Table of Contents Introduction
Debates on animal testing and public opinion
Arguments of animal testing supporters
Animal testing is not that feasible
The major reason why animal testing is still used
Introduction People start using animals for various purposes in prehistoric times. The development of humanity gradually led to more sophisticated forms of such use.
Eventually animals are used to test numerous substances which are developed for human use. However, the twentieth century was the epoch of rising activism which also touched the sphere of animal testing. To date, there are numerous ongoing debates on issues concerning animal testing.
Many people argue that it is inhumane to make animals suffer even if it can lead to breakthrough in medicine or technology. Scientists have developed some alternative ways of testing. Many countries enact various laws to restrict the use of animals in chemical industry and medicine.
Nevertheless, animal testing is still widespread. The major reason for such “devotion” to animal testing can be explained by the fact that alternative sources of testing are insufficient and too inaccurate to replace conventional way of testing.
Debates on animal testing and public opinion Admittedly, animal testing is one of the most controversial topics which involve a lot of ethical issues. For instance, it is estimated that in Britain about three million animals “from fruit flies to mice to non-human primates” are used in testing annually, “and may either be killed or subsequently euthanized” (Swami et al, 2008, p. 269).
Such statistics makes the most extreme animal rights activists claim that even “if animal research produced a cure for AIDS” it is not the sufficient excuse to torture animals (Yount, 2008, p. 47). It goes without saying that not all think in the following way. Many people agree that animal testing can be used in science but should be banned in cosmetics.
Interestingly, Swami et al. (2008) found that attitudes towards animal testing differ depending on gender, age, nationality and education. Thus, female oppose this kind of testing to greater extent than males do.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The researchers point out that “this difference in attitudes may be associated with women being more “tender-minded” than men” (Swami et al., 2008, p. 274). Apart from this Swami et al. (2008) report that junior students tend to be more negative about animal testing than undergraduates.
This can be explained by the fact that undergraduates see that animal testing brings certain results which are often helpful for the development of medicine. Therefore, they may accept that animals are sacrificed for the sake of development. Admittedly, many start thinking that making test is essential but it is better to use animals rather than people.
Animal testing opponents also claim that there are other ways of testing. For instance, in vitro testing, which involves the use of cell cultures, is believed to become a good alternative to in vivo, i.e. animal testing. Of course, many people argue that there is no need in testing compounds if they contain some dangerous components. Abbott (2005) points out that there are certain regulations which restrict animal testing in many cases.
At this point it is important to note that the majority of animal experiments supporters claim that animal testing is feasible when it deals with science. As far as cosmetics industry is concerned people tend to be less positive about animal testing.
For instance, not long ago the change to European Union’s Cosmetics Directive was enacted which “phases out over ten years the use of animals in cosmetics testing” (Abbott, 2005, p. 144).
It is possible to state that public opinion about animal testing in cosmetics industry coincides with the attitudes of officials and scientists. Nonetheless, animal testing is still widespread. It goes without saying that animal testing supporters have many arguments for using animals in testing.
Arguments of animal testing supporters For instance, scientists supporting animal testing claim that “two-thirds of the Nobel Prize” in physiology or medicine were awarded for discoveries that grew at least partly of experiments on animals” (Yount, 2008, p. 48). More so, Yount (2008) reports that scientists point out that numerous preventive methods have been developed with the help of animal testing.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Against Animal Testing: Why It Is Still Being Used if So Many People Are Against specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the most burning issues to be solved in medicine is developing vaccine to cure AIDS. Chimpanzees are “the only nonhuman animals that HIV… will infect” (Yount, 2008, p. 49). It is but natural that scientists try to use these mammals to find the cure.
Notably, though researchers admit that animals cannot be regarded as a perfect match for testing products developed for humans, animal research is still informative. Admittedly, scientists can understand whether they are working in the right direction relying on the results of animal experiments.
Animal testing is not that feasible However, it is important to note that animal testing is often insufficient to make definite conclusion about this or that substance. Additional test on humans are made or substance is not used at all. Therefore, it is possible to claim that many animals die or suffer in vain. Moreover, some tests can provide equivocal results. It goes without saying that this can be extremely dangerous for humans.
For instance, in embryotoxicity tests, which presuppose that pregnant animals are given chemicals, do not give sufficient certainty that the same results can be obtained in human. Interestingly, Horst Spielmann, toxicologist, speaking about cortisone which is used in medicine and is really helpful in many cases notes:
Animal embryotoxicity tests are not reliably predictive for humans… When we find that cortisone is embryotoxic in all species tested except human, what are we supposed to make of them? (qtd. in Abbott, 2005, p. 145)
As far as such serious disease as cancer is concerned the same can be said. Thus, Abbott (2005) provides an example that for testing some chemical (whether it causes cancer) many animals are used and more than fifty per cent of the results obtained are positive, but out of these positive results ninety per cent are false positive. Such results cannot be regarded as sufficiently predictive.
It is necessary to point out that life expectancy in humans is much higher than that of animals. Therefore, it is nearly impossible to obtain results which will help predict long-term effects of chemicals. In the majority of cases long-term effects are of great importance, especially in medicine. Nevertheless, scientists still use animal tests to predict such long-term effects, though they admit that the results of their research cannot be regarded as feasible.
Baldrick (2010) also points out that the use of juvenile animals is not useful. It is suggested that there is no certainty that juveniles of some mammals respond to some chemicals in the same way as children will do. The researcher states that the benefits of the use of juvenile animals for experiments are doubtful in terms of pediatric development. Therefore, it is necessary to rethink animal testing in this field.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Against Animal Testing: Why It Is Still Being Used if So Many People Are Against by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The major reason why animal testing is still used It goes without saying that such data call for changes. Presumably, scientist should have stopped relying on animal test if they are so ineffective. However, researchers do not turn to alternative methods of testing that easily.
Notably, introduction of the alternative testing methods and restricting programs led to reduction of the number of animals used for testing, but the number is still significant: three million animals are used for testing each year (Abbott, 2005, p. 144). The reason why animal testing is still one of the major methods of testing can be explained by the fact that there is still no more (or at least equally) effective alternative method.
For instance, it has been much said about the use of cell cultures during the experiments. Speit (2009) suggests that existing genotoxicity tests should be improved since it is still unclear whether chemicals would affect in the same way in humans.
Admittedly, using cell cultures during experiments can provide helpful data, but the results obtained are still insufficient to draw certain conclusions about this or that chemical. These experiments are implemented in artificial environments and the results in real life environment can be absolutely different. Basically, this is the major limitation of the use of in vitro tests.
It is important to note that many researchers try to work out feasible in vitro tests. Officials try to work out effective laws and programs restricting the use of animals in testing. For instance, Creton et al. (2010) report that in vitro test can be successful in dermal toxicity tests, skin irritation tests, skin sensitization tests, eye irritation tests. The researchers also claim that further development of alternative testing methods is needed.
Thus, researchers now resort to in vivo and in vitro tests and this approach provides more feasible results than each method separately. Researchers try to be absolutely sure in their tests results. Admittedly, if they rely only on in vitro tests they take risks, and that is unacceptable in medicine and science. Therefore, the use of animals for testing is inevitable, at least in nearest future.
Conclusion On balance, it is possible to note that the issues concerning animal testing are still topical. In the majority of cases people agree that animal testing in cosmetics industry should be restricted or even banned. However, when it deals with science and medicine, there are two opinions.
Animal testing opponents claim that no scientific or medical breakthrough can justify cruelty over animals, i.e. animal testing. Those who support the use of animals for testing claim that this is the only method available for researchers.
Even though several alternative methods of testing (in vitro testing) exist, animal testing is still the major method used in science and medicine. This can be explained by the fact that alternative testing methods do not provide researchers with feasible results.
All testing methods are considered to be insufficient. It is possible to state that animal testing, though being not perfect as well, is regarded as more reliable than other methods. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo tests are used. Notable, many researchers try to develop new alternative methods and improve existing. Admittedly, this will enable researchers to abandon animal testing but at the same time obtain feasible data.
Reference List Abbott, A. (2005). More Than a Cosmetic Change. NATURE, 438, 144-146.
Baldrick, P. (2010). Juvenile Animal Testing in Drug Development – Is It Useful? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 57, 291-299.
Creton, S., Dewhurst, I. C., Earl, L. K., Gehen, S. C., Guest, R. L., Hotchkiss, J. A., Indans, I., Woolhiser, M.R., Billington, R. (2010). Acute Toxicity Testing of Chemicals -Opportunities to Avoid Redundant Testing and Use Alternative Approaches. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 40 (1), 50-83.
Speit, G. (2009). How to Assess the Mutagenic Potential of Cosmetic Products Without Animal Tests? Mutation Research, 678, 108-112.
Swami, V., Furnham, A.,
Diplomatic Protocols and Privileges Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Barston (2006) defines diplomacy as the administration of interstate interactions. Other variables that may affect any of the states are also included in the interaction. A diplomat therefore promotes their country’s national interests by representing the country in negotiations and doing tasks that promote national interest.
The ministry of Foreign affairs in most cases has a department that trains and equips the diplomatic employees. It is also concerned with their welfare as they conduct missions abroad. Consequently, diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges have been designed in pursuit of their good conduct and their welfare (Berridge 2002 p. 201).
The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges apply to both the diplomats and the supporting staff working in the embassy. The top ranking diplomats enjoy more privileges than the supporting staff. Their families who accompany them also enjoy such privileges.
The diplomacy contributes to the states’ implementation of foreign policy. The diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges vary from one state to another and vary in the way it applies (Melissen 1999, p. 12) This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges.
The advantages and disadvantages of diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges Advantages
In accordance with Berridge (2002 p. 10), diplomatic protocol and diplomatic privileges ensure that diplomats are catered for in their social lives. There are provisions for the diplomat where the family is catered for. The diplomat is allowed to live with members of his family.
There are situations where there are severe hard ships. These provisions enable the diplomat to perform his duties better than they would without such support. For instance, diplomats send abroad are send with their families where they live. They are provided for housing and are taken care of in case of emergency. The ministry of finance where they belong must give adequate support.
The United States ministry of finance has to offer maximum security to its diplomats in foreign states. This is as a result of past attacks on American embassies. Whenever there is a security threat, there are arrangements made to protect them. In some cases, in warring countries, they are flown back to home country as soon as possible (Hamilton
Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Background Information on Behavioral Differences of Mutual Fund Managers Algorithmic Trading and Mutual Funds
It should be stressed that algorithmic trading is frequently used by mutual funds because it allows the managers to calculate securities in large amounts with the help of sophisticated mathematical formulas. In particular, this form of trading includes the division of larger amount of shares into smaller groups to provoke quick selling and buying.
Therefore, algorithmic trading is used by mutual funds to successfully manage opportunity cost, market impact, and risks (Bergan and Devine, 2005). Automated trading is also used to initiate orders premised on date received electronically to define such aspects as timing, price, and final income.
With regard to the above-presented considerations, Chaudhuri (2004) and Khnadani and Lo (2007) state that algorithmic trading enable the mutual fund managers to identify whether their profits can be forecasted in terms of risks and returns obtained at mutual funds.
Particular role in defining the connection will be played by random and autoregressive models proposed by Friedman and Shachmurove (1997) for defining the future values of mutual fund performance. Beside greater accuracy of prediction, the risk adjustment rate can be calculated in a less time consuming mode providing more valid results.
Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior
It has been commonly recognized that processes of forecasting and modeling are intrinsic, challenging, and fluctuating. These processes are closely associated with a random walk process implying that these correlation series are statistically and economically insignificant (Malkiel, 2003).
Such an assumption is premised on the studies of Eugene Fama (1970) who believes that stock markets were significantly efficient in presenting data about individual stocks and about stock market in general. With regard to this theory, there is a close relation between the information available and the extent to which future outcomes are predictable.
However, financial researchers and statistics are more inclined to believe that stock prices as well as returns are to an extent predictable (Malkeil, 2003). In particular, Adaptive Market Hypothesis has emerged in an effort to reconcile behavioral and predictable models of stock prices identification.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduced by Andrew Lo (2004, 2005), the concept applies evolution principles , those of adaptation and natural selection to financial operations. Predictability of mutual fund returns can be analyzed from different perspectives. On the one hand, predictability enables investors to earn extra returns whereas unpredictable processes prevent them from achieving this goal.
One the other hand, results base on predictability do not necessarily imply that profits is connected with unfavorable risk; at the same time, unpredictable calculations can lead to profit if their expected risk is favorable (Hallahan et al. 2009). One way or another, the estimated results are uncertain because the forecasting is based on measuring the extent of uncertainty.
This means that probability theory should be introduced to define the number of probability to each particular event where the highest certainty is applied to number 1 (Lo, 2004). The assessment of probability level is aimed at achieving Sharpe ratio that reveals the way the return compensates the risk taken. In this respect, the higher the ration is the more return is obtained for the same risk, in case risk free rate benchmark is a constant.
The above information presents how scheme according to which expectations are identified. In this respect, Khandani and Lo (2007) and Chaudhuri (2004) believe that short-term mean reversal model of algorithmic trading allowing the mutual managers to define whether their profits can be predicted with reliance on random model of forecasting accuracy of risks and returns at mutual funds.
Methodology Before applying specific algorithmic trading models, it is necessary to state that “fund managers who are interim losers are likely to increase fund volatility in the latter part of the assessment period to a greater extent than interim winners” (Hallahan et al., 2009, p. 14).
This tournament behavior can be predicted within the risk adjustment ration (RAR) model: (σ2L/σ1L)>(σ2W/σ1W) (1), where σ1 and σ2 are identical to the portfolio risk levels at the first and the second stages correspondently. L and W letters refer to lose and winner respectively. The presented equation provides a solid basis for further analysis and prediction of tournament behavior in mutual funds with the help of algorithmic trading models (Alonso, 2010).
As it has been mentioned before, computational tools contribute greatly to the analysis of risk-return ratios based on a risk shifting behavior. In case the risk is not a constant indicator, the Sharpe ratio will look as follows:
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More where R is the return the investor will get, Rf – free rate risk, and σ – is fund volatility. With regard to the assumptions made by Alonso (2010), Fama (1970), and Friedman and Shachmurove (1997), free rate risk can undergo shifts in the course of time.
Consequently, algorithmic trading, particularly linear autoregressive model, can provide more accurate results while presenting calculations of predictability and changing values of stocks in future (Wilson and Banzhaf, 2010).
First stage regression, therefore is needed to evaluate the amount of the information obtained: Mit=αi ۷i βQit εit (3), where Mit is dependable variable, Qit is the autoquote set, αi is fixed effect on stock and ۷t is a set established per day (Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld, 2011).
Tournament behavior also presupposes regime switching, which is strictly adhered to Adaptive Market Hypothesis proposed by Lo (2004, 2005). Tournament behavior of mutual funds, therefore, is often predetermined with the desire to predict those switches and gain a competitive advantage.
In this respect, algorithmic trading models and strategies can assist in defining achieving the highest Sharpe ratio with the help of high-frequency trading (Butler, 2007). This approach is quite effective if attached to the Sharpe ration because the more bet the mutual fund manager place, the smaller standard deviation from the mean they will experience.
Another theory of algorithmic trading is Game theory that is applicable to capturing behavior in making specific choices (Alonso, 2010; Aumann, 1987). Being initially introduced for evaluating competitions where one individual is competitively stronger than another, the model contributes to better understanding of changing prices in the efficient market.
The model for understanding the changing behavior is simple. For instance, if the rise today is higher than the expected rise, than it is predicted that the rise tomorrow will be lower than the rise today. The probability model can be presented as follows:
where Pt is the rise per a particular unit of time, which is an independent variable (Alonso, 2010). Hence, the two unite events embracing the probability statement are associated with the action defined in informal prediction model presented above.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Algorithmic Trading on Tournament Behavior of Mutual Fund Managers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While moving on with the analysis of spread and probability, high frequency model is placed within the context of presenting risk management techniques and trading rules.
With reference to trading rules, it is imperative to consider the marketing position in pair that enables to avoid magnitude of mean reversion and minimize the standard deviation. Hence, we should choose a return rate and portfolio weights to diminish the overall fluctuation of the portfolio (Chiu et al., 2011; Gatev et al., 2006). All these calculation can be presented in accordance with Markowitz model:
While presenting a pair selection scheme, it is imperative to analyze those pairs for stationarity and reversion. In order to assess the risk taken by mutual fund manager, it is necessary to avoid market risk through presenting pairs of assets as ∆β≤0.1 (Chiu et al. 2009, p. 6).
The pairs will be selected from the same sectors to avoid misconception and industry risk. Here the main risk encountered by managers is regime switching (Alonso, 2010). In other words, the pairs spread no longer takes place and the time span for mean reversion has been radically changed.
Conclusion The above presented models offered by Alonso (2010), Chui et al. (2009), Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld (2011) contribute greatly the analysis of tournament behavior of mutual fund manager in terms of timing, risk management, and liquidity.
The theories proposed by Aumann (1987), Lo (2004, 2005), and Wilson and Banzhaf (2010) are greatly elaborated by above-presented computational tools. In particular, the reliance on autoregressive model and reversion mean support the theory offered by Fama (1970) about the risk-changing behavior at the investment market.
Reference List Alonso, N. M. (2010). Statistical Arbitrage and Algorithmic Trading: Overview and Applications. UNED. Available at: http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv.php?pid=tesisuned:CiencEcoEmp-Mnoguer
The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework Report best essay help
Article Summary The paper presents a sociological theory on the cause of a steady mental disorder. Although the evidences in support of the theory are based on previous formulations, Scheff develops a precise sociological theory that attempts to explain the cause and path of a stable mental disorder.
Using the concepts of the social institution of insanity, residual deviance, the societal responsibility of the individual with mental illness, and the divergence of the societal response such as denial and labeling, Scheff constructs a theory of mental disorder in which the psychiatric signs are thought of as violations of social norms, and stable “mental illness” to be a social role (Scheff, 1999).
Essential to this theory are 9 proposals that require experimental processes.
By restricting the forms of behavior that are to be covered, by basing the paper on previous findings, and by applying an entirely sociological approach (such as the theory of residual deviance), the author proposes a methodology in which the dynamics of mental disorder take place within the system consisting of the person exhibiting deviant behavior and those responding to it.
According to the theory designed here, the basis for the initiation, maintenance and end of the deviant conduct referred to as mental disorder are parts of the social system, and cannot be separated, hence, from endopsychic forms of behavior.
Fat is a Sociological Issue: Obesity rates in late modern, ‘bodyconscious’ societies This paper surveys the factors involved in the current spiraling of obesity rates in the contemporary society, focusing both upon the causes of the high prevalence rates and its effects. Crossley contends that rates of obesity have risen rapidly in the last two decades, causing some people to talk of an imminent crisis and compelling governments and health institution to react (Crossley, 2004).
Many studies in the sociology of the body are centered on the social belief that certain ‘bodies’ are more acceptable than others, for example, slimness, fitness, and good health are socially acceptable practices. Proof of this assertion exists in the steadily rising number of health clubs in the UK and the corresponding number of subscriptions in the last decade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another trend that exists next to exercise is that of dieting. Diet books are among bestseller listings, besides, food consumption in response to recommended diets are very significant. A large number of persons ascribe to weight watching clubs and associations, known as ‘body-conscious society’ (Crossley, 2004).
Body fat affects the BMI and a value of 20 -25 BMI value is deemed normal, a value less than 20 is deemed underweight while a value of 25-30 is considered overweight, with a value greater than 30 considered obese. Obesity varies with age, and narrowly with age and social class, with women at a higher risk of becoming obese.
Due to the social concern, the author contends that the steadily rising rate of obesity is a social fact. This is evidenced in two ways, first, the statistics relating to obesity are normally given in societal perspectives, for example, obesity varies between individuals, and across societies, that is, it is a social variable. Secondly, the causative agent for the variation of obesity rates is social. Individual differences in levels of obesity, biological or psychosomatic, cannot be used to explicate on the variations in obesity rates.
There are two broad causes of obesity: lifestyle and modernity. We do less physical exercise, live a sedentary lifestyle and use several labor saving appliances at home and at work, consumption of high-calorie foods has increased both in frequency and quantity.
It worthy to note that social changes leading to a rise in obesity are related to class and gender variations, this is proven by the fact that obesity is lower among the lower class. The latter sections of the paper attempts to explain the relation between body and society and how fluctuations of the rate of obesity affect the society (illness and early death).
This paper targets a general population, especially one that is at a higher risk of becoming obese. This is derived from the fact that it informs of the causative agents of obesity and prevention. It may also be useful to sociologists trying to understand the link between body and the society.
Fat Ethics’ – The Obesity Discourse and Body Politics The paper examines how facts about obesity are presented and availed to the public, and the ethical concerns arising from the public’s comprehension of obesity. Public understanding of obesity is frequently based on various sources of information that focus of cause and prevention of the disease, however, other health problems such as cancer do not receive similar coverage on the public domain, particularly relating to the ethical and moral elements.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the mentally ill and the dynamics of mental disorder: A research framework specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information availed to the public on the ‘obesity epidemic ’ through various media focuses on the grave effects of being obese, the scientific facts about obesity are restated to give authority and sureness to the allegations of the growing rates of the ‘epidemic’ (Rich
Diageo and The Recession Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Successful management in today’s business environment requires that managers understand that the concept of management involves various function and that these functions are interrelated. As such successful managers need to understand how to combine and apply each of these functions in the organization they are running.
Boddy (2002) explains that management is a wholesome process that incorporates several function such mapping, arranging, directing, controlling and learning in the process.
Mapping a management plan involves the act of clearly establishing the available organization resources and allocating them to achieve the set objectives.
This means that setting desired objectives is part of management (Ghosh and Ghosh 1991). Because managers manage people as well as resources they have to establish the best relationship with this people to establish best support mechanism.
Management is also intended for the achievement of certain objectives and as such there has to a strict monitoring process. The monitoring ensures that there is an established mechanism of control that provides learning opportunities on management.
Ghosh and Ghosh (1991) also add that since not all management is form the benefit of man, then special consideration can be given to this perspective to include the attainment of a prior set objective.
There are various approaches to management each of tem having unique characteristics. Despite the fact that these approaches have varying propositions they all congregate around Quinn et al (2003) Competing Values Framework, CVF (See appendix 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This model is frame work that describes the management functions as driven by a number of competing factors. It is quite a difficult task to create employee satisfaction by enhancing cooperation, unity, flexible job roles, team work cohesion amongst is maintained while maintaining rational goals.
This is because setting of rational goals is an individualistic and such destroys team work. Goal setting also involves a lot of instructions thus becoming an unreceptive and demoralizing to employees (Quinn 1988; Quinn et al 2003).
This is because internal control involves a lot of tracking and rationalization of the team as well as employees’ roles and tasks. Internal controls are characterized by skepticism and cynism that may affect employee Morales.
Moreover it also becomes difficult to have an open system in a work place that encourages innovation. Open systems require a lot of negotiated brokerage in problem solving. Internal controls do have the tendency to conflict with open systems.
Diageo Plc Diageo plc, registered in London is the biggest alcoholic drinks company in the world in terms of sales, market capitalization as well as products range (Diageo 2011a; Wakely 2001).
The company motor is to provide an opportunity to make merry during any of the merry making occasions at any location in the world.
As such the company prides itself in having some of the world’s most famous alcoholic brands. Among many popular brands, the company brand portfolio includes Johnnie Walker, Crown Royal, J
The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change Rhetorical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Overview
The sociology of work
Overview The Industrial Revolution is the era of massive enormous technological advancements and social changes, which affected people to the extent which is often contrasted to the change from hunter and gathering to agriculture. Development of machines increased production and enhanced the economy that had initially relied on skilled labor.
The exact dates are an issue for a heated debate about this period because different historians examine and study it from their own point of view. The most spirited debate was held in the period from the 1760s to the 1840s. The origins of this dispute can be traced to Great Britain from where it then spread to the rest of the world, including the United States.
The term industrial revolution was employed to depict the era by the 1830s, but contemporary historians progressively term it a ‘pioneer Industrial Revolution’. It was influenced by advancements in textiles, steam and iron, which were implemented first in Great Britain.
These facts distinguish this revolution from a subsequent one of the 1850s which was marked with the innovations in steel production, automobiles and electrics and arose in Germany and the U.S.
A number of things changed both economically and industrially. The innovation of steam power was deployed to provide energy to transport and factories, which allowed deeper mining. Advancements in iron making methods caused large and high production levels.
New machines, like jenny and spinning, changed the textile industry and other related industries, thus permitting increased production at reduced costs. Enhanced machine tools appeared due to additional and improved machinery. The industrial revolutions enabled the creation of novel and faster transport networks through railways and canals.
Swift urbanization led to building new cramped houses and adapting to changing circumstances and environment. Emerging factories and city cultures affected peer groups and families. There emerged laws and debates concerning public health, child labor and working conditions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Firstly, industrial revolution was caused by the end of feudalism, which changed relationships in the economy. Secondly, the increase in population due to reduce in the level of the diseases and numbers of infant deaths permitted of a massive mechanized work force. Thirdly, the agrarian revolution freed individuals from the lands and drove them to the urban places and manufacturing industry.
It was also caused by proportionally vast amounts of extra money for investment. There were discoveries in the technical development giving rise to a new machinery. Colonial trade systems and the existence of all the necessary resources also caused industrial revolution. Finally, the culture of working hard inventing new ideas and taking risks promoted the industrial revolution.
Debate Historians, like Craft and Clapham, debated that there was a slow evolution in the industrial divisions as opposed to a prompt revolution. It is not certain how the revolution worked because historians are still attempting to separate some very interconnected inventions.
There were corresponding developments in a number of industries and other related spheres; these innovations, for example, production of cotton, surged and motivated the others. Debate is still conducted about the reason why the industrial uprising commenced at that time and why it began in Britain.
The sociology of work Moreover, if a fundamental division of labor was significant to resourceful production in definite forms of productions and inventions, this did not justify the transition to massive numbers of industries. A number of domestic productions assumed the new technological and organizational methods prior to the multiplication of industries.
There is the need to expound why a dramatically resourceful method of production centered at home, generating a conversion to factory organization. The answer is more likely to be the one, on which the central characters of this issue agree. Household production of this manner was successful, thus allowing employees to do minimal work for more wages.
There is no human being craving to acquire material riches through labor hen there can be an alternative. If technology enhanced greater levels of profit for minimal attempts and if the enlightening norms were to reduce human effort rather than exploit human reward, then the expertise could just either serve to limit or to increase a total production.
We will write a custom Essay on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The answer of merchants and putting out industrialists were eminent: to compose the most of the novel techniques needed to vital and hierarchic control – employees were to be forced to work when industrialists needed them too, but not while they desired it (Wharton, Vallas and Finlay, 55).
Cultural changes The Revolution was initiated in 1966. Mao assumed that bourgeois fundamentals were invading the government and community as a whole, aspiring to reinstate capitalism. He asserted that these “revisionists” were ejected through aggressive class struggle. The Chinese youth reacted to Mao’s plea by establishing Red Guard groups across the nation.
The group increased the martial, urban employees, and the Communist Party management itself. This revolution resulted in extensive fractional wrangles in all spheres of the people’s lives. In the premier leadership, it resulted in a huge crowd of superior officials who were blamed for opposing the socialist way, most remarkably Shaoqi and Xiaoping. In this matching era, Mao’s classified sect extended to enormous numbers.
Millions of citizens were victimized by the brutal, factional wrangles that threatened the entire nation, and underwent a wide range of insults including anguish, rape, captivity, continued harassment, and abduction of wealth. A mammoth fragment of the inhabitants was forcibly relocated, the most outstanding event was the relocation of metropolitan youth to countryside areas. Historical artifacts and ruins were shattered. Cultural and holy sites were looted.
Social changes When the accumulative manufacturing of the Industrial Revolution swamped the market with reasonable consumer products, these manufactured goods significantly enhanced the life style of the people of these industrialized nations. When the cost of life reduced, and the living standard amplified, the inhabitants experienced an enormous boom.
The population only of Europe increased four times, and in the continent of America, the number of people rose significantly between 1700 and 1900. This populace boom emerged because of top rates of birth due to the reduced costs of living and the dropping of death rates owing to a boost in sanitary surroundings and diets. The population boom that the industrial states encountered in the 1800s was identified as a demographic conversion.
A majority of families also faced modifications because of the Revolution. Initially, most of the families engaged in agricultural tasks before industrialization. However, the system of the factory gave rise to alterations in the family structure.
Members of the families, including children, were encouraged to leave the agricultural tasks concerned in the household and transfer to labor in mass production industries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Industrial Revolution and Beyond: Culture, Work, and Social Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The working categories of men enjoyed salaries, which were higher as compared to that of women who were also working. The enormous salaries made the men breadwinners, hence becaming the head of the families, while the other members were obliged to respect them.
Bibliography Wharton, Amy, Vallas, Steven and William Finlay. The Sociology of Work: Structures and Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Theology and Philosophy Research Paper essay help site:edu
The Author of “The Shape of Catholic Theology “tries to explain the importance of God in Christianity and how theology relates to philosophy. Philosophy and theology are relevant in explaining some of the basic elements of Christianity.
Although theology is about faith and revelation, it cannot overlook the importance of philosophy in its work. Philosophy is crucial in explain how the revelations relate to the existence of God. Philosophy explains the existence of God using the things that human beings posses. It proves that there is a supernatural being from the activities and habits that human beings adopt.
Philosophy asks questions and attempts to answer them, as does theology. The two relate because both attempt to give answers to the basic questions asked all over the world. The first case in this is the theory that explained the name God. All religions have different names for their higher being, but all of them believe that God is one and only.
Philosophers want to understand where the name originated from and whether it has any connection with reality. The Dogmatic constitution teaches us that a theologian should isolate himself or herself from the philosopher. The reason given by the constitution is the need to connect reason and faith, as well as nature and grace.
Catholicism believes in the grace of God and the ability to change the life of human beings so that they can lead a life that is not as God created. Theology bases their arguments on the fact that God is the one shaping one’s destiny, but a philosopher will want to understand the nature of the being as God created before it undergoes the transformation.
The Catholic Church believes that human beings became corrupt after the fall. Therefore, they argue that philosophers are also the corrupt. However, the fact that Jesus came to save the world means that man is not totally corrupt. They base this on the fact that man has his roots in how God created him.
The church wants to create a philosophy based on Christianity. This is by answering questions about the existence of God. This philosophy will use revelation to explain and answer questions. The key question that needs to be answered is the question of the existence of God.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theology can answer this based on the realities like Jesus, and the holy sacrament. Theology also explains the existence of God using the theory of perfections. This is evident when a human being strives to do everything perfectly. The inner voice or consciousness is also a true reflection of the existence of a supernatural being.
A philosopher says that human being has the drive to do the correct thing even if there is no one to judge him or her. The conscious feeling that people have in them is an unexplainable phenomenon that cannot be explained only by logic. It is a feeling inside the hearts of human beings that is so powerful that it can only be related to God.
In accordance to the Christian faith, the belief is that God exists. It is this existence that forms the foundation of Christian faith and is unshakable within the realms of this faith. The proof of the existence of God can be found in human nature. An example mentioned in the text is that Christianity is guided by hope, as it is the desire or anticipation for things to occur.
Hope guides Christians into being optimistic that their dreams will be fulfilled through letting God have his way into their lives. The combination of the two aspects i.e. existence of God and hope cultivate into morals within the Christian faith. Another example that was given is the urge and desire to satisfy the internal and bodily needs. Human beings have a never-ending urge to do things over and over again.
The urges never disappear even if the person repeats the action several times. The desires seem to be aimed at finding satisfaction in another place or world. This means that there is another world or body that can satisfy these needs. They believe that heaven is the place where man will find lasting satisfactions of these desires, and find the true meaning of life (Aidan 67). Hope is one of the things that are consistent in the lives human beings.
No matter the situation, they will still hold on to the hope of a good life afterwards. The same applies to the case of an eternal life; human beings belief that there is a place where everything is perfect with no problem. They hope that they will go to heaven and find eternal peace. This is because people believe that God is the determiner of destiny and has good plans for everyone.
Bibliography Aidan, Nichols. The Shape of Catholic Theology. London: Liturgical Press, 1991, Print.
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Starbucks – Competitor of GC3 Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help
The following review is an analysis of Great Cups Coffee Co. (GC3) with Starbucks. The present report provides a detailed analysis of the competitive analysis of Starbucks and GC3 . The first part of the report will deal with the web analytics of Starbucks and show how the competitor is successful or unsuccessful in making its online presence work.
Figure 1 shows that there is a great deal of traffic in the website. Daily page viewers actually provide the percentage of internet users worldwide are viewing Starbucks’ website. The figure shows data for the last 6 months. The data demonstrates that there is a decline in the number of visits to the website and it follows a cyclical pattern.
Visits are more from mid-October to mid-November. The traffic to the website has been high from December through January. However, for the months of August through early October traffic has been low. Web analytics tools show that in the past one month, page views for GC3 have increased by 3% while that of Starbucks has declined by 7.5%. for three months period, GC3 has seen an increase of 180% viewership while Starbucks faced only an increase of 30% viewership.
Figure 1: Website Traffic for Starbucks.
Figure 2: Page views for GC3.
Page views Change 1 month 0.000012 3% UP^ 3 month 0.000011 180% UP^ Figure 3: Top Queries from Search Traffic at GC3 and Starbucks.
GC3 Starbucks Query Percent of Search Traffic Percent of Search Traffic 1 keurig 17.85% starbucks 38.38% 2 k cups 10.32% coffee 2.30% 3 k-cups 3.17% starbucks locations 2.16% 4 k cup 2.55% starbucks menu 1.58% 5 great coffee 2.47% starbucks nutrition 1.17% 6 k cups cheap 2.36% company 1.14% 7 kcups 1.33% starbucks coffee 0.84% 8 kuerig 1.24% starbuck 0.83% 9 keurig k cups 1.08% starbucks card 0.73% 10 buy coffee beans online 1.03% starbucks.com 0.69% On comparing, the search queries for the GC3 and Starbucks are provided in figure 3. The table demonstrates that the top searches related for Starbucks is the brand itself while that for GC3 is Keurig. GC3 seem to have to favourite search items are Keurig and K-cups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A comparative analysis of Starbucks and GC3 based on demographics of viewers and the analysis shows that the age of the viewers to GC3 are less compared to the total number of 18-24 year olds on the Internet. On the other hand, the number of 18-24 year olds is just marginally low for Starbucks. Most of the people surfing GC3 website belongs to the age group of 35 to 64 years while that for Starbucks is 25 to 34 years.
In terms of education, the viewers of Starbucks page are usually been to College while for GC3 the viewers did not attend college or have been to some college. Mostly females surf the Starbucks website while that for GC3 cannot be specifically stated. GC3 is surfed by viewers who mostly have children while Starbucks website is surfed by those who do not have children. GC3 website is surfed mostly from home while Starbucks website from work.
There is a distinct difference in the income group of the viewers visiting GC3 and Starbucks. The former has viewers who mostly belong to the income group of $30,000 to $60,000 and above $100,000. While that for Starbucks is $60,000 to $100,000 and above $100,000. This difference indicates that mostly people with high-income groups surf the Starbucks website.
In both the websites, the maximum viewers are Caucasians. Further, in terms of geographic coverage, Starbucks is viewed in 10 countries including Asian and European countries while that of GC3 is viewed only in the United States. This can be viewed from the data derived from Google Analytics data as shown in figure 4, 5, 6, and 7.
Figure 4: Age Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 5 Income Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 6: Gender Demographics Starbucks visitors.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Starbucks – Competitor of GC3 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 7: Education Demographics Starbucks visitors.
Figure 8: Visitors interest in Starbucks website.
Interest Affinity Coffee
Parents and Families as Partners Expository Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Volunteering at the school and in the community
Supporting students learning at home
Involvement in decision making and advocacy
Collaboration with the community
Introduction Education is not an isolated experience but can be considered as an interactive endeavor that takes place over the course of a person’s life. When parents, families and school work together, they can provide the best possible resources and expertise to enhance the education of all their children.
In a synthesis on parents’ involvement, it was established that families and parents had a major influence on their children’s achievements in school and education in general. Parents and families can also be described, explained and understood more effectively by the illustrations explained of how a teacher or a school can encourage this type of partnership below. Parenting knowledge and skills.
According to Morrison , this is the education and the knowledge acquired by both the parents and the family as a whole of how to bring up their children. The parents are learning how to rise up children who value and appreciate the need of education as a part of their growth.
A teacher or a school encourages the need for parenting knowledge and skills when the advantages and the response of children and the community can be notified to the parents. Communication between home and the school.
A synthesis by Boult (2006) describes this as the relationship between school, parents and family of a student in a particular learning institution. A teacher encourages this communication by giving the parents opportunities to know teachers and interact with them. This encourages working in partnership to improve the children at the same time improving the morale of the teachers.
Volunteering at the school and in the community It is where parents, teachers and children are able to give the feedback to the society. This can be through working on community projects which encourage the interaction of the parents, teachers and children. Teachers and schools encourage this as it enables the partnering of both teachers and parents. They are in a better position to know more of the ways to help children to improve on their education.
Supporting students learning at home This can be described as the encouraging students to spend some of their spare time at home studying and the provision of the proper study environment at home. According to Boult , teachers and schools encourage this by offering home visits and visits of children the school community.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Involvement in decision making and advocacy Parents and families are included in the decision made by teachers and school about their children with their suggestions that are also taken into consideration. Before changes are made in schools, parents are allowed to offer their suggestions and give their views on the issues.
Collaboration with the community This is the working together between parents, families and teachers of students with the community to ensure educational success of the students. Teachers and schools encourage this by taking part in community activities as members of the community and, thus, being able to interact with families and parents discussing the ways of overcoming challenges in education.
This, therefore, leads to the conclusion that parents and families working together as partners with the teacher to support learning and education; this leads to children achieving better academic performance. Students can also stay in school for longer to complete their education.
References Boult, B. (2006). 176 Ways to Involve Parent: practical strategies for partnering families. California: Sage Publications Company.
Cox-Petersen, A. (2011). Educational Partnerships. London: Sage Publication Limited.
Morrison G. S. (2009). Early Childhood Education Today (11th ed.). California: Pearson.
First Nations/Aboriginal People and Justice System Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction The terms First Nations and Aboriginal people are commonly used to refer to indigenous people in Canada. The group makes up about 4% of the total population in Canada. The Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes three groups categorized as Aboriginal people. They include Indians, Métis and Inuit.
Large numbers of Aborigines occupy the northern part of Canada but few numbers are scattered all over the country. Statistics collected during the 2001 Census in Canada showed that North American Indians comprised a population of 957,650; Métis were 266,020 while the Inuit’s were 44,835.
It is however argued that the bureau did not give exact figures. The number of aboriginal people is expected to be larger than that. The question of Aborigines has been a major concern in Canada and Australia since the arrival of first colonialists from Britain (Comeau
The Business Communications Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Business communication is also popularly referred to as company communication, and it refers to the passing of information within a firm and within a supply chain (“Business Communication” 1). Employee engagement and transaction of officially permitted matters falls under business communication.
Other topics that fall under this include; advertising, branding, client dealings, community involvement, and event organization, among others. There are various means through which internal business communication can take place and they include; cyberspace (email), print, face-to-face meeting and video conferencing, among others. Communication involving external parties or entities may entail other channels like radio, television, billboards, among others.
Communicating a bad-news message to an employee Every organization has laid down rules and code(s) of conduct which the members of staff are expected to abide by. There are as well spelled out procedures or actions to take if an individual goes against the set regulations (McLean 1). It has to be brought to the attention of any person going against set rules that they have done so. This has to be done in the right and most sober manner so that the offender realizes the gravity of the matter.
To begin with, one has to pick the most appropriate channel to relay the message to the employee in question, as regards to the bad-news meeting.
Word of mouth or a face-to-face engagement is the most fitting since the information is received in first hand. In firsthand acquisition of the message, the right mood is usually captured from the tone in one’s voice (in the case of telephone communication) and both the tone and facial expressions are captured if it is a face-to-face engagement.
The content of the communication to the employee in question should be direct. This serves to tone down anxiety in him or her as a lot is likely to go through their minds when they hear of a meeting with their superior. This will enable them to relax and be open during the meeting and even offer constructive insight.
During the meeting, the offender needs to be informed of their mistake and the evidence of committing such an offence made clear. With clear and open evidence, the offender will find it rather difficult to be dishonest. It also offers a perfect ground to level accusation(s) against the offender with no fear of appeals being raised.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Making the right evidence clear therefore reduces the time to be spent on dealing with law-breaking cases. The offender then needs to be given room to react to the accusation(s) after being made aware that honesty should always be their guiding principle. The meeting convener has to be a good listener (“Forms of business communication” 1).
No multitasking that needs to take place as this is impolite and one may miss vital points in the conversation. Following this, the convener of the meeting needs to communicate what the rules say as far as committing the offence in question is concerned.
Conclusion of the meeting needs to be done by communicating the importance of rules in any institution or place of work. The offender then needs to be made to willingly accept their offence(s) and offer their apologies. This is especially important because it will largely bar the offender from committing such offences in the future. Whenever tempted to go against set rules, one will remember how they promised to abide and will therefore conform.
Works Cited Business Communication. “What is Business Communication?” Management Study Guide. 2008. Web.
Forms of business communication. “Business, Communication Technology”. Information Science Today. 2011. Web.
McLean, Scott. “Business Communication for Success.” 2010. Web.
The five competitive forces of Michael Porter Essay college essay help online
Business strategists’ primary function in companies is their ability to understand competition and create plans to cope with such. The five competitive forces Michael Porter discusses in his article are the threat of new or potential entrants, negotiating power of suppliers, bartering power of customers, threat of substitute products and/ or services and competition among direct rivals.
An industry’s structure is characterized by the comprehensive competition of the five forces. These forces also outline the temperament of aggressive interaction within an industry. It is important for company strategists to have a thorough understanding of the five forces in order for them to plan out strategies for the company.
In understanding the five competitive forces, the company will be able to “reveal the roots of an industry’s profitability and provide framework for anticipating and influencing competition and profitability” (Porter, 2008). Understanding a given industry’s structure is also essential in the positioning of a company.
The industry structure determines the strength of the five forces. Such is characterized by the economy and technological advancement (Porter, 2008). The five forces which shape strategy differ from industry to industry with regards to their configuration. Evaluating and analyzing the five forces may enable companies to understand the challenges present in the industry. The first force is the threat of new players in the industry.
The presence of new entrants affects the industry’s prices, costs and rate of investments. “New entrants bring new capacity and desire to gain market share. This force puts a cap on the profit potential of an industry” (Porter, 2008). Entry barriers and the reactions of incumbents determine the competition and profitability of an industry.
Industry incumbents have an advantage through the seven entry barriers which are supply-side economies of scale, demand-side benefits of scale, capital requirements, incumbency advantages independent of size, unequal access to distribution channels and restrictive government policy.
In planning out company strategies, managers must take into consideration the relationship of entry barriers and potential players’ capabilities. The second force which affects strategy is the power of suppliers where “they try to gain more value for themselves by charging higher prices, limiting quality or services or shifting costs to industry participants” (Porter, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another force is the power of buyers where customers tend to coerce sellers in lowering product prices, demanding superior quality and services. Customers can influence the increase of costs at the expense of the profitability of an industry. The fourth force is the threat of substitutes.
Substitutes can threaten the profitability of an industry for they can act as an alternative when a customers are not satisfied with a given product. Lastly, the rivalry among existing competitors is the fifth force which shapes competition. These rivalries can be manifested in different forms such as price competition, product innovations, marketing and advertising campaigns and improvements of services.
Profitability of industries is limited when rivalry among industry players is high. “The degree to which rivalry drives down an industry’s profit potential depends on the intensity which companies compete and the basis on which they compete” (Porter, 2008). An industry’s profit potential is determined by the industry structure.
Understanding the five forces enables companies to regulate how economic value is created in the industry. Strategists must consider the five forces in keeping the overall industry structure in mind and must focus on structural conditions.
Aside from the five forces, strategists must also take into consideration factors which affect industries namely the growth rate of the industry, technology and innovation, government policies and complementary products and services.
An evaluation of an industry’s forces and factors may provide an understanding that industry structure constantly undergoes adjustments and such can change sporadically. Changes in the industry can originate from within the industry or it can be attributed to factors outside the industry. The outcomes of the changes in the industry can be an advantage or a disadvantage.
The importance of understanding the five factors enables strategists to identify the framework of the industry thus they can expect such developments and anticipate the impacts of such changes in the industry’s profitability. Such changes may include the shifting threat of new entry, changing supplier or buyer power, shifting threat of substitution and new bases of rivalry.
We will write a custom Essay on The five competitive forces of Michael Porter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The thorough understanding of forces, factors and changes in the industry allows strategists to plan out how companies should position themselves, exploit industry change, shape industry structure and define the industry. In developing strategy, it is essential to have a clear understanding of the forces which shape the competition of a given industry.
The five forces expose the profitability of an industry and a thorough understanding of such together with the factors affecting the industry as well as the changes brought about justify such profitability. The five forces expose the most important features of an industry’s competitive environment.
A detailed understanding of the forces enables strategists to determine the standard strengths and weaknesses of a company in a given industry. The knowledge of industry structure helps managers shape strategies for companies to compete in the market.
Works Cited Porter, Michael. “The Five Competitive Forces that Shape Strategy.” Harvard Business Review January (2008): 78 – 93. Web.
Microsoft Share Point Report college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment
Cases related to Microsoft SharePoint.
Introduction Microsoft SharePoint has done a lot in improving the efficiency of businesses. Before its introduction into the business industry, business people wasted a lot of resources hiring people to manage their information. Getting these services cost the businesses a lot of money as they needed to hire many people.
The reason why the businesses hired many people was because no one person could do all the necessary things by himself. However, the introduction of Microsoft SharePoint into the sector is changing the situation. The only things that a business needs to do are pay and specify the service they require. After this, the upgrading process is automatic. On top of this, the services are cheaper than hiring a group of people to do this manually.
Businesses realized the need to work together. They needed to join forces in order to improve the quality of services they give to their consumers. The businesses require a platform where they could share this information. Therefore, Microsoft designed the Microsoft SharePoint.
Microsoft SharePoint is a product of the Microsoft office. It monitors the performance of businesses. It also helps the businesses manage their date, plan and collect data. It collects the views of consumers and other stakeholder’s concerning the finances of the business. After collecting the data Microsoft SharePoint analyses the data, and share the information with the rest of them.
This is a tool they use to share the information that sees to improve their businesses, (Williams, 95). The information they share increases the companies’ productivity. It gives the employees a chance to insights and ideas.
Importance of Microsoft SharePoint to businesses environment The SharePoint is crucial in the business environment as it helps businesses to increase its efficiency and improve team work. SharePoint makes this possible by providing a site where the businesses stay connected across many regions and boundaries. People access documents and any other information through this site.
The employees get information regarding their work and the current developments. This gives them a chance improves their work, which in turn, translates to high productivity. It helps the business manage information by editing the information they have before they can put it into the site. It also stores the documents for future use (Noel
Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Gender Analysis in health care
Introduction Gender analysis assesses the effects of actions on both women and men. Gender analysis tends to focus on women more than men. The institutional structures view women as insubordinate. This could be termed as an aspect of women marginalization. Women are not involved in planning, decision making, policy formulation, training, employment and in projects. Women have been marginalized in politics, schools, economic and family setting.
Consequently, men have emerged as the privileged gender. Men who come from high social status have enjoyed the impacts of development. The economic status of women usually denies them a chance to access and maintain quality healthcare (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 1).
There is a need to examine gender relations in health care. This will enable policy makers to implement policies that benefit the least advantaged gender in the society.
This essay defines gender analysis and discusses the application of gender analysis to the health status of women of different incomes. The paper will also examine the implications of gender analysis to public policy and how research can contribute to gender analysis.
Gender Analysis in health care Gender analysis in healthcare can be defined as the process of evaluating effects in healthcare provision from a social and economic perspective on both male and female genders.
The aim of gender analysis is to promote sustainability of healthcare provisions, enhance equity and identify areas with challenges. The assessment highlights areas of involvement, achievements and failures associated with either men or women. Gender analysis will provide the information required to plan and implement effective programs (Hunt, 2004, p. 100).
According to Office for Women’s Policy (2005, p. 8), gender analysis in health care involves identifying healthcare experiences for both men and women and noting the disparities. The aims and objectives of the policies are analyzed to obtain their impacts on men and women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data on different groups including the high, middle and low social class women and men is obtained and analyzed. Investigations on the effects of the policy on different genders are recorded and evaluated. Innovative solutions are obtained to overcome the challenges.
Recommendation of the most appropriate solution that will achieve gender equity is considered. The policy and the program are communicated and the indicators mentioned.
To examine health status of women of different incomes, it is necessary to obtain information concerning sex in the community, households and in the workplaces. Their health care needs, the level of income and access to health care are also important to gender analysis (Women and Healthcare Reform Group, 2009).
Gender analysis involves aspects like convenience and access to health care facilities. It also involves attitudes and perceptions about health for both men and women. Gender analysis will seek to obtain information on health care providers and investigate their attitude towards male and female. The influence of different instructions such as schools and religious institution can be analyzed. The implications of diverse attitudes from policy makers in health matters should be examined.
The equipment, infrastructure, environment, waiting time and access to facilities can be analyzed. The source of motivation for health care providers and the hospital guidelines used can be assessed. The services that are offered, community involvement, education materials and organization structure can contribute to the assessment of gender analysis.
Financing in health care is an aspect of gender analysis. The focus is placed on areas that are given priority in relation to gender analysis. Analyzing the stakeholders and decision making process on their ability to recognize gender issues in health institutions is significant. Obtaining information on service delivery for both genders is essential for gender analysis in healthcare, as Jackson et al (2006, p. 1) mention.
Social indicators of health and illnesses between men and women should be analyzed. Depending on the roles and the economic social status, differences may affect the access and availability of health care resources. Poverty may increase vulnerability.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women who are left with the responsibility of providing and childcare may lack the resources to access health care. Cultural norms have a great impact on the perception of health by both men and women. Men and women give different levels of attention to illness, preventive measures and treatment. Culture affects the attitudes of both genders.
Quality healthcare is important in healthcare provisions. High social class women have access to quality health care owing to their economic status. The low class struggle to obtain and access healthcare. They are exposed by their environment and sometimes lack information on measures to prevent preventable illnesses. A large number of women belong to the low social class and the middle class. Consequently, they receive low quality health care than men. Poor quality health care may have negative effects on women.
Policies impact the implementation and the outcomes of every program in healthcare. Policies are the foundation for programs undertaken in health care institutions. The assumption is that policies address prevailing health issues. Gender blind policies ignore the differences between male and female and foster widespread gender inequalities. Gender aware policies are neutral, specific or redistributive.
The aim of gender awareness policies is to recognize the differences in men and women and attempt to attain equality between them. They also address specific issues in one gender and transform existing policies in order to accommodate both men and women irrespective of their situation (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 32).
According to Moana (1999, p. 4), policies based on gender analysis avoid discrimination of one gender. Most of the policies eliminate gender discrimination against women, who are often the victims of gender inequality. Basic health care is a human right and should reflect in public policy.
Health care policies that reflect gender analysis overcome unconstructive cultural practices and promote the availability of healthcare at an affordable price for women of all social classes. They also enhance accessibility to health care facilities. The application of gender policies will enable women to have access to reproductive healthcare services. Occupational challenges related to childcare and health care for women in career development will be alleviated if policies that are gender sensitive are implemented.
According to USAID (2012), gender analysis can be achieved if men and women collaborate in the evaluation and implementation of policies. Policies that are implemented should incorporate the community. It should not be viewed as a means of attaining equality but as an avenue for improving the lives of the marginalized. The programs should ensure that both men and women from low to high social class benefit.
Muecke (1996, p. 385) notes that healthcare providers pay little attention to gender when offering services. The value of gender analysis can be recognized if the quality of healthcare given to women is known. Gender analysis will enable healthcare providers improve the quality of healthcare given to women from diverse economic backgrounds.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Gender Analysis in Healthcare by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If gender analysis is implemented, women with low income will access quality health care. Health services will be convenient and accessible. Programs that are implemented in health care will become a success because some of the issues and challenges will be overcome. Policies will be effective in meeting the needs of diverse groups in society. Gender analysis will contribute to the awareness of gender issues while enhancing the capabilities of women in society (Office For Women’s Policy, 2005, p. 5).
Research in gender analysis will inform the policy makers to formulate policies that will improve the quality of healthcare for women. Additionally, policies should be communicated to women, to whom the quality of healthcare services is directed (Muecke1996, p. 385).
World Health Organization (2002, p. 10) reveals that research provides a clear understanding of the issues in gender. Moreover, research can be effective in providing a solution for the challenges encountered in the analysis of gender. Research can also be used to set agendas and to determine the measures that are effective for prevailing problems.
Conclusion Gender analysis mainly focuses on women. In health care, gender analysis eliminates the inequality related to gender, sustenance and meeting the goals of programs, identify issues and enable equal distribution of health resources to both genders of all social classes. Gender analysis informs policy formulation and is based on research.
Women of low income are more vulnerable than men. Gender analysis is a process that recognizes that men and women have different roles and are economically diverse. Women have been marginalized by the social institutions. Change will be realized if men and women collaborate. Gender analysis will improve the health of both genders if gender aware policies are implemented.
Reference List Hunt, J. (2004). Introduction to gender analysis concepts and steps. Development Bulletin, 64, 100-106. Web.
Jackson, B. E., Pederson, A.,
“War” and “The other Wife” Essay essay help online free
In this paper, I will strive to show the significance of characterization, at the expense of other elements of literature, towards the successful revelation of the deeper meaning of the following two short stories: “War” By Luigi Colette and “The other Wife” by Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette. As we shall see characterization can be employed as the main vehicle towards the realization of a writer’s thematic concerns.
“The Other Wife” by charlotte is about a woman, who is married to a rich husband; the story has three characters, Marc, Alice and Marc’s ex-wife (Colette). The bulk of it comprises of dialogue between Marc and Alice who have just arrived at a hotel for lunch. Incidentally, Marc’s ex-wife is in the same hotel. Through exchanges of pleasantries that reveal the traits of Marc and Alice, Calotte foregrounds the themes of patriarchy and sexual love.
Marc is a controlling husband. He finds pride and power in dominating his wife and feeling needed. For instance, when his wife lets him order lunch for both, he is so pleased that: “He sighed as if he had just moved an armoire, gazed at the colorless midday sea” (Colette). This simple act gives him great pleasure.
His wife, Alice, on the other hand is emotionally dependent on him. She is passive and unobtrusive. She willingly lets Marc make even the smallest of decisions for her. For example, when Marc asks her what she would like for lunch, she so naturally lets him order dinner for both: “Whatever you like, you know that” (Colette). She is so proud of his complements that she seems to rely on them to reaffirm her self-worth: “Her firm, round breasts rose proudly as she leaned over the table” (Colette).
It is through the characterization of Marc and Alice, the contrasting of Alice with Marc’s ex-wife, that the story’s themes are revealed. By characterizing Marc’s ex-wife happy and contented and Alice as timid and dependent, the story’s themes are realized.
“War” on the other hand is a longer piece. It’s about how parents who have children at the battlefront view war (Pirandello). The horrors that are committed during war can never be justified by simply invoking patriotism. It is through the characterization of the fat red faced man that the main theme of this story is communicated.
At first, we think him stoic and patriotic and the other parents are embarrassed when he says such things as: “Why then should we consider the feelings of our children when they are twenty? Isn’t it natural that at their age they should consider the love for Country even greater than the love for us” (Pirandello). And later;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “Everyone should stop crying; everyone should laugh, as I do…or at least thank God—as I do—because my son, before dying, sent me a message saying that he was dying satisfied at having ended his life in the best way he could have wished” (Pirandello).
But we get to know that is mere bravado, his unwillingness to face his son’s death is what inspires his talk. Eventually, it becomes inevitable that he should face reality and “he snatched in haste a handkerchief from his pocket and, to the amazement of everyone, broke into harrowing, heart-breaking, uncontrollable sobs” (Pirandello).
It is through the characterization of this man as vulnerable that we are forced to really wonder at the worth of war, even with patriotism at stake. As clearly shown, characterization is a powerful conveyer of inner meaning in literature.
Works Cited Colette, Sidonie-Gabrielle. “The other wife”. 2007. 28 Jan. 2012. .
Pirandello, Luigi. “War.” 2009. Web.
Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Comparison between China and USA Business in China and America
Countries operate around different political regimes with unique policy formulation, implementation, and review that affects business environment. These policies are aligned by policy makers towards self interest protection and profit optimisation. At micro and macro levels, these protectionist policies have merits and demerits in short and long-term business engagements.
Notably, business related policy formulations in specific market environment have weaknesses capable of attracting conflict of interest especially when the same policy functions in the international trade market scenario.
Since the beginning of the new millennium, China has become an economic powerhouse in terms of aggregate investment portfolio and economic growth. The systematic and consistent rise is attributed to political and economic policies which also double as source of tension between America and itself.
Located in the heart of the Asian continent, the Democratic Republic of China is founded on the principles of Communism and ruled by a single party government. Despite capitalism dominating business environment across the globe, China has managed to hold firm on the Marxist-communist foundation and has struck a balance between the science of politics and communist business system.
Characteristic of a communist system, the government of China is active in monitoring and directly intervening in major sectors of the economy. Due to deep rooted culture of concentrated power in the hands of the politically established government, who have liberalised its market and facilitated internal investment by foreign investors, China offers attractive investment incentives and waivers on taxes to potential investors.
Comparatively, then ne-liberalist system controlling business environment in the states of America is equally developed. Reflectively, this system is based on the ideology of totalitarian democracy in which decisions on business and other matters of public interest are made by a democratic republican or democrat government elected by the majority. Despite consisting of three political parties, that is republican, democratic, and independent, the first two are dominant in the economic, social, and political spheres of America.
Aiming to start a medium shoe making business with relatively sketchy market network, the first choice of business location is in the Democratic Republic of China, especially in strategically located town of Shangai.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This choice of location is as a result of the large untapped market of China and regions surrounding it, the friendly communist regimes with direct intervention in business activities, massive cheap and readily available labour, and friendly business regulation policies on investment and business functioning based on acculturation. Despite being at the same level in comparative analysis, China plays a bigger role as a retail business leader and industrialist.
According to Markus 2007,
China is not just the World Factory, most booming market for resources and consumer goods and the fastest growing economy in the world with an average GDP of over 10% in the past decade. It is also the most attractive destination for foreign investment since China opened its door to foreign businesses in 1978. (p.23)
Within business organisation and practise, labour is vital especially in balancing over head cost of doing business. Reflectively, existence of abundant, cheap, and sustainable labour supply gives a business an upper hand in the competitive market and ensure its survival and sustainability in long run. China has a skilled pool of cheap labour.
This aspect is attractive in doing business within its territories. The population of China is ethically aligned and appreciate the essence of commitment and hard work towards achieving greater heights. Comparatively, America’s labour market is expensive, highly structured and professionalism work ethics have been internalised by the labour market same as that in China (Jonathan, 2006).
In order to gain from this comparative advantage, doing business in China saves resources that could have been directed towards training workforce since skilled labour is available and relatively affordable as compared to that in America where living standards are higher and minimum wage bigger.
In addition, the culture of Chinese people promotes self discipline and appreciates excellence in service delivery as a means of making the economy better. In the process of achieving this, the self motivating culture facilitates competence and combines skills with loyalty to give positive result. Thus, this would give China an upper hand as a preferred choice for retail business location since cheap labour would translate into more profits (Ambler, 2000).
We will write a custom Essay on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To meet the demands of its population, China has successfully transformed the economy and economic systems from traditional agricultural dominance into advanced and reliable service industry system consisting of international banking systems and liberalised private sector through its business policies.
These banking systems make credit available for entrepreneurs in the private sector and facilitate public borrowing. Subsequently, the economy has been expanded and series of opportunities are available for internal and international investors. As noted by Rainer (2007), interactions between banking sector and private businesses in China have made it a hub for entrepreneurship and emergence of wide market.
Thus, to gain from this advantage, retail trade investment in China is more viable than the vulnerable market of America which often fall a victim of market swings (Rainer, 2007). Interestingly, from the study on number of investors for the two countries carried in 2006, Rainer (2007) noted the following:
For the first time, China attracted more foreign investment than the United States. The world’s fastest-growing economy is the second largest behind the United States, and by mid-century, it is expected to be number one. (p. 67.)
According to Ambler (2000), China has rich resources which have managed to ensure success of companies such as Gamble and General Motors which were established in the terror back in the late 1980s. Reflectively, despite series of swings in global economy characterised by periodic inflation and deflation, China’s economy remain stable following the acquisition of membership certificate from World Trade Organisation.
America on the other hand, has similar flexible business policies that promote trade (Ambler, 2000). Moreover, the results of the American Chamber of Commerce survey indicates that of 450 American companies in China, nearly 69 percent have directly benefitted from substantial profits more than their counterparts based in America (Jonathan, 2001).
This success is attributed to existence of investments opportunities, ready market, and competitive advantage as a result of consistence in service delivery, insurance efficiency, and reliability in the banking system, and flexibility in retail industry (Xiaowen, 2001).
Markus (2007) states the prevailing positive economic climate in the economy of China offers unlimited opportunities to sellers to expand market territory from small streets to upmarket with ease (Markus, 2007). In an attempt to capture attention in the global market, China adopted the strategy of maintaining relative advantage through exportation of goods and services tagged with competitive price as a policy (Curran and Acker, 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Regimes and Business Environment Comparison between China and USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Over time, this strategy has paid off in the continents of the global market where China has created market for every brand of its products irrespective of economic classes in these markets. Besides, the population of China consisting of nearly a third of the world population and offer ready market, labour, and services in every industry irrespective of its size.
According to Harvard University article (2004), as a substantial proportion of the middle class experience upward mobility, demand chains are created periodically to sustain continuously production and supply. Therefore, creation of an international market within the boundaries of the republic of China can reap relative advantage of the expansive market for its products and a channel of accessing related markets at global level (Harvard University, 2004).
In the global business arena, China predominate large scale manufacturing of competitive goods and delivery of affordable services. Mass production of cheaper goods is due to its ability to balance overhead cost by use of highly skilled, readily available, and cheap labour in the manufacturing industries as compared to America’s expensive labour market.
According to Xiaowen (2001), over the last decade, China has made substantial investment in product development and research. Consequently, gains from intellectual capital have created expansive opportunities for marketing. These opportunities act as incentive for global investment in China (Xiaowen, 2001).
China is endowed with natural resources same to America. As a matter of fact, availability of raw materials is the basis of viability in investment planning. As a result production resonates on the periphery of low-cost. According to Jun (2006), the dynamics of cheap raw materials and their availability can be attributed to quality and dominance in international trade by China more than American market.
For instance, mass production of textile and toy in mega factories in China is as a result of availability of cheap raw materials. Subsequently, the low cost of production encourages mass manufacturing and boosts the cumulative profit gained from a bundle of production units (Jun, 2006). Though America is more strategically located, market for shoes would be higher in China which consists of a third of the world population (Bucknall, 2000).
American market has more or less same advantages as China. In fact, democracy and total market liberalisation policy in America is advantageous to business set up and operation. Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion. Besides, competition for shoes product is very stiff as compared to the same in China.
Conclusively, it is apparent that China is better off as a strategic location for establishing business as compared to America. Among other reasons for the better position can be attributed to cheap labour, ready market, government commitment, and the spirit of entrepreneurship.
Generally, America is better off in business organisation. However, its market has reached its peak leaving little room for rapid expansion Thus, as a potential investor in shoes manufacturing business; I prefer the town of Shangai in China as the location for my business because of its untapped market, political stability, and strategic location.
References Ambler, T. (2000). Doing Business in China. Economic Policy Journal, 11(3), 25-41.
Bucknall, K. (2000). Cultural guide to doing business in China. (3rd ed.). London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The textile Industry Essay essay help online free
The textile industry is one of the biggest industries in the world, as the market for its product is growing at an exponential rate. This industry is concerned with the immediate role of producing material in yarn and cloth form; which are the primary ingredients in the manufacture of clothing.
In the 18th century, the British inventors wanted to exploit the world markets with their technological designs and at the same time there were restrictions on selling the designs, models, or the machinery to other parts of Europe. James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny while Richard Arkwright came up with the first textile factory in 1771 in Cromford, England.
Samuel Slater later opted to start his own factory in Rhode Island in 1792. In the early 1800s, other factories started coming up in Boston and other parts of the United States. Since then the textile industry has flourished not only in America but in the whole world. Factories with modern state of the art equipments have been built in major cities in the world; and demand and supply of their products are at a rising trend (Gathi, 2001).
International trade is one the most complex areas in the legal arena. This is because there are a number of players involved, both state and non-state actors forming trade organizations. The levels of interactions amongst the parties involved are difficult if not tedious to keep track of. Before the trade act of 2005, the textile industry in America was not doing so good.
The relationship between the US and China for example has been in the dark side for decades. Exports and imports between the two countries have been hampered by the political interests and differing ideas of these two countries. The textile markets between these countries have never achieved their full potential. Looking at the American industry, the number of jobs that were lost in this period with trade barriers were totaling to the thousands.
This meant that more Americans were jobless and there was little income coming from this sector. The removal of the trade sanctions in 2005 has seen an increase in the trade of textile and especially in the trade of the demin material.
Everybody in the word seems to be in love with the denim jeans. It therefore would be no surprise to find at least 10 pairs of jeans in each house hold in America. The denim business is a giant catch, raking in over 50 billion dollars each year. There are over 70 countries involved in the production of jeans in the world; the big producers are China and Mexico.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business of denim has become so global, that it is literally evident in the threads that make the materials. Different countries e.g. India, Azerbaijan, Turkey, United States and Pakistan produce the cotton that is used to make the denim fabric. Snyder’s Fugitive Denim looks at the business of Jeans and its impact on the lives of those involved, as well as its impact on the environment.
One of the counties explored was the United States. Different fashions have come and gone but the denim jeans seems to have outlived them all; only evolving to become the iconic fashion symbol of the 20th and perhaps the 21st century. However, in the last few years, cotton production has been of low benefit to the farmers as the world market prices plunged.
Farmers in the United States enjoy subsidies from the government unlike some of their counterparts from others parts of the world. They also use methods of farming that are less harmful to the environment. When you buy your jeans from the shop, chances are that the pair contains up to 3.5 % of pesticides used during production.
It is no wonder that the American farmers have adopted safer methods that avoid the usage of Pesticides. The farmers are using genetically modified cotton seeds. The impact of the toxic pesticides has been felt by farmers in the third world; who do not have the privilege of advancing their farming methods. Farmers in these regions end up developing lung and other long term diseases such as cancer.
Furthermore the textile industry has been riddled with scandals of child and slave labour. The most affected counties being china and Cambodia which have numerous scattered sweatshops. Other impacts of the textile business are those of water pollution and soil degradation. Being a water intensive type of farming, farmers channel water to their farms from the rivers.
This leaves some of the rivers with no way of supporting life. Some of the water also gets contaminated with the chemicals from the farms leaving the soils toxic and dangerous to human life. The world system theory suggests that the world economy has disparities in economic development. That development largely depends on the technological knowhow of a state. Making the United States at the top of this hierarchy followed by her counterparts in Europe.
And the tasks or works that require higher levels of skill and capitalization are reserved for these regions making the third world a peripheral region and receiver of the remnants of the maldistribution of resources. Hence, current progress of the world economy tends to enlarge the economic and social gaps even further.
We will write a custom Essay on The textile Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leaves the third world a beggar of sorts (Chase-Dunn and Grimes, 1995). It would be safe to say that the world-systems theory is drawn from the dependency theory. This is further defined as a macro-sociological existence, where different states or regions depend on each other for the basic survival kits which include food, fuel, and perhaps protection.
There is a presence of a power hierarchy. There are regions or states that exist in the core and are considered to dictate terms of business to the other regions that exist within the periphery. Technology seems to be a power weapon in the quest for domination.
The peripheral countries are structurally disabled to pull themselves out of the murky situation and formulate policies that are development oriented. The core states maintain the system as well as try to pull out the peripheral states by offering their surplus (Goldfrank, 2000).
Do I agree with this world-systems theory? It is quite evident that the third world countries have remained in the same status as they were economically; while the developed countries continue to rich themselves from the spoils they get from their exploits.
Even though the developed world is offering help on one hand, the other hand seems to be taking. This makes me agree with wallerstein’s theory.
Works Cited Chase-Dunn,