Introduction African American culture is termed to be the most vibrant form of culture in the United States along with Hispanic cultures, Mexican cultures and also Chinese cultures. African American culture is deemed to be the most influential to American culture as a whole as the country plays host to a large African American community that has its roots in Africa.
This culture has its roots from both sub-Saharan African communities and also Sahelean cultures, which consist of the Senegalese, Malians, Sudanese, northern Nigerians and Ethiopians.
While sociologists such as Gunnar Myrdal have observed that African Americans have lost their cultural background and connection with Africa, other researchers such as Melville Herskovits argues that African traditions and cultural belief systems have continued to be practiced by many African Americans living in the various parts of America (James, 2008).
The period of slavery played a huge part in developing African American culture despite the fact it restricted the ability of slaves to exercise their traditions and beliefs. The result of this was that African American culture was able to develop separately from White American culture where black Americans developed their own cultural practices to reflect what they went through as a minority group in America.
African American culture has, therefore, been able to evolve as a result of slavery making it a significant part of American culture. The aspects of African American culture that mostly stand out are the radical innovations that have taken place in music, art, religion and food, which were mostly affected by the emancipation of slaves during the period of slavery (Nichols, 2006).
The urban and contemporary music in today’s world has mostly been influenced by African Americans and their culture with rap being the most dominant form of music that has influenced the cultures of many young people around the world.
Rap music which is mostly done by young African Americans represents the aggressive side of the Black American society given that it represents the racial discrimination and hate crime that have been committed against this minority group. Rap together with jazz music has created a distinction of the cultural differences that exist between African Americans and the American society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While jazz music is not as intense and aggressive as rap music, it represents a part of African American culture that embodies their ancestry as well as their continued fight to be recognized as equal members of the westernized society.
African American music has influenced other aspects of this community’s culture such as art, food and religion where the various components if these aspects are heavily influenced by African American music (Nichols, 2006).
Perceptions of Psychological Processes in African American Culture
Psychological processes refer to how human beings behave or act in certain situations and how these actions influence the behavior of other people within society and also their norms, customs and beliefs.
Psychological processes help to explain how culture is shared among various people of the same descent or ethnic community by examining their emotional systems, communication systems and their biological foundations which make up the psychological theories that are used to explain human psychological processes.
The biological foundation theory is made up of two factors/perspectives that are used to explain psychological processes in culture and these are neurological and evolutionary factors (Keller et al., 2002).
The evolutionary perspective of biological foundations deals with how human beings engage in communication activities that are crucial to their survival. The knowledge structures that exist in biological foundations might more than likely reflect the culture of such communities.
The evolutionary perspectives of the African American community are mostly based on their survival from the period of slavery to the period of racial discrimination and segregation in America. Evolution has mostly focused on how the African American society has been able to heal from the psychological trauma their ancestors and forefathers went through for them to achieve freedom in America (Keller et al., 2002).
We will write a custom Research Paper on African American Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The neurological perspective, on the other hand, focuses on the psychological and cultural phenomenon that has been used in the co-evolution of the cultural group. The main idea that underlies neurological perspectives is that human beings are evolved to be cultural in nature where they are predisposed to utilize any cultural resources that might exist in their local environments.
The neurological perspective also states that culture is a preprogrammed condition that is mostly built up by the environmental patterns that exist in an individual’s surroundings.
In the case of African Americans the environmental patterns of violence and aggression, which mostly have a basis from their history of slavery have shaped their cultural background today where most African Americans have been associated with aggressive behavior (Keller et al., 2002).
The neurological foundation also deals with sensitive period, which is the ability of a human being to experience certain cultural patterns that will affect their whole belief system. The period of slavery helped to shape their experience as members of the African American society making it difficult to take on any other cultures apart from their own.
These two perspectives of biological foundations have helped to explain the psychological processes that take place amongst members from the African American community. Another psychological process theory that can be used to explain this process is the motivational systems approach which seeks to explain the meaning of culture in life (Keller et al., 2002).
Motivational systems approach are used to provide a meaning to life and their significance in culture is used to explain the reality of life where people make use of the cultural backgrounds and social influence to make sense of life. Motivational systems provide African Americans with a sense of common ground as they are able to maintain interpersonal communications with people seeking the same meaning out of life.
Another theory used to explain psychological processes in culture is the terror management theory, which is based on the premise that culture is used as a psychological buffer to protect against any anxiety that emerges from our own morality issues.
Culture in terror management minimizes the level of anxiety or fear that exists in a certain social group by providing a meaning to life. The theory of terror management uses culture to provide a set of standards required for moral behavior within the society to ensure any immoral acts have been dealt with (Kitayama, 2002).
Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Morality in the African American society has proven to be a major problem as more and more young people engage in drugs, hard crime and other forms of deviant behavior, which is contrary to their culture. African Americans are known to be very vulgar in their language and speech, which has made outsiders to view this as part of their culture.
The terror management theory in explaining the psychological process of African Americans will therefore focus on such aspects by distinguishing between the acceptable forms of morality and the immoral acts that are against the worldview of culture.
The affective or emotional systems approach explains the psychological processes of cultural members based on their emotions as it is based on the premise that emotions form the foundation of culture (Keller et al., 2002).
The theory explains the affective foundation of culture to be a concept of moods, feelings and other forms of emotions that occur in human beings where human beings acquire emotions in the course of practicing their culture (Kitayama, 2002).
In the case of African Americans, the emotional systems approach can be used to explain how they react to situations of racial discrimination from other members of the American society.
Because this group is immersed in the notion of equality amongst all races around the world, they might respond in an emotional or aggressive way if one of their members was discriminated against by people from societies deemed to be racists or hate crime offenders.
African American emotions have their foundations in the dark past where their ancestors were openly discriminated against because of the color of their skin. This open discrimination and the level of physical abuse they endured brought about a culture that was full of emotions and affective foundations (Nichols, 2006).
The cognitive or communication systems approach explains psychological processes in culture to be influenced by how people communicate with each other within the same cultural setting or background. The type of communication that takes place between the various members of society will determine the influence of culture in their everyday life.
There are three factors that are used to explain the social influence of the communication’s approach with the first being strength which refers to the individual differences that exist in a cultural setting that are used to provide support to the culture of a particular group where for example a rich or influential personality such as American President Barack Obama or Oprah Winfrey, the richest Black American woman in world use their individual strengths to influence other African Americans around them (Kitayama, 2002).
Immediacy refers to the proximity or physical space that is shared by a group of similar cultural standing. In America, most African American societies are found in areas such as Queens in New York, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Philadelphia, Mississippi and New Orleans.
The presence of large groups of African Americans in these areas explains immediacy while numbers refers to how individuals that share similar attitudes are able to effect social impact in their society. Numbers deals with how people with a similar opinion are able to agree on a certain aspect making it difficult for them to change their minds on that aspect (Kitayama, 2002).
Similarities and Differences between African American Culture and White American Culture
According to various intellectuals and scientists, there is believed to be a link or similarity between the African American and White American cultures. This has mostly been evident in the media where most African American productions have incorporated westernized or White American concepts in their storylines.
Sociologist Herman Gray developed typological characteristics that would be used to demonstrate the similarities that existed between the two groups and these characteristics were pluralist, assimilationist and multicultural typological characteristics. In the assimilationist typology, both communities exercised culture by eliminating any social or cultural differences that went against universal similarities (Parks
Ethics and Morals at Workplace Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In every action, may it be ordinarily or non-ordinarily daily activity undertaken by human beings, there is a risk associated with the action, regardless of its magnitude. That is, in everything that we do ranging from resting to participation in rigorous bustles involving rescuing work, or warring against adversaries, a certain degree of risk is always there.
Surely, this portrays that risk will forever be there in all human daily life activities, however, there are varying extremes of the risk depending on the kind of activity, or work being done.
If we view resting as having its own associated health risk, it’s vivid that the most important thing for a person to understand is the kind of risks embedded within the work s/he does, after acknowledge that little can be done to bring it to extinction (Barnett, 2005).
For many centuries, workplace incidents leading to work fatalities have been matters of great concern in all major industry categories; thus, over the years, efforts have been put to reduce the number of workplace injuries in most of the major industries of mining, transportation, building
Religion and God on the Brain Research Paper essay help online free
The investigations conducted by Benson and the team of sophisticated scientists (2006) are based on the fact that intercessory prayer may influence the process of recovery in a variety of ways.
However, Benson et al. evaluate the conditions when people with CABG suffer from depressions and inabilities to control their illnesses even under being properly treated and supported by prayers and offer the idea that prayers should not be regarded as one of the main factors of human recovery.
The experiment aims at dividing people into several groups where some people are aware of receiving intercessory prayer and some people are not aware of this fact. The results were not as impressive as expected: the chosen intercessory prayer “had no effect on complication-free recovery from CAGB” (Benson et al., 2006, p. 942).
Such conclusions were made by the researchers, still, they wanted to support the idea of religion in treatment and admit that such results could be predetermined by the limitations set on the study: some constraints were placed without any kind of feedback.
This is why the result of the study should not challenge the chosen belief and make people doubt about the God’s existence. The main point was to discuss how prayers may influence treatment, and this article show the rationality of the required medical interference.
The works by Newberg et al. (2010, 2005, 2006.
OSHA recommendations regarding workplace safety Essay essay help online: essay help online
Abstract How to promote workplace safety is a continued debate. Organizations invest millions of dollars in workplace safety training. Nevertheless, the current state of safety leaves sufficient room for improvements.
This paper discusses and evaluates OSHA recommendations regarding workplace safety in the meat packaging industry. Cultural and language issues in workplace safety training are discussed. The duty to guarantee workplace safety is reconsidered from the deontological and utilitarian perspectives.
How to protect employee safety in the workplace is a continued debate. Academic literature and OSHA provide safety recommendations for organizations in different industries. Unfortunately, the current state of workplace safety leaves much room for improvements.
Organizations fail to meet even the basic demands for employee safety in the workplace. Immigrant workers are particularly susceptible to various workplace safety risks. In this situation, organizations are morally obliged to engage immigrant employees in workplace safety training that fits in their cultural conditions and teaches them the basic safety rules in their native language.
Manufacturing organizations invest millions of dollars in workplace safety initiatives. Throughout the 20th century, the number of workplace-related deaths dramatically decreased (Anonymous, 1999). Nevertheless, the level of safety in the workplace leaves much to be desired. In 2005, OSHA investigated workplace conditions in meat packaging enterprises in Nebraska (Gonzalez, 2005).
The organization reported numerous, severe human rights and safety violations in the meat industry (Gonzalez, 2005).
Some of the recommendations provided by the Human Rights Watch organization included (a) stronger laws to stop underreporting of workplace incidents and injuries; (b) stronger enforcement of worker compensation laws; and (c) new laws to guarantee safety of employees, irrespective of their immigration status (Gonzalez, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the seriousness of the situation, the recommendations provided by the Human Rights Watch are incomplete.
I fully agree to OSHA and Human Rights Watch in that organizations are morally obliged to guarantee workplace safety for all employees, irrespective of their immigrant status (Gonzalez, 2005). OSHA obligates employers to furnish places of employment that are free from the risks of physical injury or death (Eckhardt, 2001).
The logic behind this duty is simple: from the utilitarian perspective, employee injuries and deaths cause heavy financial consequences on enterprises (Eckhardt, 2001). From the deontological standpoint, employers are socially responsible for promoting employee wellness (Eckhardt, 2001). In this situation, developing and implementing sound and fair standards of workplace safety is a must.
Unfortunately, OSHA and Human Rights Watch forget about the role of culture in developing workplace safety initiatives for immigrant employees. Achieving the desired level of workplace safety is impossible, unless employees have sufficient level of literacy and proficiency to understand safety policies in the workplace (Johnson
Enterprise architecture: Enterprise Architecture Center Essay argumentative essay help
Enterprise architecture can be defined as the developed scheme for business activities and IT capabilities revealing the standardization and integration requirements of the organizational operating model (Enterprise Architecture Center, 2010). In this regard, the information system is viewed as more as a strategic exercise, rather than a technical one.
It explains the roles and contributions made by IT structures (Enterprise Architecture Center, 2010). However, this vision is not consistent with existing organizational policies that increase productivity and introduce advanced levels of management.
On the contrary, the main aspects of the presented model can discourage social interaction within an organization, misinterpret the role of IT in advancing company’s productivity, and create problems with the decision-making process.
While evaluating social and technical gaps as presented by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), one should note that it fails to define accurately the role of IT in carrying out business. Particularly, introducing the best technological novices cannot be considered as the most effective IT strategy.
The point is that managers should strike the balance between IT advancement and training programs introductions to reconcile knowledge management and technological side. In this regard, organizational issues should be tackled equally with the technological ones, being more concerned with effect that software and automation process have on organizational behavior and development (Nobel, 2010).
Similar problem is connected with organization management and role of software in knowledge management. According to Jenkins et al. (2005), the effectiveness of enterprise architecture systems relies on three pillars: content management, collaboration, and culture.
The latter is missing in interpretation provided by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), where primary emphasis is focused on advancing information-based systems rather re-shaping organizational behaviors with regard to the on-going changes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The majority of managers firmly believe that introducing changes and encouraging technology advancement can solve their organization problems, particularly the pitfalls of a decision-making process. In this respect, Nobel (2010) asserts, “[t]echnologies that make the acquisition of information easier at the lower level of the hierarchy are association with a decentralization of the decision-making process” (n. p.).
Despite rapid development of communication technologies which, to some extent, promote problem-solving, technology is still evaluated within one dimension that disregards its role in industry performance, productivity, and academic studies (Picot et al., 2008, p. 157). Wrong perception of this category causes a managers’ failure to consider manifold effects of technology on communication and social interaction.
More important, a multidimensional assessment matters not only for companies’ productivity and organization, but also for labor market situation where communication technology and information access influence salary distribution (Bernus et al., 2003, p. 617).
In general, information technology is still a core component of any modern organization and, therefore, managers should take a closer look at the problem of building IT infrastructure.
While assessing the outlook presented by Enterprise Architecture Center (2010), it can be concluded that the dominance of operating model can hamper social interaction and communication, decentralize the decision making productivity and decrease the levels of company’s productivity within an organization.
The investigation has proved that an excessive focus on technology integration and negligence of social issues and organizational behavior will not positively contribute to the improvement of organizations’ strategic frameworks.
Consequently, multidimensional effects of technology on knowledge management and enterprise infrastructure should be deeply analyzed to fill in the gaps of organizational development and information management.
We will write a custom Essay on Enterprise architecture: Enterprise Architecture Center specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Bernus, P., Nemes, L., and Schmidt, G. (2003). Handbook on Enterprise Architecture. US: Springer.
Enterprise Architecture Center (2010) Enterprise Architecture Organizational Readiness and Change Management. Web.
Jenkins, T., Kohler, W., and Shackleton, J. (2005). Enterprise content management methods: what you need to know. US: Open Text Corporation.
Nobel, C. (2010) How IT Shapes Top-Down and Bottom-Up Decision Making. Working Knowledge: Harvard Business School. November 1. Web.
Picot, A., Reichwald, R., and Wigand, R. (2008). Information, organization and management. US: Springer.
Informed Consent in Psychology Essay essay help site:edu
Informed Consent refers to the premeditated and thoughtful approval or assent given by an individual or corporation. For assent to pass as an informed consent, then the party involved must be properly, clearly and in details be informed on the matter at hand.
This should be followed by an elaborate explanation and expounding to ensure there are no ambiguous words and ascertain the matter is crystal clear to the participant before making any binding decision. In research projects, informed consent is very important.
Research and behavioral study are very important fields in psychology. If a research on a specific group of people or an individual is conducted without informed consent, the research findings and recommendations are deemed to be unreliable and lack authenticity.
Such research could lead to the prosecution of the researchers, as it is illegal and raises major ethical issues. The main aim in the creation of the informed consent rule was mainly to shield people from the medical practices of psychology.
The rule clearly stipulates that no research can be conducted without the involved party’s knowledge and most important, approval. The ethical issue arising emanates from the notion that human beings are born free with a free will, no effort should undermine that freedom.
Therefore when an individual is used as a specimen without his/her approval, then the endeavor to always let people exercise their freedom is tampered with.
Ethically, human beings should not be used as objects of research with the notion that the end justifies the means, rather human beings should at all time be viewed as the end itself. Informed consent at times leads individuals to get involved in fatal practices, raising the ethical issue whether we have authority to choose life and death.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Competence Competence refers to the conventional needs, requirements and expectations to be met for any person to be deemed as suitable and preferred to take charge of any given task. Competence could also be mental. Mental competence is the ability and capacity of any given individual to properly, efficiently and objectively participate in legal proceedings.
Competence is a very important aspect in professional practice. Competence in any given field like in psychology, or medicine ensures delivery of services is in the appropriate professional manner. This ensures people are catered for their specific needs.
In psychology, competence ensures clients are treated for the respective disorders and the diagnosis is for the right ailments. This saves time, resources and creates a healthy society whose needs are properly catered for. This in turn creates order and harmony in the society eliminating chaos.
In professional practice, competence is maintained in a number of ways. The most important is making sure the professionals are highly qualified in the specified field. Specialization is thus very central in maintaining competence. Qualification should be both in academic and experience gained. To ensure the right personnel are hired, it is important to hire workers on merit and weed out corruption.
Competence is also maintained through formulating of the right policies in running an institution. Policies and rules guiding the personnel should be objective, clear, and implemental. Laws governing the practice and conduct of professionals are also in place and effective to ensure those who are not competent are suspended or at times charged.
Use of the appropriate IT facilities has also been emphasized, this ensures more materials to refer to are available and professional sharing is facilitated. Competence is the key to successive and objective professionalism.
Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Ethical dilemmas are parallel situations that demand an individual to take one side and leave the other. Whichever side one take, there is a moral conflict that is ensued. The two choices carry almost the same weight. Laws of a country may sometimes conflict with the moral and ethical standards creating a legal conflict in Professional Psychology.
Professional psychology has many hard tussles and complexities distinguishing it from other branches of psychology. The patient client and the medics have an obligation to one another, to abide by the set guidelines and binding laws stipulated by the association representing the American psychologists.
A dilemma can arise when a professional psychologist is faced with a case of woman client who has conceived after being raped. Rape is an atrocity violating human rights and there is no where in the world where it is allowed.
The woman is carrying a pregnancy she did wish to have and it was forced into her, the psychologist is faced with the dilemma when advising the mother on whether the conceived fetus has rights and in any case it has, then how do the rights of the traumatized mother is to be balanced against the right of the fetus.
If the mother is advised to carry an abortion, then ethical issues about abortion will arise, some will argue the fetus is living hence abortion is murder.
If the mother is advised to keep the pregnancy, some experts will argue that this will be a source of trauma and psychological torture to the mother and the fetus has no right to be there, as it is a product of violence. This gives the mother the right to terminate it if she wishes to rid herself this ugly scar of rape.
Some rape victims might end up being mentally unstable posing dangers to members of the society. Rape, consumes most of the humane nature of humans rendering the victims to be merciless and thus are capable of harming members of the society. Most rape victims do not want to be known by the members of the society and thus hard do identify them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When such victims becomes mentally disturbed and does not want people to know the psychologist, is caught in a dilemma of, to both observe the anonymity norm and keep quite or notify members of the public especially family members, and in the process violating professional ethics.
Another result might be that if the pregnancy is not terminated, then the mother will most likely become mentally disturbed and might result in violence. Either decision carries a repercussion with it.
However, there are conventionally agreed steps to follow in order for the judgment to be as objective as possible. These steps are many and vary with the situation at hand thus some need a form of adaptation in order to conform to the situation given.
The first step the psychologist will do is to anticipate the various people who will be affected by the preferred advice to the client. We exist in a society and every society has norms and culture. It is good to first understand the client’s society, the way rape is viewed compared to abortion. How the value of human life is safeguarded and whether the fetus is regarded as human life.
Another action to be taken by the psychologist is to first categorize and single out the circumstance that requires ethical deliberation and quick resolution making. A cruel act of rape was committed to the client and might lead to mental disorder, however aborting the fetus, assuming the fetus as a person, will be committing similar cruelty.
Not getting rid of the rape conceived pregnancy will be like continuing the atrocity to the client and the intention to relieve the client the pregnancy will not necessarily be morally and ethically right. Good intentions do not make a morally bad act good. Having this in mind, it will be easy to weigh the options.
It is also advisable to clearly distinguish the client. Whether it is the person being addressed as having been raped or is it the person paying the fees. Is loyalty to be accorded the person paying the fees or the client herself? The mother might be pressured to either keep or abort the pregnancy.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is thus very important to establish the real intentions of the client then weigh them according to ethical guidelines. The client should be the main subject instead of other factors like the person paying the fees. The source of the mental disorder should also be critically analyzed, is it the act of rape or the stigma from the society?
The psychologist must also asses his/her area of specialization, competence and of missing know how and skills including experience. This enables professional, objective decisions.
If one has handled such case of rape before with success, then it will not be hard in making the right decision. If this is the first time then it is advised to take some in analyzing the situation more and if there is another source of knowledge well versed with such cases, it will be for the best interest to consult.
The fifth step to consider is the legal standards. It is good to visit and find out what the law says about abortion, rape, right of fetus, rights of the mother and the clinicians directly or indirectly. If the laws are clear or there are ambiguous and conflicting legal standards on the raised sectors.
Whether the law support or rebuke the acts and persons mentioned. Different state has different laws especially on abortion. This will enable the clinician not to advise the rape victims to carry out illegal acts as what might be ethically right might be illegal.
Knowledge and research evolve with each day that passes. It is thus preferable that the psychologist reviews the relevant theories and credible authentic research findings. This provides a wide scope in which to address the issue from. The response and recommendations will thus follow after a rigorous research. The client will thus be satisfied and aided in the best possible way.
The eighth step to consider is personal feelings, biases and at times self interest as they might affect the psychologist’s decision. This is important as one’s conviction of what is ethically right might lead to conflict with law. The rape case will trigger more emotions in females than males.
Consideration of these factors removes one from subjective decisions to objective ones. It also removes preconceived ideas and judgments.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Professional Psychology: Abortion Issue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the decision making, it is also crucial to apply an effect, which is if any, brought about by cultural, societal, religion or similar factors versus the ethical responses. Different societies treat rape and abortion differently. Some argue life starts at birth while others at conception. Different religions like Islam and Christianity also have varying and at times contradictory views.
Once equipped with that knowledge then the decision will be for the right problem. Another step will for the psychologist to look for possible alternatives if any from his own imagination. These alternative sources need critical evaluation. So the next step is evaluation in a critical way of the alternative courses developed.
The eventual impact one could have under the best possible way or the worst imaginable result. The risks involved, immediate and long term consequences for every party involved including the psychologist. Benefits realized to an individual and the society.
So as one to come up with the most ethical response to such a dilemma the psychologist needs to put herself/ himself in the shoes of the people who will in one way or the other be affected by his/her counsel. The question on what each person would regard as the most ethical reaction should be put across.
The compensation the less favored party would get. These questions and the psychologist’s assumption of the omniscient role will drastically shape the way the rape victim will be advised
The final step is to assemble the steps discussed above, carefully evaluating removing bias, fallacies, considering contextual situation like religion, laws and the ethical implications. A decision is now made. A decision that is clear supports, with detailed explanations the reasons for making it in a pool of thousand choices. Justice should not only be done, but there be a process to show its doing.
This decision above all should lean toward moral and ethical righteousness. It is particular and specific but its process of deliberation should be conventional and can be used to solve a similar scenario (Garber, 2008).
Ethical decision-making is very important in professional psychology. This help in the understanding of individuals’ behavioral pattern. Ethical decisions enable psychologists to successfully eliminate fallacies brought about by various subjective agencies.
These subjective agencies include language, culture, religion and environment. Most ethical rules are universal while others are particular, for example it is universally accepted that no individual should take the life of another individual, or no stealing is allowed. These provide basis for professional psychology to establish its guidelines.
Due to ethical decisions, psychologists are able to explain the various challenges faced by those who are unethically treated by others. Since rape and killing are prohibited in many societies, those who commit these atrocities tend to be affected psychologically in a certain way likewise those that fall victims to these atrocities have their own behavioral pattern.
Soldiers who go to war and are forced to commit unethical deeds tend to be psychologically affected in a certain negative way. The ethical decisions aid in the analysis of human mind and consequently those with various disorders are given the attention needed to normalize their conditions.
The ethical convictions of an individual directly or indirectly affect the decisions they make. Psychologists in professional practice study their own ethical standards before making various decisions for their clients thereby avoiding errors associated with personal feelings.
Ethical dilemmas are encountered in our day to day lives. The way we handle the dilemmas are determined by various factors making it to have a conventional way of solving them. Ethics addresses questions about morality especially the concepts such as good versus evil, right versus wrong, virtues versus voice, the justice system and so on.
There are various fields in ethics and all try to address the issue of ethical decisions. Such branches include ethics in: normative, Meta, applied, moral and descriptive. Ethical decisions and professional psychology are intertwined (Cohen, 2007).
Reference List Cohen, M. (2007). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. Web.
Garber, P. (2008). The Ethical Dilemma. Web.
Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Narrative research possesses various forms, and it is founded on various disciplines of both social and humanity. In qualitative research, the term narrative is attributed to any text used in inquiry mode, with a particular focus based on narratives told by people.
According to Pinneger and Daynes (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), narrative can be described as both a phenomenon and procedure of study. As a procedure, narrative is composed of events that occurred in life situation of people.
Understanding and analyzing of told stories have been introduced by different writers. In qualitative design, the narrative is comprehended as a spoken account detailing experiences that are connected in sequence. The method used in undertaking this research is based on attaining data from the stories told by one or two people. The data collected is later to be defined.
The various fields used for study have incorporated their own ways of undertaking the research even though the narrative research base its origins from sociology, education, history and anthropology. Interdisciplinary efforts are a crucial factor in narrative research and should be encouraged according to Josselson and Riessman (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 1).
Narrative studies therefore contain a particular contextual focus that may involve either teacher or children in classroom. In addition to this, narrative may incorporate the stories told regarding organizations only that this time they may be guarded in a theoretical lens view (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 3).
Types of narrative studies Narrative analysis
Analytic strategies imply one of the ways used to differentiate the various types of narrative researches. According to Polkinghorne (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), analytic strategies are used to define the various themes that sustain stories. In narrative analysis, researchers take note of the happenings and events, and summarize them into a plot.
Chase approach to narrative research was almost similar to that of Polkinghorne, as it suggested that by paradigmatic reasoning researchers could undertake a narrative study thereby developing an interpretation of the interactive performances (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Biographical study
This is a type of narrative where the researcher not only writes, but also records life’s experiences of another person. The traditional inquiry nature of biographical study involves an individual telling the researcher his life experiences, while the role of the investigator is to translate the story into text.
According to Scruggs and Mastropieri (2006), biographical study is suggested to be an axis for personal change. The various types of biographical studies include life history, oral history, individual biographies, and autobiographies.
While undertaking this type of study, the researcher involved has to explore the available written documents and records of the subject of interest and elaborate the person in terms of the different stages involved in life.
The written documents of another individual are normally brought to life in the investigator’s narrative. In addition to this, the investigator possesses the ability to indicate the already existing relationship between him and the main character (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2006, p. 5).
Autobiography involves both the writing and recording of the experiences and events involved in the life of the subject study, which also plays the role of the writer. Here, the writer brings life to his or her own life experience by writing it down.
In oral history, a set of activities is undertaken. Some of these activities involves gathering of personal experiences that range from one person to many people. The effects and causes of these experiences are also gathered for analysis.
Procedures for conducting a narrative research
The methods used in undertaking a narrative research are not guided by a lock up stop approach; but contrary to this, it undertakes an informal summation of topics. The procedures involved are mainly guided by the procedural guide that was used as an approach by Clandinin and Connelly.
We will write a custom Essay on Narrative research on vicarious trauma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Primarily, the researcher has to decide whether the research question is best suited for the narrative research about to be undertaken. In case the researcher intends to capture detailed life experiences, the narrative research is the best way forward especially if the research touches on individual life or collective lives of people.
The researcher then has to choose one or more persons that possess stories or experiences involved in life. On attaining the subject person, the researcher has to spend considerable amount of time with them, acquiring their life stories using multiple kinds of information. These stories have been referred to as field texts by Clandinin and Connelly.
The stories collected from the participants may be recorded in a diary or journal form. On the other hand, the researcher may alternatively use the observation method of observing the individuals and recording the field notes acquired.
In addition to this, the researchers may also use letters sent by the subject individuals, acquire information from the subject’s individual family members, obtain memos pertaining to the subject individual, or acquire photographs and the individual’s family artifacts. These resources will guide the researcher in developing a solid record of the individual’s life experiences.
Thirdly, the context information of these stories must be collected. Individual stories, for instance, are situated within the subject individual’s personal experiences that include homes or work place, one’s culture, and historical background. On attaining this, the next step is to analyze the stories acquired from the participants, and restructure them within a framework that makes sense.
The process of reorganizing the stories acquired is called restoring. The frameworks under which these stories are organized into consist of gathering stories, analyzing key elements and restructuring the stories in chronological sequence whereby, casual links are provided among the many ideas.
One of the main attributes of chronology is that the stories have the three sections that include a beginning, middle and lastly an end. Apart from this, a chronology may involve ideas from past, present, and future. Crucial elements like time, scene, and place are also included in the story line. Qualitative data analysis may be described as both the themes and story that emerge from the plot.
Finally, the researcher has to collaborate with the participants by letting them play an active role in the research. In the process of collecting stories, the researchers not only establish relationships but also offer smooth transitions between them and the participants. In this process, there is a negotiation on the definition of stories thereby validating the analysis.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Narrative research on vicarious trauma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The story may contain epiphanies within its context, which indicates the various turning points of the story line. In summary, the story indicates unfolding events of the individuals in a chronology based on experiences. According to Clandinin and Connolly, Narrative inquiry is described as the stories that occurred and told (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5)
Narrative research has been a challenging method to use due to characteristics and procedures attributed to it. Thorough and extensive information regarding the participant needs to be acquired first in order to have a satisfactory understanding of the subject participant.
In addition, maximum concentration is needed in order to acquire and identify the various sources materials attributed to the stories that capture the experiences of the participants. According to Edel (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), it is important to reveal the entire context of the multilayered life.
The participants stories need to be discussed extensively thereby emphasizing active collaboration between the researcher and the participant. In this active participation, political background and personal reflection are some of the attributes needed to restory the account.
In the process of collecting, telling the participant stories, and analyzing of the same stories, a number of issues are bound to occur. According to Pinnegar and Dayner (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006), the owner of the story, who is responsible of telling the story, is at liberty to change it and the effects of the stories within the community we live (Cited in Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry, 2006, p. 5).
Narrative research on vicarious trauma Essay In the introductory segment on vicarious trauma, the researcher defines the present day situation of effects of trauma. In the process of introducing the subject at hand, the researcher also defines the various types of trauma according to their category.
In the modern world, not only is one faced with the high chances of attaining direct trauma, but also the other categories of trauma that include historical, secondary trauma and intergenerational trauma. The mentioning of the various types of trauma introduces the topic to be researched on and provides the researcher with boundaries where the focus studies focus will be based.
The narrator introduces the effects of trauma by indicating that people with traumatic experiences are seeking solutions in therapies, family members, drugs, and alcohol. Family members and medical professions are introduced as the second set of participants.
The place of research is also introduced in the introductory segment of the narrative research. Small northern communities are defined to process limited options of solution to the traumatic experience. The North according to Berman has also the feature of geographical isolation that is also referred to as tyranny of space by social geographers.
The introduction will also incorporate experiences obtained from a nurse working in the North. It is from this experience that the researcher can base his or her story from. Apart from the nurse working in the North, the researcher introduces Neely-Price a participant whose 30 years experience in the North will proof to be of great need when bringing life to the experience in the North (O’Neill, 2008, p. 1).
Significance of the research topic In the significance of the topic, the writer uses geographical locations and people to establish a relationship that will signify the selection of the research topic.
The geographical locations identified in the narrative research are located in the northern British Columbia and the participants are the Yukon communities and their specialists. The researcher establishes the relationship between the participants and the geographical location by indicating the long distance as the key hindrance, preventing people from accessing help on trauma issues.
In addition to this, the writer brings life to the experiences of the people living in Northern British Columbia by indicating other factor that hinder them from accessing specialists. These other factors include cultural and economic factors.
The narrator goes on to indicate the various trauma experiences that are experienced by the participants. For instance, people living in the first nation are the subjects that undergo the various kinds of trauma experiences that include historical trauma.
Oral history type of narration research will be best suited for in identifying and recording of the various experiences put forward by the participants. Maximum concentration that is required in narration research is of great importance especially when differentiating the direct and indirect psychological effect left behind by the generation ahead.
Oral history type of narrative research is also crucial in identifying the different experiences of intergenerational trauma in the non-First Nation families and First Nation families. In using the oral history narration research, the narrator will be identifying the particular context of trauma that not only affects the First Nation people, but also the non-First Nation people.
In order to accomplish this, the narrator will have to undertake gathering of personal information from the various people living in the two nations. In understanding the level of knowledge possessed by the specialist, the writer has no option but to investigate through asking question and recording the input data received (O’Neill, 2008, p. 2).
In indicating the significance of the topic, the narrator has expounded on the limited knowledge that is possessed by the practicing practitioners. The writer describes the situation as critical as helping practitioners from outside are hired for the sole reason of providing service to the community.
A relationship is said to develop between the helping practitioners and the trauma patients that results to secondary traumatic symptoms to the practitioners. The secondary traumatic symptoms are caused by repeated exposure of the practioners to the clients (O’Neill, 2008, p. 3).
In the research while defining historical trauma, the narrator uses biographical type of research. The narrator describes the experiences of a particular person (Marie yellow) and records them down. According to the narrator, it is through the concept of historical trauma that Marie yellow was able to develop her seminal work. Historical trauma is hence described as traumatic events legacy (O’Neill, 2008, p. 34).
Impetus for research In the narrative research, the narrator has to identify the place of research study and the subject participants who will provide the necessary experience to undertake the research. In the Impetus for research, the narrator has indicated that northern helping practioners were the subject participants as they were to be used in acquiring data.
The writer has also used autobiography type of narrative research to clearly explain her own experience, having lived and worked in the North as a helping practitioner. In the autobiography type of narrative research, the narrator who is still the subject participant normally writes his or her own experiences down.
In recording the experiences, life is brought forth from the writings. In the vicarious trauma research, the researcher questions herself whether the experience acquired from the clients will be equally in order to be termed as vicarious trauma (O’Neill, 2008, p. 4).
In identifying the trauma issue affecting the workers in the First Nation community, the narrator will be undertaking the procedural path of narrative studies where one has to choose if the topic to be researched on is appropriate.
The narrator has to find one or more people whose experience would be used to write down the data achieved from the research. In the vicarious trauma research the narrators indicates the northern helping practitioners’ experiences were used to establish the link between historical trauma and vicarious trauma.
Preventing vicarious traumatization of mental health Narrative study was used to acquire experiences from six therapists that had to respond to a given question. Incorporation of typology analysis is also crucial in analyzing of data. In this case, the formation of the question or the identification of the question helps to establish and focus on the subject at hand thereby avoiding time and resource wastage on other unnecessary activities.
Identification of the therapists to be questioned indicates the specific area of interest the narrator has zeroed in as part of potential source for extraction of experience. The risks posed by traumatized people to the practitioners attending to them is also elaborated and described clearly in every aspect.
According to the narrator, it is the practitioners’ responsibility to bear the burden of listening to the horrific events unfolding in lives of traumatized individual. The narrator goes on to mention the aftermath effects affecting the practioners that include emotional and physical symptoms similar to those of their clients (Harrison and Westwood, 2009, p. 203)
According to French, Reynolds and Swain (2001), narrative methods have gained popularity over the past decades. Narratives methods of research have been incorporated in various disciplines, which include social work and psychotherapy. In narrative researches, it is upon the researcher to be an attentive listener and the participant a storyteller instead of a respondent.
In using the narrative method of research, the agenda will be particularly to entice development and bring about change based on the narrator’s experiences. In using the various approaches of narrative research a common perception will be establish that indicate that the life we live is based on stories that shape and our identity.
In the research topic, vicarious trauma the experience attained is based on information attained from the therapists and the subject participants, this means that narrative is used as unit of an individual’s life due to its articulation and experienced. The experience of a person’s life is dependent on his or her character in the narrative thereby one can give an account of his or her experience (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220).
Conclusion It is through narratives that isolated and oppressed people can attain the voice to challenge opposing stereo types and advance their strength. In the research the voices of the traumatized and isolated Yukon communities are voiced as the research indicates the trauma they undergo and the difficulties they face while trying to seek an audience with the practitioners.
In using of narrative research, the respondents dictate the order of experience flow to elaborate the events and actions unfolding in their lives. In understanding the research framework of narrative research, positivist researchers will not only be interested in the accuracy and truth status of the participant’s story but also the facts related to the story.
In researching the vicarious trauma using the narrative research approach the narrator will be putting in practice a life story in order to make sense of the experiences, events and actions unfolding in the lives of human beings (French, Reynolds and Swain, 2001, p. 220).
References Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (2006). Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry. (Attachments).
French, S., Reynolds, F. and Swain, J. (2001). Practical research: a guide for therapists. MA: Reed Educational and Professional Publishing.
Harrison, R. L. and Westwood, M. J., (2009). Preventing Vicarious Traumatization of Mental Health Therapists: Identifying Protective Practices. Washington DC. American Psychological association. (Attachments).
O’Neill, L. K. (2008). The Experience of Northern Helping Practitioners. University of Victoria. (Attached material).
Scruggs, T. E. and Mastropieri, M. A. (2006). Applications of Research Methodology. CA: Elsevier Ltd.
Concepts of Decision of making Essay essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Decision making is act of making a choice between alternatives. On the other hand uncertainty is the absence of all or some information about the future. According to Longford, S. (2008) intelligence is not only the information that has been selected and collected, but also analyzed and evaluated and distributed to meet the unique policy making needs of an enterprise.
Decision Making Intelligence can be a possible way of reduction of the uncertainties that may exist in making decisions. This is made possible through the intelligence cycle. Intelligence cycle commence with direction, collection, collation, evaluation, analysis in respectively.
First intelligence enables the decision maker to deviate from the norms. By so doing the decision maker reduces uncertainty because new and better actions will be taken to reduce the risk in decision making. Indicators is a prerequisite in this case because there must be some set of limit.
Secondly, for one to possess intelligence, he/she must have undergone training. Training is a means through which one acquires the essential skills, models, tools and techniques for processing information. Employment of this tools and skills enables one make appropriate decisions hence reducing the uncertainties.
Another process in the intelligent cycle is direction. Direction is the definition of the problem which the decision makers want to make. When a vague and uniformed direction is undertaken improper decisions will be made and uncertainties increased. Skills posed by intelligent decision makers help them give specific and informed direction leading to reduction of uncertainty.
After defining the problem, pertinent information must be gathered to aid in decision making. Intelligence ensures planning and lateral thinking i.e. considering all possibilities. When all possible results are incorporated in decision making, the uncertainty level gets filled. Planning as well makes sure that proper sorting is done thereby availing the appropriate data. All this is only possible when there is intelligence.
Moreover, the intelligence stage of evaluation is instrumental in the minimization of uncertainty. Evaluation can be described as the determination of the quality and than truthfulness of information. Awareness will then be created and tactics designed to help mitigate the menace of misleading information. When this is reduced, the decisions undertaken will be viable and this reduces uncertainty levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cognitive bias makes a decision maker to be skewed in the kind of choice made. It entails the situation where perception outweigh need and the mindset that limits the scope of wider thinking. Intelligence reduces this problem by encouraging products delineated assumption and specific uncertainty and sources.
It also ensures periodic reexamination, emphasis on procedure and realism. This will add value to the decisions made and thus declining the uncertainty levels
Conclusion Finally, effective dissemination of information also reduces uncertainty. If information is properly disseminated, the loophole of conflicting sources that may further increase uncertainties is eradicated. In this way intelligence reduce uncertainty, It can thus be concluded that intelligence reduce uncertainty and therefore should be upheld when making.
Reference list Longford, S. (2008). Uncertainty in decision-making: Intelligence as a solution. In G. Bammer
Schneider Electric (China) marketing Strategy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction The intense competition in the global market has made all the world-leading organizations to restructure their marketing strategies as well as streamline their management. All these deliberate attempts are done with the aim of positioning the firms strategically to be able to compete with its competitors. It is for this reason that the Schneider Electric (China) has adopted some pricing and distribution strategies.
Since the firm is an international venture, the organization management is vigilant to ensure that it is competing with other global firms for the scanty market opportunities. Despite its vast production superiority, Schneider Electric is facing some strategic marketing challenges that are limiting it from exploiting its full potential.
Therefore, this report endeavors to highlight some of the challenges that the firm is facing and provide redial measures to solve them. To achieve this, a thorough evaluation of some economical theories and concepts will be examined to generate a cohesive and a well-integrated report.
The secret behind all prosperous organizations are dependent on the strategies, which they formulate specifically to steer the firm’s production capacity to greater heights. Scholars have revealed that strategic planning is only successful when implemented by a well-informed management organ.
The management is not only expected to posses the right management skills and competencies but also it is support to carry out regular research to adjust their management accordingly.
Furthermore, an international organization like Schneider electric requires an up to date state-of-of-the-art to predict the future changes in global prizes and demand. Such timely warning systems play a vital role in influencing the decisions of the management.
Objectives of the report This report aims at exploring the following issues;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Investigate the Schneider Electric (China) pricing and distribution strategies
To understand Schneider Electric’s internal environment
To understand the external environment of Schneider Electric company
Research Methodology The report covers the Schneider Electric (China) specifically the operations and activities of the marketing department. This report endeavors to evaluate the marketing strategy that is employed by the firm to reach out to its customers with ease while making the required profit. The report provides the information that is obtained to provide recommendation and the way forward.
This report is a case study that was carried out in Schneider Electric (China). It specifically covers the Marketing unit with the aim of understanding the effectives of pricing and distribution Channels. The findings of the report are to be used in helping the organization to better its performance.
This research is a case study to obtain in-depth information about the internal information of the organization. This method was selected due to its effectiveness in obtaining information about the internal information or the where the information covered is conformed in a small geographical region. Hence, this research method proves effective in obtaining the finer details.
In this research data and information was obtained from secondary sources. Mainly, information was got from the internet. Therefore, the scope of information was restricted to the information that is given to the public domain by the firm via internet. Secondly, this choice was opted for due to the long distance that discouraged primary data collection.
Literature Review Pricing and Distributions Strategies. Low Cost Leadership
Schneider Electric Company has always maintained its policy of low cost leadership in order to meet the needs of its clients in the most convenient way. This has been made possible by its enormous capital base that has made it to produce in large scale (Pattnaik, 2010). Pattnaik (2010) further asserts that the huge capital base has ensured that the firm is enjoying economies of scales.
This concept is founded on the basis that the firm’s ability to purchase supplies in large volumes thus getting high discounts rates. In addition, voluminous manufacturing of the electronic equipment has made it possible for the firm to cut its operation cost. This is because increased production does not require additional management personnel’s (Sawyer, 1985, p.47).
Although low cost leadership is a traditional competitive strategy most organizations finds it difficult apply it for a long time in the modern economic era. However, Schneider electronic has been able to do this due it continued use of nuclear energy resources (Pattnaik, 2010).
We will write a custom Report on Schneider Electric (China) marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The long overhaul of its operation has made Schneider to assume an experiential advantage in dealing with logistical issues in a more competent way than its competitors. The firm has also managed to invest heavily on other sources of energy such as Geothermal and solar energy to supplement the nuclear energy. All these have made it possible for the form to sell it products at lower prices compared to its immediate competitors.
The firm has also maintained its low cost pricing strategies due to its principal of transferring human resource. The cost of human resource varies from one country to another depending on the wage rate and the living standards of a country. Schneider has always resorted to hire some competent human resources from countries with lower standard of living to work in countries with higher wage rates.
According to the ILO report, the wage rate in UK is about ten times the wage rate in the Indian. Hence, by importing labor from India to work in the UK helps the firm in keeping it production cost low. However, the organization does not total rely on foreign labor force but it reserves the senior management to the Chinese nationals to provide guidance and management guidance.
Lengeot (2000, p.3) asserts that major Chinese organizations are run from Hong Kong and they pay salaries are closely related to those paid in America. In addition, he demonstrates that the Chinese people are more versatile and are more interested in facing new challenges rather than sticking to one job.
For this reason, the Chinese lacks loyalty and therefore most Chinese firms have to cope with high employee turnover (Lengeot, 2000, p.2). Since development of employee, loyalty has proved a tedious task and rather than incurring high expenses in promoting this, Schneider prefers using expatriates (Lengeot, 2000, p.7).
The low cost leadership strategy, largely, has worked in the favour of the Schneider Electric company. However, evaluation of economic theories suggests that the strategy should be implemented with great care. Just like the giffen goods whose demand is positively related to prices; when the prices of some apparatus falls their demand decreases due to the notion that such goods are of poor quality.
Such a notion might be borrowed thus wrongly damaging the reputation of some normal goods whose prices is reduced. Generally, lowering the prices means the goods are of poor quality (Jain
A Case Analysis of Tip Top Markets Essay college essay help near me
Executive Summary The management of Tip Top Markets has been charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the business operations of the chain supermarkets are effective. Such conditions are necessary to ensure that business will develop and flourish because only observing these rules company or firm may expect and be sure that it will meet customer’s needs and ultimately maximize its utility.
That is why, it is necessary to point out that management is also responsible for ensuring efficiency of the aforementioned business operations so as to guarantee that minimal resources are used, but the objectives are still met. for example, Samson mentions that operational management is a key to the organization’s success (2008). This task requires implementation of thorough quality management and overall total quality control (Latona
Ethical Industrial Engineering Ethics Essay essay help: essay help
Abstract Engineering is a vital profession in the society. This is because it has direct consequence on the quality of life for the society. Every engineer is expected to carry him or herself with the highest degree of integrity when discharging duties. In addition, engineering services need to consider public health and sustainable development.
Failure to embrace this by past engineers led to the establishment of code of ethics that guide all engineers in their day to day execution of services. The code holds engineers accountable for their services and gives guideline on how they are expected to behave when discharging their duties.
Introduction Background information
Engineering ethics refer to a set of applied ethical and moral principles that dictate on performance of engineers. The ethics outline obligations of engineers not only to the society but also to their customers and profession. Engineering profession became popular during 19th century.
At this epoch, engineers saw themselves as autonomous practitioners working with big companies. It was hard for companies to manage or control their conduct bearing in mind that they immensely required their services (National Society of Professional Engineers, 2003, para.1).
Conflict rose between employers and engineers as the former tried to gain control over engineers they employed. As the profession continued gaining power in United States, it led to emergence of four engineering societies. By this time, ethics were held on personal level and were not viewed to affect the engineering profession in any way.
By the beginning of 20th century, numerous tragedies were reported due to poor engineering designs. Bridges collapsed as well as railway lines due to shoddy jobs done by engineers. This raised question about conduct of engineers and greatly affected their reputation. To counter the situation and clean their image, engineering societies came up with code of ethics that was to govern their practices in the industry (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000, pp. 4-8).
The impacts of the tragedies called for engineers to be accountable for any damage suffered by the public due to their negligence. In addition, the society demanded that all engineers had to obtain license prior to them starting to work. To get the license, they had to have met several standards which comprised of skills, education and testing prerequisite (Layton, 1986, p. 72). Today, all engineers working in areas that pose a threat to the public, property, life and health are required to obtain licenses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are efforts to ensure that engineers uphold ethics as they discharge their duties. For instance, societies such as American Order of the Engineers and Canadian Iron Ring require their members to vow an oath to defend ethical conducts and they have a ring that acts as a reminder to the members.
Generally, it is hard to come up with simple solutions on matters to do with ethical cases. However, measures are being put in place to help in getting clarity on ethical issues that engineers face in their day to day activities. Efforts are underway to fight corruption and bribery that is rampant in the engineering industry.
Objectives Engineering field is a very vital entity in the society. It is hard for any country to develop without depending on services offered by engineers. The objective of this paper is to bring out ethical issues facing engineering field today and look at the established code of ethics that govern engineers. The paper also aims at bringing to the attention what is being done to ensure that the established code of ethics are upheld as well as the emerging ethical issues are dealt with accordingly.
Literature review The broad standards of code of ethics for engineers cut across the globe. Engineers are expected to ensure that they consider safety and health of the public as they discharge their duties. In addition, they are expected to ensure that they uphold the principle of equitable development. This principle was reached upon after the society suffered great damage in 19th century due to negligence by the engineers (Layton, 1986, pp. 83-91).
Today, all engineers are held accountable for their work and any damage may lead to their licenses being revoked and or facing legal charges. To ensure that engineers are accountable for their work, they are only expected to offer services in areas that they are competent with.
No one is expected to offer services on what he or she has not qualified for regardless of the nature of the service. Besides, engineers are expected to only accept to coordinate a project that they have certified to have been approved by a qualified engineer. Otherwise, they are expected to turndown such a request as it contravenes their code of ethics.
As most customers hardly have knowledge in engineering, they are susceptible to exploitation by engineers. Therefore, engineers are presumed to be authentic to their clients and act as trustees. They are expected to make known all possible conflicts of interest that may lead to them offering substandard services (Petroski, 1985, pp. 137-145). Unless it has been agreed upon by all parties, engineers are not supposed to allow payment from more than one person for a single service.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Industrial Engineering Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, they are not supposed to accept valuable rewards from parties that are not directly associated with the project being carried out. Accepting such rewards is deemed to be dishonest and may compromise the quality of their services. It is termed to be unethical for engineers to accept contract from government institutions on which a member of their society works.
Due to the nature of their services and threats they pose, engineers are obliged not to give false information regarding their qualification in bid to be employed. They are required to always present factual information regarding their accomplishments, previous employers and associates when soliciting for employment.
Engineers are not supposed to bribe, ask for a bribe or receive a bribe in order to manipulate reward of a contract by public institutions. This has been a major problem in United States where engineering societies have complained of losing millions of dollars to international engineering companies that bribe clients to be awarded contracts (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011, p. 15).
It is the duty of engineers to uphold high values of honesty and integrity. Accordingly, they are required to be accountable for their work and not in any way make an attempt to distort facts. Rather than safeguarding their interests at the expense of clients and employers, engineers are bound to advise their clients on finding out that a project is not feasible (National Society of Professional Engineers, 2007, p. 5).
They are expected to discuss with their employers before accepting outside employments which may adversely affect their current relationship.
All information regarding technical processes or business transacted between an engineer and a client ought to remain confidential. No engineer is expected to disclose it. For an engineer to use such technical process or experience elsewhere, he also she has to seek permission from the former client. To partake in an adversary interest related to a previous project that an engineer had undertaken the engineer has to seek permission from the project’s owner (Harris, Pritchard
Standardized Tests Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction No one can avoid being evaluated by society, where society includes oneself, at least once in a while. There are guidelines and benchmarks against which a person is considered ‘suitable’ or not.
Formal education is not just a platform for the understanding of society and life at large as it is also a place for people to learn about themselves, who they are, love and eventually help them decide what they would like to do from a broad perspective for the society or the world especially in this era of globalization.
But it is hardly one’s place to decide where one can fit for whatever role. Although such cases exist for example Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg, college drop-outs who have succeeded without having a university certificate to prove it, but such people are very rare. Otherwise, people are meant to be tested at every level of education; failing one level by not doing well in a test means that one is not fit for the next stage.
Evaluation through Standardized Tests (STs) is only one of the ways through which people’s knowledge are quantified before they are considered ‘fit’. Definitely, STs are not the best way for doing the job, as they do not reflect the truth about one’s ability to learn.
Discussion STs have been criticized for being too simplistic (Smith, 2011); given that they assume that the one who scores highest is the smartest. For instance, through STs one can find out if a student knows the year that World War I, for instance began. While the student may know the exact year, he/she may not know the factors that led to it or how it came to begin.
One’s capability to learn is much larger than performance in STs. STs only measure one’s ability to pass exams, which requires that one can remember the ‘right’ answers within the set time: “they reward a student’s ability to answer superficial questions that don’t need actual thought” (Fairtest.org, 2007).
This ability to remember answers may be as a result of continuous drilling and rote learning, as well as the ability of one to cram small bits of facts. It does not cater for those who have the answers but are slow in catching up with the time deadline.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another limitation of Sts is their emphasis on the ‘right answers’ (Engine4ed.org, 2011) since STs insist that that there’s only one right answer to every single question. In addition, the student does not have the room to decide what the right answer is if it comes from the teacher. And these answers are not given to the students to provoke knowledge and develop intelligence, instead they are offered because they are convenient and assessable (Engine4ed.org, 2011).
The problem with the ‘right answer’ is that while it works for purposes of STs, real life situations are not as black and white. They can have all kinds of ‘right answers’, some of them contradictory which must be considered relevant as long as there are valid arguments to accompany ‘the’ answers. Unfortunately for the learners, having the ‘right answers’ hoodwinks someone into believing one is smart, yet, it is in the very hunger for such answers and knowledge that lays one’s ability to learn.
A student’s ability to learn and how one learns it are two different things, but ‘how’ one learns defines a student’s ability to learn; this ‘how’ is known as aptitude. For instance, some students learn best through in-depth reading, while some learn best by listening to the teacher. It is likely that the latter student will fail a Standardized Test, as he/she may not know the ‘right answers’ that the teacher gives in class.
STs overlook a student’s aptitude, which is a cognitive process since these tests are still based on the argument of the old behaviorist psychological theories which assume that people learn by absorbing bits of broken knowledge (Fairtest.org, 2007). The recent theories on developmental and cognitive psychology acknowledge that people learn through associating the knowledge they have and that which they are searching for.
This is the basis of inference; that one can use already acquired knowledge to respond to a new situation, by overlooking this, STs have overlooked the very basis of judgment on whether one can learn or not. And so STs fail to achieve the very task they set out originally to accomplish.
The assumption of IQ tests is that “intelligence is a single entity that can be put on scale and measured”, and also that “intelligence is static and permanent” (Fairtest.org, 2007). Contrary to this stance, however is that psychologists think that intelligence is a variety of abilities since intelligence is the ability to answer to the question “what do you think”, while IQ enables one to answer “what is” (Smith, 2011).
Intelligence includes one’s ability to write, to extract meaning from a text, to comprehend scientific reasoning and methods, to grasp concepts of social science, to use math and apply the same in real life situations.
We will write a custom Essay on Standardized Tests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A student’s ability to learn requires intelligences, not just IQ; STs insists on putting IQ ahead of intelligence. Since they do not allow students to exercise their skills, creativity, critical thinking, reasoning and deductive logic (Smith, 2011). As such it may end up rewarding all the wrong candidates.
There are so many arguments against ST’s approach that it is quite hard to come about documents that favor STs. For instance, proponents of STs argue that they are practical, meaning that they are easy to administer as well as efficient in term s of time and grading; that they prepare students for the college test-taking skills; that they are a consistent means of comparing student aptitude and knowledge; and that they are unbiased in the sense that they are graded by machines, and so test scores are free from subjectivity of the examiners (eCampusour, 2009).
But these arguments look feeble in the face of criticisms that are directed at STs. No one argues against the fact that these tests are efficient; in fact, it is partly the need for this efficiency that STs are there. Opponents of STs are asking that efficiency is not to be emphasized at the expense of students who cannot cram for the sake of tests. But their argument on the objectivity of STs is debatable, if it is true for instance that STs are unbiased when it comes to grading.
But this is just as far as that objectivity goes. However, every other aspect of it is human-manipulated; for instance, the contents and wording of the tests, the determination of the ‘right’ answer, choosing and administration of the test, and how the results are used are decided by ‘subjective’ humans (Fairtest.org, 2007).
The implication of these arguments is that supporters of Standardized tests do not dispute the arguments presented again STs, which could also mean that they agree on these limitations of STs. The only difference is that, for them STs as a form of evaluation is all there is to it and so all they can do is to look on the ‘bright’ side, and avoid the ‘dark’ side of Standardized Tests.
Conclusion The forwarded limitations of Standardized Tests are real, but it is equally important to note that, before this test can be removed or modified there have to be proposals on what should guide the development and implementation of a possible new system of evaluation. One such factor is that that the next system, either new or a modification of the Standardized test should be able to test intelligence which encompasses a variety of other measures.
As observed by one author “relying on IQ scores without substantiating/proving the findings with the help of other sources of data is a disservice to the students and gives wrong information to policy makers” (Gilman, 2001). Also, the assessments made and the consequent interventions should take into account the differences in individual aptitudes and development (Gilman, 2001). Lastly, tests should be designed as tools that facilitate students to learn and not for ranking and classifying purposes.
In this regard, a close observation of a student by the teacher, tracking and documentation of a student’s work and assessments based on performance can be crucial ingredients. All these should involve an evaluation that directly checks a student’s real learning efforts and tasks, and ultimately provides teachers, parents, communities and the government with useful material for the implementation of such a policy (Fairtest.org, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Standardized Tests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References eCampusour (2009). Arguments for and Against Standardized Testing in College Admissions. Web.
Engine4ed.org. (2011). Problems with Standardized Tests. Web.
Fairtest.org (2007). What’s wrong with Standardized Tests? Web.
Gilman, L. (2001). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Web.
Smith, S. (2011). What Are Standardized Tests. Web.
Does Parental Involvement and Poverty affect Children’s Education and their overall Performance? Coursework essay help
Abstract The purpose of this study will be to address the question of whether poverty and the involvement of parents in the education of their children will affect their overall performance.
The discussion will look at the various ways in which parents are involved in the academic performance of children and also whether poverty affects the involvement of parents in the academic performance of their children. The various types of parental involvement will be examined as well how the measurement of children’s performance is based on this involvement.
Introduction Various researchers have concluded that the involvement of parents in the education of children usually has a positive influence on their academic performance. Epstein et al (1997) for example noted that the consistent effort of parents in the various stages of their children’s education had a positive effect on their overall performance.
The researchers developed a model that would be used to explain the overlapping spheres of influence in a child’s education which included the family, the school and the society at large. Epstein et al (1997) noted that all these spheres had to have a relationship for them to meet the educational needs of the child.
With regards to the types of involvement needed from the parents, Epstein et al identified six types of involvement that were based on the partnerships that the parents had with the school and the community.
The six types of involvement included parenting where the skills used to raise children were used to enhance their learning abilities, communication where well maintained communication channels within the home improved the child’s performance in school, volunteering where parents who voluntarily participated in their children’s education improved their performance, learning from home where children were homeschooled by their parents, decision making and collaboration with the community where the society’s members were involved in the education of the child like for example neighbours participating in the tutoring of the child during school breaks while the parents are at work.
Epstein et al (1997) noted that all of these types of involvement needed to be included in the education of the child so that there could be successful partnerships between the various stakeholders involved in the child’s education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coleman (1993) noted in his study that parental involvement acted as an intervening variable between the family background of the child and their academic performance in school.
Other researchers that conducted studies on parental involvement in children’s education were Hong and Ho (2005), Baker and Wiseman (2006) and Englund et al (2004) who all agreed that the involvement of parents in the education of the children had a positive influence on their overall academic performance.
Children who experienced parent involvement in the school work and homework recorded higher grades than those who had little or no involvement from their parents. Jeynes (2005: 2011) in his meta-analysis of the topic concluded that parental involvement in the education of children had a positive influence on their academic performance and other educational outcomes.
In terms of poverty, Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1997) noted that most low-income parents were reluctant to be involved in the education of their children as they were more concerned with providing food, clothing and shelter for their children.
They identified three psychological factors which contributed to their lack of involvement in their children’s education and these were the family perceptions of the role of parents in their children’s education where low-income families viewed the school to have the primary role and responsibility when it came to their children’s education.
The second psychological factor was that parents who were low-income earners had lower feelings of efficacy when compared to high or middle income earners and this translated into their belief of whether they had any impact on their children’s education.
The third psychological factor according to Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1997) was that schools which served low-income families lacked the necessary efforts to involve parents in the education of their children.
We will write a custom Coursework on Does Parental Involvement and Poverty affect Children’s Education and their overall Performance? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This lead to lower parental involvement as most parents felt like they were being excluded from school and educational activities.
Apart from these psychological factors, other reasons that were given as to why low-income parents were not involved in the education of their children included the communication styles used by school teachers and instructors, the amount of respect that teachers offered low-income parents and the recognition of diversity in the school setting where children from low-income families are treated the same as children from middle and high income societies (McDermott and Rothenberg 2000).
Much of the research that has been conducted on whether parental involvement and poverty affects children’s education has examined various aspects such as the number of parents that volunteer in their children’s tutoring, the income-levels of the parents, the perceptions of low-income parents on educational involvement, the number of parents that attend school meetings and the characteristics of parents who are low-income earners and how these characteristics affect the educational achievement of their children (Baker and Soden 1997: Senechal and LeFevre 2002).
Other researchers such as Cooper (2006) noted that the development of human beings within the family context acted as a mediation in the association that existed between poverty, the involvement of parents and the academic achievement of children.
References Baker, A.J.L.,
Pepsi VITAMAX Coursework scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Pepsi Co. is one of the biggest non-alcoholic drinks manufacturers in the world, selling its products to its consumers globally. To continually retain its market leadership position in the UK and continuously grow its market share, Pepsi has recognized that it should continually come up with innovative products that will allow the company to meet its objectives.
UK consumers would greatly benefit from a Pepsi product that encourages healthy living, hence the introduction of Pepsi vitamin water under the brand name “Pepsi VITAMAX”.
Pepsi is well known for its R
Body dysmorphic disorder Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Causes of the disorder
Impacts of the disorder
Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder is a very common situation in many people where an affected person is so obsessed with appearance that the person always sees some imperfections in body image. Such individuals tend to spend much time in front of the mirror trying to see where and how the fault makes them look.
Many affected people may not realize the disorder as people may think that it is one’s liking to stay in front of the mirror. In most cases, people with this disorder tend to opt for cosmetic surgery to correct the flaws that they think they have. Believe it or not, some people with this order may avoid mirrors as much as possible to avoid seeing the flaws in question.
Other common behaviors in affected people include: over grooming oneself, enquiring on the appearance of the flaw from other people over and over, avoiding social places where there are many people as well as being anxious when around people with the fear that they might see the fault. Body dysmorphic disorder can be relating to a number of eating disorders which involve concerns on one’s body image.
The common areas of concern in this condition are facial features, hair and skin imperfections. The most affected group is the teenagers whose bodies are continually changing in shape and size (Alexandra 2008, p. 1).
Causes of the disorder Research shows that body dimorphic disorder is caused by both biological and psychological factors with much attention being given to the biological factors involving the brain. From the neurobiological view, unregulated levels of serotonin, which is a chemical neurotransmitter of the brain, results to many of the obsessive disorders that are related to anxiety.
The most vulnerable people are those whose close family members have suffered from depression or anxiety. Psychological factors involve experiences of trauma or emotional imbalance especially if it occurred during one’s childhood. People with low self esteem are equally vulnerable to the disorder especially teenage girls who feel that they do not fit in a certain group of people say in campus or college.
Other cases involve teasing of girls by the boys causing the girls to feel less beautiful. Peers may also affect one’s anxiety, for instance, some teenagers may groom themselves in a certain manner that makes the other age group members to feel less good looking (Ahmed, 2010, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Assessments of the neurology functioning have shown that the brain is more involved in causing the disorder. General poor performance by BDD patients has been proven especially on control of body responses towards neurons. Similarly, BDD patients have major problems in memorizing both verbal and non verbal information.
This results from improper organization of one’s memory which consequently results to failure of the frontal-striatal circuits to mediate the executive functioning of the brain. However, proper integration of the brain alone has not completely eliminated the memory dysfunctions.
Research into this matter implicates the hippocampus which is naturally involved not only in memory formation but also in motivation and emotion development. Another structure of the brain involved in BDD is the amygdala whose over activity causes attention misconceptions which result to social anxiety.
Besides proper integration of brain structures which results to failed executive functioning, other regions of the brain that are involved in perception of facial emotions are also involved in development of BDD. Such structures include the inferior frontal cortex, insula and the occipito-temporal cortex (Saxena, and Feusner, 2006, p. 48).
Severe cases of the disorder may lead a person into engaging in certain weird behaviors such as avoiding people even to the extreme of avoiding family members where the individual stays locked into a room. Isolation from society members may as well result leading to avoidance of social gatherings. Some people may also hate themselves to the point of committing suicide.
Many of the people suffering from body dimorphic disorder tend to get depressed to the point of seeking clinical help. In most cases where surgery is involved in an effort to modify one’s body appearance, frustration tends to result because most of them do not get satisfied to their expectations.
Other complications resulting from this disorder are lack of friends and other relationships, abuse of drugs, eating disorders where one tries to keep a certain body size or/and shape (Watkins, 2004, p. 1).
We will write a custom Essay on Body dysmorphic disorder specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Though the prevalence of the disorder is now low affecting only 2% of a population, researchers believe that it is now rising especially with the development of better diagnosis techniques as well as the increasing desire for people to look good especially now that modernization has been adopted in many countries.
Unlike eating disorders which are more prevalent in women, the body dysmorphic disorder equally affects both males and females although teenagers who suffer most are the girls compared to the boys counterparts (Veale, 2011, p. 1).
Impacts of the disorder The most felt impact of the body dysmorphic disorder is psychological where the person affected gets depressed and may even suffer other depression related disorders especially eating disorders. When such individuals keep themselves locked in the household, they tend to engage in a lot of eating, mostly involving junk food, in order to avoid thinking about their faulty body parts.
These eating behaviors may eventually result to other health problems. Anxiety is another very common effect of the disorder which leads to certain behaviors such as panic or uneasiness.
A person suffering from body dysmorphic disorder is likely to suffer from emotional breakdown may be because of self-esteem which results to inferiority complex. When this happens, such people always find themselves crying whenever they think of the situation. Some may even go to the point of blaming God for not making them perfect (Mayo Clinic staff 2010, p.1).
The social life of an individual is as well affected when one suffers from this disorder. For instance, many such people avoid social gatherings and are always afraid of meeting people. Some may even lack friends because they think that they do not fit in and therefore they cannot be accepted by a certain group of people or classmates.
Occupational functioning may equally be affected when a person suffering from the disorder is reluctant to go to work because the person does not want to be seen with the faulty appearance. Some people may even give fake excuses for not being able to go to work especially when there are visitors at the work place (MedicineNet 1996, p. 1).
Conclusion Body dysmorphic disorder is a serious illness and should be dealt with immediately when identified to prevent the mentioned complications from occurring. If one suspects certain behaviors form a friend or a family member, it is advisable to inform them in order to seek psychological help as early as possible.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Body dysmorphic disorder by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Ahmed, I. (2010). Psychiatric Manifestations of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.
Alexandra. (2008). Body Dysmorphic Disorder: When the Mirror Lies. Web.
Mayo Clinic staff. (2010). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.
Medicine Net. (1996). Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). (1996). Web.
Saxena, S. and Feusner, J. D. (2006). Toward a Neurobiology of Body Dysmorphic Disorder. MBL Communications, pp. 48
Veale, D. (2011). Body Dysmorphic Disorder – FAQ. Web.
Watkins, C. K. (2004). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Web.
Berkley College Strategic Plan Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction Project implementation is the process through which one puts a project into effect. It involves utilization of resources, materials, and techniques to achieve certain pre determined goals. Successful implementation of projects requires a carefully formulated plan which is often unique for each project.
Through the implementation plan, an organization is able to clearly outline the processes required to successfully accomplish a specified task. The implementation plan should incorporate a periodic review that ensures that all operations are carried out in accordance to the implementation plan.
Project administration refers to all activities which are involved in management of all the resources required to implement projects. Project administration facilitates among other things, efficient supply chain management and adherence to the implementation plan which promotes successful execution projects.
Responsibility for Retention Efforts Retention efforts are aimed at maintaining skillful and talented employees until successful completion of the project. In most situations, it is almost impossible to ensure retention of employees which calls for organizations to implement measures that are geared towards maintaining its pool of labor adapt failure to which may interfere with the outcome of the project.
Some of the most common strategies employed by management to ensure retention of skilled workers involve provision of handsome wages, titles and recognition, as well as work promotions.
The project manager in Berkeley College strategic plan 2010-2015 should assume the role of ensuring that employee compensation is constantly reviewed and revised depending on the worker’s output in the project. They should further motivate the staff members and award exceptional performers.
The strategic plan supervisory committee should evaluate performance of each stakeholder throughout the project in order to analyze their performance. Poor performers should be fired through consensus by board members while good performers should be motivated through financial incentives in order to ensure retention of efficient human resource component.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Staffing Needs Gathering the work force and correct staffing is an important aspect in implementation of projects. It is very important for project manager to assemble the required skills and expertise necessary for effective execution of the project.
The roles of the staff members should be clearly outlined and each position should be adequately described from the onset of implementation process. However, it should be noted that in some incidences, the roles and responsibilities of staff members may change which requires staff members to be flexible to such unprecedented changes.
Successful implementation plans need to be formulated under the oversight of skilled and experienced project management. Dario Corte has ensured the coordination of the Berkeley college strategic plan through the assistance of the strategic planning committee, the sub committees, board of trustees, senior administration, the Berkley college community and other task forces (Cortes 2).
The college strategic planning committee is charged with the responsibility of monitoring the strategic planning process and is comprised of the chairman of the board of trustees, two deans, an alumni representative, and five staff representatives among other members. These members are expected to promote and advocate for the implementation of the college’s strategic plan to both internal and external stakeholders.
Budget Needs Due to the uncertainties surrounding project implementation, the cost of the projects is often estimated at the onset of the project through identification and valuation of various constituents and resources necessary to meet the project’s objectives (Rad 1). When the project is conceived, the estimated cost is extremely in accurate due to limited availability of information and dynamism in the project environment.
However, as the project evolves, more information becomes unveiled and the estimates can be fine tuned to higher levels of precision. Implementation of the Berkeley strategic plan 2010-2015 requires huge amounts of financial resources to facilitate the implementation of the laid down objectives.
The established 2009-2020 capital plan therefore provides a substantial amount of investment to cater for the financial resources required to achieve the college’s long term goals.
We will write a custom Essay on Berkley College Strategic Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Project Plan A project plan sets forth the ideas on how one seeks to achieve pre determined set of objectives (Gido 7). A project plan begins with the definition of objectives which is followed by a list of all the necessary actions that are required to accomplish these objectives. This may be enhanced by a graphical representation of the logical precedence relationships among the activities necessary to accomplish the project’s objectives.
Berkley College strategic plan 2010-2015 aims at developing, supporting, and delivering an academic curricula, programs and services that are designed to prepare students for both professional and personal success (Cortes).
In order to achieve these objectives, the project administrators have to engage in extensive recruitment and retention of faculties and staff members who meet the future global academic requirements, promote growth and steer positive change within the organization, adoption of green initiatives, and promotion of corporate responsibility in the institution.
Communication Plan Communication plan requires the project manager to identify all the relevant project stakeholders in order to assess the most suitable and effective means of communicating with such stakeholders.
The decision may be based on past project performance results and should be agreed upon by both project managers and team members. The communication plan is therefore an extensive means through which project information is communicated to all the relevant stakeholders (Dow
Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to best college essay help: best college essay help
Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to your class and invite them to become part of the learning experience. You may create special events or simply identify opportunities during the school day where they may participate. The second part of your newsletter will contain information on local resources and services that families may need or find helpful. Helping families connect to the community can further increase student success. Include resources that can be found in your area. · Be creative and make your letter visually engaging – use color and pictures · Use a newsletter format · Identify 5 different ways that parents can become involved in your classroom and describe each opportunity. Be sure to include a wide variety of ways parents can participate.. · Identify 5 different resources and services available to help families in the community. Briefly describe each service as well as provide pertinent contact information.
Fawville Public Library Efficient Director Coursework custom essay help
Table of Contents Defining the problem
Generating Alternative Solutions
Taking Action and Following Up
Defining the problem The key problem identified in this case is the inability of Fawville Public Library trustees to find a person who would be act as an efficient director of this organization. At the moment, they have already tried several candidates: one of them, Sam Grillo, proved to be entirely unsuitable for this position partly due to his character and partly due to his lack of managerial skills (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
At this point, the members of the staff are acting on their own since there is no one to fill the vacancy of director. Trustees believe that such a situation is hardly permissible as because this organization is entirely deprived of leadership. It serves the needs of 14.000 people, and if the trustees to find a good candidate, it will fail to perform this task.
Causes In order to solve this problem, one should first understand why no one except Sam Grillo applied to this job and why the interviewers found him suitable for this job. To some extent, this issue can be explained by the external factors. First, Fawville is a relatively small town and this place attracted Sam Grillo because he associated it with “peace and quiet” (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
However, a more ambitious person might have argued that this job does not offer any promotion opportunities. The second reason is inadequate compensation offered to the candidates. Judging from the case, the salary offered by the trustees could have suited only a very undemanding person. As it has been mentioned in the case study, a person, who has to sustain family, will not be interested in this position (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
Furthermore, we should take into consideration that people who accepted the candidacy of Sam Grillo, did not know very much about the competencies and skills which a library director has to possess. This person must be able to act as administrator who organizes the work of employees and as a leader who brings innovation and change in the organization.
He/she must be skilled in information technologies, HR management, performance assessment and many other areas (D’Andraia, 1997, p 52; Stueart
Tesco: Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The company, Tesco Plc, must prioritise its activities, decision, and other factors to resolve the effects of the current economic depression on the company with the resolve to avoid such pitfalls. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and communication management policy includes on maximizing the significant variables in generating revenue-generating balance scorecard recommendations.
The study focuses on the supply chain aspect of profitably resolving the current economic depression crisis affecting the United Kingdom grocery chain market segment. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication includes the implementation of a customer-based supply chain crisis management delivery system that retains and increases the current accounting period’s revenues and profits.
Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication process must continue prioritising the most effective solution to the many factors propping up the current economic depression on the company’s maintenance and increase of its current revenues and profits. Company Profile Tesco PLC (or “Tesco”) is an international retailer.
Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.
The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).
Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.
Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).
Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.
The current economic crisis continuously triggers a relentless decline in the demand for the company’s products and services. The economic crisis started in 2009 within the United States. As a United States business partner, the United States economic crisis extended its outstretched arms towards the United Kingdom businesses.
Many United Kingdom businesses sold their products and services to the clients living within the United States. Thus, the United States depression created a decline in the demand for United Kingdom products. To increase its revenues, management focused on its biggest price-based advertising and promotion campaign within the past ten years.
ASDA’s advertising campaign to earmark 250,000 in prices triggered an increase in ASDA’s revenues. Being one of the major competitors of ASDA, Tesco realized that the ASDA advertising campaign may trigger the transfer of many of Tesco’s current and prospective clients to ASDA branch stores.
To resolve the profit decline crises, Tesco management rightfully focuses on first gathering crisis –related financial, economic, and other profit- related analytical data. The analytical data includes PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, and Porter’s five forces discussion.
Further, Brenda Sternquist (1994) reiterated the retailing market segments in the United States as well as in Western Europe, Japan, as well as in Australia have become highly mature and sophisticated. Many new retail marketing formats, techniques, and systems have emerged in the past 20 years and have significantly enhanced the nature and character of modern retailing.
We will write a custom Essay on Tesco: Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Older retailing procedures that include the presence of department stores and supermarkets have reached a stage of modernization and maturity and are today tackling the formidable competition from a new category of retailers classified as “category killers.”
The popular specialty warehouse outlets include competitors like IKEA and Toys R Us, membership clubs such as Costco and Pace, specialty niche retailers, off-price retailers and electronic home shopping.
There is no single variable that can probably explain the remarkable metamorphosis of the United Kingdom retail industry. A series of environmental factors — consumer affluence, new lifestyles, work culture, and technological advances – continue to affect the complexion of world retail industry.
The implementation of computerized data processing systems has helped retailing in many areas — site selection, merchandise planning, and inventory management. It has metamorphosed a retail operation into an automated system of consumer needs management.
In addition, some of the significant outcomes of these developments is what may be coined the internationalization of retailing. Markets are today being globalized. Parallel consumer profiles are emerging in all parts of the world, though in varying degrees.
Just as a new product idea gets parallel acceptance and becomes marketable in several social classes, just like the recent retail market segment theories do new retailing concepts. Innovative retail formats are finding their way into all parts of the world irrespective of disparities in income, culture, and political system.
One can find Benetton in Bombay, Warsaw, and New York. IKEA furniture outlets have created their network all over the world from Europe to North America, from the Middle East all the way to Australia.
Socio Economic Factor Tesco hires employees from communities where each Tesco retail outlet is strategically located; the company aids to government in reducing unemployment rate (Taylor, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tesco: Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic Factor In terms of company’s significant macroeconomic situation, the current financial crisis during the past few years precipitated from the current economic recession enveloping the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.
Further, David Giibs (Gibbs 2002) emphasized in recent years the aspect of changing the current environmental change has become a major key area of debate. There is an increasing concern that the consequences of industrialisation are increasingly negative and that action needs to be taken to remedy this.
Although there is no absolute consensus that major environmental changes are occurring (see, for example, the stalwart pressures brought to bear on the US President in the run up to the Kyoto climate change summit in 1997 by representatives of the cars and automobile, steel and oil industries), there is a broad agreement that these changes are in train and that some form of response is needed.
David Gibbs proposed this agreement breaks down is in the form of the appropriate response to environmental change. There are many wide diversity of opinion here from deep green ecologists who require a wholesale restructuring of society, through to some economists who believe that market instruments are capable of restoring the ‘environmental equilibrium’ and that the basic socio –economic target forms can remain intact.
On the other hand, the increased influx of immigrants from European countries under the European Union charter increases the demand for Tesco Company’s grocery and other related products and services (Czinkota, 2006).
Technological In line with Tesco’s crisis management and crisis communication process, the company uses an online website, https://www.tesco.com/, to spread the many advantages of shopping at the nearest Tesco branch within the United Kingdom. The website displays some of the company’s major grocery products. Clients can make an order by emailing the company.
Payments can be down through PayPal, credit card, or other modes. With the advent of the internet, Tesco is currently reaping the laurels of the one borderless world economy through increased online sales of its products and services (Czinkota, 2007).
The Tesco Company pays each subordinate the minimum daily allowable by United Kingdom and other related laws. The company complies with all tax and other statues implemented in communities where each Tesco Company retail outlet is located (Baumueller, 2007).
Profitability of the U.K. Retail Market Segment Rosemary Varley (2001) reiterated profitability is compulsory if a retail business is to survive, but achieving profitability is a complex task, given the variety of transactions that take place within the retail arena. Profitability is a short term, a medium term and a long term issue.
For example, in the short term enough profits have to be generated on the sales of items to cover the costs of buying in the product; and in the medium term, enough profit has to be generated to pay the costs of running the business (rent, staffing costs, distribution costs and so on); but in order to develop the business a further chunk of profits will need to be set aside for reinvestment, for example, into an additional or larger outlet.
Eventually, there are two methods of increasing retail profitability; one is to increase the profit margins made on the products that are sold, and the other is to reduce the costs involved with selling the products. Chapter two outlined the role of the buyer and merchandiser who, in a traditional organisational structure, share the responsibility for profitability management within the department.
In some organizations, the merchandiser takes on the bulk of profitability issues, such as managing margins and price reductions, however the person who negotiates cost prices with suppliers will also make a significant impact on departmental profitability.
Trade-offs between product features and prices will be the selector’s concern. The role of the category manager, discussed in chapter three, puts a great emphasis on profitability in the guise of efficiency improvements, throughout the efficient consumer response.
U.K. Geography Hugh Matthews (2000) the key changes in the United Kingdom geography of leisure are introduced and outlined. In the last decade or so there have been significant changes in terms of the location of key types of leisure which have had dramatic impacts on city and country alike. These changes have been both physical and visual affecting the fabric and land-use of cities and countryside.
Certain kinds of leisure that two decades ago were in one kind of location in the UNITED KINGDOM’ now occupy very different locations. In addition there have been important changes in the ‘symbolic landscape’ of city and country. For example, the countryside has hitherto been regarded as a place of peace and quiet, a location for gentle leisure activity that is also small scale.
Current updates have reshaped the countryside in very significant ways, changing what we imagine the countryside to be. There have also been changes in the symbolism of cities, most notably in the revamping of many inner-city districts in response to new investment and demand for dance and music clubs, with zones of decline being transformed into symbols of new youth culture.
This review of changes in the geography of leisure in the United Kingdom makes particular reference to the process called consumption, which will be more fully explained in a later section (pp. 268-71). Here, suffice it to say, leisure has become much more commercialised during recent years and this has led to new patterns and locations of leisure development and activity.
The attraction of the United Kingdom leisure sites, in terms of global tourism, is an important influence on the kinds of places and sites that have been developed. Tourism and leisure overlap as activities and many attractions are valued for both.
Environmental The company does not throw its waste products into the crystal clear waters located near its display stores. With the current climate change issues, Tesco can reduce transportation delivery schedules to reduce Tesco’s vehicle pollution activity.
U.K. Retail Market Segment Demography Hugh Matthews (2000) theorized the United Kingdom demography provides an important backcloth to the developments taking place in the United Kingdom, but it is neither unchanging in its nature nor neutral in its effects.
The term is used here to refer to the size, distribution and composition of the population and the patterns of life-course events which maintain or alter these, notably the three basic components of change in population numbers (births, deaths and migration), but also the many factors that affect household formation and family building.
The demography of the United Kingdom’ has undergone some major changes over the past three decades, including greater longevity, lower fertility, higher divorce rate, accelerating cohabitation, later marriage and childbearing, increasing lone parenthood, larger numbers living alone, a fluctuating migration from the busy large cities, a switch from net emigration to substantial international migration gain and the increase in the number of persons belonging to the United Kingdom’s non-white population.
Each of these raises policy issues for society, most of them immediate and obvious in their implications but some with major long-term impacts such as the continuing passage of the 1960s/1970s baby boom and bust through the age structure.
Market Structure The grocery retail chain in the United Kingdom is focuses on serving the basic needs of clients. The three major players are Tesco Sainsbury, and ASDA.
The laissez faire economic environment influences the Grocery market segment. Ash Amin (2002) emphasized A central role that the local United Kingdom directory social economy is expected to play is that of creating new forms of employment in excluded communities. The European Commission (EC), for example, has identified nineteen fields of activity on the basis of which it has proclaimed an ‘Era of Tailor Made Jobs’ (CEC 1998a).
The other centre-right national governments for whom the local social economy offers the promise of ‘bottom-up’ regeneration with new sources of employment flowing from the conversion of ‘needs into markets’. The special hot economy organisations normally contribute to employment outcomes fall into two main categories: direct employers and labour market intermediaries.
The direct employers are expected to create jobs by exploiting new areas of anticipated growth. These include, for example, environmental schemes as a basis for socially useful employment
Each competitor influences the other competitors’ revenues and selling prices. The retail grocery chain market segment is giving its best to attract as many U.K. clients as possible. The company advertises its products in and sets up shops to reach current and future clients (Palmer, 2004).
In addition, Alfred Marcus reiterated (Marcus 1984) brainstorming and t mere discussions about regulatory changes involve fundamental questions about the power of the federal government and its relation to the private sector. An increase in federal authority over business and as well as the imposition or assertion of business power are among the most notable changes in business-government relations in recent years.
To date, the analyses of some regulatory changes has often been limited to obvious indicators–readily available statistics on the number of employees and the budgets of regulatory agencies, the cost of regulation to the private sector, and the number of agencies and regulatory enactments.
The effectiveness of the sales owners’ implementation of the new motives or usefulness of the measures, however, is limited in considering governmental activity and its impacts, as several crucial and interesting questions are tainted with tour political in nature. This chapter criticizes conventional measures and develops a political viewpoint on the topic of regulatory changes.
Conclusion Based on the above discussion, crisis management and crisis communication focuses on resolving the effect of the current economic depression on the company’s retention and increase of its revenues. Tesco Plc’s business organisation maximises many scarce but significant variables in generating balance scorecard recommendations.
For example, the financial statement ratio data shows Tesco gets a high passing grade for maximizing its assets to generate profits. To eliminate the crisis, Tesco Plc advertises the many benefits of its grocery brands. Next, Tesco Plc implements a customer based supply chain crisis management delivery system to increase revenues by increasing grocery inventory.
The company’s balanced scorecard indicates the company successfully resolved its major crisis issue, decline revenues, by maximising its scarce resource. The company continues to generate net profits for 2008 and 2009 alone from satisfied clients. The current favourable financial success must be continued by offering high quality products at the same affordable Tesco- style shelf prices.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s customer crisis management and crisis communication aspect, the company correctly continues its current strategic direction of advertising the company’s picturesque image as the best client-based retail store over the next ten years.
To the other stakeholders, including the 2008 and 2009 Tesco income statement’s net income data as part of the crisis to support solutions to persuade the stockholders, suppliers, customers showing the company generated profits to persuade the stakeholders the company will be able to increase its revenues within the next five years.
The income statement indicates Tesco sold more than enough products and services to cover its daily store operating expenses. Definitely, the crisis communication correspondences will include audited income statements showing profitable sales figures for 2008 and 2009.
The advertisements will show that the company is slowly regaining its former lead in the United Kingdom grocery market segment by filling the discriminating needs of the local clients.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s internal business crisis management and crisis communication process, Tesco management must continue its current strategic direction of improving the company’s current high quality supply chain strategy over the next ten years.
The Tesco Company’s internal business process balanced scorecard status indicates the company has a passing grade; the company offers high quality grocery and other related products and services at acceptable prices, Consequently, Tesco has a huge chunk of the Retail industry.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s learning and growth crisis management and crisis The surveys will serve as starting point to enhance the Tesco currently economic depression crisis management and crisis communication process in terms of retaining the company’s brand image, service quality, and grocery customer loyalty.
Lastly, Tesco Plc must innovatively implement crisis management and crisis communication strategies to remove the current economic depression that incorporate the recording and avoiding actions, activities, and other factors that will precipitate to the decline in the company’s current revenues and net profit figures.
Indeed, Tesco was able to resolve its key issues of generating revenues and profits by managing (maximizing) its scarce but significant resources fully.
References Amin, A. Placing the Social Economy. London: Routledge Press, 2002.
Baumueller, M., (2007) Managing Cultural Diversity. London, Lang Press.
Gibbs, D. Local Economic Development and the Environment. London: Routledge Press, 2002.
Marcus, A. The Adversary Economy. London: Quorum Books, 1984.
Matthews, H. The Changing Geography of the United Kingdom. London: Routledge Press, 2000.
Sternquist, B. European Retailing’s Vanishing Borders. London: Quorum Press, 1994.
Varley, R. Retail Product Management. London: Routledge Press, 2001.
Czinkota, S., (2006) International Marketing. London, Wiley
Draw an EER diagram for the following problem using this textbook’s notation. [Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes insi argumentative essay help
[Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes inside supertypes” notation.]
A nonprofit organization depends on various distinct types of persons for its successful operation. The organization is interested in the following attributes for all these persons: SSN, Name, Address, City/State/Zip, and Telephone. Three types of persons are of the greatest interest: employees, volunteers, and donors. Employees have only a Date Hired attribute, and volunteers have only a Skill attribute. Donors have only a relationship (named Donates) with an Item entity type. A donor must have donated one or more items, and an item may have no donors or one or more donors.
There are persons other than employees, volunteers, and donors who are of interest to the organization so that a person need not belong to any of these three groups. On the other hand, at a given time a person may belong to two or more of these groups (e.g., employee and donor).
Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? Argumentative Essay argumentative essay help
Money and power are among the main yardsticks which success in life is measured today. America has come to be known as the “land of opportunities” because it gives people an equal chance to prosper regardless of their social economic and political background. Americans have always been proud of their status and country. However, the United States is no longer regarded in high esteem as was the case a few years ago and many countries now view it in a negative way.
Americans are no longer as proud of their country because they have to struggle with the harsh economic conditions, compared with their counterparts in Europe. The line between the “American Dream” and capitalism is very thin and for this reason Americans have always known that through hard work they can become successful.
Although there are many ways to define success power and money are two of the generally accepted measures of success (World Public Opinion, 2007). The United States is supposed to be a country where everybody can attain the American dream through hard work and ingenuity regardless of their socioeconomic background. However in the last 30 years, the American dream has turned into the American nightmare. This is because the economy has not been doing very well, meaning that jobs are hard to come by.
An opinion poll that was conducted by the Pew Research Center revealed that many of the countries surveyed still dislike the United States. In addition, not many countries view Americans positively (Pew Research Center, 2007). The negative image of the United States and its people is so great that even the most popular policies in the country cannot repair it fully.
Majority of the traditional allies of America have an unfavorable opinion about the country and its people, with Canada and Great Britain as the only exceptions. According to the survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, China is gaining more popularity compared with the United States because of its constant economic growth, even in the face of the recent global financial crisis.
On the other hand, the economic growth of China has elicited mixed reactions with the pluralists and majorities in Spain and France arguing that the economic growth of China would impact negatively on their respective countries.
In spite of the recent negative views of the American people and their country, majority of the Western countries who took part in the survey associate Americans with such positive characteristics as “inventive”, “honest” and hardworking (Pew Research Center, 2007). On the other hand, a big number of the participants also associate the Americans with such negative characteristics “violent” and “greedy”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More GlobeScan and BBC World Service commissioned a poll that was conducted by World Public Opinion in 26 countries to determine if the United States has impacted on the world negatively or positively. Of the 26 countries that took part in the poll, “30 percent say the US is having a mostly positive influence in the world while 51 percent say the US is having a mostly negative influence” (World Public Opinion, 2007).
In addition, 20 of the countries that took part in the survey had a negative view about the United States. Only four countries were of the opinion that the United States has impacted on the world positively. On the other hand, two of the countries had evenly divided views over the issue.
Many researchers have focused on the existing cross-country differences with regard to their subjective well-being. Many of these students have tried to compare the United States with Europe and in this case the United States seems to rank lower in regard to levels of satisfaction compared with countries in Europe, who have lesser per capita incomes. For example, because there is a great deal of mobility in the United States, Americans manifest a mild distaste for inequality compared to their counterparts in Europe.
In the last couple of years, trends in the well-being of Americans have declined tremendously and as a result, the incomes of most Americans have reduced (Wessle, 2005). Jobs in America are to come by and the available ones do not pay as much and as such, Americans can no longer enjoy life like they once did. As a result, most Americans have not changed their view about their country and they no longer see it as a land of opportunity.
Although Americans are thought to be extremely upwardly mobile, in reality, this is more complicated that we might imagine. Since 1970 the gap between the poor and the rich has increased tremendously and as a result, it remains exceedingly hard for a child born in poverty for example, to attain wealth and power.
Even with affirmative action social change in the community and increased opportunities for education, the economy is still not doing well, and this means that the upward mobility of Americans is limited. Already Americans are slowly realizing that their country is no longer a place for exceptional opportunity because they are faced with daily struggles.
Through years of research scholars and researchers have come to the realization that contrary to what they thought, the American society is less mobile. During the late 1980s, economists conducted numerous studies that revealed that children in America now only get a limited amount advantage that was the case years ago. Again this is proof that modern day America is very different from that of the 1960s.
We will write a custom Essay on Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A report by Globalscan notes that “within Europe there has been a hardening of negative attitudes toward America compared to a year ago” (Globalscan n. d.). In France, negative views about the United States increased from 54 % to 65 %, according to the poll, while in Great Britain, the negative views increased from 50% to 57%. On the other hand, 46% of pluralists Italians view the United States and the Americans negatively.
This is in comparison with 2004, when only 40 percent of the respondent had a negative view of the Americans and America. The Chinese have also increased their negative view of the Americans (from 42% to 62 %), as well as the Brazilians (whose negative view of the Americans has increased dramatically from 51% to 60 %).
America was once regarded as the land of opportunities because anybody could enjoy increased social status regardless of their social, economic, and political background. However, this is no longer the case, seeing that the country’s social and economic structures are no longer as robust as they once were. Consequently, Americans now have a negative view about their country, while other countries in the world also are increasingly viewing Americans and America in a negative way.
Reference List Globalscan. BBC poll: attitude towards countries. Web.
Pew Research Center. (2007). America’s Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project. Web.
Wessle, D. (2005). Escalator Ride As Rich-Poor Gap Widens in the U.S., Class Mobility Stalls. Web.
World Public Opinion. (2007). America’s image in the world. Web.
History of Quality Management: Riyad Bank Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Selection and placement
Training and development
Performance management and CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
Recommendations and Conclusion
Introduction Quality management is a vital process in a firm, an organization or a business entity that will either accrue success or will deem the institution a failure. In relations to this, It is very important to take keen note of the selection, recruitment and employment of the people who are to work in the institution (Boxall,
Economics and Immigration Research Paper essay help online free
Introduction Migration of labor has already become an essential element of the global economic reality. Globalization, communication, transport, and opening borders facilitate the transfer of workforce from one part of the world to another. The United States has always been the world’s most attractive immigration target; and most studies were focused on the effects of immigration on the economic, social, and labor processes in the U.S.1 The effects of immigration on other countries, including Japan, were persistently overlooked. Given the growing inflow of foreign workers to Japan, their effects on wages and career prospects need to be better understood.
The main question to consider is why in the Japanese macroeconomic contexts, where the majority of foreign workers are limited to unskilled jobs, the skills and qualifications they develop over time have little effects on their economic and career advancement.
Economic advancement of immigrants as the function of wages Wages as the key indicator of immigrants’ economic integration
Japan is believed to be one of the “recently” immigrant countries.2 In the article on human capital, wages, and immigration to Japan Takeyuki Tsuda discusses the effects of immigrant skills on their wage prospects and career advancement. Tsuda believes that the level of wages is the central indicator of immigrants’ economic integration in Japan.3
This is mainly because immigrants bring their human and social skills to the host country, and the level of earnings they obtain in return reflects the degree to which these skills are accepted and used by the host society.4 It is no wonder that changes in wages and earnings are at the heart of the economic debate concerning the patterns of immigration to Japan.
The role of human capital in wage earnings
Human capital theories have long been at the center of the immigration debate. Human capital, or skills, is believed to be the main factor of professional and career growth among immigrants. Tsuda writes that the human capital construct encompasses individual skills, education and qualifications, and experiences.5
Previous studies of immigration to the United States showed that human capital determinants were the principal drivers of immigrants’ economic advancement in the host country.6 These findings reflect and build on traditional models of wage determination, in which human capital accumulation drives the subsequent growth in wages.7
However, Japan differs greatly from other countries of the world. Its immigration and macroeconomic contexts reduce the validity of traditional economic theories and models. It is possible to assume that skills, qualifications and experiences of immigrants to Japan play a minor role in their economic and professional advancement. Tsuda’s article and additional analysis will answer the following question: does human capital matter in immigrants’ economic and career advancement in Japan?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macroeconomic contexts and immigration patterns in Japan Migrant workers in Japan: Statistical and pattern analysis
In 2002, a total of 1,851,758 foreign residents were registered in Japan.8 61.5% of them were temporary residents.9 A defeated nation, after WWII Japan did not introduce any foreign labor policies, as its rural territories exemplified an ample source of productive labor force.10
It was not until the middle of the 1980s that Japan faced the growing inflow of foreign labor force.11 Since the inception of the first immigration policies in Japan, all incoming workers were classified as either professional or unskilled.12
At the end of 2002, Japan had an estimated 554,200 unskilled workers registered and actually working.13 Estimating the number of illegal foreigners working in Japan does not seem possible, but the results of statistical analyses suggest that the number of unskilled immigrants coming to Japan constantly increases.
One of the main reasons why more immigrants come to Japan is because native working age population rapidly declines. Following the global recession of 2008-09, Japan slowly expands the pool of foreign labor force in the country.
The official data provided by the Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training suggest that the number of immigrants coming to Japan slowly but steadily increases. However, the current economic and social environment in Japan does not favor immigration.
Table 1: Changes in the number and percentage of native workers in Japan
1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2025 2050 Working age population, 15-64 years old (thousands) 78,689 85,875 86,365 84,487 81,572 71,652 51,790 Working age population, 15-54 years old (proportion among the total population, %) 67.4 69.7 68.2 66.3 64.2 59.3 50.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (58).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Economics and Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigration policies in Japan and human capital considerations
Japan remains increasingly exclusivist toward foreign entrants. Japanese immigration policies build on three important considerations: first, foreigners are admitted only as a measure of last resort; second, the entry of unskilled workers should be prohibited; and third, immigration must be temporary.14 Foreigners are treated differently from natives; and even amongst foreigners, the quality of relations and career patterns largely depends upon the immigrant’s family and ethnic origin.
Table 2: Changes in foreign labor inflows to Japan
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (thousands) 516 568 614 655 695 723 753 339 486 563 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (% of total labor force) 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (84).
“Foreign workers are confined generally to dirty, dangerous and low status occupations. Besides problems in occupation, the workplace and public policy, foreign workers in Japan encounter specific social problems, such as language barriers, lack of health care, and other social benefits.” (Tigno 70)
These macroeconomic and policy conditions reduce the validity of traditional human capital considerations; the latter have dominated the economic theory for many years. Understanding Japanese macroeconomic environments is extremely important, as most developed countries rely on macroeconomic factors to filter migration.15 More often than not, employers in the host country disregard the skills and knowledge previously accumulated by foreign workers.16 One of the main questions is what exactly drives immigration to Japan.
Dual labor market theory and immigration to Japan Factors affecting international immigration to Japan
Previous models of wage and capital formation do not explain the nature and consequences of immigration to Japan. Dual labor market theory re-evaluates the patterns of immigration in macroeconomic environments. Based on the dual labor market theory, structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography change the principles and patterns of international immigration. First, structural inflation greatly affects the quality of immigrant workforce.
Employers are particularly interested in low-skilled and unskilled workers, since it is cheaper than hiring native employees.17 Native workers typically avoid working in low paid jobs, and raising entry wages for native workers will necessarily require changing the entire structure of wages.18
Second, motivational factors of international immigration differ from those affecting native workers: native employees want more than just work; they want status and career growth, whereas immigrants perceive jobs as just a means to earn money.19
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economics and Immigration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Third, most developed labor markets are characterized by inherent dualism, meaning that native workers are driven to the capital-intensive sector with higher wages, leaving the secondary sector with its low wages and job uncertainty to foreign newcomers.20
Fourth, advanced societies experience the growing demand for female labor, coupled with the rapid decline in birth rates; unable to satisfy the growing demand for labor, industrialized societies gradually realize the hidden benefits of attracting immigrant labor force.21
Skills and professional qualifications do not matter
In light of this information, Tsuda makes the final conclusion that, in the Japanese macroeconomic environments, human capital does not allow for greater wages and economic integration of immigrant workers. Japan is a recent country of immigration, and its immigrant labor markets are still in the state of infancy.22
Immigrants who come to Japan but cannot use local social resources have few opportunities to advance themselves in the Japanese labor markets.23 Based on the dual labor market theory, host country employers are not interested in hiring foreign workers to the jobs and positions requiring greater responsibility and higher levels of skills. Immigrants in Japan can successfully accumulate new knowledge, qualifications and skills.
These skills, as it appears, do not matter, unless these workers have access to social networks and resources that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs.24 As of today, Japanese employers are strongly in favor of hiring male workers of Japanese origin who were born and brought up abroad.25
The wage levels of immigrants indicate the degree of their economic integration with the host country, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.
Conclusion Japan is becoming a popular object of macroeconomic and population analysis. A recently immigrant country, Japan is attracting more foreign workers. The number of foreign newcomers slowly but steadily increases; nevertheless, the country remains increasingly exclusivist in its immigration decisions.
Those who come to Japan seek decent employment and good earnings. Simultaneously, their career and wage growth prospects are rather modest. More often than not, foreign immigrants in Japan have few opportunities to advance themselves professionally; human capital plays only a minor role in immigrants’ wage and career growth in Japan.
The dual labor market theory suggests that international immigration is driven by four essential factors: structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography. In this sense, Japanese employers are highly motivated to hire foreign workers, who are cheaper than native employees and seek nothing but money.
Contrary to the earlier models of wage determination, human capital alone does not help immigrants to achieve a better economic status in Japan. Immigrants require access to social networks and connections that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs. The wage levels indicate the degree of immigrants’ assimilation with the local economic environment, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.
Works Cited Fiorio, Carlo and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010. Print.
Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 431-66. Print.
Sato, Makoto. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 19-34. Print.
Solinger, Dorothy J. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 455-478. Print.
Syed, Jawad. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 28-45. Print.
The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. Databook of International Labor Statistics 2011. The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, 2011. Web.
Tigno, Jorge V. “Migration, The Market and Society: issues in Philippine Labor Flows to Japan.” Philippine Social Science Review, 51.1 (1993): 57-78. Print.
Tsuda, Takeyuki. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641-59. Print.
Footnotes 1 Carlo Fiorio and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010, 2.
2 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011), 641.
3 Ibid., 641.
4 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
5 Ibid., 641.
6 Ibid., 641.
7 Ibid., 642.
8 Makoto Sato. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 22.
9 Ibid., 22.
10 Ibid., 22.
11 Ibid., 23.
12 Ibid., 24.
13 Ibid., 24.
14 Dorothy J. Solinger. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 461.
15 Jawad Syed. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 31.
16 Ibid., 31.
17 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.
18 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.
19 Ibid., 442.
20 Ibid., 443.
21 Ibid., 443.
22 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
23 Ibid., 641.
24 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
25 Ibid., 641.
Collection Development Policy Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Executive Summary The paper evaluates Collection Development Policy and its overall benefits to libraries. It starts by introduction and the meaning of Collection Development Policy, its components and benefits. Then there is explanation on the general requirements for successful implementation CDP. Finally there is review and evaluation of the existing stock within the library and conclusion.
Introduction All libraries have got one primary task of making information available through collection, selection and preservation. Such process is normally made easier through application of relevant policies such as Collection Development policy. The policy assists libraries in organization through effective management of information and other resources (Strong, 1999).
Definition of Collection Development Policy A collection development policy presents a written statement of a library’s intention for building collections. The CDP describes collections components including strengths and weaknesses as well as providing clear guidelines for the library employees. The development of the document requires time and careful considerations for the purposes of proving its relevance to the subject.
Purpose of CDP
The main purpose for a library in normally to sort and provide necessary access to relevant information and resources. Improvement in technology has guaranteed libraries the chance to migrate from holdings method to access strategies which enable information to be provided efficiently and in time. Collection policies are on the increase therefore making libraries prepare in disseminating widely available information (Strong, 1999).
Explanation on Collection Development Policy (CDP)
The document is expected to provide updated information as well as being flexible when it comes to adapting to various changes. At the same time the guidelines provided should be modifiable in line with the library’s collection needs. Consequently, the collection development policy should be placed on the World Wide Web as a resource for the library’s patrons and source of reference for other libraries (Johnson, 1994).
Policy statements normally provide parameters through which employees and users of the library work. Collection Development Policy serves purposes such as; selecting materials, describing current collections, and at the same time makes the staff aware of the aims and objectives of the organization.
In addition it gives the various priorities attached to different activities and assists in the processing of budget and overall collection management activities. In general terms CDP prevents the library from being controlled by events as well as individual interests. The document also controls the purchase of resources preventing the cases of obtaining resources not in support of the library’s mission (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Components of a CDP
The collection development policy provides the necessary guidance to staff in the process of selecting and deselecting resources for collection. The various processes involved include; acquisition, housing, weeding, retention and archiving, placing all manner of material within their relevant subjects. Such organization helps in reducing the level of bias since all individual selection decisions are guided within the context of the objectives of collection practices.
This ultimately assists in identifying and filling the gaps within the responsibilities associated with collection development. Such practices ensure existence of consistency in the process of selection and revision done on materials. Collection Development Policy also helps in defining the purpose and scope of various collections as well as allowing deep evaluation on selection decisions. The guidelines provided makes it easier for the training of new staff and at the same time provides answers to most questions raised by selectors (Johnson, 1994).
The collection development policy also provides relevant base necessary for future planning. This assists in planning of the available financial resources making it easier when it comes to priority determination. There is provision for protecting library funds since the policy grants clear guidelines on acquisition bids based on fair allocation of resources.
The document in its formal presentation ensures continuity hence of great benefit in acquiring knowledge on collection as well as acting as reminder of library goals and objectives. The defined objectives are helpful in guiding other activities related to collection such as cataloguing, selection and de-selection and other relevant delivery activities (Johnson, 1994).
The other benefit of CDP is that it offers the required public relations amongst the library users, administrators and related funding organizations. The document gives clear objectives indicating the position of the organization on demonstrating accountability and following the stated goals.
Relevance of the document is determined by active participation of users and administrators which acts as source of strong relations between library users and the employees. The CDP serves as a contract document between the library and its users and at the same time giving clear functions of the library in terms of collections and various services offered to institutions. It makes it easier for the justification of individual selection based on standard objectives and also makes it possible to reject unwanted materials (Johnson, 1994).
Benefits of establishing a written CDP for the Limerick Institute of Technology Library
Limerick Institute of Technology Library policy document would identify various issues such as the level of access, content, and engagement of the community in which it will be established, also important is the education standards as well as the training programs which assists in achieving the mission and vision. Operating under the strategies of Limerick Institute Library requires specific initiatives for collection development, some of which are explained as below (Shenton, 2005).
We will write a custom Report on Collection Development Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The CDP will consider increase in the virtual space and easy access to the collections either manually or electronically on a twenty-four hour basis six days a week. This would also entail access to other materials such as Library catalogues and other services. There would be issues on subscription to several relevant electronic databases which would make it easier for clients to access services irrespective of the region where they are stationed free of charge.
Creation of more materials through digital processing would be given priority and these would entail cultural materials inform of music, manuscripts as well as pictures. The community would be engaged in online exhibitions and at the same time staff being educated and trained on the rural and remote communities, granting them the opportunity to have the skills required in operation of the internet and usage of online library resources (Shenton, 2005).
The library would offer sufficient space for readers making it capable of accommodating many people in one sitting. There would be improved access to collections and exhibition galleries. The project would grant the community the opportunity to access virtual library services with clients capable of adjusting available spaces to suite their needs. The internet services would replace paper-based resources making work and accessibility easier.
The method implemented on electronic storage of information would present various key benefits to Limerick Library some of which include; easier and timely delivery of information enabling clients to access information irrespective of their locations. There would be free access to all Limerick Library catalogues through their website making selection of titles easier to clients.
Collection Development Policy would also enable digitisation of heritage resources which enables scanning of various materials such as photographs and maps. This would promote access to wider range of materials which previously proved restrictive. The digitisation also enhances the library’s role in collecting, preserving and access to several materials linked to heritage (Tedd and Large, 2005).
However some few challenges are involved which include the right to ownership and access to materials. The problem of digital resources being accessed by anyone from all over the world provided they have authentic entry through database provider. The process of archiving presents some considerable challenge where the relative costs of archive and print versions differ (Tedd and Large, 2005).
Requirements for implementation and revision of the CDP
The first requirement for the implementation of the CDP is the library’s mission statement, the purpose for which the policy is drafted and the audience it should address. Some of the inclusions the document requires are statements on user groups, types of programs served by the CDP, the nature and size of the collection and detailed budget. The various cooperative agreements on policy and practices are also provided for (Dahl et al, 2006).
General and Narrative Statements
General statements would be required for implementation purposes. This comprises the listing of all characteristics which determine the nature of development required for the collection.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Collection Development Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These include such issues as current situation, acquisitions, the kind of resources involved in form of periodicals, monographs and the like, kind of language applicable, format whether in printed or electronic form, sources of funds, the various policies safeguarding collection and maintenance. Within these important subjects on relevant policies and rights of complaints are all necessary for complete implementation purposes (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).
Narrative statements are also important since it helps in defining the library services in relation to the community it serves. The statement should provide for languages and regions as well as intellectual coverage based on chronological order.
Also the library units responsible for the collections with the subjects being described based on the library classification scheme is a consideration. And finally the relationship between disciplines and the required policies should be followed for the purposes of acquiring information (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).
Subject profiles are necessary for the purposes of revealing and helping in collection evaluation. This proves important in the process of periodic updating of information reflecting on changing times. The overview of collection strength and intensities is very vital before implementation process.
The overview represents the general synopsis on the network’s coordinated collection policy. Such a collection is normally referred to as conspectus report which provdes evaluation on the library’s division, categories and subject. The information is useful in managing library resources hence making it possible to ascertain on relevant decisions required for the general operations of the library (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).
Review and evaluation of existing stock The library consists of printed books, manuscripts as well as archives of lasting value, antiquarian and modern books for intellectual and historical contents. The existing collection strength include availability of resources such as; History and Literary collections in Irish and other languages, Irish Literature, Celtic studies, Medieval studies, Religion in Ireland, Estate papers, Official Publications, Intellectual history of University College, Law and Comical artefacts.
The section on Special Collections and Archives involves collections in different formats which includes; printed materials, manuscripts, facsimile formats, maps, photographs, musical scores as well as microfilm. There are also copies of theses written from higher degree courses which include maters and PhDs fro Limerick Institute of Technology College (Tedd and Large, 2005).
All important records generated by Limerick Institute of Technology and which more so relates to the history of the institution are organized and preserved by the institute Archives. All the donations and other internal transfers are generally controlled by agreements as well as necessary transfer procedures. Relevance of overall Special Collections is reviewed for validity purposes (Tedd and Large, 2005).
Conclusion The collection methods and techniques are required to ascertain on the depth and strength of the existing collections. The useful techniques required for implementation of CDP are either collection-centered or client-centered. The work of the collection-centered is to assist in examining the content and nature of resources and their information for the purpose of determining their relevance with external standards.
On the other hand client centered techniques provides detailed descriptions on the collection’s effectiveness and relevance. The combination of the two techniques during implementation alongside quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques provides accurate and reliable results for present and future use.
Reference List Clayton, P.
Promoting Library Collection Policy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction All libraries face complex challenges in identifying, acquiring and managing appropriate information resources. Traditional formats and ever more technologically interesting information sources are expected by patrons in communities of all sizes. Small and rural public libraries have always faced unique challenges in this arena.
Some of these challenges include: limited budgets for materials, licenses, and equipment, limited staffs (sometimes only one person performs all library functions), too many inappropriate and unsolicited gifts, limited space for print material and limited computers for electronic access, time constraints, and limited opportunities for library training and education within easy access (Evans
Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country Research Paper essay help
Introduction Living as a non- English speaking artist in an English speaking country is a fascinating challenge and an advantage to a nation since aliens in a country are play pivotal role in promoting cultural activities as well as innovation. Empirical and past comparative studies indicate that in the history of civilization and human culture, aliens in any given country have always been known as one major source of social vibrancy since they share local traditions with the local people alongside passing their own cultural values to the local population.
In cases such aliens are quite intimate with the local population. Then it is indefinite that a lot of unprecedented cultural exchange will indeed take place leading to a positive outcome. Brandellero indicates that due to the uniqueness of strangers or immigrants, local milieus dealing with production have developed keen interest of attracting and retaining them for purposes of enhancing growth and sustaining their economies (10).
As this paper analyses, artists are important personalities in any cultural economy bearing in mind that they act as forerunners in harnessing and generating capabilities through their own artistic works. By so doing, they directly contribute towards economic growth of the respective countries they are living in. It is also against this scope that this paper explores non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, their impact on the economy and some of the challenges facing them.
Understanding cultural and ethnic diversity In her publication, Brandellero argues that cultural diversity and its link to the status of an outsider is a factor that creates tension, but has a positive effect towards innovative potential (11). While cultural diversity has myriad of similarities to ethnic diversity, it is prudent to mention that the former is a key driver and a potential source of innovation, creativity and building positive relationships. The latter are essential in enhancing mutual competitiveness.
In their cultural theory, Schwartz and Thompson elaborate that a new entrant into a foreign country may act as an intersection between the local community and outside world largely due to multiple ethnic and spatial ties. To emphasize on this, it is worth noting that contemporary immigrants, English or non-English speakers, are contributing immensely in strengthening of advanced urban economies by enhancing competitive advantages.
Effective understanding of cultural and ethnic differences have become some of the most fundamental requirements which businesses and immigrant artists need today since it assists them in building relationships by fostering understanding of the cultural values of members of different cultures alongside interpreting of their behaviors and actions.
The efficient performance of a non-English speaking artist as well as his or her participation in the growth of the economy of a host English speaking nation is to a larger extent, influenced by cultural differences experienced through complex interaction between the environment and individuals. Brandellero makes a significant contribution related to this argument by pointing out that an understanding of cultural diversity and ethnicity easily affect the degree of satisfaction, motivation results and behavior of individuals (35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His argument concurs with Hofstede’s model and networking theory that demonstrate how cultural differences impact on the dimensions of an organization in terms of networking, gaining social capital, relationship marketing and development of human resource (Brandellero 54). Additionally, the differences also directly impact on intra organizational communication, problem-solving capabilities and creativity levels.
An artist who is living in the contemporary cultural economy has a greater advantage since the modern global economy has emerged as a thriving market offering colossal employment opportunities in many cities and countries globally.
Brandellero posits that the cultural economy offer potential support for artists of all nation whether English speaking or non- English speaking, and massive opportunities to generate artistic capabilities for productive purposes (20). This is made possible by the spatial manifestations created by the cultural economy, which play a pivotal role of attracting substantial and significant attention, which is an important playing field in the revolution of culture in a new economy.
Living as a non-English speaking artist Living as a non-English artist in another country as opposed to one’s own native land is a major challenge brought about by the diverse changes that are mainly structural, of global proportion and that continuously alter and impact on experiences. Research studies clearly indicate that living and working in a foreign country may affect a worker’s private realms and social life due to issues such as industrial capitalism and rational forms.
Scholars on modern sociology point out that a lot of transformations involving cultural, political, economic and social processes happen differently in diverse nations and result in the emergence, development and flourishing of new structures of social life that may affect an immigrant worker.
Brandellero argues that non-English speakers migrating to other English speaking nations in order to work ought to understand the culture of the country they are going to live in bearing in mind that this will shape how they relate with the locals and enhance their business performance (14).
Needless to say, cultural understanding in a foreign land is of great essence if an artist is to reap the optimum benefits out of his or her artistic work. It is also prudent to underscore the fact that should cultural differences between artists and locals clash at any given point, then the expected benefits either to the artist or host country will be null and void.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importance of effective understanding of cultural differences by non-English speaking artists National culture is a phenomenon that distinguishes one group from another. Therefore, different nations have unique cultures that affect or largely determine how they run their affairs. A country may express its culture through conceptual elements such as arts, rituals or beliefs. For non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, it is definite that they indeed encounter myriad of challenges brought about by national culture.
Besides, when employed, they serve, co-work and interact with workers and customers from different cultural backgrounds who manifest various gender, ethnic, regional and national beliefs. This calls for an effective understanding of the local or national culture of a host nation and development of coping strategies in order to be productive. Most importantly, the barrier posed by language differences may not be eluded in most cases since an artist may not be a multilingual speaker.
According to Brandellero, for individuals or companies to perform successful business ventures in countries different from their own, they must have an effective understanding of different cultures (12). Besides, they must apply knowledge in management as tactics which are important for success.
It is imperative to mention that non-English speaking artists have to be flexible and keep changing their strategies to meet the needs and challenges a new cultural environment presents. Those intending to innovate or invest in the cultural economy must incorporate knowledge in management with the strategies they have devised. With globalization taking rapidly taking effect, these artists must come up with ways to overcome organizational and national cultures and the diverse challenges posed by the same.
Using Hofstede’s model, it is important to note that special cultures of diverse nations are based on different independent dimensions that include short term or long term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity or femininity, individualism or collectivism and power distance (Brandellero 62).
Understanding of the different independent dimensions will greatly assist a non-English speaking artist to predict how societies or nations that host them culturally operate. It is imperative to note that the culture of a given society is the sum of its assumptions, beliefs and values.
The man-made part of the culture of a society is influenced by the perceptions individuals have of their social environment. As such, a prescribed behavior of a particular society is shaped by those shared perceptions (Brandellero 43). An artist may not be able to directly observe culture, but can easily infer it from verbal exchanges and daily societal activities.
Knowledge of different cultures enhances networking
According to Pettigrew Whipp’s model of dimensions of change, effective understanding of different cultures assists business owner to develop their social networking behaviors (Brandellero 18). This argument clearly indicates that a non-English speaking artist who intends to succeed in his or her operations in an English speaking host country must possess or develop positive patterns of behavior necessary for social networking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, many businesses today are operated with an intention of growth and maximization of profits. Positive networking behaviors should be enhanced by the non-English speaking artists as will not only aid them to effectively understand the cultures of the environment they are situated and build good relationship, but will also assist them to acquire scarce resources for business growth.
The effective understanding of factors such as masculinity and femininity cultures in a host country will enhance a positive networking behavior that will improve an artist’s relationship with the different cultures and aid it in obtaining external resources necessary to drive up arts business (Brandellero 19).
Brandellero supports the above notion and points out that effective understanding of different ethnic cultures of a host nation is a means of success for business owners who have developed networking skills (35). In fact, it is a common denominator underlying a business agenda and is suitable for establishing a higher networking behavior.
Mourkogiannis contributes to Brandellero’s argument by indicating in his moral purpose model that entrepreneurs, and in this case non-English speaking artists, should effectively and efficiently include social spheres in expanding their networks with a bid to develop a competitive advantage in a host nation (Brandellero 20). An artist can achieve this by raising his or her social status via vertical social mobility and learning the local language.
Additionally, studies have indicated that effective understanding of different cultures by a business creates for it a dyadic and interconnected relationship that has diverse ties such as influence, exchange and information. It is imperative to note that the aforementioned ties are part of a business’ assets that legitimizes the business, enables it to access resources and provides it with information.
In agreement, different scholars have used interactive perspective to link cultural and economic resources to economic opportunity structure in analyzing the effectiveness of businesses understanding diverse cultures. According to them different ethnic groups, depending on the structure of economic opportunities, brings income to a business.
From an interactive perspective, Brandellero points out that effective understanding of cultures helps in distribution of resources through built relationships (42).
Different societies vary in terms of status, power and class. As such a non-English speaking artist in an English speaking host country will be supplied with capital from ethnic networks depending on social relationships and ties built on social obligation and trust. It is imperative to note that customer relationship and ties with a business depend on a cultural enclave the business is in.
Knowledge of culture and relationship marketing
According to neoclassical microeconomic theory, relationship marketing is an important marketing activity that businesses having their operations in different countries carry out for successful establishment and sustenance of relational exchanges (Brandellero 32). An artist in a foreign nation can create a long-term relationship between his business and individuals or groups within a particular host culture in a relational market.
Neoclassical microeconomic theory presents a transactional school of thought that indicates that effective understanding of different cultures by a business will assists it in developing relational exchanges with the locals.
Consequently, this will aid it in the maximization of profits if it is found in a competitive market. Additionally, an artist living in an English speaking host country can develop exchanges with the locals and demonstrate rational behavior that shows a deep understanding of diverse cultures. Consequently, this will cause an artist to fashion his or her products to meet the cultural demands of the host country thereby making the artist to become a utility maximizer and a price taker.
Statistical literature revealing imbalance in art and theater
Past statistical research evidences have indicated that receive neglect in some countries. For instance, a report carried out in the nineties indicated that the Australian media failed to show a reflection of the diversity of the Australian people. Advertisement pictures and other programs conspicuously made exclusions to cultures that are not English speaking while portrayals in comedy only showed stereotypical images of the non-English speaking people.
Current statistics on non-English speaking representation in the media have shown estimations that slightly less than two percent of roles in the acting industry, especially in regards to mainstream drama in television, were directly played by other ethnic communities of Australia and the aboriginals (Bertone, Keating
Potato Chips Industry Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly
Introduction The question of which market structure accrues most benefits for all stakeholders can be attributed to a number of factors. There are four major market structures, but for the purpose of this assignment, focus is on monopolistically competitive and monopoly markets structures. “Wonks” is a conglomerate of many potato chips companies, which initially operated as monopolistically competitive firms in potato industry in the Midwest in 2007.
These firms were that run on equilibrium such that they achieved a normal rate of return, improved efficiency and other advantages which accrue added benefits to all stakeholders. However, in 2008 the firm were conglomerated into “Wonks” by two lawyers and thus operated in a monopoly market structure. As a monopoly “Wonks” accrues a number of benefits ranging from long term economic profits, market protection among others.
However, in a monopoly market structure, the social cost of a monopoly to both the stakeholder and the consumer is much higher than the cost of monopolistically competitive firm. Both monopolistically competitive market and monopoly structures offer certain advantages to “Wonks”; however, the company needs to revert to monopolistically competitive structure to accrue more benefits to both the entrepreneurs and consumers.
From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly To bring up all the potato chips producers together meant that the market structure was changed from monopolistically competitive to a monopoly. This shift in market structure significantly affects the relationship between the input, the output and commodity prices. In the monopolistically competitive markets, various potato chips makers established competition on production efficacy rather than on pricing.
Hypothetically, one of the competitors enhances production efficiency more than others, thus leading to competition. Efficiency is further enhanced by increasing the output (production) at minimum cost of production (Mankiw, 2011; Taylor, 2009). This has a direct impact on the cost and quantity of commodities; increasing output means only minimum increases in cost of production. Thus, the average cost of production is lowered.
In a monopolistically competitive market, price (which is equal to marginal revenue) is determined by market demand among other factors. This implies that each of the competitors may sell as much commodities as it can on the current market price. This is achieved by improving production efficiency (and thus lowered cost of production).
This phenomenon is further compounded by the existence of more than one type of demand; demand seen by a particular competitor and the actual demand for the commodity. As such, to survive in a monopolistically competitive market, potato chips makers had to product-differentiate.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This creates several types of demand for each of the products. Therefore, there are short term profits but on the long term there would not be any economic profits since with time, the demand for that differentiated product decreases while the cost of production increases. Thus, competitors are likely to increase prices of good without losing market share (since price must equal marginal cost).
The reorganization of the markets structure from monopolistically competitive to monopoly has several implications. While there are many determinants of monopoly, this type of monopoly is attained by having complete control of basic resources (potatoes) by one owner, “Wonks.”
To begin with, it is imperative to state that the shift in market structure affects the demand-supply mechanism. In a monopolistically competitive market structure there are various types of demands. These demands are determined, by the number of competing interests within this environment, thus production is based on product differentiation. However, in a monopoly, there is only one demand; the demand as perceived by the single seller (Mankiw, 1998).
As such, there is only one demand for potato chips, which is only defined by “Wonks”. This phenomenon is as a result of several factors. However, bringing all potato chips markers together mean that there is only one producer, in this case “Wonks”, who not only fails to product-differentiate but also becomes the only seller of potatoes chips. Monopolies esteem to produce as much goods as possible to supply the demand as they see it.
This also means that monopolies draw all the profits there is within their given markets (Lindeman, 2001). Since “Wonks” monopolizes production, demand and supply of potatoes chips, they are also able to monopolize prices with the aim of generating as much profits as possible. As such, for monopolistic business owners, there are direct financial returns.
In monopolistic markets structures, the government becomes a major stakeholder, either directly or indirectly. Regardless of this fact, the government stands to gain from market monopoly. In many countries, governments allow monopolies to operate, for both economic and political.
Controlling resources creates market entry barriers, since no competitor has access to those resources. However, most monopolies need government protection to create legal market entry barriers. This is usually aims at protecting monopolized markets from entry by external forces. While this to protect local entrepreneurs, it also benefits the government in two broad ways. First, the government protects local entrepreneurs, thus helping to build local production capacity.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Potato Chips Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is usually good for economic growth. Secondly, in the process of protecting local markets from infiltration by external producers, the government negotiates higher taxes payable by monopolistic firms. As such, in most countries, companies that have market monopolies end up paying relatively higher taxes, in return for protection against competition (Mankiw, 2011). Thus governments benefit in form of increased revenue from higher taxes paid by companies within monopolized market structures.
With time, companies within monopolized market structure realize that while they have the absolute power to adjust prices to suit their profits targets, such adjustments do have a general effect on total revenues. For instance, monopolies have the power to adjust prices upwards since they do not have any competitor which might offer price competitive goods. While this is aimed at increasing profits, it also has a negative effect on total revenues.
Unlike in competitively monopolistic markets, in a monopoly Price increase means that fewer consumers will be willing to buy those goods. In the long run, this reduces a company’s total revenue due to reduced sales. In this regard, “Wonks” would realize the need to increase profits through efficient production.
There are two ways through which monopolies achieve this. They either lower the cost of production by reducing wastages or add value to their products by improving on the product quality. Since Quality goods ensure the best value for money, customers are likely to pay more for those goods (Mankiw, 2011). In this case, by improving the quality of potatoes chips, “Wonks” benefits its consumers. As such, similar to monopolistic competition, consumers benefit from high quality goods as well as improved efficiency of production and delivery.
However, by conglomerating all potato chips makers into “wonks”, the Midwest potato chips market structure shifted from monopolistically competitive to a single monopoly market structure. This means that the output-input-price mechanism is changed. As explained earlier, in a monopoly, there is only one demand (the demand seen by the producer) and thus no product differentiation (Lindeman, 2001).
Thus, “Wonks” would only produce its own brands of potato chips. Unlike a monopolistically competitive market where profits are only sustained on the short term, monopolies are able to sustain profits for a long time, since there is no price competition. This is facilitated by the fact that there are strict market entry barrier and thus no chance for sharing those profits. Unlike a monopolized competitor, a monopoly operates at a level where marginal revenue is equated to marginal cost of production.
This also implies that either reduction or increase in a unit of production leads to increased profits; adding a unit of production increases revenues more than the cost of production while reducing a unit of production reduces the cost of production, thus increasing the profits (Lindeman, 2001). This is in stark contrast to a monopoly where a reduction in a unit of production is likely to increase the cost per unit of production.
“Wonks” is formed with a monopoly market structure in mind. However, the major question is on the cost of both the monopoly as well as monopolistically competitive market, and which of the two is most efficient for both the company and consumers. A monopoly has several inefficiencies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Potato Chips Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, inefficiency is achieved through setting the price of commodities above marginal cost, leading to higher prices as compared to monopolistically competitive market (Mankiw, 2011).
As such “Wonks” is likely to hike its prices. Additionally, monopolies accrue added expenses in terms of higher than normal taxes paid to government as kickback for market protection. While monopolies achieve productive efficiency, the level of such efficiency cannot be compared to the type of efficiency achieved in monopolistically competitive markets.
In a monopolistically competitive market structure, efficiency is achieved mainly through product differentiation as well as one of the ways of reducing the cost of production. As such, the more the competitive the market is, the more efficiency production becomes (Taylor, 2009).
This results not only to higher quality commodities which assure consumers of the best value for money. Due to this “Wonks” is likely to produce potato chips at a higher cost per unit (and eventually priced higher) than a monopolistically competitive firm. Additionally, product differentiation is common in monopolistically competitive markets. Thus this is likely to result to innovative products, which also add value to consumers’ lives.
Additionally, product differentiation ensures that there are numerous alternative commodities (Taylor, 2009). This increases the choice of consumer products, unlike in a monopoly where commodities have absolute distinctions (thus no choice of consumer products). Monopoly markets only have one demand; the demand as seen by the monopoly firm.
However, for a monopolistically competitive market there at least two types of demand; demand created by each competitor and the actual market demand for the product. In this case, while it seems a smart move to conglomerate all potato chips makers into a monopoly, for more benefits to the firm as well as the consumers it would be imperative for them to revert back to monopolistically competitive firms (Lindeman, 2001).
Conclusion The purpose of turning “wonks” into a monopoly was to probably control the market and create a market barrier. This would have ensured increased profits, since price is slightly higher than the marginal costs. However, while monopolizing the potato chips market seems like a smart idea, it is more costly to both the firm and consumers of potatoes chips.
Therefore, the two lawyer need to rethink their decision and revert to monopolistically competitive markets structure, in a monopoly there are fewer benefits to all stakeholders, limited productive efficiency among others limitation. This will ensure a more stable consumer friendly market.
Reference List Lindeman, J. (2001). EZ-101 Microeconomics. Arkansas: University of Arkansas
Taylor, A. (2009). Principles of microeconomics: global financial crisis edition. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning
Mankiw, G. (1998). Microeconomics. Orlando, FL: Ted Buchholz
Mankiw, G. (2011). Principles of economics. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning
Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Executive summary
Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient
Emotional intelligence skills
Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence
Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence
Executive summary This paper analyses emotional intelligence and its applicability at places of work. The introductory part defines emotions and explains what emotional intelligence, and distinguishes it from academic intelligence or intelligent quotient. In the main body, deeper discussions of the tenets of emotional intelligence are explored.
The causes and underlying reasons for emotional breakdown are discussed with concrete examples. The paper further explains how modern organizations are trying to adopt emotional intelligence, and how this component of modern human resource management can impact the performance of organizations.
Introduction Have you ever been angry with your workmate? What prompted your anger and how did you react? Do you think your reaction was justified? These questions introduce us to the subject of managing emotions which is also referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence commonly abbreviated as (EQ) or emotional quotient is one of the key tenets of modern human resource management.
Emotions occupy a very big part of human life, thus this subject deserves much attention. Emotion is defined as the disturbance of the mind and passion, and which excites the mental state of a person. It is usually marked by a strong feeling to act. On a daily basis, people experience different happenings in or out of work.
The modern world economy is dominated by economic constraint, for instance the economic recession that was experienced in early 2008 (Weiten, 2009). For a longer period of time, it has been believed that the success of a person at the place of work depends on the level of intelligence of that person known as intelligence quotient (IQ).
This is presumed to work in the academic field and not the real open work field. It has been noted that the performance of a person at the place of work goes far beyond the intelligence quotient. The modern workplace demands for varied resourcefulness. What is needed is a different kind of mental smartness; that is, emotional intelligence (Singh, 2006).
Since the start of 1990s organizations and researchers in the United Kingdom began to accept and implement emotional intelligence. From then, consultants in management and psychologists have dug deep into research to know how important emotional intelligence is at places of work in relation to productivity, the general management and in sales. They appreciated that emotional intelligence is a basic need more so in jobs where interaction between people is a must (Gold and Mumford, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient Chakraborty (2008) observes that many people have failed to separate these two subjects. They use these terms in similar contexts with assumptions that each is the antonym of one another. It is good to note that the two have a kind of a complex relationship. Emotional intelligence is based on emotion while rational or intelligent quotient is based on academics.
Nonetheless, the two interact in a certain manner and go together in some instances. Emotional responses can be managed well through conscious efforts. When this awareness is inexistent, rational thinking is overridden by emotional actions (Chakraborty, 2008).
Emotional intelligence skills There are a number of emotional intelligence skills that are very fruitful when they are learnt and adopted. They include being empathetic. When a leader in any organization has grasped this skill, he or she is able to feel and listen to the demands and complaints from employees (Stein, 2009).
Responsibility is also an important skill of managing emotions. Managers who have a grasp of social responsibility give room for a participatory approach in management. Such managers take good care of the community and the environment they are working in and respect the rules that govern that society (Stein, 2009).
Leaders who are emotionally intelligence know how to relate well with other people. Good interpersonal relationship skills help these leaders to maintain a positive relationship with all other people in the organization. Good interpersonal relation skills help leaders to cultivate relationships they want in the organization (Stein, 2009). Emotional intelligence has to come with the ability to control impulses.
This skill comprises of patience, and it allows a leader to listen to the employers of the company. Therefore, employers are able to clearly understand the views of employees and they can make an attempt to integrate these views in the organizational working framework thus drawing away bad feelings and protests at the place of work.
Happiness is another important emotional management skill that leaders need to have in order to manage emotions in the organizations that they lead. Happiness pulls people closer to the organization. Employees will always prefer to work with joyful and rejuvenated leaders. On the contrary, they will shun from leaders who are gloomy and unfriendly (Stein, 2009).
We will write a custom Report on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence has to be accompanied with tough mindedness. For any leader to gain success, he or she has to have a lot of resilience. This enables one to easily respond to tough and challenging situations. They manage to persevere when faced with obstacles. It is easy for them to overcome challenging situations and easily contain pressure arising from these constraints.
Tough minded leaders must have high self-regard because people with high self-regard have confidence and self-assurance. Leaders who possess the skill of self-regard have a strong understanding of their strongpoints and their weak points. They use confidence to counter tough situations and moments of the organization.
Tough minded leaders must have high levels of tolerating stress. This means that one must be ready and know how to deal with tough situations as they arise. Though attending to a taunting task, one is able to keep focus and control himself in relation to the activity that he or she is handling (Stein, 2009).
Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence The bottom line in operation of a business, companies or even the government are impacted by emotions that are derived from the work, the management and the customers. Organizational culture and climate are determined by emotions and how the emotions in the organization and how these emotions are managed. The feeling and performance of employees influences the feeling, satisfaction level and loyalty of customers to the company.
These in turn work to affect the performance of the organization. Emotions whether they are positive or negative affects everyone in the organization. In “What makes a leader” in the Harvard Business Review, Daniel Goleman (2005) states “When I calculate the ratio of technical skills, IQ and emotional intelligence as ingredients of excellent performance, emotional intelligence proved to be twice as important as others for jobs at all levels” (Stock, 2008, p.18).
He goes on to say, “When I compared star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of difference in their profile was attributable to Emotional Intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities” (Stock, 2008, p.18).
There is evidence supported by many researchers that emotional intelligence lays at the centre of efficient leadership. Efficient leaders are modelled by their thoughts and state of mind as they perform their work. Good leaders have self awareness as well as the influence they have on other people.
Self awareness is more vital. Leaders who have performed well in management have high abilities to control or manage their emotions. They do not at any point let emotions control them but rather are always on top of their emotions are good in adjusting their feelings (Stock, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational culture is a combination of different tenets that include values, beliefs and behaviours. These tenets work together to determine the climate of an organization. Analysts argue that emotions have economic value. Profitability of companies are determined by behaviours of employee most of which are shaped by emotions (Stock, 2008). Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization.
The improvement in the attitude of employees leads to an improvement. Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization. The management of companies are in these times finding it important to handle employees in a nice way. It has been found out that if at any instance, the attitude of employees rises, the satisfaction of customers will equally raise (Spritzer, 2007).
Stress normally has a big impact on the management and the workers. Stress emanates from bad emotions and feeling that renders people unable to withstand what the environment demands from them. Demands of the jobs and the social setting of the society are unlikely to change soon. This is making it very important to develop skills to held cope with these demands thus a call for emotional intelligence skills. On the other hand, there is good stress also called eustress. This is fuelled by positive emotions (Stock, 2008).
Research indicates that when anxiety, fear or even despair enters a persons mind, a person become defensive and seek for personal security. On realization the people who surround cant offer the security, the person becomes frustrated. This results in a turndown in performance. The taunting nature of tasks at places of work is being accompanied by stress. Jobs that come with a lot of complexities call for high levels of emotional intelligence.
At the workplace there is rising need to help manage stress. Stress management is not a simple activity. It requires one to have high levels of emotional intelligence in order to solve this problem without harming the activities of the company where one works. Successful managing of stress and its related conditions has positive impact to the profit patterns of the company (Singh, 2006).
Social and emotional intelligence works have been adopted by organizations. A person’s social and emotional intelligence goes deep into making the person successful. If extrapolated, this can be reflective of the entire organizational culture. People who manage famous organizations keep in mind that their workers are their key assets thus by developing them; their organizations are bound to be successful.
In order for organizations to maximize on their competitive abilities, they have to pay maximum attention to motivating and satisfying the needs of their employees. Ability of the organization to weigh and fully understand the socio– emotional intelligence is a beginner step to see to ensuring that an organization has reached its maximum potential.
Organizations that are devoid of emotional intelligence stand a high risk of not attaining their goals. Emotionally intelligent organizations on the other hand, have a high rate of attaining their goals and objectives. They promote an open culture where issues of openness and transparency are the key norms (Singh, 2006).
Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence Leslie works in a young advertising, and she has good friendship with the workmates. Much of the leisure time, she spends time with her friends. She describes the manner in which she relates with the bosses. The bosses are very nice, and they forward them online emails and jokes. A lot of workers gather on his computer to view latest emailed jokes (Spitzer, 2007). This is so creative of the leadership of the organization.
Though, after working for very long hours, she fills guilty leaving earlier whenever she has to do so. The reasons why people or employees get faded up with the work they do originate mostly from their supervisors or bosses. The leading teams in organizations affect the organization through directing, and guiding and the manner of responding both to the employees and the external world.
Leaders in any organization are the steers of the organizational ship. People needs to be full aware of where the ship they are travelling in is meant to reach. Employers need to understand that the leadership is competent when it comes to organizational decision making and that they are guided by the interests of the organization they are leading (Stein, 2007).
Conclusion From the discussion, it is clear the world we live in today is full of challenges that emanate from both the economic and social spheres of life. These challenges have a great impact on people and their behaviours. Therefore, the modern society has to accept the realities that these challenges pose to organizational performance.
In an effort to counter the challenges, they have resorted to introduce and cultivate the culture emotional intelligence and management. Emotional intelligence is however a subject that is still very young. Nonetheless, smart organizations that have adopted this technique are doing well. Emotion intelligence has become more of a necessity in organizations in current time. Each organization faces emotional related problems and thus by adopting this practice can help them maximize productivity.
Recommendation Organizations should conduct research about the changes on the emotions of their employees, so that they can determine the best motivational strategies to apply. In addition, employees should be consulted when implementing strategies in the organization to ensure they accept them.
Reference List Chakraborty, A., 2008, Emotional intelligence, Berlin, Springer.
Gold, J., Thorpe, R.,