can be also done on the macro environment. In cases of economic recession, companies should implement plans to stay in the market. In such a scenario, it is also preferable that they seek new markets for their products.

Setting strong objectives is very critical in implementing plans. Companies should employ functional tactics to ensure good performance. The tactics include the adoption of lean administration concept and proper market segmentation. In this case, they are instrumental in ensuring effective management of resources, product design, and development of new business units.

Success factors for implementation are essential elements that aid execution of tasks. They ensure that key activities within the implementation process are executed with limited complications. Action plans are critical to strategic planning. They break strategic plans into noticeable steps. Each step is given to performers, and it is suggested when each step should be accomplished.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the implementation plan, a timeline for implementation is determined, service providers are trained and educated, their roles and responsibilities are defined, written protocols for referrals are developed, as well as policies and procedures. The company has an obligation to implement key action items that hold the ability of sustaining its performance capacity.

Managers in any institution should adopt effective techniques of resource management and allocation as these are key drivers for strategic planning. Risk management plans are important for companies when they are faced with severe risks that are caused by hostile environmental conditions.

A reliable and effective management plan is vital for an organization to overcome workplace resistance at a time when changes or adjustments take place. Change of a management strategy helps in presenting a new way of doing business. In this context, the analysis is focused on how Tiffany


Explanation of Nuremberg Defense Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Nuremberg Defense

New Working and the Enhancement of the Ethics Code

Socially improving society or a socially declining society?

Reference List

Nuremberg Defense Murdough (2010) explains that the Nuremberg Defense is a means by which individuals pass on the culpability (i.e. the responsibility) of a particular act to their superiors under the concept of them merely “following orders” (Murdough, 2010).

This particular terminology developed as a direct result of the Nazi war crimes trials that were held in Nuremberg during World War 2 wherein actions related to mass murder, genocide, violations of human rights and other related atrocities were charged to numerous Nazi military officials yet many claimed that they did such actions under duress or obligation due to fear of persecution on the part of their superior officers.

As such, the Nuremberg Defense can be stated as an appeal that defends a person’s innocence on the grounds that it was the organization and not necessarily them on a personal level that is ultimately responsible for a heinous act that occurred. This means of “passing the buck” so to speak is not limited to cases such as the Nuremberg trials; in fact the Nuremberg defense became one of the primary reasons behind changes in the Ethics code of the APA.

The primary reason behind such a decision was that the Council of Representatives noted that the language present in the iteration of the Ethics code prior to their February 2010 possessed a means by which the responsibility of a psychologist towards acts violating human rights could be passed along in a “robotic” fashion due to the psychologist in question following the letter of the law rather the intended spirit of the law as embodied by the APA code of ethics (American Psychological Association, 2009).

In fact the differential association theory created by Sutherland states that “crime does not originate from individual traits or a person’s socio-economic position rather it is a type of behavior that is created through a learning process” (Siegel, 2011). Thus, from a certain perspective, it can be assumed that violation of human rights in the case of psychologists would not be viewed as distinctly “unethical” since for them if an organization condones such acts due to war or testimony in a criminal act this would make certain violations acceptable, this is the primary situation that the APA Council is attempting to prevent from developing among members of the general population of psychologists.

In this regard, the Council focused on amendments which impacted “Conflicts between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority” as well as amendments concerning “Conflicts between Ethics and Organizational Demands”. Through the work of Knapp


Working Across Boundaries Analysis Exploratory Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

What is Outsourcing?

Cost Savings

Problems with Distance

A Diversified Workforce

Disadvantages of Workforce Diversity

Benefits of Workforce Diversity


Reference List

Introduction Companies often encounter boundaries when it comes to creating efficient business processes whether in the form of distance or differences in business culture, however, by overcoming such boundaries better business operations can be attained.

As indicated by Piercy (2006) in order for any company to continue to be competitive within the present day global market place it is necessary for it to be highly responsive to changes, receptive to new developments within its market, highly creative as well as espouses actions of innovation and continued increases in efficiency (ex: Six Sigma) (Piercy, 2006: 3).

Such aspects though are dependent on the employees of a company wherein through the use of proper management practices a company is able to create stable internal procedures to ensure proper operations and product development which would inevitably result in a successful company.

The purpose of this project is to explain the advantages and disadvantages to working across boundaries, in this case distance and a diversified workforce. Through such a method of examination, it is expected that a greater understanding of today’s globalized business environment will be developed resulting in the promotion of the appropriate management practices to overcome such boundaries.

This paper is divided into 2 primary sections; the first section discusses the boundary of distance as exemplified by the outsourcing industry. The second section deals primarily with the diversified workforces that have come about as a direct result of the present day orientation of multinational companies to expand into different markets.

Through both sections, a clear idea can be developed regarding both the advantages and disadvantages of working across boundaries. It is the assumption of the researcher that, proper management practices can help to overcome boundaries such as distance and a diverse workforce thereby creating effective business operations.

What is Outsourcing? As explained by Marchington et al. (2005), corporate executives are under pressure to improve the competitiveness of their companies through cost reduction, increased efficiency as well as the improvement of various services. It is due to this that they have been turning towards outsourcing as of late in order to resolve such issues (Marchington et al., 2005: 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The term “outsourcing” actually refers to the practice wherein a company contracts another company to perform a particular business function for them at a reduced cost as compared to the main company doing it themselves (Young Bong