Introduction Training of employees is a common phenomenon in most organizations. It is fundamental in providing employees with the skills and knowledge required to achieve the set goals and objectives. The main reason for employee training is to enable workers to meet and even exceed the organization’s performance standards (Dolan 2002, pp.278).
Other reasons that call for employee training include introduction of a new equipment in an organization, a need to raise the overall employee performance, in cases of a new employee, a need to make a correction on an out of standard performance as well as the need to improve the general performance of the employees in a given organization.
According to Glasrud (1999), for companies to attain the anticipated performance of its employees, it should be able to clearly define the need for training, select the most effective training method as well as invest in the most effective tools and materials (pp.51). Different training methods have different benefits as well as demerits to an organization.
On-the-job training and development On-the-job training is the form of training that takes place in the work place. Employees learn the various skills that they require in their jobs as they interact with other experienced employees in the organization. There are two types of on-the job training, namely planned and unplanned on-the-job training.
In planned training, there is a well-planned training procedure to enhance employee’s productivity in a given institution (Mike and Jack 1996, pp.15). It follows the model of tell, demonstrate and practice with the practice being the most interactive part where the trainee advances his/her knowledge in a systematic manner.
Trainees have constant direct contact with their trainers. On the other hand, unplanned training also known as ‘sink-or-swim’ training, does not follow any specific procedure in equipping the employees with the knowledge that they require.
It is common in the training of new employees whereby the trainer gives the trainee a very quick demonstration of what he/she is supposed to do and leaves them to carry on their duties without further assistance (Boella 2000, pp.120).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the planned on-the-job training is the most popular form of on-the-job training. In both cases, more knowledgeable, skilled as well as experienced employees such as managers and supervisors act as trainers to the less knowledgeable, skilled and experienced employees.
On-the-job training has various advantages. Trainees are able to formulate a training program using the real company situation. By so doing, they do not waste time and energy in trying to attain knowledge and skills that may not be relevant in their real working environment or rather situation.
This method of training is essential in training individuals on the particular use of a piece of equipment employed in the production process of a given organization in step(s) where there are alternative methods and machinery of doing the same.
Mark argues that, on-the-job training gives trainers an immediate opportunity to monitor and evaluate how quickly trainees are learning (2001, pp.158). As a result, the trainers are able to tailor the training process to meet individual learning capabilities using the pre-existing knowledge of the trainee(s) in question. This increases the efficiency of the training process significantly.
On-the-job training benefits the organization in several ways. Trainees who go through on-the-job training remain productive throughout the training process. To some extent, it boosts the productivity of the organization even before the management absorbs the new employees in the organization.
For instance, in the processing of important documents in an organization, most trainees are able to process documents effectively reducing the workload of the other experienced employees who can engage in other important activities to the success of the company.
Additionally, on-the-job training is cost effective. The organization will not need to hire instructors since the process employs the organization’s most experienced and knowledgeable employees as trainers (Michael 1999, pp.76). Employees who go through on-the-job training tend to learn rapidly.
We will write a custom Assessment on Advantages and Disadvantages of on-the-job and off-the-job Training and Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owing to this, the organization is able to cut some of the costs associated with the training process and channel the money to other activities since the trainees acquire the required skills and knowledge within a short period. However, on-the-job training has some shortcomings.
The quality of the process depends entirely on the ability of the trainer. In some instances, a trainer may be experienced and knowledgeable in a given field but poor in giving guidelines and instructions (Storey 1995, pp. 49). In such cases, the trainee may fail to understand some of the aspects as well as principles that are fundamental in carrying out various roles within their jurisdiction.
Moreover, since most of the trainers in on-the-job training are employees of the company, they may not be available to address most of the trainee’s questions because they may be having commitments concerning their regular activities in the organization. Some of the trainers may introduce the trainees to poor working habits (Jacobs 2003, pp. 82).
For instance, the trainer may introduce the trainee to some shortcuts or some irregularities which the management may not realize jeopardizing their job integrity. The trainee may even choose to ignore some aspects of the job regarding them as insignificant, which may be costly to the organization as well as the trainee in the future.
On-the-job training may cause several loses to an organization. Since the trainee is actively involved in the production process, for instance in food processing, his/her mistakes may lead to the production of lots of scrap material.
This not only leads to low productivity but also the production of low quality products that may negatively affect the reputation of the organization. In addition, on-the-job training may lead to the damaging of valuable equipment. In most cases, this occurs where the organization employs unplanned on-the-job training method (Duane 1998, pp.710).
The damage lowers the overall productivity of an organization and makes the organization incur extra costs in repairing or even replacing the damaged equipment. It is a common phenomenon in the introduction of new employees to computerized systems especially where the trainers are not keen on the progress of the trainees.
If an organization majors on the use of on-the-job training for a long time, the ‘pool of knowledge’ in the workforce diminishes with time due to lack of exposure to fresh ideas and dilution of skills. This poses a great danger to the technological advancement of an organization due to the dynamic nature of technology especially for organizations in the field of information and technology.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Advantages and Disadvantages of on-the-job and off-the-job Training and Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Off-the-job training and development Off-the-job training is a phenomenon whereby the training of employees takes place in areas outside their normal work places. It may take the form of seminars or other forms of learning. Off-the-job training employs several techniques, which may include talks, discussions, lectures, case studies, films, charts as well as other visual aids (Boella 2000, pp. 120). Training away from the job has several benefits.
It involves taking workers away from their normal work environments. This eliminates the frustrations associated with the normal work environment. It helps the employees to absorb more information about a particular subject. According to Rosner, off-the-job training gives the employees an opportunity to think through the principles behind several actions (1999, pp.43).
Additionally, employees get a chance to practice their roles in an environment where mistakes do not matter in case they happen. In most cases, off-the-job training brings together employees from different companies. This paves way for the exchange of valuable information from the participants from the other companies such as current market trends for a given product, skills and techniques.
Other forms of useful information may include current computerized technologies or forms of improved administrative procedures keeping an organization at par with its competitors (Storey 1995, pp.53). It also allows networking between the trainees from various companies, which may yield relationships that are useful to the company.
Off-the-job training constitutes several aspects that may profit not only the organization but also the employees. A specialist instructor enables delivery of high quality training and this means that an organization’s staff members receive a reasonable standard of training.
The instructor will not only demonstrate several procedures and activities but will also ensure that the trainees understand the underlying principle in different operations within their jurisdiction (Michael 1999, pp.79).
The employees have exposure to a wide range of facilities and equipment during off-the-job-training. This broadens their knowledge and understanding of various operations increasing their efficiency thus the productivity and the profitability of an organization.
Most off-the-job training courses take place in planned stages. This enhances a better understanding of the various procedures in carrying out different activities. Consequently, the trainee is capable to relate several aspects of his/her job enhancing their effectiveness.
The fact that employees perceive off-the-job training as a means of receiving quality training makes them feel highly valued boosting their morale in effectively carrying out their roles at their work place (Rosner 1999, pp. 48). The knowledge that employees gain during off-the-job training boosts the employees’ confidence in carrying out their duties.
Off-the-job training has several demerits. The training equipment may differ from the production equipment. This may lead to the transfer of learning difficulties when the trainee moves from the training equipment to using the equipment at his/her work place.
Dolan points out that trainees may not be able to relate the information learnt to the real production environment (2002, pp.290). Not all the trainees have the same level of understanding/expertise in a given field and some trainers may overlook this fact.
If this occurs, some of the trainers may get lost from the start of the training process rendering the process fruitless. Moreover, trainers may overlook the fact that different individuals have different learning speeds and this may force some trainees to progress at a compromising rate, which is not desirable. As a result, some new employees may require some induction training before assuming their roles in a company-a double cost of training.
Off-the-job training has proven to be costly. The costs incurred include those associated with the hiring of the instructors/trainers as well as travelling and accommodation costs depending on the type of training. In addition, off-the-job training leads to the loss of working time since the employees cannot assume their duties until the training is over.
This leads to a considerable reduction of employee output to an organization (Michael 1999, pp. 80). Employees who feel that they have acquired new skills as well as valuable knowledge may choose to leave the organization for better jobs. In such cases, the training offered by the organization to the employee turns out to be a loss to the organization since he/she will not benefit the organization in any way.
A comparison of on-the-job and off-the-job training and development Both on-the-job training and off-the-job training are beneficial to organizations. They enhance the achievement of valuable information essential in enhancing better performance of the organization. Both approaches enable workers to sharpen their skills besides acquiring knowledge thus improving their overall efficiency significantly. However, they have more differences than their similarities.
Learning in on-the-job training employs the use of the actual equipment used in the normal working environment but this may not occur during off-the-job training. As aforementioned, this results in the transfer of learning difficulties.
In addition, the trainers in on-the-job training tailor the course content using the real company situation but this may be difficult to attain in off-the-job training. However, it only occurs in planned on-the job training as opposed to unplanned on-the-job training.
Trainees in on-the-job training have a high risk of obtaining bad work habits from their trainers unlike those in off-the-job training who have instructors who are not familiar with most of their normal working conditions.
Trainees involved in on-the-job training have a high possibility or receiving poor instructions from their trainers since most of the trainers may not possess good communication skills. On the other hand, off-the-job training utilizes trained instructors thus are able to give instructions appropriately.
Repeated on-the-job training may hinder the development of an organization. It prevents the employees from accessing information that could be instrumental in enhancing the development of the institution. Additionally, it eventually diminishes the knowledge of the employees as far as development is concerned due to lack of new ideas from other organizations in the same field.
On the other hand, off-the-job training paves way for the flow of useful information to an organization. This may include the latest technology in various fields, changes in some legal processes and requirements or even the latest changes on several organizational structures
Although both methods are costly to an organization, off-the-job training is more costly than on-the-job training. The costs involved in off-the-job training such as accommodation, transport as well as hiring of instructors are not involved in on-the-job training.
Additionally, off-the-job training leads to a considerable reduction of the employees output during their training. However, if the trainees in on-the-job training damage some equipment, the organization incurs unplanned for expenses such as the repair or even the replacement of the damaged equipment.
Concerning the training environment, off-the-job training offers a more conducive environment than on-the-job training. Trainees in off-the-job training are free from the pressures that their counterparts go through.
The relaxed environment associated with off-the-job training gives the employees a better chance to think clearly as well as to concentrate away from the noises associated with most workplaces such as manufacturing companies.
On the other hand, in on-the-job training employees do not have exposure to the workplace noises and pressures but also to offensive comments from their workmates. This can be very destructive to the employees especially new employees lowering their morale and output.
The trainees who go through off-the-job training feel highly valued by their employers. They have the perception that off-the-job training is a privilege to them. Such a feeling enhances their morale leading to increased efficiency in their work. Consequently, the organization experiences increased output enabling it to maximize its profits.
However, some of them may choose to leave the organization for a better job elsewhere. In contrast, on-the-job training does not cause the trainees to feel highly valued by their organization. As a result, they may not deliver adequately although most of them will remain loyal to the organization.
Conclusion Training of an organization’s workers enables them to perform their job to the best of their ability. It provides the knowledge as well as the skills they require to carry out their duties effectively. On-the-job and off-the-job training are effective in training employees though each has its own strengths and weaknesses.
Some of the ways in which the two methods differ are the costs involved, the suitability of the training environment, the efficiency of the instructors in giving instructions and their overall contribution to the development of the organization in question. To achieve all the benefits of the two approaches, it is advisable for an organization to practice both methods on their employees.
Reference List Boella, M.J. (2000) Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry. 7th ed. New York: Nelson Thornes.
Dolan, D. (2002) Training needs of administrators in the non-profit sector: what are they and how should we address them? Non-profit Management and Leadership, 12, pp. 277-292.
Duane, L. (1998) On-the-job training. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 51(4), pp. 710-711.
Glasrud, B. (1999) Here comes the 21st workforce. Non-profit World, 17, pp. 50-52.
Jacobs, R.L. (2003) Structured on-the-job Training: Unleashing Employee Expertise in the Work. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler Publishers.
Mike, S. and Jack, K. (1996) On-the-job training: Harder than it looks. Water Engineering and Management, 143(12), pp. 14-17.
Mark, S. (2001) Does training generally work? Explaining labor productivity effects from schooling and training. International Journal of Manpower, 22(1), pp.158.
Michael, L. (1999) Earning and employment effects of continuous off-the-job training in East German after unification. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 17(1), pp. 74-90.
Rosner, R. (1999) Training is the answer…but what is the question? Workforce, 78, pp. 42-50.
Storey, J. (1995) Human Resource Management. London: Rout ledge.
Moving from SMD (Single Member District) System to PR (Proportional Representation) System Essay writing essay help
As political disillusionment intensifies in America, Diamond and Plattner (2006) show that parties and candidates are becoming more cynical thus culminating into low voter turnout. Several proposals have been brought forth to revolutionize the American electoral system among them the campaign finance reform.
However, the attention given to the most recent reform (PR system) has made more people to consider replacing the current SMD (winner-takes-it-all) system with the PR system. United States is a democratic and a multi-party state.
Therefore, an effective electoral system should cater for the interests of the parties present and the people without compromising on democracy. What impact is the change likely to have on (a) party-system and (b) democracy in U.S.? These are the most fundamental questions that people should seek to answer before replacing the SMD system.
It is important that we understand the party-system and the democratic deficiencies present in SMD so that we can decide whether PR will be a practical option. The SMD system discriminates against third parties, does not represent all voters, discourages people from voting and enacts laws that do not correspond with the public views.
These problems reveal a fundamental flaw in the electoral system; the only persons represented are those who elect the winning candidate. The rest, about 49% in every district never get any representation as the election system shuts out the minorities from participating in elections.
What happens is that a Republican who is in a Democrats dominated district votes but his/her votes go to waste because the Republican candidate never wins. Due to lack of minorities’ representation in the electoral system, Shively (2011) asserts that there is heightened lack of democracy in the electoral system.
This explains why there is distorted representation in the state, local legislatures and Congress. The SMD system also shows evidence of unequal representation of political parties. Parties end up getting more or less, than what they deserve. For instance, the House of Representative Elections (1994) saw the Democrats in Washington get 22% of the seats despite winning with over 50% votes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As put across by Diamond and Plattner (2006), PR systems make use of multi-member districts and uses larger districts to elect the members required as an alternative to voting a single member in every small district. In addition, the number of candidates who win seats in the multi-member districts is dependent on the votes each party gets.
For instance, in a PR district consisting of 20 members, if the Democratic Party gets 50%, the Democratic candidates get ten seats. If the Republican Party gets 30%, the party’s candidates secure six seats and if there is a third party with 20%, four seats are reserved for its candidates.
A PR system would make sure that all people and parties get a fair and just representation. This is because under PR, there is representation of all significant groups including the political minorities who might only garner 10 or 20 % of the votes. The PR system ensures that the legislature reflects the parties’ voting strengths.
For instance, a party with 40% of the votes gets 40% of the seats. Presently, the party-system reflects the unfairness of SDM. The Republican Party and Democratic Party, which are the winning parties, dominate the electoral system thus limiting other parties from winning. The PR system will offer diversity and make sure that emerging third parties such as the Liberation party, the New Party and the Greens get realistic chances to challenge the two major parties.
Such parties will only need 10% of the votes to elect a candidate hence guaranteeing the viability of the minor parties. Shively (2011) notes that this would lead to a healthy multi-party state where there is fair and free representation and competition among political parties.
This would also guarantee that there are varied choices during elections. Each person can find a party or candidate that he/she can enthusiastically support. As a result, the public would exercise its voting rights in a democratic manner and with the assurance that their votes are not wasted; there is a guarantee that a 10% vote would see a candidate who can represent their views/needs in parliament.
For this reason, voter turnout would be high meaning that the multi-party system formed would be heterogeneous. Thus, varied political perspectives present in the electorate would guarantee that there is a wide-ranging political debate that would uphold democracy, lead to new ideas and sound decision-making.
We will write a custom Essay on Moving from SMD (Single Member District) System to PR (Proportional Representation) System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To maintain or uphold democracy, Shively (2011) emphasizes that the government should allow all people to participate equally in every decision that affects them. The PR system will enhance democracy by giving the party-system a complete overhaul whereby the dominance of the winning parties will be eradicated and equal representation of all political parties, including the minor ones guaranteed.
The PR system will also ensure that the electoral system upholds democratic rights, including voting rights and political representation rights of all citizens. Simply stated, PR system will cater for the party-system and democratic deficiencies in the SMD system without compromising on the role of the electoral system.
Works Cited Diamond, Larry Jay., and Marc F. Plattner. Electoral Systems and Democracy. Baltimore, MD: JHU Press, 2006. Print.
Shively, W. Phillips. Power and Choice: An Introduction to Political Science. 12th Edition. Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print.
Russian Popular Culture Cause and Effect Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Russia is one of the countries with the oldest and richest culture around the globe. Intertwined with several factors, the country has continuously witnessed a transformation of its culture and influence from other countries throughout history.
It boasts its excellence in arts with special recognition to philosophy, painting, literature, cinema, architecture and music among other artistic aspects. Additionally, Russia has strong roots in technology and material culture, which are considered as major factors which have significantly affected its popular culture.
It is believed that Russian culture originated from Eastern Europe whose occupants adopted a particular way of living as pagans.
According to research, Russia was tremendously influenced by the Western Europe culture during different moments of its history. With the reforms of leaders like Peter the Great who had diverse ideas, the country continued to develop within the context of European culture for two centuries as opposed to pursuing its own culture (Fleron 1996).
Nevertheless, this was not to continue in the 20th century following the emergence of the communist ideology that played a major role in the culture of the Soviet Union like no other part of the world. Regardless of these transformations and cultural interferences, the country’s cultural heritage comes seventh according to the Nation Brands Index.
It, therefore, follows that there are several factors which have affected Russian popular culture throughout history with a number of these emanating from the country’s interaction with other countries via economic relationships, politics and wars among others.
One of these factors, which according to analysts has immensely influenced Russian culture, is technology. This paper explores how technology affected the development of Russian popular culture in the late 19th to early 20th centuries. To achieve this core objective, the research makes use of up to date sources like books and journals and authentic websites.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Popular culture This generally refers to people’s ideas, memes, perspectives and other phenomenon that are recognized through an informal agreement within the conventional culture of a given country or community (Danesi 2008, p. 2). Popular culture is highly influenced and propagated by the media as it touches ones daily life.
It has also been argued to be trivial and seeks consensual acknowledgement from the mainstream culture like religious groups and countercultural organizations. Notably, the approach is always malicious and corrupted as propagators may focus on achieving individualized objectives which do not appreciate cultural totality and inclusivity.
The term “popular culture” was commonly used during 19th century to refer to education and cultural transformation of people who belonged to the lower class in the society.
This allowed members of such groups to assume certain aspects of a culture that would identify them as opposed to their counterparts with “true education” in the upper social class (Danesi 2008, p. 3). Due to the countless events that have taken place in the world, the expression “popular culture” has gained new meaning, originating from the United States in the 1960s.
Characterized by hip-hop music, popular culture has largely shaped the mainstream culture of America and other countries around the world. Importantly, its impact has been far reaching with countless cultural settings being assimilated by the popular culture.
According to Stites’ 1992 research, popular culture no longer refers to the culture of peasants and artisans as it was known before. This is mainly because of modernization which has impacted almost every sphere of human life.
He notes that the entire notion of popular culture has been changed by factors which include but not limited to industrialization, commercialization, mass communication, literary professionalism, politicization and social mobility (Stites 1992, p. 1).
We will write a custom Essay on Russian Popular Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to influence of the media, some people have gone ahead to denote it as a “mass” culture in the sense that it affects more people as compared to historic days when it was associated with smaller groups of people.
Nevertheless, popular culture has the ability to affect the emotions of people as it is passed over in the form of songs, folk tales or stories which have a flow that define their plot.
The most important thing about popular culture is the ability to reveal the external truth being sought which would otherwise be erased. Additionally, popular culture targets to provide answers to big questions together with determining certain values and the manner in which people are expected to behave.
Moreover, the penetration of the popular culture in Russia was not easy as people viewed it as a friend and foe of the status quo during its introduction in then 19th century (Curtis 1996). Many Russians saw the culture as a social problem when it began in the West and associated it with violence and ability to drain the moral fabric of the lower class.
Although these claims raised debates and discrepancies, it is worth noting that popular culture usually diminishes the impact of the “real” art as people get carried away from what is conventionally acceptable as culture.
With existing varying issues over the impact and benefits of the Russian culture, many affirm that politics and politicians played a major role in shaping and redefining the country’s culture through ideologies and association with the West.
As discussed by Stites, culture which has been created for elites to cater for their needs could also be considered popular. How is this culture communicated and passed to other people in the society? There are channels which have significantly contributed to the spread and influence of popular culture in Russia.
Mass audiences are able to interact with culture through schools and colleges where educationists are empowered to influence learners through a customized curriculum that addresses the need to embrace culture. Additionally, a lot of communication and popular culture broadcasting are done through the media say, television, radio, films and movies among others channels (Stites 1992).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Russian Popular Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this approach, several groups are reached including those that may fall outside the target domain. As such, popular culture has affected different people in Russia as facilitated by the media industry. By the fact that mass audiences usually have varying tastes for popular culture most of these channels of culture transmission incorporate diverse cultural features to capture more people.
On the basis of global interference from other parts of the world, the Soviet possessed several universal features which were mainly dictated and designed by producers who were always driven by their desire to have their products consumed by the public (Brooks 2010).
In this regard, celebrities have also used media technology to influence the public and propagate popular culture in Russia. This is based on the fact that celebrities significantly control the public and may promote the adoption of a certain behavior, fashion, language, music or movie among others.
Through several media options available in Russia, celebs have reached out to a wide range of people including young and old. As a result, many people wished to be associated with some individual celebs by acquiring some of their performance styles, behavior and fashion among other aspects of culture.
Since the introduction of television, movies and cinemas in Russia, the country’s culture has been influenced by infiltration from other parts of the world. Stites noted that the transfer of Odessa comedy and several song rhythms to Moscow was one of the most striking instances throughout the historic transition of culture (Stites 1992).
In understanding Russian popular culture and the manner in which it has been affected by technology, it is imperative to consider the major events which occurred and impacted the lives of majority in the country.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Empire witnessed agrarian change, industrialization and urbanization, stages which redefined the lifestyles and levels of interaction. Factories were established, allowing people to meet and interact at workplaces. As a result, an atmosphere was created to allow the growth and spread the country’s popular culture.
People were expected to commute to their places of work using train on a daily basis. This further augmented their interaction with people from different parts of the country in speech, songs and fashion among other dimensions of culture.
Many researchers believe that the urban morphology of Russia resembled other societies before its destruction in 1917. This led to improved living standards which allowed a number of people to acquire and consume middle-class products including culture (Stites 1992, p. 9).
In addition, advancement in technology facilitated an expanded rail network, telephone, automobiles, cinema, photographs and cameras. There was also massive intake of foreign styles which found their way in Russia through advanced channels of transport, communication and media.
Through these improved links, Russians developed an appetite for exotic culture as they got exposed to Gypsy, Caucasian and Jewish cultures. Nevertheless, there were social problems which arose leading to the widening gap between the elite and masses, a factor that contributed to widespread animosity, pogroms and numerous strikes (Brooks 2010).
Consequently, many Silver Age artists diverted their attention from the social problems which existed at the moment towards the adoption and championing of the popular culture. There was the emergence of street hooliganism that emanated during café performances in towns.
In other words, popular culture was closely associated with violence as members revolted against the Russian “respectable” culture which mainly consisted of the elites and the rich. This trend was adopted by most people as it was demonstrated through social tension, thirst for information through newspapers, scandals, urban consciousness and crime.
With improved mobility which was augmented by advancement in automobile industry, there was an increase in mobile theater companies and boat tours, allowing music, dances, and folk tales to reach more people than before (Fleron 1996, p. 226).
With the emergence of industries and organized social groups, Russians preferred self-generated entertainment which varied broadly based on different social classes which existed. Modest entertainment was common among the middle class as it was mainly dictated by leisure time, size of income and inherited values among others.
Similarly, the 20th century was characterized by American and European music as it was commonly used in several Russian functions. Some of the songs and styles which were adopted included the tango, the one-step and the cake-walk which were mainly introduced in the country by foreigners and Russian travelers coming from other parts of the world.
Other cases also involved choreographic spies sent from other places to record new steps in the country. Most of these songs were meant for the upper class, as it were, in the New York City. However, they were adopted by the masses and used against the upper class as the gap between the two social groups continued to widen (Stites 1992, p. 11).
It is important to appreciate the fact that this movement of visitors and foreigners from different parts of the world was mainly facilitated by improved technology, especially with the automobile industry. Many people found it easy and convenient to travel because of an established railway network that connected several major towns in Europe and America.
As mentioned before, media technology played a major role in promoting popular culture in Russia. Analysts agree that pictorial material was important in defining the culture of a given group of people. Through combined efforts, several book illustrations and postcards were produced to replace the lubok art.
Later on, several foreign advertising companies flocked the country to join cartoon and caricature production. Importantly, pictures and posters were considered to be essential elements of culture as they depicted emotions, nostalgia and texture (Stites 1992, p. 26). This concept of pictures further triggered the mind of many to explore animations, leading to the ability to record, movies and plays.
On the other hand, postcards became common and important toolkit for teaching huge crowds of people who included peasant buyers. They were taught how to dress thus popularizing a romantic image among Russians although it had earlier been possessed by the educated class.
Common entertainment was significantly influenced by the artistic finishing from graphic technologists who focused at capturing and winning the mind taste of different audiences. It, therefore, suffices to mention that pictorial art was not only a channel of spreading popular culture in Russia but also a segment of Russian culture.
Additionally, movie and film production technology advanced popular culture as it moved theater industry to a new level of entertainment. Most movie producers who first entered into the industry were talented and focused at promoting the culture of their nation.
Due to this advancement, movie audiences became leading by 1914, comprising of students, writers, police officers businessmen, clerks, the elites and almost everybody else in Russia (Beumers 2005, p. 3).
Movie entertainment sold more than any other form of entertainment as many people got introduced to the movie world. It is argued that advertising technology further promoted the industry based on the skills and creativity that was employed in their design. This led to successful wooing of audiences and making it rise above other forms of entertainment.
Conclusion From the above analysis, it is evident that Russian popular has undergone countless transformational stages throughout human history. The country experienced events and seasons which impacted on its culture. Interaction with Europe and America further affected its culture as Russian visitors and foreigners influenced its population.
Many Russians adopted Western culture, resulting into the division between the elites and the lower classes that remained parallel as they walked on different cultural paths.
However, of importance is the role played by technology. Evidently, technology allowed the propagation and refinement of popular culture throughout the 20th century. Media technology promoted music and movie industry as other discoveries promoted movement and social interaction among people of varying caliber.
References Beumers, B 2005, Pop culture Russia: media, arts, and lifestyle, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California.
Brooks, J 2010, ‘The Russian Nation Imagined: The Peoples Of Russia As Seen In Popular Imagery, 1860s-1890s’, Journal of Social History, Vol. 43 no. 3, pp. 535-557.
Curtis, G 1996, Russia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, viewed on
Danesi, M 2008, Popular culture: introductory perspectives, Rowman
A Report On C20’s Main Fireplace Processes Report college admission essay help
Introduction Operations management entails overseeing, designing and redesigning business operations in the production of goods and services. It is about ensuring that the business processes are efficient in terms of using as little resources as needed and effective with regards to meeting customers’ requirements.
Twentieth Century Fires Ltd is a small company based in Stockport, Lancashire that sells, restores and manufactures fireplaces and their associated accessories (Chapman 1997, 4).
The first process is the making of tiles that will eventually form part of the fireplace. First of all, one is required to look at the job sheet to find out exactly what the customer wants in terms of design. It is only after one is certain of the customer’s requirements that they can proceed to the clay mixing room to begin working on manufacturing the tiles.
In the clay mixing room, clay is thoroughly mixed with water and sodium silicate. Mixing is done thoroughly so as to enhance the quality of the end product. After mixing the clay is ready to proceed to the next stage.
The next stage is placing the mixture of clay into moulds of different shapes and sizes as per the design of the fireplace ordered by the customer. The moulds are then left on the bench to dry for a whole week. When they are ready, the edges of the dried clay are trimmed to remove excessive clay before proceeding on to the next step.
The clay is ready to be baked in the kiln after drying. This process lasts overnight. When the tiles are removed from the kiln, they have to be glazed before they are ready to be used in making the fire places. Tiles are glazed essentially to strengthen them as well as coloring them.
The process of glazing takes place in the glazing kiln before the tiles are left to dry. The dried glazed tiles are then sprayed in a special section. This area has been designed in such a way that the excessive spray is sucked out of the spraying area is safely disposed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are inserts that have to be filled with cement before being fitted with the finished tiles. This process is normally carried out in the company’s workshop benches. The inserts are placed on the bench with their faces facing down. Cement is then thoroughly mixed with water and stuffed into the inserts. The insert is then left to dry. This process is referred to as slabbing.
After drying up, the insert is turned over and cleaned up thoroughly. The lines between the tiles are filled completely before being allowed to dry yet again.
The final product is a bit heavy and extremely brittle hence they have to be handled with care. It takes about two men to move the end product from one point to the next. The final product is then transferred to the storage room where it is packaged and safely kept until it is delivered to the customer (Jones 2011, 56).
Evaluating C20’s operational strategy using both the performance dimensions and your answer to part
Operational strategy refers to the total pattern of decisions which influence the long-term capabilities of any operation as well as their contribution to overall strategy. It is the reconciliation of market requirements with the operational resources at the company’s disposal.
Operational strategy is a vital tool to any organization that assists with defining the modes which will be used to produce goods and services for the customers (Slack, Chambers and Johnston 2004, 89).
Twentieth Century Fireplace is a small company that sells, restores and manufactures period fireplaces as well as associated accessories. Operational strategy is about how the company is going to use the resources at its disposal to add value to what the customer wants.
A lot of decisions have to be made by the company’s stakeholders to achieve this end. They have to decide how large their facility will be, what to install in the facility that will assist in the production process, the nature of their workforce and how to ensure quality.
We will write a custom Report on A Report On C20’s Main Fireplace Processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The stakeholders of Twentieth Century Fireplace seem to have most of these issues figured out. Since the firm deals with manufacturing and restoring period fireplaces, there are occasions when some items are out of stock and cannot be accessed from the few remaining manufacturers. The only option left is to manufacture them. The company addressed this issue by establishing its own small scale tile glazing ability.
Most of the shapes such as rounded corner edge pieces are manufactured specifically for the company. This has forced it to acquire specific moulds held by the manufacturer. The company has 11 employees who are experts in the different production processes.
The thing about operational strategy is that it has to align with the company’s long-term strategy. Twentieth Century’s long-term strategy is to keep producing high quality products than its competitors as well as widening its product range.
Although the company has faced challenges regarding the introduction of functional rather than decorative products, it still manages to sell its products. Most of its sales have been through the internet implying that the company gets orders from as far as Malaysia and New Zealand.
Conclusion Twentieth Century’s operations are highly specialized hence different manufacturing processes have been divided in such a manner that each process is handled by different people who have got the specific skills required in those areas. This division of labor enhances the efficiency of the production process and subsequently, the quality of products produced by the company will be high.
References Chapman, R., 1997. Cost Estimating. Principle Based Project Management. Hyperthot.com. Available at: www.hyperthot.com/project.htm
Jones,O., 2011. Operations management Ed 4. Harlow: Pearson EducationSlack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R., 2004. Operations Management, 4th Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education.
The world after college and fear Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The speech, in spite of its serious theme, “the world after college and fear”, was delivered in a rather easy style. Not only the language is easy, but also very funny. Two factors must have contributed to this.
First, the target audience of the speech; the speech was mainly addressed to the college graduates. As young people, college students can fall prey to inattention sometimes. O’Brien manages to spice his speech with enough jokes to not just catch but also arrest every graduate’s attention, as well as the parents and all other persons present.
Second, O’Brien is a comedian, whenever a comedian rises to speak, people expect to laugh. Thus, O’Brien perfectly gives people what they expect. All the jokes and laughter aside, O’ Brien still manages to remain relevant to the occasion and to his main audience.
Discussion O’Brien addresses a number of relevant issues here. First, that college is not the only answer to success, the sarcastic allusions to Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, and Steve Jobs are obviously not meant as a laughter to them. Instead, it is a challenge to the college graduates to be innovative and hard working.
In regard to Zuckerberg, for instance, he jokes that it is only at Harvard that one would need to invent an extensive social network just so that one can talk with the person next room. Here, O’Brien is putting emphasis on the creation of big things out of small things; that everything needs to be taken seriously.
Second, everything takes time to get; O’Brien mentions that he once, literally, sat where the students did. Everything, the message says, takes time to happen.
In his comic tone, with regards to unemployment, O’Brien partly blames joblessness on the persistence of old people to stay on jobs. In relation to this, he touches on the role of fine arts and philosophy in the contemporary society. But his joke must not be perceived as a low appreciation of these disciplines on his part.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Instead, he should be understood to be decrying reduced appreciation of these subjects in the contemporary world.
But all these fall under his main theme related to failure and fear; O’Brien advises the graduates not to fear failure. But he is also reminding them of the importance of the fear that whether one fears or not, failure and disappointments are part and parcel of life and cannot be escaped. As such, there’s no point in allowing fear to take over one’s life. Instead, there’s a need to confront that one fears.
The step towards confronting that fear, especially the fear of failure or disappointment, lies in constantly trying things out. He gives an example of just how he took the step to try things out. In the end, he discovered himself. He argues that trying things out, therefore, helps one to learn who he/she truly is.
This self-learning and realization may, at times, involve change in careers, but that change is not a bad thing. It is not the disappointment either, as it may just be what makes one a success in the end; thus, fearing that change is one of the things that one must confront.
Conclusion O’Brien finalizes his speech with no novel encouragement, calling for hard work and kindness. But that ending summarizes his theme relevantly and accurately. In the end, this was a speech appropriate in context, audience, as well as purpose.
Politics of Brunei Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Description of the country of Brunei
The country’s resources and GDP
Sultan’s attitude towards democracy
The country’s partners
Description of the country of Brunei The state of Brunei is located on the North of the equator within the latitude 4-5°N and the longitude 114-115 22°E. Brunei is an independent sultanate which is located on the northwest coast of Bomeo in the South China Sea. The location of this state is between Malaysia states of Sabah and Sarawak.
It lies on a land area of 5,770 square kilometers with a population density of 72 per square kilometer. The estimated population size, which is mostly composed of Malays who are Muslims, was 395,027 by 2010 where the growth rate was 1.7 percent.
These individuals are divided into seven ethnic groups which are “Brunei, Belait, Bisayah, Kedayan, Tutong, Dusun and Murut”. According to the same statistical records, the sultanate has a life expectancy of 75.9. The capital city which is also the largest city in this country is Bandar Seri Begawan with a population of about 78,000 by 2003.
The other large cities are Kuala Belait and Seria with populations of 27,800 and 23,400 respectively. The country uses Brunei dollar as their monetary unit. Brunei state was a trading partner of China during the 6th century after which it came under strong influence of the Hindu from its loyalty to the Javanese Majapahit kingdom during the 15th century.
Later the influence of the widespread of Islam led to high rate of conversion of individuals of this state to Islam. As a result the state became an independent sultanate. However, during the World War II, the state was taken by Japan but Australia liberated it in 1945.
In 1959, the constitution that was passed enabled Brunei to obtain internal self rule but under the protection of the British. This constitution gave the sultan all executive authority but demanded an elected legislative council. Brunei is therefore a state that is headed by a monarch through the hereditary sultan.
Brunei People’s Party won the election for this post of legislative council in 1962; however, the ruling sultan denied the party access to office and banned the party after calling for an uprising. This has made the legislative council become an appointed body since then (Saunders 201).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sultan Bolkiah was crowned as the king in 1967 at the age of 22 years after his father Sir Omar Ali Saifuddin resigned. When the state finally became fully independent in 1984, the state was wealthy and rich from Bolkiah’s exploitation of Seria oilfield. Brunei has a high per capita income compared to other countries in Asia. Sultan is known as one of the richest men in the world.
Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah was inaugurated as the heir of this 500-year-old monarch in 1998. In this state, there is only one legal political party which is Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB). Its closeness with the government has made the party to hold the national assembly, the first of its practice in 10 years. However, this party has little influence as its activities are restricted by the sultan government.
The sultan is the state’s center of authority. This is where he holds all the important position of the government. For instance, besides being the state’s prime minister and holding the important ministerial positions like defense and finance, he is still the one who appoints the members of different councils like the religious council and the council of succession among others.
The country’s resources and GDP Brunei‘s main source of income and revenue comes from its rich sources of natural gas and oil. This means that mining is the largest GDP activity in this state. Other activities are also undertaken and contribute very little to the economy’s GDP. These include; services offering, banking, warehousing and transport among others. The government of Brunei is very instrumental in the economy of this state.
This is through plans it undertook to diversify the economy in the 1990s. The government did this through promotion of agriculture, various industries like manufacturing, and commerce. This made the contribution of the non-oil sectors to the economy’s GDP to escalate from 24.3 percent to 66 percent in 1991 and 1998 respectively. The economy of this state also benefits a lot from foreign investment.
This is especially after the government has provided a corporate tax exemption of 30 percent for all companies listed under the pioneer’s status. These companies include those dealing with various industries like textile, synthetic rubber and cement among others.
The government has also made attempts to promote the private sector in order to avoid the overreliance if its citizens from public employment. It has done this through fostering the growth of leaders in areas of commerce and industry.
We will write a custom Essay on Politics of Brunei specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result of the huge gains that the government of Brunei gets from its rich sources of oil and gas, its revenues are enough to cater for its operations even without much tax contribution. This is because the government only demands the corporate tax which is as low as 30 percent.
All the others including import, export, and manufacturing and personal income tax are free in this state. This makes Brunei to be listed among the nations with the least tax levy on its citizens in the world.
The government undertook a five-year National Development Plan during 1996 and ended in 2000. This plan which was budgeted to spend about 7.2 billion was aimed at helping the state prepare for the millennium. The government also adopted great plans that have made the lives of the citizens easy.
Besides exemption from the payment of taxes, the citizens also enjoy other social benefits like free education and health, subsidized housing scheme and friendly labor laws among others. Though the sultan has made these plans to ease the lives of his citizens, he has not been fair in sharing the rich resources that this state possesses.
This is because the sultan has a used larger part of the state’s riches to enrich himself. The benefits that he provides to these citizens are just a tip of an ice bag. This is why he has managed to be rated among the richest men on the globe yet some of his subjects are languishing in poverty for lack of employment and means of survival.
In addition, the sultan has also oppressed these individuals by denying them a chance to freely express their democratic rights through elections and also limiting their freedom of speech (Burma para 5-6). With the world becoming global and attaining a global culture, the conservative culture of the people of Brunei that makes them stay under this oppression will be erased.
This will bring a rise of a generation that will not be able to tolerate these injustices, thus leading to revolts and uprisings from the citizens. In addition, as the population increases, the government will face the challenge of offering these benefits to all its citizens especially considering that the main sources of income in this state, which are oil and natural gas, are depleting fast.
Sultan’s attitude towards democracy The state of Brunei has not known democracy for a long time due to the dictatorial nature of the reign of the sultan monarch. The state is a complete monarch thus eliminating chances of an election or other political activities. The sultan is the one who makes the government decisions as illustrated above.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Politics of Brunei by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bolkiah who is the world richest monarch has amassed so much power and wealth that he lives in a palace that is estimated to be worth more than a billion dollars (IBP USA and USA International Business Publications 258). This is without considering the state of his subjects where about 90 percent of them live in abject poverty.
Freedom of expression is limited in this state as those who protest against the rule of the sultan are jailed sometimes even without trial. The press in this state has also been limited where they are so much restricted that they cannot criticize the royal family since this can easily earn themselves a jail term of up to three years for making any kind of criticism to the royal family.
The dominance of the sultan in this state can be seen everywhere in the country. For instance, the photo of the royal king must be placed on the wall of every shop and office.
Recently, Brunei through the leadership of sultan Bolkiah has been making e few steps towards democracy. This has been noted with the 2004 democratic reform that made the sultan reinstate the parliament for the first time since the state gained their independence in 1984.
The citizens of this state saw this as a strong step towards the attainment of democracy in this monarch state. In addition, the popularity of the sultan was intensified by his decision to remove the four members of the cabinet from office after they planned to expand religious education, a decision which many parents in this state did not want.
Citizens’ happiness The happiness and satisfaction of any people is stirred up by various aspects. Firstly, security in the wealth that a country possesses is a major source of citizens’ satisfaction and happiness. This is because the citizens are guaranteed that their economy will be able to provide their needs.
Making a living is a concern of every individual thus; it becomes an important determiner of the individual satisfaction. The people of the state of Brunei are enjoying satisfaction at the present. This is because the benefits that their government provides in terms of free education, health facilities and tax evasion among others are a source of their satisfaction.
These benefits therefore, enable them to enjoy satisfactory family life and good health without having to worry about economic strains. Happiness is not as a result of abundance since abundance leads to satisfaction but not all satisfied individuals are happy. On one hand, one would say that the individuals of this state are satisfied but not necessarily happy.
This is because being in one rule for so long yet the leadership of this state is dictatorial has brought unhappiness to the citizens of this nation. This is particularly due to their lack of an alternative as any reaction to this rule would attract tough measures from the government.
In addition, though the government has made subsidies and other provisions for the citizens of this state, there are still those who live in abject poverty. When these individuals compare themselves with their leader who is leading an affluent life, they may get dissatisfied thus attracting unhappiness in their lives.
The sultan is very rich and besides being the richest monarch on the globe, he owns a residential palace which is the largest in the world. This palace is so large that it has 1,788 rooms and 257 bathrooms and lies on an area of 2,200,000 square feet.
The country’s partners Brunei as a state has countries that it can call friends while others are her enemies. Most of the countries that Brunei relates with are in terms of trade and diplomacy. Canada is one of these countries. Canada and Brunei have been allies since the times of Brunei’s independence.
After the establishment of their diplomatic relations, Brunei established its chancery in this nation and after which Canada opened one in Brunei the following year (Government of Canada para 3-6).
The two nations cooperate in issues of regional security and other international relation issues. They are also trade partners especially since Canada is a good market for the oil and gas products from Brunei.
Future prospects The future prospects of Brunei economy are headed to stability if the plans the government has set aside for this purpose are implemented. With the inclusion of foreign entrepreneurship in domestic trade, the economy is bound to become better and even more stable.
The government regulations that have open possibilities of increase in foreign investors in this state are an added advantage to the growth prospects of the economy. In addition, the encouragement of private investment as opposed to citizens depending only on the government for employment will nurture the culture of entrepreneurship among the citizens.
The state’s richness in the high-priced commodities like oil and gas, its strategic location and possession of enough human capital will be a boost to the growth of the economy of this state.
According to Asian Development Bank (para 3-5), the current prospects indicate that if the state embraces the right policy reforms, regional cooperation and the effective strategies of encouraging industrial competitiveness, the economy of this state will continue to show improvement and growth.
The establishment of a new monetary authority by the government in January 2011 will also serve to improve policies and activities that will steer development into new high heights in this state. This is because the authority will streamline the monetary policy and currency trading activities.
In addition, it will also monitor the activities of financial institutions to ensure that they are operating as expected. The plans that the government has taken to diversify the economic sources is a good strategy to achieve sustainable development in the future as the state will be able to support itself when the hydrocarbon reserves run out.
At the beginning of 2011, the government came up with a long-term development plan that was named Wawasan Brunei 2035. This plan which is aimed at reducing the overreliance on oil and gas as the only sources of revenue for the economy will be effective in achieving sustainable development.
This is because at the present, these products contribute 94 percent of all the revenue of the government of this state. In addition, these same products are the highest contributor to the state’s exports standing up to 96 percent of all the state’s export and contributing 69 percent of the total GDP.
Since these reserves are estimated to run out by the period of 20 to 30 years to come, the plans to diversify the economy are in line with achieving sustainability.
Though these economic prospects are good for this state, implementing them may pose a challenge. This is because the culture and other factors may hinder the progress of these prospects. For instance, this state has ecotourism potential as a result of its unexploited natural landscape and the friendly tropical climate. However, the state has a very conservative culture.
Being a Muslin state, their strict laws on behavior and alcohol might hinder the growth of this sector. The government has not tapped this rich source of income either. Although plans are outlined and the need to increase tourism in this state reinforced, none of these plans is implemented to the letter. This is due to various political and social reasons.
Firstly, the government officials are not very welcoming to the visitors may be due to the fear of the criticism the visitors would raise about their leadership which may in turn spill over to the larger public, leading to revolts (The Economist, para 4).
Due to lack of government support, this industry has remained unfruitful even with the country’s possession of attractive sites for the tourists. For instance, the recent government decision to eliminate some of the sites that may act as attraction areas for the tourist has served to answer the question of the government commitment to its prospects.
Some of these sites include the previous sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin. This famous museum had a rich collection of Winston Churchill memorabilia and a large aquarium to show the region’s tropical fish. It was however converted to a less popular site by making it a Constitutional History Museum.
In addition, though the government of Brunei has the required resources to provide efficient infrastructure and can also provide the necessary attractive package to ensure that multinational companies invest in this nation, the plans it has underway are not guaranteed.
For instance, the government’s development of a port at Pulau Muara Besar which is aimed at generation of more employment positions for the citizens will create unnecessary competition with the already operational transshipment hubs.
Some of these hubs include ports like Port of Singapore and Malaysia’s Port Klang. The current tax system may not be an appropriate strategy in an economy that is not energy-based. The state therefore requires a transformation in its tax system and a change in the relationship of the state to the citizens.
This means that though the government has put in place plans to diversity the economy, little effort is being made to actualize these plans in order to achieve sustainable economy.
Brunei future political prospects are based on the actions that the monarch has in mind. This is because lacking political diversity means that the future of politics is in the hands of his dictatorial regime. There are various strategies that the state has put in place to ensure security and prosperity in its politics.
Firstly, the state’s government is seeking ways to establish cohesion and stability of the state with the guidance of the philosophy of Malay Islamic Monarchy. Secondly, the state is seeking ways of stabilizing its regional environment where it can pursue its national goals without external interferences.
Maintaining its defense and military capabilities is another agenda that the government is planning. This is in its attempts to preserve the state’s sovereignty, freedom and independence and protection of the state’s territorial integrity.
The current situation of this state may not attract a revolt from the citizen. This is because though the state lacks democracy and power is only concentrated in the office of the sultan, the citizens are enjoying the benefits of the state’s wealth endowment from the country’s oil and gas wealth.
This therefore means that the benefits the citizens are getting from the government like free education and provision of jobs without being imposed to pay any taxes are a source of relief to them. However, this is not likely to go on for a long time.
This is because the depletion of the main sources of income for this state are drawing near yet the stand by diversification plans have not been implemented fully to counter-attack this challenge. As a result, in the very near future, the government might be unable to provide the range of benefits it is offering to its citizens at the present.
This will increase the citizens’ demand for a government that is more accountable and one which will give them the democracy that they have lacked for so long. As a result, Brunei may encounter future social unrest most of which will be stirred by economic shift. Having in mind that sultan lifestyle and that of his citizens requires a sustainable income; the government needs to prepare for the future.
This is because the government finances through the economy if not strengthened, social and political problems will emerge leading to uncertainties and upheavals among the citizens. The current state has already started posing a challenge to this government.
This is because the population of this state is increasing, leading to pressure in the number of individuals who require employment. This is particularly because this growth in population is not measuring up to the same growth in the GDP growth.
As a result, the state is being faced by the threat of lower GDP per capita. In addition, the structure of the population of Brunei is composed of a greater percentage of a young population where 47 percent of the population is below the age of 25 years.
With little growth in the public sector which is mostly in the area of teaching and negligible growth in the private sector, the country is being faced with a challenge of employment of the many school leavers who require jobs.
The current level of job seekers has already exceeded 7,000 individuals and this number is expected to increase in the future. Rise in the level of unemployment is known to be leading causes of revolts in other countries like Egypt. With Brunei experiencing this challenge especially on its young population means that chances of revolts and uprisings in the future are high.
Works Cited Asian Development Bank. Central Asia’s economy: Mapping future prospects to 2015. 2011. Web.
Burma. Brunei Darussalam – politics, government, and taxation. 2011. Web.
Government of Canada. Canada-Brunei Darussalam relations. 2011. Web.
IBP USA and USA International Business Publications. Brunei Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah handbook. Washington, DC: International Business Publications, 2008. Print.
Saunders, Graham E. A history of Brunei. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
The Economist. Thinking of its future, Brunei gets ready for when the oil and gas run out. 2008. Web.
Egypt after Mubarak Essay (Article) college application essay help
Lee is an established editor who works for The Weekly Standard. His writing majors in politics, and his broad knowledge in political systems around the world has enabled him to collaborate with other like-minded journalists in forming The Middle East Quarterly. The publication focuses on the political occurrences in the Middle East. In this article, Smith consults political analysts from Washington.
When the article was being drafted, the health condition of Egypt’s president, Husni Mubarak had deteriorated, and it was evident that he would not make it.
Mubarak has been in power for more than two decades, and thus it is anticipated that he will appoint his second son Gamal to rule the country after he passes on. However, this anticipation is far from truth because the supposed heir is not showing any interest in the throne.
Omar Suleiman is perceived to be another potential candidate for this position because of his exposure and experience while working with state security agencies. However, he has no links to any political party, and hence may opt to support Gamal’s campaigns.
Similarly, Mohamed Elbaradei poses a threat to the other two candidates, but the fact that he has not aligned himself with any political party is a reliever to the hopefuls. He opts to wait until the situation is favorable because he is certain that the elections will not be fair. His political ambition does not go down well with Washington because he is viewed as an ally of Iran.
Egypt needs a president who will help in safeguarding its interests by restoring its sovereignty in the Arab world. The throne will not be easy to manage because there are challenges, including the factions such as Muslim Brotherhood. The analysts are not sure whether the forthcoming leader will follow the legacy left by Husni Mubarak.
According to the author, Egypt is governed by a hereditary system. Since Mubarak is on the verge of passing on, his second son Gamal, is the ideal heir to the throne. Surprisingly, Mubarak has not made any statement regarding his succession as expected.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In fact, he is distancing himself from succession politics. However, his actions contradict his statements, especially when he attends public functions alongside Gamal. The international community prefers Gamal due to his exposure with the Western countries.
From their perspective, Gamal would strengthen the bondage between US and Egypt. However, there are critics who doubt whether Gamal has what it takes to assume the position. The critics argue that Gamal is only related with the military in business ventures (Smith 4).
Mubarak has not selected his predecessor or even a vice president who will act while elections are underway. It seems he wants to break the hereditary leadership system because has not even endorsed any candidate for the position.
This implies that the citizens will select the next president. Gamal has not demonstrated any interest in presidency because he has an established business empire that has turned the state economy around.
Moreover, it seems Gamal has weighed the risks that are associated with presidency against the benefits from his ventures, and the risks have outweighed the benefits. This is why he is reluctant to defend his father’s state because he knows leadership comes at a cost.
The costs entail meeting the needs of the military, Muslim Brotherhood, intelligence officials and regional bodies. Unless a leader has the backing of these players, then that leadership will not last for long. On the other hand, business ventures offer more opportunities because there are no sacrifices to be made.
The next president will require the backing of these agencies because without them he is bound to fail. Religion has a special place in Egypt, and thus religious leaders from Muslim Brotherhood have to be involved in national matters.
We will write a custom Article on Egypt after Mubarak specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the military is needed to protect the presidency and his sovereignty. The task of maintaining strong ties with the agencies is an uphill task because there has to be a balance between the interests of the citizens and the agencies.
The fall of Mubarak is parallel to Egypt’s loss of sovereignty in the African continent and Arab world. Egypt is thought to have put more emphasis on its national issues, which has caused it to lag behind on regional issues.
The author remembers a few decades a go when the country was the most influential state in the region. The statement made by Elbaradei reveals that Mubarak has been abusing his office by manipulating the outcome of elections.
Currently, Egypt has strong ties with the US but Iran is also pursuing her for forming a team that will challenge US. The next leader has to make a strategic decision regarding this matter because there are no guarantees from either option.
The author’s article is very comprehensive which makes it very informative. On the other hand, the opinions presented by the author do not present the reality on the ground. This is because the contributors are not based in Egypt, and thus their opinion could be based on hearsay.
In conclusion, Mubarak does not want to influence the forthcoming elections, but even if he wanted to it is already too late. Gamal has the potential to lead the country but he is reluctant from declaring his stand. Perhaps if Mubarak had backed him he would have developed an interest in the seat.
Omar Suleiman needs to register with a political party to vie for presidency. Alternatively, he may choose to rally behind Gamal. However, the author has not elicited the relationship between the two. Elbaradei has what it takes, but he also needs to join a political party because is among the prerequisites.
Work Cited Smith, Lee. “Egypt after Mubarak.” Middle East Quarterly Fall 2010: 79-83. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Egypt after Mubarak by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Airbus Fly-By-Wire Control System Analytical Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits and concerns of the Fly-by-Wire technology
Introduction Before the introduction of the fly-by-wire system in civil aviation, pilots had to rely only on manual controls during flight. Fly-by-wire is an innovation that replaces an aircraft’s manual controls with an electronic interface.
Fly-by-wire is a digital flight control system that enables signals from manual controls to be converted into electrical signals after which control computers determine the appropriate response (Droste
Twenty four hour garage Essay college essay help online
Introduction There’s need for strategic planning in the development and progress of such business entity as 24-hour garage. General planning incorporates significant roles in the management and execution of duties which would enable the garage to achieve the set objectives. The 24-hour garage would indulge in activities which will help in attaining stable financial base supported by a very strong policies and principles.
The main purpose besides offering help to the community is to be leading organization in-terms of governance and management of resources. There is need for clear vision and mission statement which needs to be developed for the purposes of clear guidance towards achievement within a particular period of time (Adair and Bruce; Davis).
The long-term and short- term objectives would be articulated with the several segments of the community in mind. Such program would be developed and arranged within the organization’s key performance areas, which are the general areas of operation. The key performance areas would incorporate; administration, Marketing and Finance as well as the key primary focus areas (Ward).
The Project Description The garage would be designed to lead in service and accident repairs and expected to have employees with wealth of experience in motor repairs. For the purposes of catering for every class within the society the garage will deal with complete motoring package which includes everything from roadside accident or recovery, to service, mechanical repairs and tires (Fishman).
Most people with disabilities and those who are sick normally prefer to remain independent within their various communities for fairly long time. Therefore the plan of the garage would provide space for the creation of personal care team providing mobile services enabling the provision of direct funding to seniors as well as the disabled arranging their own care (Garmus and David).
The challenge for the design is in keeping harmony amongst the skilled and unskilled personnel. However the plan recognizes importance of respectful workplaces offering safe environment where individuals can fully exercise their skills and training.
The human resource strategy would provide expansive $ 3 million in a bid to freshly fund the training of more specialists as well as offer return service bursaries for the underprivileged students desiring to work within the garage industry sector.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The garage would have quality council group endowed with the responsibility of developing evidence-based standards in delivering good mechanical services to customers. The team would evaluate the current new technologies which are in line with new car inventions for the purpose of offering quality up-to-date services to customers.
The garage will establish a toll-free 24 hour telephone service aimed at advising customers hence supporting all the mobile garage networks. The lines will be having services of specialists of various car parts, incase of breakdown they would asses the car and advise owners on the nearest garages or respond by sending their own staff. The user satisfaction of the telephone lines would be targeted at 90%. These lines would save customers cost on time and money (CIHI).
For the purposes of catering for the low-income earners within the community comprehensive primary networks will be developed in stages. More specialists as well as reporters will be dispatched to every community. The development of the networks will be done in consultation with senior mechanics that already have insights into the manner in which the various teams should assemble and cooperate in delivering services.
The community members would be brought into the planning processes to ensure fair reflection of the views of the entire community. Special attention would be given to programs encouraging motorists to have better management capabilities on their cars (Gibbs).
The company plans to cover 25% of the area after four years and the entire region within 10 years of continuous service. The primary services given through the wide networks would ensure greater access to appropriate motor vehicle specialists.
The coordination of vehicle tests and early detection on mechanical problems would help in preventing more accidents and also extreme spending on the side of customers.
The region targeted is currently experiencing a baby boom; this has a heavy impact on the nature of decisions made concerning the delivery of services and education on the various expertise areas. Averagely 40% of the population is considered to be under the age of twenty. Most of the people who will undergo training are the young men.
We will write a custom Essay on Twenty four hour garage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The area is considered to have high unemployment rates with low mean income levels making the garage to offer their services at affordable rates capable of supporting the low-income earners. In the past the community members had to travel with their cars for long hours for the purposes of seeking special mechanics to care for their cars.
The garage will offer services which will enable residents in the remote community to be able to seek help on their cars through video links for specialists from the garage without leaving their remote locations (Government of Canada).
In the long-run the garage would establish primary health care clinics which would strive to attend to the poor population by preventing diseases, promoting individual health as well as the health of the community and family.
The healthcare would also provide co-ordination between services enjoyed by high class people who happen to on and off-reserve areas. However, Priority for the implementation process would be granted to the community areas showing greatest identifiable need i.e. high-risk communities (Federation of Canadian Municipalities)
Strategic Business Considerations Analysis of firm within the industry
The analysis process helps in establishing the current status of the industry hence developing strategies which will be able to place the firm within the focus of its goals and objectives.
Internal strengths and weakness, including core competencies
Identification of the internal strengths and weaknesses would help in bridging the gap that exists between the community, current status of the organization and future expectations.
Usually, organization’s strengths is determined through assessment of its various sectors and prospects such as; its employees, the venue, skills and expertise, the events which takes place within the organization and the manner in which the management cares for their employees and the surrounding community including training and development.
Overall weaknesses are normally determined through the assessment of the availability of enough funds required for expansion, low rates of employee turn-over, poorly laid down structures on strategic management, poor locations and poor communication links and in some cases internal squabbles (Federation of Canadian Municipalities).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Twenty four hour garage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More External opportunities and threats, including competition
The 24-hour garage would be faced with external opportunities which include; the increase in employee turn-over rates, the relational ties between the garage and other organizations, marketing principles and strategies, the nature of incentives rendered to the community which are of financial benefits, government regulation and incorporation of information technology.
The threats on the other hand include; economic turmoil, loss of employees and clients, increase in the costs of expertise services and the stiff competition from other car garages within the market (CESD).
Strategies required at each level of organization
Concerning the employee level various factors should be considered which include the nature of skills irrespective of the education level, Knowledge on vital areas/car parts, Capabilities in areas such as carwash, Impact on others both inside and outside the company.
Concerning business level certain considerations should be made dealing with areas such as reputation, Capacity, Responsiveness, customer attitudes.
On corporate level which involves the process and structure used in the management of business affairs of any organization focus areas would be competitive advantages and disadvantages and the nature of services. Then finally there is high positioned executive level which incorporates vital exercises such as quality assessment, Installation and service capabilities.
Business ethics, rules and regulations
For the purposes of achieving effectiveness on corporate governance there is need for approved principles, rules and regulations which should provide necessary foundation and guidance for leadership. The garage leadership should comprise of management team accountable to the running of the garage on a 24-hour basis (City of Kitchener).
The top management team should be chosen in a democratic way whereby, the shareholders are incorporated in the process. The management is endowed with the responsibility of having accurate and up to-date information concerning the company.
The company should also have chief executive officer whose role is different from the overall chairman. The powers and authority held by the two must be checked to offer balance in decision making. Then there are the shareholders who should be fully involved in the organization’s activities involving concerns of the surrounding community (Beck; Carroll 10; Environment Canada).
Implications on the garage and its strategic operations
Good management practices in the corporate governance will be essential in determining the trust that the community has with the organization.
This is since it would ensure profitable management of resources and assets. Good corporate governance would also ensure improvement in communication and implementation of new and workable strategies which are profitable to the organization, its employees and the surrounding community (Bennatan; Canada).
The required controls. Strategic leadership
This requires development of strategies capable of handling the required changes and culture. There is need for clear definition of every position and work done within the garage.
The areas of concern should incorporate; the period of service and approval by the supervisors as well as the management team. It is important for the company to focus on building the brand image within the market through direct excellent services to customers (Brooks).
Conclusion There is need for the garage to offer thorough planning which would ensure creation of enough employment opportunities through development of business entities. The entrepreneurial prowess of the garage would also enable creation, articulation and development of major subsidiary projects.
Motivation through sponsored employee training on the various expertise areas will also be encouraged. Building a change-ready workforce will be achieved through knowledge sharing between those with higher education and those with low education standards.
Works Cited Adair, Charlene
Ken Blanchard “Who Moved my Cheese” Essay (Book Review) custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Purpose of the Author
Issues being addressed
Key concept being addressed
Lessons from the book
Introduction “Who moved my Cheese” is a story written by Ken Blanchard. The story uses four characters, two mice named Sniff and Scurry and two little people, Hem and Ham, to explain the concept of managing organizational changes.
The author uses a similar target, cheese, for all four characters, which in real sense symbolizes the goals that human beings try to attain in life; they could be job opportunities, relationship or lifestyles.
The story takes an insight of what happens in our daily lives as a way of encouraging people to be prepared for any change. The author brings in the idea of attitude and optimism (palmer, 2008).
Purpose of the Author The key purpose of the author in writing this book is to inform the public that change is inevitable. Ken Blanchard (1998) says that “there are changes in life and to everyone”.
He relays the message that people should adjust to change or risk losing; and the only way to change is by looking at it positively. In this story, the author informs us that change is happening everywhere, and to everybody. He advices us to adjust to change quickly, and warns us of the dangers of complacency to success.
Issues being addressed There are a number of concerns that Blanchard examines in his book “Who Moved my Cheese”. The first issue is the outcome of change, which brings about fear and reluctance whenever people are faced with a need for change. According to Spencer (1998) “we resist change because we are afraid of change”.
Still on change, the author looks at what makes people change. Blanchard identifies attitude as a big factor when people are faced with change, since people are observed to associate change with negative outcome (Blanchard
Risk in organization Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Risk Identification
Risk Control Treatment selection with Implementation Plan
Risk Control Treatment Monitoring
Risk Identification Risk identification can be defined as the process of establishing either anticipated or existing risks along with their characteristics and outcome possibilities. The main objective of risk identification is to come up with a list of all possible risks in an area.
In a scenario where a mother took her 4.5 month old child to emergence room and found to be having inguinal hernia, amongst the risks that could be identified include hernia itself, pains, delayed surgery, and discharging the child before accomplishing the recommended abdominal flat plate as ordered by a surgical consultant.
However after coming up with a list of risks, the next step in most cases depends on the nature of the risk (Kavaler
Rhetorical Stance Of Articles Essay essay help
Different rhetorical stances are expected whenever different writers from different backgrounds write about the same topic. This is because the writers view similar matters from different perspectives. These perspectives are greatly influenced by their surroundings and the way they have grown up.
Therefore, it is common for such writers to take conflicting rhetorical stances when writing about the same topic. This essay will discuss the rhetorical stances of a similar topic that relates to conflict resolution in both a professional journal and an online magazine.
The writers of the article in the online magazine prefer to approach the topic in an amicable manner as opposed to the writers in the professional journal who adopts a stricter and less friendly way of dealing with the same topic. This essay will also look at how each of the writers meets the criteria recommended for effective writing.
The articles used in this essay are “Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts: An Analysis of Stylistic Consistency” by Sternberg and Dobson from the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and “Conflict Resolution Skills: Building the Skills That Can Turn Conflicts into Opportunities” by Jeanne Segal and Melinda Smith from the Help Guide online magazine.
Sternberg and Dobson hail a rational and diplomatic approach to conflict resolution. Jeanne Segal and Melinda Smith on the other hand are of the idea that such an approach requires the dedication of the conflicting parties to end the conflict hence lengthening the period of conflict resolution.
The two pairs of writers discussed above present their articles in a captivating manner appeals to any reader who seeks to arrive at the most appropriate way of solving a conflict. The language used in both articles is fluent and the vocabulary is also easy to fathom.
The articles further avoid the use of technical jargon that could hamper the comprehension of some readers. This feature has made the articles to be appropriate to all individuals of varying intellectual levels. The use of the same language style also makes the comparison and contrast between these two articles easier.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, both articles have adopted the use of vivid description to create real life circumstances of conflicts and conflict resolution. The vivid description employed by the writers makes it easy for the reader to understand every technique of conflict resolution discussed.
The instances of conflicts described also make it easy for the reader to apply the techniques as per the relevant situations. This aspect has therefore enhanced an easy understanding and application of the methods of conflict resolution by the readers.
However, the most significant and most conspicuous feature used by the writers is the smooth transition from one part of the article to the other.
There is a smooth transition from the introduction to the body paragraphs and finally to the conclusion. There is also a cohesive flow of ideas that keeps the readers engaged. This smooth transition also contributes to the easy comprehension of the articles by the readers.
Despite the similarities shared between the articles as far as effective writing criteria is concerned, the two pairs have different rhetorical stances. First and foremost, Segal and Smith suggest that for an effective solution to be reached in a conflict resolution and within the shortest time possible, one need to give priority to the interests of the other person and to further consider the possibility that the former may be on the wrong.
However, Sternberg and Dobson are of the idea that each conflicting party should fight for its own interests in the conflict. The writers of the article in the professional journal hold the point that although their method of conflict resolution may take a longer time, the resolution arrived at will take care of both parties’ interests.
The second difference between the rhetorical stances of the two articles is their different suggestions on how individuals should react while caught in a conflict.
We will write a custom Essay on Rhetorical Stance Of Articles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While Segal and Smith suggest that everyone involved in a conflict should be non-defensive and calm with no disrespectful reactions (Segal and Smith 1), Sternberg and Dobson point out that a little aggressiveness in a conflict will help either party to recognize the seriousness of the situation hence respecting the interests of the other party.
Smith and Segal argue that such a reaction may worsen the situation and minimize the possibility of arriving at an appropriate solution.
Segal and Smith support the idea that conflicts are necessary in any professional relationship. This is because they provide the parties involved in the conflict with an opportunity to know each other better thereby leading to a mature relationship.
The conflicts reveal the real character of either part when exposed to such situations and sheds light on the traits they could be hiding from each other. On the contrary, Sternberg and Dobson suggest that conflict avoidance is the best approach.
They support this statement by saying that a relationship that has never experienced any conflicts or disagreements is likely to be healthier than one that has undergone these conflicts.
In addition to that, Segal and Smith hold that conflict resolution is a voluntary process that happens between the conflicting parties only. The availability of a third party such as a mediator is deemed unnecessary because the solution arrived at may be biased.
The two writers believe that the best solution can only be arrived at if the two conflicting parties only sit and agree on a common binding solution that takes into account the interests of each one of them.
On the other hand, Sternberg and Dobson support the presence of a third party to oversee the conflict resolution process. Furthermore, the two writers suggest that it is not compulsory for the process to be a voluntary exercise (Sternberg and Dobson 796).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rhetorical Stance Of Articles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Where the two parties fail to reach a solution, it is up to the mediator to help them reach an agreement. The mediator can also make an independent decision that should be accepted by the two parties if they fail to come to an agreement.
Finally, while Segal and Smith suggest that it is possible for one conflicting party to influence the decision of the other, Sternberg and Dobson oppose that two conflicting parties with opposing interests can influence each other’s decision in the conflict resolution process.
The latter take this stance because according to them, the different interests are in fact the root of a conflict and cannot therefore influence the decision made.
From the foregoing discussion, it is evident that the writers of the two articles have met the criteria for effective writing through the use of appropriate language style. The writers have also adopted opposing rhetorical stances on the topic of conflict resolution. Above all, the two articles manage to convey their message to the reader in an effective way.
Works Cited Segal, Jeanne and Smith, Melinda. “Conflict Resolution Skills: Building the Skills That Can Turn Conflicts into Opportunities.” Help Guide 3.1 (2011): n. pag. Web.
Sternberg, Richard and Dobson, David. “Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts: An Analysis of Stylistic Consistency.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52.6 (1987): 794-812. Web.
The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children Cause and Effect Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The research report investigates if the background television with adult content interrupts a child’s behavior during a play. The researchers review literature, conduct an experiment on children and obtain answers from questionnaires given to parents to obtain the information.
The children are 1, 2, and 3 years old. The results reveal that children’s behavior is influenced by the background television. Although children pay little attention to incomprehensible adult content, their play is interrupted by the background television.
The cognitive development and language development are affected by interruptions during child’s play. This essay summarizes the research report in part 1, and gives suggestion on possible areas for research in part 2.
The article examines how background television showing adult content affects young children’s behavior when they are playing with toys. The research conducted literature review and thereafter an experiment. Literature review indicates that young children pay little attention to adult television content and pay additional attention to children television programs.
The attention of the child on the play object is reduced when there is audiovisual disturbance. The kind of television programs that a child is exposed to repeatedly affects the development in language. According to Schmidt et al. (1138), uninterrupted play will result in healthy cognitive development and increased social skills.
The research assessed the level of maturity in a child’s play, the length of time spent in a play and the devoted attention given to a specific object in a play. Short period spent while playing a toy is an indication of a developmental disorder.
Attention on a specific object is associated with the motivation of the child. A child’s attention on an object increases with age. Younger children have a limited ability to sort out unwanted stimuli and sustain attention on a specific play object.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Development of attention requires focused and continued attention when the child was playing. The child abandons play to view the television for a while. After the interruption, the child may abandon play and move on to another playing object.
If they resume, their motivation and attention are reduced, hence they will lose the ability to return to same cognition level. After literature review, the researchers conducted an experiment.
The experiment included children of 12, 24 and 36 months old. The children were observed for one hour as they played. During the first 30 minutes, the television showing adult content was left on.
In the next 30 minutes, the children played with toys when the television was switched off. Besides being observed, the children were also videotaped. The participants were selected from the birth records of the state. The participants did not have earring and visual impairment.
The results of the experiment revealed that the young children were affected by the background television showing adult content. When the television was on, the children were not involved in intensive play. They gave the toys less attention and played for a short period.
The maturity in play was affected little when compared with focused attention. Relational play was also reduced when the television was on. Besides, the children were able to continue with complex plays when the television was off.
After the television was on, children tended to view the television many times in the first six minutes, and few times after six minutes. The parents were asked to avoid initiating a play or suggesting toys for a play.
We will write a custom Essay on The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This implies that parents pay attention to television and only give attention to the children when they demand it. The parents also filled questionnaires. The questionnaires enquired the child’s interaction with the media.
The level of interruption increased with the number of times the child looked at the television. Reduced involvement in a play was associated with a dislocation of attention to the television. For younger children, the scheme of the play was interrupted and after looking at the television, the child cannot recall hence they move on to another toy.
Moreover, there was no distinct difference in background interruption shown between children of different ages. Background television interrupts cognitive process in children. Background television can also be associated with noise, which interrupts the attention of the child during a play.
Background television may also be associated with positive effects such as multitasking. Children may be able to tap multitasking skills from the destructive background television.
The study observed the participant for a long time, had numerous toys for playing during the experiment and selected the general ages for the participant. Consequently, the television has an impact on the relationship between the care giver and child when the parent is watching television.
Chaotic home environment characterized by the noise may affect the child’s development due to the frequent interruptions at the time of a play. The study assumed that children are exposed in their homes and that care givers do not get involved in a child’s play. Lack of the development in cognition reduces a child’s readiness to go to school.
The study concluded that cumulative impacts of the interruptions caused by background television may cause poor development in cognition. The impacts may also include poor language development and the attention disorders. Therefore, Schmidt et al. (1149) suggest that background television is a potential environmental risk in the development of a child.
To follow up on the investigation on the effects of background television on the toy play behavior of very young children, it is necessary to establish the impact of media exposure in the home environment to the young children’s cognitive development. Subsequent research will answer the question: Is media exposure in the home environment a risk factor for the poor cognitive development in young children?
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cognitive development shows the healthy growth of a child memory, language skills, recognition, problem solving skills and thinking. The question will provide a guideline for the study to establish the degree of media exposure for children in the home environment and areas in child development that are affected.
In line with the article, the study will increase information on other areas other than attention, maturity in play and length of play. The study will investigate problem language skill, problem solving ability, memory and thinking process.
The sample to be selected for the study will include children who are two to three years old. The children will be given instructions when playing to assess their ability to sustain attention when playing with and without instructions.
The number of toys for each child will be equal and all the children will be allowed to play without instruction for 15 minutes. Thereafter, they will be given few instructions that are to be followed when playing for another period of 15 minutes.
Finally, the children will be given full instructions to play with toys for 15 minutes. The children will have audiovisual programs run in the first eight minutes of every session. The observers will record the child’s behavior as they play.
The hypothesis to be tested is that under less destruction, comprehensive instructions enable one to remain on task. Many instructions make the child pay attention to the playful activities. Attention is given if the child has been able to understand and master the art of attentiveness.
Those with attentive skills remain on a task for a long time. A child with a good development in memory, language skills, recognition and problem solving skills will be able to take many instructions.
When the instructions are few and the media program is interruptive, the child is likely to lose attention and move on to other tasks. The research will also reveal the degree in which the media affect a child cognitive development in the home environment.
Conclusion Schmidt et al. (1137) engages in study to establish how background television showing adult content affects young children’s behavior when they are playing with toys. Their study which involved studying the behavior of 12, 24 and 36 months old revealed that background television had an impact on the cognitive development of a child.
A child’s attention on toys was reduced when the television was on. Time spent with a toy was reduced since destruction caused the child to abandon a toy and proceeded with another toy. Play was continuous and comprehensive when the television was off. The results did not show any distinctive feature of behavior that is inclined to age during the experiment.
Work Cited Schmidt, Evans, Tiffany Pempe, Heather Kirkorian, Frankenfield Lund,
Concerning the Products and Manufacturing Processes Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
One of the most complex issues of the modern design, the assessment of the possibilities within each project offered is a major problem, which means 5hat the design of certain products must be subject to detailed considerations and searching for the probable flaws, as well as seeking the means to eliminate the latter for the customer to be interested in the given product.
Hence, the observation of the offered scenarios will provide a sufficient food for thoughts and help to practice the evaluation of certain marketing and production issues. Hence, the analysis of the scenarios offered will provide a sufficient practice for the real-life market situation.
Speaking of the first and the second scenarios concerning the public mobile toilets and the cleaning buckets with the inclusive support for the mop, one can claim with certainty that the innovations offered in the given scenarios certainly sound in the most inspiring way and deserve being implemented.
However, it must be also admitted that the given innovations presuppose a number of limitations and constraints. To start with, the idea of public portable toilets is considerably restricted by the number of people that can wait in line for their turn.
On the one hand, portable public toilets are supposed to be used in a fast way, yet, according to the results of the researches carried out so far, the lines in front of the door to the portable toilets can reach the most enormous length. As Anthony and Dufresne (2007) say, the ordeal of waiting in lines is one of the most common features of using portable public toilets (p.268).
Moreover, according to the authors, the usage of the public portable toilets can also trigger certain discrimination issues, namely, the race or gender discrimination; as the writers assert, the cases of the issues in question have been registered and are a part and parcel of the reality: “In addition, today’s transgender population can be at a loss in deciding which public restrooms to use, because they do not fit nearly into either of the existing categories” (p.270).
Speaking of the limitations connected with the mops, one must admit that the objects in question, namely, the buckets themselves, provide enough limitations. It is essential to mark that the mops attached to the buckets can cause certain confusion and be quite uncomfortable to handle with in case the mop weighs more than an empty bucket.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In terms of the manufacturing processes concerning the issues in question, one should mark that the most reasonable steps to undertake in the course of the manufacturing procedure will be to create a portable toilet that will be lightweight and easy to transport. As Palm (1997) suggests,
The main component of the portable toilet is lightweight sheet plastic, such as polyethylene, which forms the actual toilet unit as well as the cabana in which it is contained. A pump and holding tank form the portable sewage system. (Palm).
However, it must be also kept in mind that a good portable public toilet is supposed to be firm and solid, for it not to be ruined by the storm or any other forced outer impact. Hence, the manufacturing process will involve the search for the materiel that is both light and strong enough to take the blows of the wind, storm and snow.
Therefore, the manufacturing processes involved in creating a portable public toilet will presuppose the search for a light and at the same time lasting material, its processing and the final stage of creating the toilet that will stand the coarse weather and be easy to transport to any other place.
In addition, it is important that the toilet should be resistant to chemicals. Speaking of the manufacturing processes concerning the production of the buckets with the mop attached to them, it will be necessary to search for the specific materials for both the mop and the bucket.
It will be desirable that the bucket should be made of the material that would make it heavier than the mop yet light enough for the worker to lift it, whereas the mop must be light and at the same time not fragile.
It is also essential to mark the constraints that are connected with the products developed. Once knowing the limitations that the products in question presuppose themselves, one will be able to avoid a number of mistakes when developing the concept and implementing it into the reality.
We will write a custom Assessment on Concerning the Products and Manufacturing Processes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Speaking of the public toilets, one should mark that the key limitation connected with the toilet itself is the lack of space within it and the impossibility to locate more than one person at the same time comfortably. Hence, it will be desirable to make the public portable toilets as easy and fast to use as possible, thus reducing the time of waiting in line for one’s turn and helping people to feel more comfortable.
Therefore, the portable public toilets must be constructed in such a way that nothing should cluster a person’s way to the sink and the toilet. Moreover, the objects in the toilet must be located in such a way that they could take the minimum of space and be close at hand for the public to reach easily. It is also essential that the toile seats should be secured with nuts, bolts, and rivets.
Speaking of the cleaning bucket and mop creation, one must remember that the size of the mop must correspond to the size of the bucket. To be more particular, the mop attachment is supposed to be no longer than the diameter of the bucket bottom, for the mop to be easily operated with.
On the one hand, the attachment must be long enough to clean the maximum floor area; on the other hand, the mop must fit easily the cleaning bucket, which poses certain limitations to the designing and manufacturing.
The last, but not the least issue concerning the creation of the aforementioned products concerns the possible materials to make the given goods of. It is necessary mark that in the first case, the lightness and the firmness of the material is the main concern.
Therefore, it would be the most reasonable decision to make use of such materials as compressed PVC or polypropylene plastics, as Palm (1997) offers, which will contribute to the creation of the desired effect.
It is also essential to mark that, for the buckets and mops used at home, lighter constructions should be used and the sponge should be constructed in such a way that it could be removed, whereas for the professional use, the buckets should be equipped with the attached sponge and must be heavier and, thus, more stable.
Concerning the construction of the cleaning bucket and the mop, one should consider such an idea as making the buckets and the mops out of plastics. Since the material is light enough, it will not hinder the process of cleaning and will not make it overcomplicated to transform the bucket from one place to another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Concerning the Products and Manufacturing Processes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the process of the cleaning will become more comfortable and fast. In addition, it would be a good idea to make the mop adjusted to the bucket out of plastics as well, making it somewhat lighter with the help of the hollow trunk and the simple, flat design of the mop attachment.
Moreover, it seems that the attachment can be made much lighter, once the specific materials are used to make the head of the mop. Despite the fact that a piece of cloth is often used to clean the dirt off the floor, it will me more reasonable to attach a piece of sponge to the mop to make it lighter, since the cleaning facilities of a sponge are practically the same as the ones of a cloth, yet a sponge weighs less.
Another two scenarios offer a group of other products for consideration and provide considerable food for thoughts, clarifying several issues concerning the construction of golf carts and the production of the kids’ helmets. Speaking of the first issue in question, one must emphasize that the key constraints and limitations that the given problem presupposes concern the creation of the buttons on the dashboard.
It is reasonable to suggest that the plastic keyboard for such mechanism as golf carts will demand a number of controls on the panel, whereas the area that can be used for placing the buttons on is restricted by the size of the dashboard itself.
There is no doubt that, reducing the size of the buttons themselves, one can fit a considerable amount of controls on the dashboard, yet it is obvious that there are certain restrictions, since the buttons are supposed to be easily spotted and comfortable to handle with.
Making the buttons small and positioned close to each other, one will make the dashboard hard to operate with, since it will be hard to distinguish between each button and press the correct one. Therefore, there is no doubt that the modeling of the golf cart keyboard is considerably restricted by its size.
Concerning the complexities and the limitations that one is likely to come across when creating a kids’ helmet, the fact that the helmets will have to be light and at the same time provide safety for children.
In addition, the choice of the materials has to be restricted to certify that only the materials that cannot harm children’s health are used. Therefore, the production of children’s helmets is supposed to feature the helmets that are made of light non-toxic material that offers considerable protection from the outer factors, like a considerable coercion on the helmet and the probable falls on the ground.
Another important thing to focus the attention on is the possible manufacturing process. When creating the dashboard for the golf cart, it would be most reasonable to resort to the technique that presupposes heating small pieces of plastic to the liquid or near-liquid state.
It is essential to mark that, as a non-Newtonian liquid, the heated plastics will be quite easy to handle with, creating the buttons of the required shape and placing then precisely into the room where they are supposed to be located.
In terms of the procedures that the creation of kids’ helmets will presuppose, one should not that the plastic injection modeling will be the most suitable process of the helmet creation. According to what Bryce (1998) says, the given process will allow to apply the necessary corrections in the course of the moulding, which is extremely important for shaping the details of the helmet:
The primary advantage of this process is that many functions and features can be incorporated into the product design. This process will minimize, or eliminate, the amount of secondary work required to produce the same product in other ways or using other materials. (p.1)
Therefore, it cannot be argued that the creation of the given product presupposes the use of molding technique. When applying the given approach to the production, one can anticipate that the complexities mentioned above are supposed to be overcome. With the help of the molding technique, the probable obstacles concerning the firmness will be overcome and the reliability of the material can be achieved.
Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that there are considerable constrictions concerning the properties of the given products. Speaking of the dashboard for the golf carts creation, one must take into consideration that the development of the dashboards will involve rather tough treatment and, therefore, must be durable.
In addition, it is essential to consider the recyclability of the material used for the helmets creation. However, it is also important to mark that the elements of the dashboard are not to be made of the metal that is disposed to corrosion.
Since in certain cases, the carts can be exposed to rain and moist weather, which is likely to expose the carts to the danger of becoming rusty. Thus, it is necessary to avoid using the materials that are subject to corrosion.
When talking about the kids’ helmets, one should also note that the major constriction that is linked to the given item is its being environmentally friendly and consisting of the materials that will enhance its recyclability, enhancing the latter and, thus, contributing to the fight with the environmental pollution. Therefore, the materials that the helmet is supposed to consist of are of crucial importance.
Another issue of utter importance is the consideration of the materials that can be utilized in the course of the given products manufacturing. It is important to note that in the given case, the PP and ABS plastic would be the best choice of materials due to the latter’s high rates of recyclability.
According to the results of the analysis and the probable suggestions of solving the complexities depicted above, one can claim with certainty that the experience obtained is of utter importance.
Creating the models that will help to understand the mechanisms of the manufacturing processes and the further search for the problem solution are of considerable help for investigating the way the modern manufacturing system is structured.
Hence, with the help of the information obtained, the algorithm of the manufacturing processes can be understood and, hence, the ways to enhance and improve it can be suggested.
References Anthony, K.,
Approaches of Response to Intervention Expository Essay college admissions essay help
Response to intervention (RTI) is a number of procedures, which can be used in determining why and how students respond to change in specific instructions (Muoneke, 2007).
RTI approach provides advanced procedures for school in designing, implementing, and assessing educational interventions; it helps students who are having difficulties in learning (Muoneke, 2007). This paper will discuss about the response to intervention (RTI) approach.
RTI approach has been designed to benefit students and education institutions. One of the greatest benefits of the RTI approach is that, it eliminates the ‘wait to fail” situations (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
With RTI approach, learners have access to immediate assistance and student’s learning difficulties are addressed directly. This reduces the chances of failure because teachers tackle student’s problems before they get worse.
Secondly, the RTI approach can be able to reduce the number of learners being referred for special education program. Considering that the RTI approach provides effective instructions and progress assessment, it has the potential of reducing the number of students being referred for special education while increasing the number of successful students (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
In addition to this, the RTI approach provides more useful instructions compared to the traditional approach (Muoneke, 2007). With the utilization of the student progress-monitoring program, the RTI approach is able to meet the needs of learners directly.
Parents and teachers have observed this benefit. On the other hand, when trying to put into practice the RTI approach, they are numerous challenges that hinder this model from being fully effective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first issue is the problem of limited progress and monitoring tools for secondary schools (Muoneke, 2007). According to Muoneke (2007), less attention has been focused in the secondary schools and this has resulted in having few tools for progress monitoring in schools.
Due to the nature of the secondary school system such as departmental structure, there has been a shortage of progress and monitoring tools making it hard to implement this particular model.
Secondly, there is the issue of funding. To ensure the RTI model is implemented successful, proper funding is required to enable the entire program to work properly. There is poor allocation of resources to support this model. This hinders meeting the needs of struggling students as required (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
The other challenging issue that must be addressed is redefining the roles of educators (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006). While trying to implement the RTI approach in our schools, this issue is has emerged.
The existing educators such as classroom teachers and educational service providers have not been given enough orientation (Muoneke, 2007). As such, there is need to redefine the roles of educators to ensure that the program becomes effective.
For those schools already using the RTI approach, they are facing problems in clarifying the role of parents in this program (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006). Notably, schools that have involved the parent in the RTI approach usually have positive results in student’s academic performance (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
However, most schools have not been able to describe the role of the parents in the RTI model. The involvement of the parents is helpful in promoting communication of the progress and monitoring program. There is need to clarify the role of parents when implementing the RTI model in schools (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on Approaches of Response to Intervention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another big challenge in our schools when implementing the RTI approach is incorporating culturally instructional practices (Muoneke, 2007). The use of cultural instructional from different backgrounds is beneficial to the students (Muoneke, 2007).
However, it has been very challenging in selecting the cultural instructional that can be able to work with the students of different cultural background (Muoneke, 2007). Finally, most schools using this model experience problems of understanding the scaling up RTI implementation (Muoneke, 2007).
Since RTI model is a new concept in education sector, a lot of time is required to develop guides that will facilitate understanding this model (Muoneke, 2007). However, until this is achieved, grading level will remain a big challenge for schools that are already using RTI approach.
To ensure effective implementation of the RTI program, all major challenges affecting this model must be addressed. Teachers, parents, government, and all other involved stakeholders should work towards ensuring effective implementation of the RTI model, which is no doubt very beneficial. Different strategies can be employed to overcome the existing challenges.
First, the government should focus its attention in supporting this program. It should provide schools with enough funds to facilitate implementation of the program. This will solve issues of funds shortage.
Secondly, teachers and parents should be given enough orientation through training and education programs to sensitize on the utilization of the RTI approach (Muoneke, 2007). This will clarify the roles of parents in the school concerning this particular model. It will also help in redefining the role of teachers in making the model to become successful.
To address the shortage of progress and monitoring tools in secondary school, the involved stakeholders and government should come in and emphasize the need to focus attention to our secondary schools. The government should also provide financial support to increase the necessary tools for progress and monitoring to be effective in the school system (Muoneke, 2007).
There are many advantages of intervening early in student’s learning experience. First, intervening early in children’s learning experience helps the parents and teachers to indentify young children who are at the risk of experiencing learning difficulties (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Approaches of Response to Intervention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ability to recognize children with difficulties of learning enables the teachers and parents to develop policies that will facilitate learning among the affected learners. This helps in eradicating cases of school failure.
Early intervention of children’s learning experiences facilitates social change. The situation in which teachers can be able to detect difficulties in learning abilities of certain students revolutionizes the way children’s needs are addressed (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006).
Detecting that a particular student has learning problems gives teachers opportunities to offer special care to the affected students. This facilitates positive change in the society.
Apart from recognizing students with learning difficulties, early intervention of children’s learning experience helps in making children with special needs to be successful in their first school experiences (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006). RTI approach offers the necessary solution. It is the first step in making sure the needs of students with learning difficulties are addressed.
In summary, RTI approach is a developed system of instructions and intervention that has been created to cater for students with learning difficulties (Fuchs and Fuchs, 2006). There is no doubt that the RTI approach is useful and very beneficial in eliminating cases of school failure among the student.
This model represents the latest improvements in education sector since it ensures that students with learning difficulties are assisted. Despite the challenges facing implementation of RTI approach, this model can bring positive changes in our schools.
Reference List Fuchs, D.,
Crop Production Project Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Crop production is a complex process whose orientation can take various perspectives. The complexities involved in crop production require extensive skills including agronomy, biology, marketing and even mechanics.
Crop production covers a variety of operations and processes throughout the year. Some of the steps involved in crop production include soil preparation, planting, nutrient management drainage, irrigation, pest and disease management harvesting and fuel and chemical storage.
The diversity that is characteristic of the crop production processes above are also greatly varies depending on the crops under production. It is important to note that over the twelve week period, the group dealt with different types as the table below illustrates.
Plant No. The common name The botanical name DT Growing season 1 Carrots Daucus carota D All seasons 2 Silverbeet Beta vulgaris T April to August ( cool growing season) 3 Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea D All year except summer 4 Chocolate Capsicum Capsicum annuum T Best grown spring summer 5 Beans Phaseolus vulgaris D June to April (warm temperate regions) 6 Beans Phaseolus vulgaris T June to April (warm temperate regions) 7 Rockmelon Cucumis melo D Sept onwards (in warm temperate) 8 Chamomile Anthemis nobilis T Spring and Summer 9 Oregano Origanum vulgare D Spring and Autumn 10 Borage Borago officinalis D Spring, Summer and Autumn 11 Lovage Levisticum officinale D Spring – flowers Jan-Feb 12 Kale Brassica olaracea acephala T Best to sow late summer, autumn 13 Zucchini Cucurbita pepo D Sow from September to January 14 water spinach Ipomea aquatica forskk warmer months as long as there is water 15 red corn zea mays warmer months summer preferably 16 white eggplant solanum melongena tropilcal and subtropical climates 17 Sunflower Helianthus annuus D spring/summer 18 Red Cabbage Brassica oleracea capitata T autumn/winter 19 Watermelon Citrullus Lanatus D Preferably summer season 20 Cauliflower Brassica Oleracea T Winter and early spring 21 Chilli Capsicum frutescens D spring and summer 22 Lupins Lupinus D 23 Broccolini Brassica oleracea T 24 Sugar snap dwarf peas Pisum sativum T 25 Radish french breakfast Raphanus sativus D 26 white icicle radish Raphanus sativus D spring, or late summer 27 Flanders poppy Papaver rhoeas T Autumn Table 1: Different types of crops under study
In this report however, there will be a brief literature review on the production background of carrots and silverbeet. The two represent the two wider groups to which every crop under study belongs.
Brief literature Review Plant Name
Apartheid in South Africa Essay best essay help
Introduction South Africa is one of the countries with rich and fascinating history in the world. It is regarded as the most developed state in Africa and among the last to have an elected black president towards the end of the 20th century. Besides its rich history, the South African state has abundant natural resources, fertile farms and a wide range of minerals including gold.
The country is the world’s leading miner of diamonds and gold with several metal ores distributed around the country like platinum (Rosmarin
Comparison and Contrast Assignment on “Paradoxical effects of presentation modality on false memory,” article and “Individual differences in learning and remembering music.” Research Paper college essay help near me
The differences and similarities in remembering visual and auditory items are carried out in two researches, “presentation modality on false memory,” and “learning to remember music”.
Although the aim of both experiments targets the mental capacity or the faculty of retaining and recalling, it is quite clear that it is challenging to determine which of these two (auditory and visual presentations) is easy to recall.
First, it is important to discuss the similarities and differences in research methods. According to the article, “presentation modality on false memory”, two experiments are carried out to give proof to the case. According to an experiment carried out by Smith and Stun, audible presentations increased true memory and decreased false memory as compared to visual presentation.
This finding contradicts Penny’s’ research results that that portrays, audible presentation reduces memory loss. It is difficult to explain why the two have different results and have opposite effect of presentation.
Maylor and Mo, having the same results as Penny, proposed that the difference in the results was caused by the method research carried. Their use of within subject-design may have caused the difference. In the first experiment, a total of 48 students from psychology classes were required.
Critical targets were arranged in the order, from the highest to lowest. They went through three blocks of five study-recall trial. In the first block, study list were presented audibly as the experimenter sat in front of the computer and read them aloud while the screen was blinded form the participants.
In the next block, participants were asked to read silently while in the last block, they were asked to read the study list aloud (Clearly and Greene, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the second experiment, the results from the first experiment were replicated. The procedure was the same as the first experiment except that all stimuli were presented twice in a row in massed fashion. This was to ensure that that all conditions had double presentation.
54 students from psychology classes participated. The material and design were identical with the first experiment. The only difference was in the presentation of the study items. In this particular experiment they occurred twice in a raw.
The similarity in the research findings is that, the pattern of results is almost identical in both experiments. Recalling of studied items did not differ significantly between conditions while on the other hand, recognition in visual and read-aloud conditions were different.
This is because the first experiment had both significantly higher hits and false alarm rates. The second experiment had double presentations, and this allowed familiarity to reduce false alarms.
Statistically, the results of the experiments were the same. The two experiments reported that false recall is higher when presented in auditory rather than in the visual form (Korenman
Economic analysis of health care services Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
An economic analysis of health care services in Canada
Canada has always strived to ensure that its healthcare services are enhanced for the benefit of the larger population. This means that it has paid more attention towards efficiency and effectiveness for long term sustainability.
This is based on the fact that the country is entering a stage where questioning will be axiomatic. As far as an analysis of healthcare services in Canada is concerned, private healthcare funding has continued to play an important and vital role. This implies that there is a very big difference between delivery and funding of healthcare services in Canada.
Proper healthcare provision requires a lot of economic analysis for success and long term sustainability. Canada’s healthcare system is very complex which means that new technologies that are emerging can not be implemented without a comprehensive analysis (Page 23).
In this case, implementation can only be done after an evaluation of costs versus value. It should be known that there are simple and common procedures but they always come under scrutiny when it comes to an economic analysis of healthcare services in Canada. This is because there has been an increased need for justification of expenses as far as public and private funding is concerned.
It has been unanimously agreed that effectiveness and efficiency in the health system will ultimately alleviate some funding problems. This is because there have been funding issues as far as the public health insurance sector is concerned. It is agreeable that effective delivery is related to quality services which have been the target of various stakeholders.
A proper economic analysis revolves around good assessment through the use of different tools. Canada as a country does not have enough information that can be used to asses its healthcare services. In a broad perspective, there is scarcity of different indicators that can be used to evaluate the country’s healthcare system.
This shortage of information means that the country can not carry out the improvements that are needed to enhance its healthcare services. The effects of medical treatments have not been properly reviewed because there are cases where overall performance of the healthcare sector has been questioned in Canada (Page 40).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, it implies that the effects of the healthcare system in the country have not been known to the public. A country’s healthcare system is very diverse which means that it depends on various interrelated factors. In such a case, it is very difficult to ascertain the influence of healthcare services on the general health of the population.
Canada does not have any bank information of patients who have been treated by its healthcare system as a whole. This means that as much as there are hospitals that have made a good stride on these aspects, proper information can not be guaranteed.
The efficiency of healthcare services can not be evaluated because there is no proper follow up on patients who have been treated by different hospital. This has led to an argument by various stakeholders that it is not possible to measure the cost- effectiveness of the country’s healthcare system.
There is an accounting approach that is used as far as disbursement of funds is concerned but it begs many questions. Funding of hospital operations has been enhanced as time goes by and the efficiency of resources invested should be able to contribute to good results (Gross 41).
The clinical and economic effectiveness of different drugs that are used by the healthcare system in Canada have not been properly evaluated because there is little information.
Despite the fact that there is no data, there is some information on the effectiveness of the healthcare system in different areas. All this aspects can be explained from the fact that controlling the country’s healthcare expenditure has always been a big political issue in concurrent years that have passed.
The country has different provincial governments that have done well in proper allocation of funds to healthcare. This is based on the fact they allocate around one third of their budgets to the healthcare system.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Economic analysis of health care services specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economic situation has not been good and this means that it has tightened spending on healthcare by different provincial governments. This situation has been tightened by a freeze on transfer payments by the government.
All in all, it should be known that the country’s healthcare expenditure has reached a threshold that is difficult for political players to cross. This has therefore translated into a funding problem and crisis of Canada’s healthcare insurance sector.
Whenever we have such controversies, it becomes very difficult to take care of national healthcare principles. These are principles that every country is supposed to adhere to and follow like free access and universality of healthcare services. On this basis, different stakeholders have questioned the way public and private healthcare costs are shared in the country (Gross 66).
This is because there should be proper mechanisms that can be used to ensure that such costs are shared equally and efficiently for long term sustainability. There are services that have been considered medically necessary by the government but this should be reviewed.
Medical services that are covered by the government should always be evaluated and this is what different stakeholders have occasionally insisted on. In extreme cases, it has been proposed that user fees should be imposed for long term sustainability as time goes by.
The most notable logic should be the fact that controlling healthcare costs does not necessarily require a lot of private sector participation. As much as private sector funding is essential for proper provision of healthcare services, it should not be an excuse for inefficiencies.
In this case, the government has a role to play in ensuring that cost benefit analysis is done to take care of all aspects that relate to proper healthcare services. This therefore explains why Canada as a country has strived to ensure that its healthcare system is effective and efficient (Gross 84).
Delivery of appropriate indicators and resources should be a target of different governments as far as enhancing their healthcare system is concerned. This means that an economically effective health system will always ensure that healthcare services are guaranteed.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic analysis of health care services by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More All this factors contribute to the general efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system as a whole. Effective care that revolves around a good healthcare system will ultimately ensure that there is optimum use of the available financial resources. There is need for provision of universally high quality services and this is what Canada has always strived to achieve as time goes by.
Why the provision of healthcare services is different from other goods and services
Healthcare services are different from other goods and services because of derived demand. This is what makes the provision of healthcare services different because it is demanded as a means to achieve a larger stock. In this case, it means that most consumers demand healthcare so that they can achieve a large pool of health capital.
There is a big difference because when consumers demand healthcare services, they allocate resources that will enable them to produce and consume health. Every individual person can therefore be regarded as both a producer and consumer of health.
This therefore makes it different from other goods and services because they ultimately have predetermined producers and consumers. It should occur that the same people who produce health as a good and service end up consuming it in one way or the other (Wise 43).
Health can be viewed as capital because it will ultimately degrade in the absence of any meaningful investments that are always necessary for long term sustainability. In this case, health can be viewed as a consumption good and investment good.
Taken literally, it should be known that we can invest in health in various ways and end up consuming it as we are bound to be sick. This means that the consumption of health as a good can end up yielding some utility and direct satisfaction.
Satisfaction to consumers of healthcare services can be indirectly achieved by increasing and enhancing productivity which can not be seen in other goods and services. This means that any increased productivity will be characterized by few sick days from a consumer point of view.
All in all, the provision of healthcare services is different from other goods and services that are examined in economics because of two perspectives and approaches that are supposed to be evaluated. Investments in healthcare services can end up being costly because consumers should be able to trade on time and different resources that are always devoted to health.
As much as consumers might have other goals to achieve and accomplish, they are supposed to forego this for health which has not been seen in any other good or service that is just consumed (Fuchs 78). For instance, health consumers are supposed to exercise every now and then at the gym even if that was not their initial priority.
In this case, it should be known that these are factors that can be used to determine the optimal level of health that is always demanded by different consumers. Healthcare provision is different from other goods and services that are explored in economics because, as a product, it is ill-defined.
There are different, diverse and distinct stakeholders that are involved in health as a product which makes its provision unique and different. Its provision is complex because the outcome of care is always uncertain. This is because you can not be able to predict the outcome of consuming healthcare unlike other goods and services where utility can be evaluated.
When compared to other goods and services, the healthcare sector is dominated by a lot of non-profit providers which means that they might not pay attention to other economic aspects. Most payments in the healthcare sector are made by third parties that can be either private insurers or government institutions.
As much as these factors can be found in other industries, they are all present in the healthcare sector. This means that the healthcare sector and industry has been made unique by an interaction of all these factors. All this withstanding, various stakeholders and players in the industry respond to incentives like consumers in other industries (Wise 96).
The healthcare industry is always regulated because of its sensitivity on people’s lives. This means that healthcare as a product is important which therefore requires proper safety, effectiveness and efficiency for different consumers.
Governments should know that healthcare is different from other goods because an individual might be unable to afford a car but should it occur that he is unable to access healthcare, he or she will die.
Comparison with international health care systems
When compared with other healthcare systems, the Canadian system does not have many problems but others have been rather exaggerated. All this withstanding, the Canadian system has been characterized by many waiting hours that have made people to cross over to the United States for treatment.
People wait for long months for diagnostic tests to be done and this is an issue that the country’s industry players need to look at. As much as this is a fact, there are people who have crossed over to be treated in the country which implies that these inefficiencies might be scanted.
In this case, it should be known that as much as different stakeholders might argue that the country’s problems are inevitable; this is ignoring good results that have been seen in other neighboring countries. There are countries that have had successful systems than Canada most notably France and Sweden but they thrive by imitating a free market.
This is where policy analysts and opinion leaders have differed in Canada because there is an argument that if a free market delivers results, then it should provide healthcare directly like it does for cars and other products (Kraus 73). Canada has been reforming its healthcare system as time goes by to match international standards based on emerging technologies.
70% of the country’s healthcare spending is always financed by the government which is not a good development because private players should be actively engaged and involved (Kraus 58). Disparities in spending when compared with other good health care systems around the world has always led to heated debates among politicians which affects efficiency of the system as a whole.
Health outcomes are superior in Canada among patients when compared with other developed countries like the US and this is a good development. Life expectancy is longer in Canada and this means that there should be some underlying factors behind this aspect in relation to its healthcare system.
Canada has been ranked well when it comes to good achievements in the level of health but there is need for improvement as recommended by international standards. The country is exposed to high mortality rates when it comes to heart attacks because it relies on a conservative approach to the opening of arteries.
Most end services in Canada are delivered by the private sector which is in compete contrast to the fact that 70% of funding comes from the government (Kraus 123). This implies that there are some disparities and inconsistencies as far as public and private partnerships are concerned.
Healthcare costs in Canada have been rising faster than inflation which requires some review and evaluation for long term sustainability. The country should also strive to enhance and increase doctors per capita to be in tandem with internationally recommended standards.
Works Cited Fuchs, Victor. Who Shall Live? Health, Economics, and Social Choice. New York: Harper/Collins, 1998. Print.
Gross, David. Prescription Drug Prices in Canada: What Are the Lessons for the U.S.? New York: Routledge, 2008. Print.
Kraus, Clifford. As Canada’s Slow-Motion Public Health System Falters, Private Medical Care Is Surging. New York: New York Times, 2006. Print.
Page, Moher. Health Care Delivery in Canada and the United States: Are There Relevant Differences in Health Care Outcomes? Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1999. Print.
Wise, David. Developments in the Economics of Aging. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.
Effects of Industrialized Agriculture Research Paper college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Agricultural practices have passed though many stages of development. It has evolved from primitive practices such as hunting and gathering to industrial farming, mechanization of agriculture and food manufacturing. In addition, this is what formed a base for the industrialized agriculture creating an agro-commodity production system.
Industrialized agriculture is a kind of modern farming that entails production of poultry, fish, livestock and crops. The production makes use of agricultural machines and different farming methods and genetic technology.
Finally, the corporations that are involved in the process of food production are responsible for the creation of new markets for consumption and the global trade of agricultural products (Drury et al. 14). Most of the goods that are available worldwide are mostly produced using industrial methods of agriculture.
Industrialized agriculture has replaced old agriculture practices such as shift cultivation, pastoralism and subsistence farming that used low quality and primitive technology.
Industrialized Agriculture Before the changes in the agriculture sector, many people practiced shift cultivation. This is a type of farming whereby the land under cultivation is periodically changed so that the fields that were earlier used for cultivation are left fallow. Due to the current industrialized agriculture, people are longer using shift cultivation because they have to make use of all the available land in order to maximize their profits.
Before the invention of industrialized agriculture, pastoralism was also practiced. This is a type of farming in which people earn their living by tending herds of domesticated herbivore animals such as cows, goats, sheep, horses, camels, chicken, turkeys among others. With the changes in the agricultural sector, pastoralism is rarely practiced (Knox 2).
Subsistence agriculture on the other hand is a form of farming where almost all of the produce is used for domestic purposed by the farmer. Such farmers therefore do not have surplus for sale. This type of farming was practices before the industrialized agriculture was introduced.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has now changed with agricultural production being more specialized and commercialized. Farming has now developed and farmers produce sizable surplus of crops that they can trade for goods or they can sell to earn money (Knox 3).
Some of the benefits of industrialized agriculture include; cheap food; availability of labor from agricultural activities for employment in other sectors; large, profitable chemical and agricultural industries; and increased export markets. Most importantly, industrialized agriculture has brought an end to the seasonal availability of foodstuff. Through this process, any type of food can be produced all year round
Due to the use of modern farming, agriculture in American has witnessed an increase in production. This was achieved by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, improved varieties of plants and machinery. The increase in production of the staple crops has led to reduction in food prices.
Food has become more affordable to the consumers since the cost of production has been reduced by a significant amount. This land can be utilized to produce food with the use of the latest technology hence boost the process of food production. As a result, larger proportions of the population can be fed with the utilization of the same land resource.
The production of animal products with the use of intensive livestock agriculture, farming gives a chance to get the methane gases that would contribute to global warming. These gases are essential since they can be used as a source of alternative energy. This is because they can be used to generate heat and electricity. This in turn reduced the dependence on fossil fuel.
There is availability of labor because of the industrial agriculture mechanization is in place and this means that smaller workforce will be required for the production as compared to ancient times when people were not using machines for cultivation.
Through the industrialized agricultural system, large commercial farms have their profits from farm sales. Most of the corporate people have the largest operations in agricultural production. Krebs (1992) states that rich people like Tyson, ConAgra, and Cargill have the biggest operations that deal with poultry and beef.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Effects of Industrialized Agriculture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Industrialized agriculture helps in export markets. It has been noted that Agricultural products make up 10 percent of all exported US products. The rise in global food trade that is accelerated by the International Trade Agreements has seen an increase and imports of food from outside the United States has gone high (Drury et al. 17).
Although the production achievements given to industrial agriculture are notable, they have negative effects to the environment, the economy and our social structures. Agriculture affects the environment in many ways.
There is high usage of water, energy and chemicals that have unfavorable effects to the inhabitants. Herbicides and pesticides usually accumulate in water surfaces and in the ground that lead to pollution (Leo et al. 28).
The chemical fertilizers encourage growth of microorganism that can cause diseases. The wastes from poultry and livestock usually send an awful odor to the environment.
The rapid use of the pesticides makes the pests resistant and the chemicals that will be used will not be effective. Pesticides also kill some of the useful insects as well as the harmful ones. Use of pesticides has many negative health problems to the people who apply them and to the people who live near the farms.
There is also an increase in ozone pollution though methane that is a byproduct of the animals. Industrialized agriculture encourages global warming because of the heavy usage of the fossil fuels. It also destroys and limits the natural habitats of wild animals.
The farming methods in industrialized agriculture also contributed to the denudation of vegetation and weakening of the soil (Knox 6).This reduces the viability and vigour of the soil as a result of being exposed to heavy machinery by farmers. These machines also destroy the microorganisms that are present in the soil.
Industrialized agriculture leads to high economic costs. For production to be effective, large amounts of energy have to be used. Fuel has to be used to run the huge machines. Transport is also high especially in the perishable products like animal and horticultural products.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Effects of Industrialized Agriculture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the products have to be transported by air around the world that is relatively expensive (Segre et al. 8). The cost of production is generally high with the purchase of machines, use of chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers.
Some of the chemicals used have negative effects on the human health. Many pesticides contain a substance that affects the endocrine system that in turn affects the reproduction system and it can be expensive to treat. There is also damage to fisheries form the oxygen depleting organisms which come from the fertilizers.
Animal wastes pollute the water and this leads to increased heath problems to the workers. The common use of growth hormones in animals has led to an increase in humans to be resistant to antibiotics. Most of the pathogens are usually associated with the animal products.
Industrialized agriculture has effects on animals. This is because of the use of artificial methods to maintain the health of the animals such as use of vitamin supplements and growth hormones. Animals grow rapidly due to the artificial hormones. Chickens are given supplements to encourage weight gain.
Animals like cows, pigs, goats, turkeys and chicken are confined indoors and are usually crowded in a small area so that production can be met through the lowest cost. These products are available to the consumers at lower costs but the effects of the genetically modified products are great to them.
Because the products have a lot of fat and proteins it has so many chronic diseases such as breast cancer, prostrate cancer and heart diseases. Most of the people are consuming these products and it harms both the environment and the public health.
In industrialized agriculture, there are contemporary agro-commodity systems that are made in such a way that the chain of agribusiness starts when the farmers start any form of agriculture, it will start from the time they begin the activity and it ends at the retail outlets.
If crops are grown, agribusiness starts at the farm with all the agricultural practices until the produce is taken to the retail outlets. If it is an animal production, it begins when the animals are young until they are supplied to the retail outlets (Leo et al. 20).The production passes the chain of agribusiness for it to be supplied to the consumers.
The industrialization of agriculture has done a lot of coordination of the agricultural sector with other sectors of the economy (Christina 26). Globalization of agriculture in terms of trade has been influenced by the institutions and treaties such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, North American Free Trade Agreement, The World Trade Organization and the European Union.
They give rules to farmers, provide the rights of corporations and protect them from the world competition. Financial institutions such as banks and credit companies are used to fund the inputs that are very expensive (John 6).
The health of human beings and the environment could be made better if the farms can make transitions to sustainable systems of production which can involve closer look at the connection of the producer and the consumer. There should b direct marketing of the products to the local consumers. There should b shorter channels right from the farmer to the consumers (Leo et al. 34).
Conclusion Industrialized agriculture has led to high production that enables people to produce goods in high quantities due to mechanization, chemical farming and food manufacturing.
Even though the goods are cheap and readily available to the consumers, there are so many disadvantages because the products are genetically engineered and they have negative effects to the health and the chemicals that are used affect the environment negatively because most of the products are contaminated.
Works Cited Christina, Simon. “Agri-food Commodity Chains and Globalizing Networks.” Journal of Agriculture, 1.4 (2000): 50-53. Print.
Drury, Red, Amos, Vince and Tweeten, Trends. Farm Structure into the 21st Century. New York: Sage, 2008. Print.
John, Evans. The Globalization of Agriculture: Implication for Sustainability of Small Horticultural Farms. Missouri: University of Missouri, 2000. Print.
Knox, Peter. Human Geography: Agriculture and Food Production. Prenshall. August 2006. Web.
Krebs, Anton. The Corporate Reapers. Boston: Essential Books, 1992.
Leo, Humphrey D., Robert, Shane and Polly, Winfred. Environmental Health Perspectives. How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture. Organic Consumers. May 2002. https://www.organicconsumers.org/ 10th November 2011. Web.
Segre, Alvan D., Lunati, Mosses M. and Brandini, Chase. Global Horticultural Impact. Rome: Metro Inc., 1998. Print.
Long Term Unemployed Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Size of the problem
Issues contributing to the problem
Programs to address the problem
Size of the problem The Great Recession of 2007-2009 affected many countries in the world. From an article written by Wall Street Journal columnist Gerald F. Seib, dated April 2, 2010, USA was one of the countries which were adversely affected. The biggest challenge associated with The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was unemployment (Seib, 2010).
Consequently, it is hard for the USA government policy makers and economists to come up with policies to re-employ the large number of long-term unemployed Americans. According to Seib (2010), the unemployment case in the USA is serious.
For instance, Seib says that 40% of those who lost their jobs during The Great Recession of 2007-2009 are in danger of losing their jobs altogether. These are likely to fall into the problem of long-term unemployed. This is in contrast to the case witnessed in 1982 where the problem only amounted to about 26%.
Issues contributing to the problem From the article, Seib identifies a number of issues that contribute to the problem of the long-term unemployed. One of these problems is the housing crisis. Initially, people used to beat the problem of job loss by migrating to other regions.
By moving, these workers were able to get to areas where new jobs were being created. However, workers nowadays do not want to move because selling their houses before moving may not raise the amount they invested in those houses.
Additionally, the houses they migrate to may not be in the same excellent condition like their previous residence. Consequently, many people have chosen to remain at their present residence because of this housing crisis.
Mobility has been reduced due to the both spouses in the house working. Essentially, it means that if one of the spouses loses their job, then the remaining spouse still remains as the bread winner. As a result, such a family does not move to a new place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there is hopelessness to those areas where people used to migrate to during times of job loss. For instance, Seib states that areas which were hotspots like Florida, Nevada, and California have jobless problems as a result of the housing crisis in the country.
Social problems A number of social problems could develop from long term unemployed. For an unemployed person who has been out of work for a long time, it becomes hard for them to get into the work force. This is especially in cases where such a person could find it hard get jobs which match their previous earning power.
Another social problem here is health related, and this could affect their education because of lack of funds. This is because their parents who are in a state of long-term unemployed cannot have their funds. This has adverse effects on the ability of such children to get employed in future.
Programs to address the problem Programs that help people in long-term unemployment include giving them unemployment benefits. These benefits could help such people cope with the difficulties of unemployment.
More so, the Congress has instituted a bill which requires employers to hire workers who have been unemployed for two or more months. In exchange, such employers are given tax credits. These programs would go a long way in assisting these workers meet their daily needs.
Recommendations Governments should formulate policies that cushion workers from the effects of any financial recession in future. Also, given the health problems that could result from long-term unemployment, there is a need for such people to be protected by government programs appropriately.
Reference Seib, G. F. (2010). Long-Term Unemployed Cloud the Jobs Picture. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303395904575157730903699168
We will write a custom Essay on Long Term Unemployed specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Feedback on Whose Curriculum Should be taught in School Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
An examination and dissection of the student’s essay on what schools should teach reveals a mix of assumptions supported by facts and generalizations that go far beyond the data. The student has effectively responded to the first question and provided a clear analysis of the most important issues in this case.
However, in the analysis of the first case, the student fails to provide statements from strong background of knowledge. The student posits that the “first issue is that there might be a misunderstanding on the parents and administrators parts about the problem being one of only cultural differences.” The use of the word “might” expresses possibility or probability and therefore fails to ascertain whether the student has clear cut knowledge on his assertions.
The second issue is not only an assumption and a generalization; it has no evidence and has not been presented as a fact. By simply noting down that “the “civilizing impulse” attitude of white settlers thinking that they were instrumental in bringing about a new world is the same impulse that justified residential schools,” the student fails to provide evidence and can be best described as a personal bias thinly disguised as a fact.
The third issue is well represented and articulated. However, the student fails to provide a strong point on how a full-time Tsimshian administrator and or teacher would resolve the conflict in the Setsco School curriculum.
The strongest part of this case is the analysis of the second question on the true nature of the problem at Setsco Lake School. The student approaches the question from an informed perspective and brings to light the specific nature and parties involved in Setco Lake School’s problems. It is within this section of the essay that the student explains how a Tsimshian teacher would balance between the demands of the current curriculum and the Caucasian population.
The third question lacks evidence and data to support major assumptions. The student notes that “the reality is that the stakeholders in North American schools don’t necessarily share the same goal of encouraging students how to grow into more autonomous…” This is an assumption that demands support from data or citation. However, the student makes some very important and noteworthy discoveries in the case study.
The exclusion of students’ opinion in what should be taught in schools indicates that the student has shown signs of having thought long and hard about the issues. The resources used to support sections of the paper are relevant, but the student should have used recent resources to demonstrate research and current status of the issues under examination.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the fact that the student has managed to demonstrate a clear cut understanding of the issues within this case study, some issues are not well supported by facts and data. Assumptions and generalizations that have been made have to a large extent been supported by citations from other sources.
The student exercises caution in making most assumptions and moves away from contradictory evidence. In fact, one strong part of this essay is how the student avoids adopting contradictory undertones. The student would have done better by using data from the most recent articles to support most assumptions and generalization. However, despite these shortfalls such as suggestions for actions that are not rooted in data in the conclusion, the essay demonstrates hard thought and dissection of the case study materials.
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge Essay best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction ‘An Occurrence at Owl Creek’ is set in the American Civil War and tells of the execution of Peyton Farquhar, a civilian confederate sympathizer (Sparknotes.com, 2007). The story throws us to different times: the ‘present’ moment of the execution, the past that led to the execution and most notably, to an ‘imagined present’ (Sparknotes.com, 2007).
But there’s is no clear distinction between the reality and the imagination if each is to be judged on its own right. Just as the real world has people who can be hungry and tired and in need, so is the world that Farquhar imagines. It is this playing around with time, this irregular time sequence that makes this story famous.
From a psychoanalytic point of view, it is quite evident how Bierce’s own life is an influence to this story. Besides having himself been a soldier, Bierce was an outspoken opponent of realism, which insisted on reflecting life as it is, ‘without any subjection whatsoever to creativity of the mind (Sparknotes.com, 2007).
Analysis The story is a reflection of some of the issues that Bierce seemed to have been interest in. These include:
Reality versus Illusion: Bierce seemed to be of the thought that the line between reality and illusion is not a very obvious one; that these two work side by side (Sparknotes.com, 2007).
Bierce, to an extent, manages to bring the audience with him into this thought. The final section, Peyton’s escape to his family, is quite believable in its own right. Of course, there’s a possibility of the reader being confused. Here’s why.
The final sentence in section I is “The sergeant stepped aside” (Sparknotes.com, 2007), at this point, we expect that Farquhar is plunging to his death. Now in section III he is ‘really’ escaping to his family; the reader is caught between a fact, as told by the storyteller, and the reality of Farquhar’s escape as created by words.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The confusion created by a conscious/subconscious awareness that Farquhar is plunging to his death vis-à-vis his escape, or the acceptance that he is actually escaping, are a reflection of Bierce’ success at making us see that, in spite of the gap between them, the difference between reality and illusion, what it takes to move from one to another, is not so obvious.
Bierce also explores the aspect of liquidity of time (Sparknotes.com, 2007). The story moves from the present to the past and finally to the imagined. This structure reflects how fluid time is, as well as the conflict between its competing variants.
Section II interrupts the continuing process of Farquhar at the edge, starting to plunge down to his death (Sparknotes.com, 2007). In section III, Peyton has gone into a completely timeless realm, free from the hands of time as counted down by the actual second-hand of a clock.
Farquhar manages to do in his mind/imagination what can’t be done in the actual world within the seconds it takes him to go over the edge and the rope breaking his neck. In the end, Bierce’s seems to say that time is subjective, that it can be manipulated to suit need, as does Farquhar.
Bierce’s story was seen as a breach of the traditional rules of narration, especially the ending of the story. Bierce’s conclusion is not really of the expected form as it questions the nature of resolving a story (Sparknotes.com, 2007). The conclusion here becomes a distortion of the reality as it is known; Farquhar, in a sense, manages to ‘outlive’ his execution because though his life ends in the first section, his story still extends.
Bierce’s unique plotting sees conflicting versions of truth live side by side inside the same story (Sparknotes.com, 2007). In spite of this, Bierce still does his story within the conventions of literature: the story starts, develops and ends; he employs tropes such as motifs and symbols, as well as features of drama such as realism, foreshadowing and tone (Sparknotes.com, 2007).
Realism involves making an imaginary world as believable as possible. For authenticity, Bierce gives a vivid and believable description of the setting at the bridge where Farquhar is to be executed: from the time to the position of planks and rope; from the positioning of the soldiers and their guns to their conduct at the ritual of execution (Sparknotes.com, 2007).
We will write a custom Essay on An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Again, although the revelation at the end of Farquhar’s imagination is unexpected and shocking, Bierce, by talking of how things ‘seem’ to Farquhar as opposed to what is actually happening is a foreshadowing (helped by the change of tone) of the actual death of Farquhar.
Conclusion Finally, it is quite notable the way that Bierce uses imagination to get into Farquhar’s head. Here is a dying man who does not speak his mind, he only imagines it. Yet Bierce takes the “seat of God”; that he’s able to get into Farquhar’s head (Sparknotes.com, 2007). In the end it is this fruit of imagination that brings all that makes this story different and remarkable, both in the arena of literary works, as well as for the reader.
Reference Sparknotes.com. (2007). An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. Web.
Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Doping is defined as the infringement of the World Anti Doping Agency regulations.1 It is said that most sportsmen and women have been using steroids and even stars like former American sprinter Marion Jones pleaded guilty of using these drugs. Some stars who do not use steroids claim that those who use them break the rules in the sporting industry.
They create unfair advantage. These athletes are putting their lives and health at risk and they are encouraging youngsters to do the same in a bid to be stars. It would be wrong to think that it is good to let players use steroids. This does not portray a sensible message to the American youth who look up to these sports figures as their role models or icons.
Steroids are harmful to the health as they cause bodily harm; probably not early enough but during the late stages of life, one tends to feel the effects of these drugs. An example is Arnold Schwarzenegger who had a heart operation at his later age and this was as an effect of the steroids he took when he was in the sporting industry as a professional body builder. Steroids are also said to be a major cause of a wide range of emotions; the most common being depression which has led to many users of these steroids committing suicide.
Steroids when used correctly are not bad or harmful to the health. The only problem is that they are highly addictive. Thinking that one can use these drugs to enhance performance is in itself a shallow decision and lack of self-discipline.
Clearly, this shows that the person does not believe in himself or herself. All forms of sports need to be regulated and it is the respective governing bodies’ responsibility to decide what should be regulated and the substances that should be used as well as those that should not be used at all in the sporting fraternity.
Some people argue that performance enhancement drugs and steroids will forever be around because of the demand there is for the drugs by the users who are already addicted. By banning these performance enhancement drugs, criminal lines are opened up and thus regulating them becomes even more difficult.
Some experts argue that it is not wise to ban them as this only aggravates the situation. They say that what needs to be done is coming up with rules and regulations that show which drugs can be used in the sporting industry and those that cannot be used. This is because ambiguous and complex leagues govern their sports and create an organizational decisional making structure2. Using steroids is in itself a moral dilemma.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We are also asked as sports lovers, by the sporting management, to be realistic in what we expect of our athletes because the human body can do just as much. Steroids are also used in suppressing some diseases and thus banning them or declaring them illegal will just cause more harm to those who use them out of good will.
Some diseases like asthma are suppressed using some forms of steroid drugs. Prohibiting steroids and performance enhancing drugs really does not necessarily work; they make the activity in question more dangerous by pushing this habit underground, creating room for formation of cartels.
A drug like valium is normally prescribed to athletes so that they can get some sleep. It was used awhile back as a drug to calm nerves before a shooting sport. The drive to win in sports is competitively fierce.
This has increased the use of performance enhancing drugs due to the pressure that athletes feel in terms of accomplishing personal goals, winning their countries medals and making it to the first teams in a country or sports club. This usage of these drugs comes with its high prices because the health of the user is greatly affected. The human growth hormones are also affected as one may end up having uneven muscle growth.
The reason most sportsmen and women take these performance enhancement drugs is that they make the muscles bigger. These drugs are also preferred by athletes due to their ability to enhance fast recovery by minimizing chances of damage on muscles. This enables athletes endure hard training without wearing out. Hair analysis is used mostly in the doping detection test in a bid to make sure that both sportsmen and women stay clean and free of any stimulating substances3.
At this rate, it would be safe to conclude that taking these performance enhancement drugs is clearly not the way to go despite the minimal advantages that they posses. The disadvantages that they tag along clearly outweigh the advantages and thus using the drugs is not worth the risk.
Upon being discovered that one is using these performance enhancing drugs in the professional sporting industry, athletes risk being suspended by the authorized governing body. They also stand a chance of being prosecuted in a court of law and losing credit to what they had achieved, whether they achieved on a clean record or not.
We will write a custom Essay on Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Conrad, Mark. The business of sports: A primer for journalists. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006.
Wilson, Wayne, and Derse Edward (eds). Doping in elite sport: The politics of drugs in the Olympic movement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Inc., 2001.
Verner, Moller. The ethics of doping and anti-doping: redeeming the soul of sport? York, NY: Routledge Conrad Publishers, 2010.
Footnotes 1 Moller Verner. The ethics of doping and anti-doping: redeeming the soul of sport? (York, NY: Routledge Publishers, 2010), 12.
2 Mark Conrad. The business of sports: A primer for journalists. (New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006), 12
3 Wayne Wilson, Derse Edward (eds). Doping in elite sport: The politics of drugs in the Olympic movement. (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Inc, 2001), 19
Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The title of the journal article of discussion is “Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others.” It is an article written by Hewitt, Jay and Alqahtani A. Mushbab of the department of Psychology University of Missouri in Kansa City.
The article is in the Journal of Social Psychology and the citation is as follows: Hewitt Jay and Alqahtani A. Mushbab. Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others, The Journal of Social Psychology, 2003, 143(2), 233-242.
Every research is usually undertaken to solve a certain problem. This is done through giving all possible insights in regard to the topic of discussion, analyzing the information got and making informed conclusions based on what has been found out. In this article, the research problem entails same and mixed sex intimacy as depicted by others.
Much focus is however given to the differences in reaction upon the issue as shown by Saudi and United States students. Intimacy is a critical aspect that is viewed differently by different people and cultures and the article seeks to clarify some of the issues involved taking the United States and Saudi Arabian students as research elements.
To gather enough information in the research, three photos of two women sitting at a close, intermediate and far distance from each other were shown to United States and Saudi Arabian students after which there reactions were observed.
Discussion There are various concepts that have been discussed in the article, each contributing a certain degree to our understanding of the topic of discussion. The theory of symbolic interaction is being tested by the author of this article.
The main concepts that can be depicted from this article include the fact that different issues are responsible in shaping peoples’ behaviour and attitude towards different life aspects for instance on the intimacy between people of the same sex and those of mixed sex as perceived by the United States and the Saudi students.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People tend to act differently towards different things according to the meaning and value they attach to the things. The meanings are usually derived from social interaction among human beings and further modified through the process of interpretation. It is also clear that individuals are best understood when looked at in relation to the environment around them.
This is clearly shown in the different behaviours exhibited by the United States students and those in Saudi, they are completely opposite due to the environments they are exposed to and what is considered to be either wrong or right in each environment (Hewitt and Alqahtani 240).
There are various theoretical perspectives in the field of social psychology each being associated with certain benefits and drawbacks in regard to how well they are able to bring out certain issues. The theoretical perspectives are based on different premises, all aimed at bringing out various aspects of a given study. After reading the article, I think that interactionism perspective of social psychology have been used by the author.
This perspective focuses on the issue of small level social interaction. The core principles that underlie this perspective include meaning which is an aspect that is assigned, language a concept that is constructed through human beings social interactions as well as thought which influences individuals’ interpretations.
From the article, we find the different groups of students coming up with different reactions based on the meanings they attach to the photos shown in regard to intimacy. From the study, people in the United States of America seem to be more comfortable with public displays of male to female intimacy than with public displays of male to male intimacy.
On the other hand, the most Muslim related nations such as Saudi Arabia seem to have completely different views where they react positively to intimacy between the same sexes as opposed to that expressed between individuals of the opposite sex.
In the process of carrying out a research, a researcher is out to come up with an appropriate research design and sample in order to get effective results. The study involved 82 participants including 20 Saudi Arabian men, 20 United States men, 18 Saudi Arabian women and 24 United States women. This is a representative sample that would help in obtaining effective results.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the differences in culture among the participants, different approaches were used for instance, the fact that Saudi men and women did not mix led to use of two people to gather information from them. Questionnaires were used in which three photos were used and the participants asked to imagine nine scenes after which they would indicate how comfortable or uncomfortable they were with each scene:
“Two brothers, two sisters, and a brother-sister pair sitting at each of the three distances. For each scene, participants rated their degree of comfort on a Likert-type scale, ranging from 7 (extremely comfortable) to 1 (extremely uncomfortable) with 4 being the neutral point (neither comfortable nor uncomfortable)” (Hewitt and Alqahtani 237).
Hypothesis is an incredibly critical element in carrying out research. It helps in gathering all relevant information that entails to a certain statement. In this case, the hypothesis being tested is the relationship between distance and comfort between people of the same sex and those of the opposite sex as depicted by students from the United States and those for Saudi Arabia.
There exist independent and dependent variables which help in coming up with comparisons that in turn allow for making of informed conclusions. The variables entail distance and nationality and comfort respectively.
For instance, “Hypothesis la: In imagining an interaction between two brothers, the U.S. participants feel more comfortable as distance increases, whereas Hypothesis lb: the Saudi participants feel more comfortable as distance decreases” (Hewitt and Alqahtani 237).
There exists various research findings that could be depicted from the research carried out in this article. The findings include; Saudi students were more comfortable with decreasing distance in brother to brother interactions and less comfortable with decreasing distance between brother to sister interactions.
The United States students showed an opposite reaction. Another crucial finding is that women are more comfortable with the intimacy of sisterhood as opposed to what is observed among men, generally irrespective of culture. The research findings are extremely important in evaluating the hypothesis in question.
Ethical issues in research are very crucial. In every research, it is important to keep the confidentiality of the data retrieved. In order to maximize the privacy of the respondents in this study, the names of the respondents were not necessary. The respondents were also free to participate in the research voluntarily. This increased the level of comfortability making it easy to gather adequate information from the participants.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Despite having carried out the research on intimacy among individuals of the same sex as well as those of mixed sexes, the author still feels that there are some gaps left and some questions ought to be answered to make the whole project a success. For this reason, some further research was suggested.
This entails utilization of different research methodology in an aim of coming up with an objective way of gauging the interaction distance and its effects. This will in a way improve the research results through avoiding the need to use subjective ratings in regard to either comfort or discomfort as depicted by the participants.
According to the author of the article, it would be of essence for future researchers engaged in this topic to ask people in the United States and Saudi Arabia among other countries to give an insight into the aspect of emotional closeness to various targets. This will enhance understanding of the issue of discussion (Hewitt and Alqahtani 241).
Different research works produce different results. The quality of the research could differ based on what is achieved and the effectiveness in which the research problem is tackled for instance through provision of answers to the research questions raised. I consider the research report to be of high quality.
This is because the data that was collected from the research study seem adequate in regard to providing answers to the raised research questions. The data also gave enough insight that helped in the verification of the formulated hypothesis. From the discussion part of this article, it is evident that the authors really tried to report theoretical findings through appropriate interpretation of the collected data.
Here, the authors first gave the prediction, and then the findings got from the study and later a combination of the two to make the right judgment. Previous research findings were also considered.
There are various research methods that could be used in carrying out a certain study. The choice depends on the researcher and how best he or she perceives each method to be effective in bringing out the desired result. For instance, the author in this article used qualitative research method, using questionnaires in a case study, to carry out the study.
Given a chance to replicate, extend or even improve the study, I would consider using participatory research method. This is because it is associated with a lot of benefits for instance taking specific details that would otherwise not be possible and also manipulating the research environment to avoid affecting the respondents in a negative manner that would hinder obtaining good results.
The aspect of social psychology of human actions is interesting but complex. It requires a lot of efforts to understand. This could be achieved through carrying out research and using appropriate research methods and designs. In this case, I consider taking participatory research method to be helpful in my understanding of the social psychology of human actions.
Interviews (face to face) would also work better in giving first hand information. This is because one is able to be part of the research fully and understand the influence of the environment. As stated earlier, different people attach different meaning to different things and interact differently.
There exist a variety of social psychological perspectives each differing from the other depending on the premises that form it or rather what it is based upon. As mentioned earlier, the author of the article in question used the interactionist social psychological perspective under the symbolic interaction theory to carry out the study and analyze the results.
This does not however mean that other social psychological perspectives could not be used in this research. For instance, the following perspectives would be applied; social structural perspective, social learning perspective, social cultural perspective and social cognitive perspective.
The fact that the social psychological perspectives are unique in their ways dictates that although there could be no major differences in the results attained in using different perspectives, there ought to be some insights that would be revealed through one perspective and not in the other.
Social Structural Perspective deals with structural functionalism where the society is viewed in terms of role of the constituent elements; the traditions, institutions, norms and customs. Social learning perspective emphasizes on the significance of unique experiences and the fact that we learn behaviours through observation and imitation.
Social cultural perspective on the other hand emphasizes the importance of culture and social norms and how they shape behaviour. Lastly, social cognitive perspective states that we observe, interpret and critic other peoples’ behaviour and that patterns of thought influence behaviour (Cherry par. 3).
The use of different social psychological perspectives will definitely enhance the understanding of social psychology of human actions and more so the topic of discussion in this article, that is, Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others. It will for instance show how ones role in the society affects behaviour and perception, how observation and imitation forms behaviour and generally, what causes different views in different people concerning a certain issue for instance intimacy.
Conclusion The aspect of social psychology of human actions is interesting but complex. It requires a lot of efforts to understand. This could be achieved through carrying out research and using appropriate research methods and designs. The author of the article has however tried to bring out various insights that enhance our understanding of social psychology of human actions.
Works Cited Cherry, Kendra. “What Are the Major Perspectives in Social Psychology?” About.com. 2011. 8 October 2011.
Hewitt Jay and Alqahtani Mushbab. Differences between Saudi and U.S. Students in Reaction to Same- and Mixed-Sex Intimacy Shown by Others, The Journal of Social Psychology, 2003, 143(2), 233-242.
The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online
There are several cultural conflicts in the world today, and one example is the case of the Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand. This conflict is always brought about by differences in organization culture of communities in question. There are different elements of organization culture, which bring communities into conflict.
According to Weeks, the physical artifacts, which are the physical layout and use of facilities that represent a symbolic expression of an underlying meaning or values and beliefs as exhibited in the case of the Maori and Pakeha, is one of the major causes of conflict (1994).
Ngaire, like all other Maori, believed Marae was a prestigious place to hold Hui because wharenui in Marae was named after an ancestor. The Maori like other communities, believed in ancestors and hold such a place with high esteem. The Pakeha on the other hand saw Marae as a less prestigious place and her manager did not see Marae as a place that could befit such a high profile occasion.
Language and metaphors is another element of the organization culture which often causes conflict among communities (Shellemberg, 1996). Language is a medium of communication for all humanity, the meaning of words used in the language always carry a lot of weight and always express the deep seated values that the organization or community hold dear.
For example the name given to the meeting place in Marae (wharenui) did carry a lot of meaning and significance to the Maori people. Flannery (n.d.) says stories, myths and legends always epitomize the unwritten values and morals or the cultural life. The Maori people believed that the place named after one ancestor was a very significant place.
They believed that People who go inside the wharenui would be taken into the body of that ancestor and protected. This are the cultural believes that are reinforced by stories and myths and they strengthen their belief in the process.
Bilikopf (n.d.) argues that Ceremonies and celebrations are other elements that signify organization culture which cause conflict; this is where people participate in their cultural ceremonies. There are different roles played by different people that signify different aspects of their beliefs and these serve to reinforce their cultural believes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizing of Hui by Ngaire for the Maori women is such an example. Another organization element which causes conflict is the behavioral norms (Flannery (n.d.). Norms reflects the typical leadership in the cultural organization.
The Hui was to be organized according to the accepted Maori ways with different people playing different roles designated by the society; the norms will dictate how people communicate in the society. It is the differences in these norms that bring about the conflict. The Maori community has their own communal behavioral norms which differ from the Pakeha behavioral norms.
The shared believes and values are one other organizational element that makes communities to collide. These shared believes are values that hold communities together and indentifies them. This is what makes communities to refer themselves as ‘we’ and others as ‘them’. These believe and values make communities see others as outsiders, this is the major cause of collision between communities.
The Maori community see themselves as indigenous and sees the Pakeha as foreign community with westernized culture. These differences collided in many ways as seen in the case of selecting a venue for holding the Hui ceremony.
Ngaire is in dilemma not knowing what to do since as a Maori she would have wanted the Hui to be held in marea, where the Maori people find to be prestigious and in honor of their ancestors at the same time his manager does not recognize the Maori believes and finds Marea less prestigious.
The participants too seem to be of the idea of having the Pakeha style hotel venue as a place to host the Hui. Ngaire should not have resigned from her job of organizing Hui for the women because of the dissenting opinions. She ought to have gone ahead and strike a balance between the two differing opinions and find a neutral position that would be acceptable to the two sides.
Further still, she ought to have sought the opinion of different people to find a suitable place that would be perceived as prestigious. By resigning, this didn’t solve any problem, and this shows that she lacked both leadership skills and managerial skills.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a manger there are different solutions and strategies that can be adopted to resolve conflict in an organization or a community. The manager has to take a neutral position without favoring either side. No one culture is superior to another, although members of either side may perceive their own to be superior.
The manager’s role is to identify the points of conflict. always each of the conflicting parties have a valid point and the manager has to consider this points without taking sides or being biased and try to find a solution , without being seen as favoring one side. The interests of the whole community should be taken into consideration without favoring one single community.
As a case of Maori and Pakeha a manager should consider the prestigious place held by each and the reasons why they hold such opinions. Out of that try to find out a solution that would leave each side contended. Always the interest of the whole society should override the interest of the one group.
One other strategy is to be aware of the diversity of the communities, and therefore have to engage both parties in a series of brainstorming and in the process of resolve the differences. When the conflicting parties are actively engage, they get to understand each other well. A manger should not engage one group independently, instead both parties should be present and all sides allowed air their views. This strategy always serves the purpose of cooling down the rising temperatures and always results in a big success.
When each group is engaged separately it will result in suspicion and friction between the conflicting groups. The manager should always try to involve both parties and emphasize, that each community is different in their own ways but they can coexist peacefully. The philosophy here is unity in diversity (Laurence, n.d.).
The manager should be a negotiator that can bring mutual understanding and respect among the potential enemies or rivals. The manager should not impose his will on the warring parties. He has to listen keenly to what each party has to say and out of that negotiate skillfully for a lasting solution.
His role is to make the parties to understand the need of unity, and what they will gain by working together. The potential losses arising from conflict should be emphasized. The manager has to make people understand the importance of peace and the need to respect each other. It is the mutual respect for each other that communities would prosper and achieve a lot in development. Negotiation is the most effective way of resolving conflict in different parts of the word and its widely employed strategy.
Another strategy is to create a compromise between the conflicting views. This is achieved by making both sides realize their differing views and the need for an alternative view that will accommodate both sides. A compromise is always effective when the involved parties realize their difference and the need for an alternative solution.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Maori and Pakeha of New Zealand Conflicts Case by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The compromise solution will contain some of the views of each party and the extreme views always not taken into account when developing a compromise solution. This has been found to be one of the best strategies of resolving conflicts. If well executed, it will provide a long lasting solution to conflict.
Besides all these strategies employed in conflict resolution, there are many others which have been used to some extent. For example use of force, though not very popular it has been used in some cases. Conflict has been part of human societies throughout history, some conflicts have been resolved successfully and some have gone without being resolved. Lately there has been a tendency to resolve virtually all the conflicts; this has largely been because of globalization and the interest of some countries seeking peace everywhere in the world.
Reference List Bilikopf, G. (n.d.). Conflict Management Skills. Web.
Flannery, B. (n.d). Conflict Resolution Strategies – Skills for Resolving Conflict. Web.
Laurence J. P. (n.d.) Conflict Resolution: Global Strategic Dispute Management. Web.
Schellemberg, J. (1996). Conflict Resolution: Theory, Research and Practices. NewYork, NY: SinyPress.
Weeks, D. (1994). The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution. NewYork, NY: Tarcher.
Equity In Education Essay essay help: essay help
A few decades ago, the society, particularly in developing countries, did not see the need of educating the girl child. This is because she was expected to become a mother someday, which in itself is a very demanding task because she has to take care of the children and run a few errands on behalf of her husband.
In fact, most families did not send their daughters to school because they felt that it was not necessary. This suggests that education was reserved for boys. Essentially, Bowles and Gintis argue that in the US, women started working during the civil war because their men had been deployed to the battlefields (14).
There were many challenges that were facing the girl child with regard to education. First most girls could not go through the education system because some would get pregnant, which left them with no alternative, but to quit school. In addition, some girls would be married off at an early age, especially in developing countries.
Girls were therefore perceived to be weak even though their male counterparts were responsible for their suffering. This is because the boys who impregnated them were allowed to continue learning. Similarly, most communities do not send their daughters to school because they assume a vacuum will be created in their households.
However, according to Nussbaum, women were more enlightened towards the end of 19th century by the many non-governmental organizations that had been established to fight for the rights of the girl child (19). On the other hand, the education of the boy child has been ignored since everyone is concentrating on the girl child.
In general, there is still a gap to be filled, and this can only be achieved by giving both sexes equal opportunities. The opportunities of women are reserved as opposed to those of men. Most organizations are reserving a good number of their job openings for women and thus, men continue to suffer in silence because they are not supposed to show any signs of weakness.
Statistics from US learning institutions indicate that the rate of female enrollment is much higher than that of men. From early days, boys have been made to believe that they do not have to work hard or even go to school because they are their parent’s heirs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alternatively, Matus and Winchester point out that the aggressiveness of the girl child has made her to pursue further education because that is the surest way of liberating herself. Additionally, the global population of men is much lower than that of women, considering that they are the ones who are affected by child mortality.
Moreover, the cost of sending a child to school is still high, especially during these difficult economic times. In most developing countries, there are numerous non-governmental organizations striving to empower women. This is done by issuing monetary handouts to the girls’ parents; there is no one who is concerned about the welfare of the boy child.
This is unfair competition because the ground should be leveled for both sexes. The boy child is facing the same challenges that are being faced by the girl child. For instance, in early days, only women suffered from sexual abuse, but nowadays the boy child is being faced by the same challenge. The role of men in the society has changed from being the providers to caregivers. This has been brought about by depreciation of our values.
Gone are the days when women used to depend on men for their upkeep. This change of culture has been brought about by economic factors. In today’s world, a man’s salary is not enough to support a family, and that is why the two sexes need to be empowered equally. The solution to gender inequality should start right from the school. In most schools, there are more male teachers, and thus the female learners are not well represented. Furthermore, the female teachers concentrate more on the boys.
In this light, several approaches that can be employed to achieve gender equality in education. The learning curriculums should be revised to favor both sexes. Currently, there is a general perception that engineering and technical courses are not meant for girls. Comprehensive review of these courses will result in a balanced enrollment rate. Thus, no courses will be reserved for any sex, as long as one has the skills and the ability to deliver the desired results (Williams 1).
Learning institutions should hire more female educators to bridge the male-female gap. Female teachers will act as role models for the girls who have for a long time been demoralized. The balance should be realized right from the time teachers are being recruited into the training colleges.
This will ensure that the same balance is observed when the same educators are being deployed to their respective learning centers. The school infrastructures of most learning centers in developing countries are in a sorry state such that both sexes are not content. For instance, if the toilets do not have doors the girls would not feel comfortable while using them owing to their gender orientation. This suggests that more funding should be designated for improving the infrastructure of such centers.
We will write a custom Essay on Equity In Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, support programs should be offered to both sexes so that the boys are not under pressure to quit school. This means that there should be a gender balance in bursary allocations. Additionally, the teams that are in charge of education systems should be comprised of both men and women. This will make it possible for every group to safeguard its interests. Civil society groups should also be called upon to help in eliminating cultural issues.
Works Cited Bowles, Samuel and Herbert Gintis. “Schooling in Capitalist America Revisited.” Sociology of Education 75.1 (2002): 1-18. Print.
Matus, Ron and Donna Winchester. ”Women Outpace Men in Education.” St Petersburg Times. 26 Oct. 2008. Web.
Nussbaum, Martha C. Women and Human Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.
Williams, Alex. ”New Math on Campus.” New York Times. 5 Feb. 2010. Web. <https://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/07/fashion/07campus.html?mtrref=undefined
The Role of hospitality in the Homeric world-Odyssey Essay custom essay help
In the Homeric world the theme of hospitality has been used in a rather obsessive manner with the author raising it very more often, in this writing the social world is complicated and confused.Within the society comprising Homer’s world are the hospitable and noble people on one side and the exploiters on the other side.
The exploiters are ungrateful of the favors extended to them and they grab every chance that comes their way to wreck havoc amongst their host, they hold their host ransom at their own backyard. It’s prudent to say that majority of the Homeric world as portrayed in the first book is a socially spoilt world.
None the less the Homeric world gives a glimpse of the noble men and women who live within that society, they appreciate and acknowledge the little favors and hospitality extended to them and in some instances they returned this favors to their fellow honorable men of the society.
When Minerva visited Ithaca ,after descending from Olympus to Ulysses house disguised as a visitor she found Penelope’s suitors seated on hides of skins from oxen which they had slaughtered and eaten ,the suitors were so comfortable and felt at home within Penelope’s and Telemachus’ (Ulysses son)house.
As Homer put it, they were cutting great chunks of meat and mixing wine while the servants were waiting upon them (8:13)1, that was the scope of Penelope’s hospitality. However, the suitors were themselves inhospitable; they could not extend the kindness shown to them to other people as they don’t take notice of the visitor at the gate (Minerva).
Telemachus is a great host and he is kind to his visitor, he is surprised that a stranger could be kept for long without being welcomed. Telemachus is socially upright, he first welcomes his guest to partake of food before he engages her in any conversation (9:9)1, he receives her spear and sets it up on the bearing post and set up a “richly decorated seat for her” and her feet away from the annoying suitors(10:1)1.
Further, the extent of Telemachus hospitality has been portrayed when the suitors were served with “good things” by men servant and maids (12:4)1. Unfortunately, they exploited this hospitality, for instance when they had finished eating they forced Phemius to sing and as Minerva soon observed “singing come cheap to those who do not pay for it” (13:2)1.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Minerva is disgusted by the unreasonable behavior of the suitors and criticizes them as being atrocious. On the other hand Minerva is offered a gift but he modestly declined but promises to accept it the next time they meet and in return he will give him another of no less value. The behavior of these two characters in this epic indicates the hospitability that existed in this society especially in relation to the host (Telemachus) and the responsiveness of the guest.
In the third book when Minerva and Telemachus go to Pylos to look for odyssey they were received well by their hosts, Homer writes that Nestor’s son offered them a hand (Minerva and Telemachus) and sat them on soft sheep skin. The Pylos society is a religious society as is indicated in their insistence that the guest pray for the drinks that they were about to partake.
Their excellent religious believes are also reflected in their good social behavior especially for their being great hosts, they offered dinner to the guests without even inquiring who they were. This shows as how they use hospitality as away of worshiping their gods.
When night came the guest were given drinks and they as much as they could. As they were heading to their ship Nestor made them to stay exclaiming that heaven and the immortal gods forbad their leaving of his house and going to sleep on board a ship. Nestor is an excellent host and he rebukes the guests attempt to live, informing them that he had the means and ability to not only get beddings for his guests and himself but also clothes for them as well.
More about Odyssey Why did Odysseus seek Teiresias? 5 97 Why does Poseidon hate Odysseus? 5 267 How does Odysseus escape Charybdis the second time? 5 317 Why Odysseus is an Example of a Dynamic Character? 5 346 Which events are part of the road of trials in Odysseus’s heroic quest? 5 77 What motivated Odysseus to reveal his name and put his men in more danger? 5 38 When they had agreed to come back, they were mixed the best wine (eleven year old wine) they were put to bed comfortably by their host and when morning come their host extended his hospitality to the remaining crew, he sent for the remaining crew of the ship to come so that they can merry for he ordered that a heifer be slaughtered. Hospitality in this instance is a way of offering respect to their gods.
In book three we are told how hospitality plays a big role in fostering the relationships that exists between the gods and the people. The Homeric society has a lot of respect for their gods as it was illustrated by Nestor upon realizing that Minerva was a goddess, she pampered her guest with food and excellent boarding which culminated in him sending Telemachus on a tour of the country with his son, giving him with a chariot and provisions of wine, bread and other things for their journey (4:2, 3)4
Hospitality plays a big role in fostering peace and tranquility in the Homeric world, when Pisistratus and Telemachus got to Menelaus house and Eteoneus informs him of the strange visitors and how he should deal with them, Menelaus rebukes him for failing to invite the visitors and showing kindness to them, he acknowledges that he himself has been shown kindness before in the places that he visited and he states that that’s gods way of bringing a peaceful coexistence in the society henceforth.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of hospitality in the Homeric world-Odyssey specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The suitors disregard the hospitality given to them and this time they take it higher by being completely ungrateful and having a plot to completely bring down Telemachus, the servant Medon tells her mistress ,Penelope, that the suitor s were plotting something more dreadful against Telemachus on his way home from finding out what befell his father (69; 1)4.
The suitors portray these society badly but they defend their action by blaming Penelope for keeping them waiting instead of choosing one of them or going back to her father where she will be bestrode to another mate, they accuse her of spinning a loom in the day and when the night came she undid it and thus keeping them waiting for the day she will finish spinning the loom for she had promised that on finishing she will choose a suitor amongst the men. To them they use inhospitality is a revenge tactic.
Conclusion Much of the Homeric society is a fine society especially in regard to hospitality; most of them treat their visitors in the most excellent way. They do not ask any questions to the visitors until they have been welcomed, washed and given food and drinks to their full.
However, the suitor bring a rather heavy contradiction on this noble vise that the society in Homer’s world has portrayed, they exploit, reciprocate in a rather mischievous way and want to do something dreadful to their host.
In the first book we are told of how they tell Telemachus to his face that they won’t get out of his fathers house. Hospitality plays many roles in this society and is the pillar stone of that society as it has been demonstrated in the ways to which they grab every opportunity to extend hospitality to their visitors.
Work Cited Homer, The Odyssey, Butler, S. ed,United States: Orange Street Press Classics,1998.pdf.
French revolution and the Napoleon era Essay online essay help: online essay help
The enlightenment era consisted of quite a number of ideas that changed the French society in addition to growing wave of civilization in the West. This period was characterized by reason during which individuals started to think on their own behalf and were also less dependent in addition to living and working based on set standards and directions. As a result, civilization in the western world started to change socio-political ideologies and values in addition to thinking independently (Sherman
Wal-mart’s Marketing Strategy Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
According to the Case 1-3: Wal-mart Stores, Inc., the retail industry is one of the most competitive segments in an economy, players in the industry need to have effective management programs to maintain their competitiveness.
Wal-mart is an international retail giant operating in more than 3,200 outlets in Europe, the United States, Asian countries and North American countries. David and David (1) state that to operate competitively across those countries with different cultures and consumer need, the company has effective global strategies.
Wal-mart stores have been in operation since 1962, with the first branch at Rogers, Ark, in United State of America. In a span of ten years, the company had diversified to major cities in United States and had 11 branches. According to Fortune 500, 2002 to 2010, the company is the leading retail outlet in the world.
It specializes in different merchandise from electronic to toys. The profits made by the company rose from $219.81 billion in 2002 to $405 billion in 2010 despite the world’s economic situation. The number of employees in the same period rose from 1.29 to 2.1 million. The company has over 8,747 retail units situated in 15 countries and operating under 55 different banners. The quality of managerial decisions has led to the company’s success. It adopts strategic management systems in all its operations.
Wal-mart understands that not all countries can be effectively tapped with a similar organizational structure; with this in mind, the company has some unique systems of structure that are relevant to the kind of market that the company is operating.
The company’s structure established three main systems, Wal-Mart Stores, Sam’s Club and International Store; the difference of the stores is on the approach they take to sell the company’s products. Under the structure of Wal-mart Stores, the company is further dividend into Discount Stores, Supercenters and Neighborhood Markets, the above structures offers different shopping atmosphere that assists the company divide the market on income lines; this is the main structure operated in the United States.
With the thousands of products that the company stores; it ensures that every store has the right quantity and quality of products using a computerized supply chain management system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Frankel (2), one of the best ways to remain competitive in modern business environment is to adopt strategic managed policies. The company have 40 Regional Distribution Centers, which each covers an area of over one million square feet’s, inside the distribution centers, there are five conveyer belts that move over 9,000 merchandise, they operate 24 hours, seven days a weeks
To stand out amidst high competition, Wal-mart has an effective marketing strategy; the strategy is responsive to the needs of certain market thus the system may seem different in different countries. To come up with the specific marketing approach to use, the company undertakes a massive marketing and market research to establish the best persuasion approach they will use in the particular market.
In particular the company adopts 4p marketing Mix approach were it ensures that the 4p’s (Pricing, products, promotion and place) have been addressed accordingly; the prices set for the same products vary with the target market and the place that the company sells.
Wal-marts management appreciates that it can only offer value and quality services to its customers when it maintains satisfied, quality and quantity human capital. To meet this noble agenda, the human resources department ensures that the needs of employees regardless of their location have been addressed effectively.
The marketing and trading approach adopted by Wal-mart has made the company be able to sell its products at relatively lower prices than the price sold by its competitors; it low cost strategy has earned the company its legendary status.
To maintain the prices at a low rate the company has three main approaches, they are firm-level economies, efficient distribution systems, and lower labor costs; the large number of outlets makes the company be able to enjoy economies of scale in different manners like distribution costs and transport. It is also able to buy products at bulk resulting to a reduced cost per unit. With large sales, the company is able to sell products are lower prices and recover the lost profit from the increased number of sales.
To ensure that the operations within outlets in different places are managed effectively, the company has an effective information and technology system. The system is crucial for customer service, internal process management, and communication among branches. Information platforms of the company include intranet, internet, and e-business tools.
We will write a custom Essay on Wal-mart’s Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References David FR, David FR. Strategic management concepts and cases: a competitive advantage approach. 15th ed. Harlow, England: Pearson; 2015. 682 p.
Frankel RM. The definitive guide to supply chain best practices: comprehensive lessons and cases in effective SCM. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson; 2014. 208 p.
Dante’s Inferno: The Levels of Hell Explicatory Essay a level english language essay help
Level One According to Dante, there are various levels in hell. The first level in Hell is called Limbo. All the individuals who die before being baptized and those who live as virtuous pagans are condemned to spend the rest of eternity at this level. The people being referred to in this level are those who die before accepting Christianity.
All the individuals who die non-Christians, including philosophers who typically do not associate themselves with any religion are going to be condemned to this level for eternity. Some of the examples that provided by Dente include famous philosophers like Socrates and Plato. This level is therefore the least severe in terms of punishment and is the farthest from Satan.
Level Two The second level is known as lust and consists of the desperate and the despondent. All the sinners who will be found to be guilty of lust will be condemned to this level for eternity. The souls of all the individuals found guilty of this sin will be scattered and blown about without any hope of rest.1 In this level, people will be subjected to eternal unrest and hopelessness. This level is the second farthest circle from Satan and is slightly harsher than the first one, but is not as cruel as the other circles that follow.
Level Three The third level consists of gluttons who will be forced to eat and lie down in vile places. In addition, the gluttons will also be subjected to freezing slush, which is allegedly similar to the harsh environment subjected to pigs. The character considered to be the head of this group of gluttons is Cerberus.
The conditions at this level will be like clumps of mud and other deplorable areas. The gluttony level will be harsher than the previous two levels and this means that the level of torture subjected to the culprits will also be higher. In addition, the surroundings will be characterized by dirt, filth and other bad states. The gluttons will be subjected to states similar to those that pigs experience in this world.
Level Four The fourth level will consist of misers and spendthrifts who will be subjected to roll stones to crash them completely. Since they are used to abusing material goods, they will be subjected to stones crashing against each other. Avaricious and prodigal individuals will not be counted among the righteous, but will instead be subjected to banging rocks for eternity.
This will be a punishment for spoiling the goods in this world. One of the supernatural beings perceived as a possible leader in this category of people is Plutus, the Greek god.2 The Greek god is perceived to be the luminary of all spendthrifts and misers, and this god will lead all its followers towards this crash. This level will be more severe in terms of punishment than all the other preceding levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Level Five The fifth level allegedly consists of the individuals guilty of wrath and sullenness. The wrathful are regarded as those who fight each other and they will be subjected to eternal conflict against each other. Anger and fury will be considered to be part of the fifth level and the perpetrators of these two acts will be subjected to various conflicts in opposition to each other.
The wrathful will be condemned to the river of hate known as Styx and this will bring about various sullen lies under the marshy surfaces. The sullen anger will be concealed just as their tempers were silently concealed behind their lives. They will be subjected to unending conflicts between each other and there will be no chance of peace in this level. Since the involved individuals will be subjected to various conflicting scenarios, this level is considered as more severe that the previous ones.
Level Six The sixth level will seize all followers of heresy and those who stand for opinions and doctrines that go up against Christian beliefs. All the people who oppose the church and profess opinions that differ from those that are in line with Christian doctrines will be condemned to suffer under this level.
Examples of the heretics are Farinata and Epicurean, which are groups of people who presume the soul does not exist.3 These people believe that the core objective of humanity is engaging in pressure. The people who will fall in this category are those who will have developed different opinions and objectives that contravene Christianity. Individuals condemned to this level will have to spend their lives in burning graves for eternity. The punishment in this level will therefore be more severe than in the previous ones.
Level Seven The other level in hell is the level that will hold all offenders of vicious crimes and perpetrators of all forms of violence. One of the forms of violence addressed in this level is that against one’s neighbors.4 This type of violence will hold for all people who wage war against people who are close to them.
The other form of violence will be that against oneself. All the people who will be found to have engaged in violent activities against themselves will be subjected to the same punishment experienced by any other violent group. In addition, those who will be found to have acted violently against God will also be subjected to similar punishments, just like any other person condemned to this level.
In this level, there will be various rings that one will be subjected, which vary based on the various category of violence. The first ring will consist of those who are violent against others while the second one will be made of individuals who perpetrate violence against themselves. The third ring will include all the persons who perpetrate violence against God. Blasphemy and denial of God’s word are considered as some of the most serious crimes under this level.5
We will write a custom Essay on Dante’s Inferno: The Levels of Hell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Level Eight The individuals who will be found to have committed fraud will be subjected to the eighth level in hell. The panderers and seducers are some of the main players who will greatly feature in this level. The sorcerers and false prophets who are guilty of the same crime will also be subjected to similar punishments as stipulated under the eighth level. Other persons such as the liars and thieves will also be condemned to suffer in this level. Diomedes and Ulysses are some of the characters who are considered as possible leaders of this level.
Level Nine The last level and the closest to Satan is that of treachery. In this level, the individuals who will be condemned are those who betray special relationships, including all traitors to family members, those who betray their country, those who are disloyal to their guests and those who conspire against their masters. Cain, Judas, Ptolomea and Guelph, are considered as the potential leaders of all the people who will be condemned to this level. This level is therefore considered to be the most severe in terms of punishment as compared to the rest.
Bibliography Dante’s Inferno. “The Levels of Hell.” Danteinferno.info. n.d. Web.
Eileen, Gardine. Visions of Heaven
Supply and Demand Model: How A Good’s Price Is Determined Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Quantity Demand and Supply
Deriving the Price
Healthcare Demand-Supply Curve
Introduction A market is best described as a group of willing sellers and able buyers of a certain product or service. Competitive markets are constituted by many sellers and buyers hence they have remarkably little influence on the prices of commodities. Therefore, supply and demand curve becomes a powerful model in such markets, and it explains how customers and sellers interact.
Quantity Demand and Supply Demand is the “amount of product that customers are able and willing to buy” (Bernanke 26). Quantity demand is the specified amount of product at a given cost required by buyers. The Law of demand hence states that, when other factors are held constant (ceteris paribus), the fall in demand will cause an increase in price (Wonderling, Gruen, and Black 34).
Supply, on the other hand, is the amount of products that sellers are able and willing to take to the market and sell. Quantity supplied is the amount of product that suppliers bring for sale at a certain price (Wonderling, Gruen, and Black 34). Price is, hence, a major determinant of demand/supply. Other factors include “income, prices of substitutes or complements, expectations, taste, and preferences” (Wonderling, Gruen, and Black 36).
In the health sector, healthcare insurance has an exceptional role in attaining a balance. When the market is unregulated, it will result in private health insurance and the impact on moral hazard will not depend on the objective of taking the insurance. With insurance in place, there are often tradeoffs of objectives (Santerre, and Neun 214). The more people are insured, the less risk and the more the demand and, therefore, cost.
This scenario underscores why most economists will approve of supply side controls as minimal possible option for dealing with the problem. Voluntary health insurance results in two main issues viz. cream skimming and adverse selection.
Contrary to the moral hazard, these two issues are merely social problems when health insurance is covering distinct statuses only (Santerre, and Neun 214). Conventionally, this understanding holds that, when a market fails to supply normal services at a price that everyone can buy, it is not a market failure.
Deriving the Price Price is determined when supply and demand interact. The resultant market price depends on both demand and supply in the market. There can be an exchange of goods and services whenever buyers and sellers agree on a certain price them (Taylor, and Weerapana 116). When the seller and the buyer agree on a price, this phenomenon is termed as the ‘equilibrium’. This point is also the market clearing price as shown in Figure 1:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1: equilibrium
The customers and suppliers are both able and willing to do the exchange at price P and quantity Q. At this point, the supply and demand are balanced. At any price below the P, the demand will be higher that the supply and vice versa. At lower prices than P, the buyers will be eager to obtain products or services that the suppliers are not able to supply.
Figure 2: shifts in demand and supply
The normal market price is not normally fair to all the players in the market. The prices do not guarantee satisfaction for buyers and sellers. The competitive positions in the market may determine satisfaction. The consumers will tend to maximize their satisfaction in the competitive limits (Taylor and Weerapana 116). Lower prices will benefit the consumers more, hence, induce competition. Higher prices attract more suppliers hence increase competition and equilibriums shift. Figure 2 illustrates this:
Healthcare supply and demand are distinctive. Care cannot be pulled off the stores and supplied to the users then paid via cash as other commodities. The desired outcome cannot be guaranteed in such a case (Santerre, and Neun 215). Many of the factors affecting supply and demand of healthcare are far much beyond the control of the healthcare providers.
Its analysis is thus, based on two fundamental perceptions of the effective use of the medical resources. First, economics should not be a resource allocation scheme and second, efficiency in the use of resources in healthcare can be comprehended by identification of the production function, which represents the supply of care (Folland, Goodman, and Stano 355).
In the event that the demand and supply changes, there will be a shift in the equilibrium price, as well. Considering that there is not an increase in supply, the movement will be along the demand curve to a new equilibrium price where excess supplies will be cleared off the market (Baumol and Blinder 67). The customer will only purchase more products at a lower price. Figure 3 illustrates this:
We will write a custom Essay on Supply and Demand Model: How A Good’s Price Is Determined specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 3: Shift in Price
A shift in demand because of the factors that influence consumption will also cause a change in the price. When supply is not affected, the net impact on the price will be movement along the supply curve to a lower equilibrium where a new balance is found between the supply and demand (Bernanke 84). For prices to increase, suppliers will be forced to reduce the quantity they supply to the market. The result is a shift in demand to a new price point which also a new equilibrium (Bernanke 84). The figure below represents these changes.
The changes in demand and supply can be exceedingly short lived or long lasting. There are numerous non price factors that affect the market price in a short period; for instance, taste and preferences on the part of the consumer or change in technology of the supplier (Bernanke 84).
Figure 4: Shift in demand
Healthcare Demand-Supply Curve The behaviour of the market forces can be analyzed by looking at the demand supply curves. In health care, it is evident that a different form of a curve will be produced. In the private health care market, price and quantity obey the supply-demand model (Santerre, and Neun 215).
Figure 5: Healthcare demand –supply curve
However, because healthcare is an essential product, governments always intervene to ensure that everyone has access to care. Two crucial points should be noted; one, the price at the point of consumption is zero and two, the supply is normally fixed at any one point (Henderson 33). Even when practitioners are continuously being trained, the government that decides when there is a need and when to increase the number of care providers that are fully qualified (Henderson 33). Therefore in the short-run the demand-supply curve and equilibrium are particularly odd as in figure 5.
The supply curve is vertical since, unlike other consumer products, the government can only supply a fixed amount of health care in a certain short period (Folland, Goodman, and Stano 355). The demand curve remains normal, but since the price is zero, the excess demand is unusually extensive from A to B, and the outcome of this scenario is that, there will be queues and long-waiting list in the healthcare facilities. Besides, progress in technology continues to create new demands, hence the demand curve continues shifting to the right at a faster rate than the government can manipulate the supply curve to shift to the right (Folland, Goodman, and Stano 414).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Supply and Demand Model: How A Good’s Price Is Determined by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Economists agree that the health sector is complex, and it is described by some unusual problems. The orthodox economists in general content that patients (demand) are protected from the price (cost) of care by the health insurance. This increases demand (a moral hazard). Removing demand strains causes complication in a competitive market.
Works Cited Baumol, William, and Blinder, Alan. Macroeconomics: Principles and Policy. New York: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print
Bernanke, Ben. Principles of Microeconomics. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print
Folland, Sherman, Goodman, Allen, and Stano, Miron. The Economics of Health and Health Care. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print
Henderson, James. Health Economics
Britain’s Industrial Revolution Essay college admission essay help
Introduction “ Industrial revolution refers to dramatic change in the main sectors of economy such as agriculture, transportation and manufacturing. Industrialization was associated with major benefits such as rise in people’s living standards, increased job opportunities and economic growth, among others.
According to historians, Great Britain was the first nation in the entire globe to industrialize. Industrialization in Britain started in the late eighteenth century. The following essay examines the factors that led to Britain’s industrialization in the late eighteenth century.
Factors that led to Britain’s industrialization in the eighteenth century By the second part of the eighteenth century, Great Britain was regarded as one of the wealthiest nation across the globe due to industrial revolution. The following factors explain why Industrial revolution occurred in Britain;
Agricultural revolution of the eighteenth century was one of the factors. According to historians, agricultural revolution was characterized by a change in stock breeding and farming methods which in turn enhanced food production in Great Britain. Framers adopted a commercial approach as opposed to the past where they produced food for domestic use.
The large demand of food commodity from London motivated workers to increase their production. Landlordism, which refers to the act of owning large estates, was also a main factor that enhances commercialization of British agriculture. Agricultural revolution helped to lower the food commodity prices in Great Britain.
The cost of labor also lowered as a result of agricultural revolution. British government was therefore in a position to feed its citizens. British families thus, used their disposal incomes to buy manufactured products. Increased food production in Great Britain caused the population to increase. Population growth played a major role in providing the required labor in the new factories.
The other factor which led to Britain’s industrialization in the eighteenth century is the availability of capital for investment. Financial reforms which included introduction of derivatives such as swaps and options also enhanced the industrial revolution in Great Britain. Additionally, the revolution was boosted by the presence of effective central namely Bank of England.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The financial system in the Great Britain was highly effective compared to other European nations like Spain and Italy. The introduction of financial instruments such as bill of exchange made it possible for people to make payments. Political powers in Great Britain were based on economic and technological matters. Thus, the country had a large number of individuals whose main objective was innovation for development (Arnstein 72).
A study which was done by Arnstein (20) suggested that the presence of huge mineral deposits also enhanced industrialization in Great Britain. Britain is a country which is rich in mineral deposits such as iron ore and carbon fuel. Mineral resources played an important role in the manufacturing process. Iron was used in the production of new machineries. The country’s size was relatively smaller and this enhanced transportation of minerals.
The availability of ready market for manufactured goods led to Britain’s industrialization. Availability of ready market ensured that goods from Great Britain were absorbed as fast as they were produced. The country’s exports increased significantly during the late part of the eighteenth century.
During the colonial times, the nation had created an immense colonial empire. The colonial empire made the country to export goods to many parts of the world, compared to its key rivals such as Holland and France. The development of merchant marine made it possible for the country to transport goods throughout the world. Also, Britain’s railroad created a faster and cheaper means of transportation for the manufactured goods.
This had major impacts on the markets as it increased demand for goods and services. Britain’s railroad connected the major towns such as London, Manchester and Liverpool and this helped to spur trade. As a prerequisite to create conducive atmosphere for vibrant economic growth, the British government heavily invested in infrastructural developments.
Among the infrastructural developments that were made include the invention of steam engine. The invention of steam engine also played an important role in enhancing productivity of goods in Great Britain. It facilitated trade in the European region through easier market access by linking Britain with neighboring countries like Spain and Germany. Construction of infrastructural facilities was also enhanced by plenty supply of water from rivers (Arnstein 18).
According to Arnstein (56), Industrialization in Great Britain was also enhanced by the country’s ability to produce goods cheaply. The adoption of machinery in production of goods led to mass production and reduced the cost of production. The invention of flying shuttle led to mass production of yard goods.
We will write a custom Essay on Britain’s Industrial Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, factories were located near rivers and sources of power, which in turn enabled manufacturers to double their output. Great Britain also protected its key industries such as textile by discouraging imports.
The newly created factories provided jobs to thousands of families in Great Britain. In order to ensure that factory machines run at a steady rate, employees were required to work in shifts. Factory managers mainly employed workers from rural areas as they were regarded as hard working. This made people to live near factories and this in turn helped to create new towns.
Arnstein (36) in his study suggested that, the British government made substantial efforts in enhancing industrialization in the late eighteenth century. The government provided investors with a stable business environment. The parliament passed laws which safeguarded private property.
Additionally, Great Britain adopted capitalism form of economy which advocates for private ownership of resources. There were thus, no restrictions on private ownership of resources in England. The government did not intervene with regard to tariffs and taxes. The government also ensured that the credit system was flexible for private investors. The free market economy ensured that individuals’ had rights to own property and dispose off natural resources and man-made resources as they wished.
It also provided the owners of property with the right income, generated from the resources. Workers were also free to enter into any occupation for which they were specialized in. There was the aspect of self interest in pursuit of personal goals. Factories aimed at maximizing production and profits, land owners aimed at achieving maximum rent, workers shifted to occupation which offered the highest rewards and buyers spent their incomes in the way that satisfied the people most.
Conclusion Industrial revolution in Great Britain in the late part of eighteenth-century was facilitated by factors such as the availability of resources for production, geographical advantages, such as the presence of streams and rivers which provided factories with water, financial reforms which resulted in extra capital for investment, among others. Industrial revolution in Great Britain brought about changes such as technological advancements, mass production, creation of new urban centers and efficient transport systems, among others.
Works Cited Arnstein, Walter. Britain yesterday and today: 1830 to the present, Edition5. London: D.C. Health, 1988.
Business Corruption in the American and Chinese Culture Essay college admission essay help
The society is controlled by an assortment of ethical principles. Furthermore, different cultures have varied perception that determines the adherence to certain ethical concerns. This paper presents ethical issues focusing on business corruption in the American and Chinese culture. It examines these two cultures to determine how business corruption persists. Additionally, it identifies the ethics necessary for evaluating business corruption. Finally, it discusses the actions taken by the American and Chinese culture to curb company dishonesty.
Business Corruption in the American Culture The practice of business corruption takes place differently in the global marketplace. Indicators of business corruption entail aspects such as bribery, cronyism, and partiality (Biegelman
Challenges of Innovation Activities in Hotels to Increase Business Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
There exists various innovation activities that have been undertaken in the hotel industry and others are yet to be implemented. All are aimed at enhancing the hotel business in the competitive business market. The innovation activities are faced with numerous challenges and this piece of work will discuss an activity that could be used by the hotel industry to address the challenge (Hassanien and Baum, 2002). Being in the service sector, the hotel industry ought to be extremely aggressive to survive in the competitive market.
One important innovation that would give hotel business a competitive advantage is the utilization of technology, Information Communication Technology (ICT), to be specific. This is an innovation that is associated with a lot of positive attributes but at the same time, it is faced with various challenges. All in all, it is possible to overcome the challenges through utilization of different strategies (Berry, 1995).
Information communication technology is an incredible resource in the hotel and hospitality industry. In the recent past, there has been some reluctance in adoption of technology in the service sector and hotel industry in particular.
This therefore shows that there has been some inefficiency in the industry brought about by communication breakdown. In any form of business, there is need to reach potential clients and serve them appropriately. Information is a crucial element that facilitates success in business operations.
Through the various telecommunication technologies applied in ICT, it is possible to utilize information in an effective manner for the benefit of the organization at large (Buhalis, 1996).
Some of the benefits associated with utilization of information communication technology in the hotel industry is efficiency in serving the clients for instance through e-distribution. Through enhanced ICT, the hotels will be in a position to know the needs of the clients and thus satisfy them. The clients on the other hand will be in a position to source information relating to various issues such as booking for hotel rooms.
Despite the advantages associated with implementation of information communication technology in the hotel industry, there exist some challenges. They include resistance to change where some staff could not be ready to adopt the technological changes, high cost involved in installation and maintenance of the systems and lack of appropriate expertise to facilitate the technologies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are also threats that come along with technology application for instance insecurity and limited level of privacy. This could interfere with the operations of an organization if not well handled. For instance, top secret organizational information could be interfered with through hacking over the net an issue that could render an organization less competitive (Ham, Kim and Jeong, 2004).
This therefore dictates that there is also a need to ensure that security is maintained at the highest level possible to avoid any chances of compromising the integrity of the information contained in the networks. Staff in the hotel industry should be trained and encouraged to embrace ICT mainly because of the benefits associated with it especially in regard to enhancing efficiency, effectiveness, and economy.
In carrying out the activities involved in designing and implementing information communication technology in hotels operations, there is need to hinder to some factors to ensure success is achieved and that the challenges encountered are dealt with in an appropriate manner. This will avoid inconveniences and costs that go hand in hand with the challenges of development and implementation of Information Communication- related technologies (Atuahene-Gima, 1996).
Reference List Atuahene-Gima, K. (1996). Differential Potency of Factors Effecting Innovation Performance in Manufacturing and Service Firms in Australia, Journal of Production Innovation Management, 13(1), 35-52.
Berry, L. (1995). On Great Service: A Framework For Action. New York: Free Press.
Buhalis, C. A. (1996). Information Technology as a Strategic Tool for Tourism. Revue de Tourism 2: 34-36.
Ham, S., Kim, W., and Jeong, S. (2004). Effect of Information Technology on Performance in Upscale Hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24, 281 -294.
We will write a custom Essay on Challenges of Innovation Activities in Hotels to Increase Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hassanien, A. and Baum, T. (2002). Hotel Repositioning Through Property Development. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4 (2), 144 – 157.
Public Policy: Obesity and Aging Society Research Paper college essay help
Introduction In the aging societies of the United States, obesity has undergone a dramatic increase in recent years. People attribute this to many factors ranging from the excessive intake of energy food through lack of proper physical exercises to genetic susceptibility. They further estimate that approximately one-third of adults in the United States are obese, 15 million of which comprise of the older adults aged 51 years and above (Fontaine, Cutler and Allison 189).
Obesity is a “medical condition characterized by excess accumulation of body fats to the level that the affected individual experiences diverse health effects resulting to a number of health problems and other chronic conditions” (Flegal, Carroll and Curtin 237). Professional doctors determine obesity based on the ’Body-mass index (MBI), a measurement that compares body weight with body height. Therefore, a person can be overweight and not obese.
An obese person has increased likelihood of acquiring various diseases, which include heart diseases, diabetes type 2, specific types of osteoarthritis and cancer, sleep apnea. The prevalence of obesity in an aging society is on an upward trend. For instance, According to Fontaine, Cutler and Allison , between 1999 and 2002,the percentage of obese adults aged from 65 to 74 years increased from 18% to approximately 36%(187).
Obesity in the aging society has become an epidemic due to diverse detrimental effects related to it. This follows because a big proportion of obese older people have obesity-related chronic illnesses or detrimental degenerative conditions like cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, and cancer. This paper addresses the issues surrounding obesity epidemic. It, further, shows its respective influence on the human population as people age.
Implications of obesity in an aging society on entitlement programs Obesity among older or senior citizens in the United States has far-reaching implications on various entitlement programs specifically social security, and Medicare. The fiscal malaise experienced by the entitlements programs mainly result from increased rates of obesity amongst senior citizens.
Policy makers often debate on the mitigation measures to reduce entitlements costs, as they have profound effects on the nation’s economic growth. The United States’ Social security, the world’s largest program in social insurance program, faces diverse challenges as the number of beneficiaries increase.
The social security has diverse programs such as unemployment benefits, Medicare- a health insurance for the disabled and old, programs in medical assistance known as Medicaid program, disability insurance, assistance for poor families, patient protection programs, and affordable care programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These programs require a lot of money to implement. However, it benefits millions of citizens. The number of senior citizens requiring health insurance from social security has increased resulting to increased expenditure. From recent studies, it is evident that the increase of obese people in the aging society is tantamount to increased expenditure in social security. Disability pensions that are attributable to increased obesity cost the US economy billions of dollars every year.
In the realm of the United States’ health care, the aging society is drawing much attention based on the evident increase of obesity prevalence among older citizens that has resulted to an increase in many chronic conditions. This has escalated the cost of drugs and services in the healthcare sector.
Therefore, the aging society is among the leading contributors of ballooning costs of healthcare, which result to an increase in government budgets. Medicare costs have increased because of the increase in medical bills based on the myriad diseases related to the aging obesity. According to Andereveva, Robert, and Ringel , “Medicare is a unique entitlement program which avails health insurance to citizens aged from 65 years and above or to citizens with disabilities without any regard to their income” (1938).
The US government enacted this program in 1965. It provides the aging and disabled citizens with coverage for health insurance similar to the one offered to fit the non-elderly citizens in private sectors. Medicare includes part A that is the hospital insurance; Part B, which is the supplementary insurance that covers outpatients, home care services and physician visits; and part D that is coverage for prescription drugs.
According to recent statistics, Medicare covers approximately 44 million citizens who include both disabled and senior citizens in the United States (Andereveva, Robert, and Ringel 1939). This program receives funds from revenues accrued from general taxes, beneficiary premiums as well as taxes from the federal payroll.
With the high number of people under Medicare program, increase in chronic conditions related to obesity poses a great challenge to the program. Finkelstein and Fiebelkorn noted how substantial proportions of excess costs in health care amongst obese adults in the United States occur from the age of 65 years…hence covered by Medicare, which translates into direct charges to all working citizens through government’s taxation (224).
Consequently, Medicare expenditure has to rise because of the high increase in health complications related to obesity among older citizens in the United States. These illnesses require special and long-term health care management by highly skilled and specialized caregivers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Public Policy: Obesity and Aging Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to various researches conducted on this issue, people spend billions of dollars on various entitlement programs in healthcare alone. For instance, “it is estimated that, in 2008 only, the United States spent approximately $600 billion on Medicaid and Medicare programs” (James 67). This resulted from the fact that a considerable proportion of America’s citizens are aging. As a result, they use greater services in healthcare.
The impacts of obesity on life expectancy, health costs, and quality of care Increase in prevalence of obesity in the aging society has increased health costs at a tremendous rate. This contribution emerges from the fact that obesity in the aging citizens has resulted to an increase in chronic conditions that are expensive to treat. One pivotal metric to summarize the huge burden obesity has on the systems of healthcare and the whole society is to perform an assessment of the diverse economic costs associated with obesity.
The metric encompasses various financial consequences obtained from medical resources used to treat obesity-related illnesses, both nonfatal and fatal health conditions. Through studying of diverse economic consequences associated with obesity using monetary terms, there is a clear analysis of the impacts of obesity in senior citizens on health cost. The affected people and other stakeholders make hefty payments on cases related to obesity.
Health costs attributable to increase in obesity in an aging society include both direct and indirect costs. It consist of various resources used in hospitals, which include distinct costs incurred by excessive utilization of pharmacotherapy, ambulatory care, laboratory costs, hospitalization, radiological costs, and long-term care in nursing homes because of the various diseases attributed to obesity. Unsurprisingly, huge burdens of diseases lead to various devastating consequences occurring from increased risks of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and nonfatal but costly health conditions like osteoarthritis.
These conditions have increased health costs largely. Hser et al. examines the relationship between the increase in health costs in the United States and trends in obesity. The authors found that , between year 1987 and year 2000, a combination of increased obesity prevalence and rise in spending among obese citizens accounted for 27% of the total growth in expenditure in the United States’ healthcare”(Hser et al. 34).
This signifies tremendous changes that have occurred on the standard care accorded to obesity-related diseases and conditions such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart diseases, and diabetes. Escalating health costs pose a great challenge to the health sector and patients. The annual heath costs of treating obesity-related conditions and diseases in the United States amount to billions of dollars. They are responsible for approximately 4% to 7% of total expenditure in healthcare (Fontaine, Cutler and Allison 191).
Many researchers have noted how majority of healthcare costs increase when obesity levels increase. Moreover, indirect costs that are obesity-related exist. They include decrease in years of life that is disability-free, early retirement, reduced productivity, and absenteeism in work, disability pensions, and the increase in mortality.
Thus, it is imperative to implement effective measures to reduce health costs in the country. This is achievable through various preventive measures that will curb the increasing obesity in the aging society. For instance, providing counseling services to citizens on how to practice proper eating habits, as well as exercising their bodies, is significant to reducing the number of people who are becoming obese.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Policy: Obesity and Aging Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, obesity in the aging society has reduced the quality of care given to patients due to overwhelming increases in cases requiring high medical attention. Many obese adults in the United States seeking medical care often lack enough obesity screening, counseling, and diagnosis. Even with detailed anthropometric data on patients, the care providers fail to offer high quality services.
The aging society in America presents a big proportion of the total population. With the increasing obesity prevalence among them, medical facilities are becoming overwhelmed by high demand for distinct services. Quality of healthcare for acute and chronic conditions, often related to obesity in an aging society, has decreased over the years. If the past trends in obesity in an aging society continue unchecked, the quality of care will continue to diminish.
In addition, the health costs will rise, as many older and obese people will be prone to many infections. Therefore, effective behavioral and health interventions are paramount in curtailing the witnessed rise of obesity cases by addressing its roots, which include poor preparation of food, widespread proximity to food with high proportions of calories, and sedentary lifestyles.
Obesity in the aging society has profound effects on life expectancy. The negative effects that obesity has on life expectancy manifest themselves in various chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer, which have increased their prevalence over the years. According to Susan, Cutler, and Rosen, estimates gathered by experts reveal how obesity is responsible for 5% to 15% of annual deaths that occur in the United States (2253).
Obesity leads to diverse diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other health problems, which result to a reduced life expectancy, as many obese people die prematurely. Utilizing data obtained from three decades ago, Susan and her colleagues point out how the increasing rate of obesity among senior citizens in the United States is posing an immense challenge to the country, as it is causing early deaths among the citizens, which translate into reduced life expectancy (Susan, Cutler, and Rosen 2257).
This follows because people with high BMI have reduced life expectancy, as obesity exacerbates diverse chronic conditions such as osteoarthritis, hypertension, and increased blood cholesterol, amongst others. The reduction in life expectancy poses a huge threat to the country’s economy.
Many productive citizens will lose their lives before attaining their full potential, thus, dwindling economic progress in the respective areas they were working. In addition, Fontaine and colleagues reckon that obesity reduces life expectancy for the US citizens. They estimate how life expectancy can reduce with up to 18% for citizens aged 60 years (Fontaine et. al 194). Efforts to increase life expectancy and reduced detrimental effects associated with obesity should focus on stabilizing or reversing upwards trends in obesity.
The baby boom generation Baby boom generation refers to people born after the Second World War mainly from 1946 to 1964. Baby boomers present a considerable proportion of the United States’ population totaling to approximately 76 million people (Strauss and Howe 54). Therefore, with the increase in obesity in the aging population, baby boomers are a big concern. As Charles, Reynolds, and Gatz reckon, the first baby boomers will reach 65 years in the year 2011, which is the standard age of retirement in the United States (143).
Thus, tomorrow’s America faces a big challenge, as it will be a queer aging society mainly contributed by the fact that, over the coming decade, enormous percentage of the baby boom generation will have reached retirement age. As the generation of baby boomers reach retirement age, it becomes eligible to the benefits of social security.
Unfortunately, as majority baby boomers approach retirement, social security funds are reducing because of the big number of people requiring various benefits from these funds. Baby boomers are, not only aging, but also living longer. This means that they will need more Medicare entitlement programs for greater periods. Medicare costs are increasing due to increase in treatment costs in systems of healthcare in the United States.
These costs include high costs of doctors’ reimbursement, high price for stays in hospitals, and increases in the prices of prescription drugs. Thus, the increasing obesity in senior citizens who will comprise of baby boomers has diverse long-term implications. First, there will be detrimental implications on the health sector due to the increase in health problems related to obesity, as health insurance costs will escalate at an alarming rate.
Moreover, entitlement programs will experience financial whammy since the number of people requiring various benefits will be overwhelming. Obesity in the aging society will increase expenditure in medical insurance programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. This will lead to financial challenges to various entitlement programs.
Overall diagnosis of the epidemic, and recommendations Obesity has become a crisis in public health because the increasing rates are presenting a huge pandemic that require urgent attention in the United States if potential mortality, economic, morbidity tolls are to be mitigated. Concomitant improvements are vital in ensuring that obesity does not diminish longevity and life quality of the aging. As James posits, due to the increase in obesity for the past thirty years, health status of the US’ population have experienced adverse effects (58).
Today’s older citizens in America, more so the generation of baby boomers, have caused unprecedented demands for cosmetic surgery, knee replacements and other requirements. Many people have embarked on measures on how to remain young via non-medical solutions like exercise, taking multivitamins, having more sleep.
Due to many researches on the effects of obesity in an aging society, the negative effects of obesity seem pronounced making the adoption of mitigation measures a paramount endeavor. Practices and policies to prevent people from gaining excess weighty will reduce huge burden experienced from obesity.
Although there are many ongoing debates about effects of obesity in an aging society, people need to take effective measures to address this epidemic. As James posits, negative effects of obesity on life expectancy, heath costs, entitlement programs, and economic growth will increase if the rate of obesity increase persists every year (56).
Without proper measures, the aging generation in the United States will require excess healthcare and other amenities mainly contributed by obesity-related health complications. The mainstays of curbing obesity are physical exercises and dieting. In addition, it is imperative to improve the quality of the diet one consumes by reducing the amount of high-energy foods especially those rich in sugars and fats. Efficient preventive measures such as counseling service and early screening are also significant in reducing obesity epidemic
Conclusion As the prevalence of obesity in an aging society continues to increase, more pressing challenges of extensively quantifying distinct impacts posed by this epidemic to inform health services and public policies emerge. Failure to mitigate the increasing rate of obesity will eventually erode the tremendous gains in life expectancy and health observed since the beginning of 20th century.
Works Cited Andereveva, Harold, Robert, Sturm and Ringel, Samuel. Moderate and severe obesity have large differences in health care costs. Obes Res 12.12 (2004): 1936-1943.
Charles, Timothy, Reynolds, Samuel, and Gatz, Mike. “Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80.1 (2001): 136–151
Finkelstein, Einstein and Fiebelkorn, Mophat. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who’s paying? Health Aff (Millwood) 3.1 (2003): 219-226.
Flegal, Morgan, Carroll, Moan, and Curtin, Roberts. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA 303.3 (2010): 235-241.
Fontaine, Knight, Cutler, Wang, and Allison, Douglas. Years of life lost due to Obesity. JAMA 289.2 (2003):187-193.
Hser, Young, et al. Effects of program and patient characteristics on retention of drug Treatment patients. Evaluation and Program Planning 24.2 (2001): 331–341.
James, William. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. J Intern Med 263.5 (2008): 52-336.
Strauss, William and Howe, Neil. Generations: The history of America’s future. Harper Perennial.454.6 (1992):.43-324.
Susan, Stewart, Cutler, David, and Rosen, Allison. Forecasting the effects of obesity and smoking on U.S. life expectancy. N Engl J Med 361.23 (2009): 2252-2260.
Does a strong axial plan always create ritual space? Rhetorical Essay essay help: essay help
So, what is the secret of the building plan of the Propylaea at the Acropolis? First of all it is necessary to say that the central gates of Propylaea look symmetrically from a distance only. It is the so-called visual deception. The ground of Acropolic was rising, and for this reason, the process of construction was recognized to be very complicated.
Because of the undulations of ground the porticoes had to be erected at different levels. One more point which is to be taken into consideration is related to the so-called Classical proportions. Because of the large height of the building the Doric columns diameters were too large to carry the weight of the roof.
So, the main architect Mnesikles decided to replace the Doric columns by Ionic ones. The principal aim of the axial plan of the Propylaea was to impress people visually. For instance, one may draw his/her attention to the statement that “the impressive façade of the Acropolis entrance with the mighty six-columned portal of the Propylaea in the centre framed by two almost symmetrical wings lies inside the Beulé Gate” (Goette 17).
Thus, one may affirm that the axial plan was worked out carefully to meet all necessary requirements. On the one hand, in our days the purpose to construct a building to impress people visually is considered to be obvious, however, at that time, religious and political aspects were of great importance. Thus, Hans Rupprecht Goette states the following:
The architecture of the Propylaea was planned to impress the visitor, an
obvious concept to us today, but an entirely new one then. Religious and
political considerations are also responsible for some of the peculiarities of
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More the building. For example, the extended ramp, which perhaps had grooves
across the middle, was built with the Panathenaic Festival in mind (18).
The idea to construct the entrance as the monumental edifice is not casual. If to look carefully on the plan of the building one may confirm the idea that “the entrance to the central temple of Athens is designed as a monumental edifice with façades which give the impression of a temple lying between two lateral projecting wings” (Goette 17-18).
For this reason, it is obvious that the axial plan does not always create ritual space. To prove this let’s consider the following example:
Opposite the Pinakotheke a symmetrically-shaped building was probably
planned, for which there was finally no room due to the simultaneous
construction of the Athena Nike Temple. For this reason the south-west wing
We will write a custom Essay on Does a strong axial plan always create ritual space? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More was radically cut down from Mnesikles’ original plan and shortened (19).
So, while working out a plan one must take into consideration the act of Providence. The above-mentioned example proves that there some circumstances which can impact on the building erecting process.
Generally, the gates of the Acropolis impress by their beauty and remind us of Classical art as Goette states:
This was a characteristic of Augustan art policy; there are copies not only of
these decorative elements, but also, for example, of the Caryatids of the
Erechtheion, on building projects of Augustus and of other rulers throughout
the Roman Empire. Similarly, during the first two centuries AD earlier Greek
sculpture was much copied and used everywhere as decoration in public and
Not sure if you can write a paper on Does a strong axial plan always create ritual space? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More private buildings, further proof of the influence of the Classical art of the Acropilis (14).
Works Cited Goette, Hans Rupprecht. Athens, Attica, and the Megarid: An Archaeological Guide. London: Routledge, 2001. Questia. Web.
Spreadsheet Errors in Management Essay (Article) essay help: essay help
Introduction Several researches have showed that spreadsheet errors are quite common and difficult to eliminate even after careful development of spreadsheet. Generally, errors are more pronounced in spreadsheets containing numerous formulas. These errors are sometimes undetected because of some of the constraints experienced during spreadsheet development. Spreadsheet errors significantly affect the quality of organizations’ reports and consequently lead to wrong decisions being made.
In order to address the effects of corporate failures, in the year 2002, U.S. Congress ratified the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which makes it mandatory for all corporations to put in place well-controlled financial reporting systems. These systems facilitate independent inquiry into the affairs of corporations by auditors which lead either qualification or disqualification of corporation’s reports.
Scope of spreadsheet errors Reports from a large number of consultants have showed that, about 20% to 40% of all spreadsheets contain errors. A report from Dent (Dent, 1995) revealed that an audit performed in a certain mining company discovered errors in approximately 30% of all the audited spreadsheets.
In addition, report from Freeman (Freeman, 1996) revealed that data from a consulting firm in England, Coopers and Lybrand, found that, about 90% of all the spreadsheets which contained more than one hundred and fifty rows contained numerous errors. Moreover, according to the author Ditlea (Ditlea, 1987) an audit performed on four large spreadsheets by a Price-Waterhouse consultant found one hundred and twenty eight errors.
Exposer to the risk of spreadsheet errors With the help of spreadsheet programs, end users develop analyses covering multiple cells. End user developed spreadsheets are more exposed to errors because few users implement the disciplines necessary for the systems’ development. If there are zero incorrect cells, the risk of making bottom-line errors in the spreadsheet is greatly reduced. The end user developed spreadsheets are therefore quite dangerous to organizations and can even lead to winding up of an organization.
Types of spreadsheet errors Errors in operational spreadsheets
Generally, there is a misconception among many people that errors are only caused by human actions such as mistyping of numbers, wrong application of formula, and inserting formula in the wrong cells. According to various researches, human beings are likely to cause about 0.5% error when they perform simple mechanical jobs such as typing.
These errors are rarely detected and therefore affect the quality of the reported work. Research also shows that, the error rate increases to about 5% when human beings perform complex logical works, such as program writing. There exist many other types of errors which occur during spreadsheet development. These types of errors are more technical and not easily detectable. Panko and Halverson (Panko
Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction and Background Historical Development of Business Intelligence (BI) and Data Warehousing (DW).
The need for advanced and improved BI and DW increased in the early 1990s during which businesses witnessed technological advances. During this moment, market completion increased because of globalization and electronic commerce. The introduction of the internet was spread all over the world, and companies were in a rush to incorporate e-business in their regular operations with a goal to cut on stuffing costs while offering a 24-hour customer service.
Organizations applied numerous systems in which back-end application tools emerged. Although advances in technology have solved business problems, data solutions have been inconsistent with the changing business needs. This scenario has greatly affected the operations of businesses on a larger scale.
As businesses increased their needs due to changing market demands, database-stuffing costs increased considerably. Throughout this period, IT firms introduced many techniques of data handling with an objective to solve the challenges of increased data volumes (Data Warehouse par 1-5). However, system applications could not enable decision makers to make rapid organizational strategic decisions.
Factors Influencing the Development of BI and DW Data warehousing concerns with analytical and management aspects of data in firms, and not storage of bulk information. Today, increasing data pushes many organizations toward spending huge funds ion creating efficiency in their databases. The purpose of a data warehouse is mainly to integrate a set of organizational data designed from internal and external environments. In contrast to the ordinary notion, a data warehouse does not host the entire set of data for an organization. Its main role is to offer fundamental measures needed for key decision making on data management. During decision-making process, decision makers in an organization do not directly access data warehouse, but it is done through front mechanisms facilitated by data marts.
A typical data Warehousing Environment
In the modern business world, the concept of data warehousing continue to meet numerous challenging ranging from ever increasing volumes of data. Additionally, there is a growing need for data warehouses with low latency (Data Warehouse par 2).
Following this combination of challenges, traditional approaches and technology tools have failed and, as such, users of data warehouses are consistently searching for infrastructures that will facilitate their operations by addressing the dynamic conditions of business and information technology. Ankorion noted that one of fundamental challenges facing modern users of IT in data warehouses is the inability to migrate relevant and voluminous data within a specified period.
For example, if a firm needed to move a given amount of data within thirty minutes of business operation, it would be difficult for a traditional batching process to accomplish this task within the demanded time. Besides taking a relatively longer time that required, traditional batching technology creates negative impact on the operations during the loading process. Relying on this scenario, there is need for mechanisms to address challenges facing the implementation of contemporary strategic information management.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Business Intelligence (BI) refers to approaches and techniques applied by organizations to make strategic business decisions. Its main purpose is to cushion business technologies, which emphasize business goals to facilitate performance. In the recent years, many organizations have achieved success through investing huge funds in the development of robust BI and data warehousing processes. Emphasis on these two concepts revolves around a belief that accurate and effective access to information about services and customers offers a crucial basis for business success.
Today, businesses are striving to align themselves to the changing needs of data warehousing. Gartner, lnc notes that senior managerial executives and chief information officers (CIOs) need to acquaint themselves with the changing trends in the context of data warehousing. The kind of technological applications needed must be in line with the demands of cost-benefit analysis in order to deliver value to businesses in the twenty first century (Madhu par 7).
In the contemporary business world, data warehouses remain to be fundamental elements of the information technology (Madhu par 7). The increased need for setting up a robust and exclusive data infrastructures is a response to the changing needs for business intelligence (BI). The technological business world is growing at a faster rate and as such, there is need for a flexible, dynamic, and optimal data designs to enable business to deal with their information and security gaps.
The emerging trends din business enterprises inevitably declares data warehouses as one of the critical components of business information relay. In a report delivered by Madhu, he suggested that businesses and individuals would need information about the changing practices and consumer trends in order to develop strategies geared toward blending technology with current business solutions (par 5).
This information will assist firms, through warehouse authorities and CIOs to safeguard business operations against budget waste. In this paper, nine trends in warehousing and data management are critical in the next five years.
Most organizations that utilize IT infrastructure have shifted toward implementation of grid computerization in their data warehousing mechanisms. The application of grid technology has enabled firms to develop databases with speed to maximize their performance. A grid refers to a set of servers linked to high-speed network, which integrates data to enable sharing among many separate departments or users. Since a single access mechanism is designed using a grid mechanism, users of this technology saves on costs and human resources. The figure below shows a typical computerization using grid.
Fig: typical computerization using grid
We will write a custom Research Paper on Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data warehousing involves pooling of data from different parts of an organization. In order to make strategic and tactful business decisions, users retrieve these set of data via queries. Grinds help in scaling of data to improve the overall performance of data systems. The application of grids ensures reliability. Since it involves many servers, failure of one server may not lead to a fatal business breakdown.
Currently, organizations have begun to integrate grids with Data warehousing tools with a view to reduce transaction time, as well as operational costs. An example of ETL that has applied this technology is Informatica. In their production activities, oracle has utilized this form of technology in management of their processes. Many benefits accrue from utilization of grid computing in DW and BI processes. The major benefit is harnessing of underutilized capital and human resources in business enterprises while providing efficient and reliable data warehousing service.
Trends in Data warehousing Optimization of data warehouse and performance.
Storage and management of data continue to face many challenges in many organizations (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 5). Studies reveal that although firms have achieved effective systems in data handling, there are noticeable challenges in optimization of these systems in order to reap optimum benefits. Because of this emerging challenge, data management has tended to improve the functionality of data warehouses.
Many organizations have focused their attention on dealing with gaps in warehouses through data compression as viable strategies. On the other hand, data warehouse venting companies have emphasized the need for differentiated products in response to claims of non-performance.
Introduction and Usage of In-Memory Database Management systems (DBMSs).
Due to the merging need for real time access to warehouse data, data handling has taken this issue with a lot of keenness in order to business demands. Additionally, data sharing among various subsidiaries of the same companies has attracted huge interest among vendors. To address this information and technology needs, vendors have resorted to development of in-memory DBMS (IMDBMS) that have the capacity to relay fast responses to queries in real time.
Technology experts have predicted that in the near future, traditional approaches to data warehouses will need to adapt to the new technological needs fueled by market changes (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 5). Both vendors and firms will require to adjust to new and advanced in-memory DBMS. Research suggests that application of IMDBMSs will help offer solutions to challenges of business intelligence. In return, solutions to BI problems will leverage firms through development of super-products that will become the focus of major vendors.
Use of Open-source Database Management Systems (OSDBMS) in data warehouses.
Currently, businesses and other firms have not emphasized the use of OSDBMS in their operations. Studies show that application of ODBMS has received mild response due to the usage of traditional approaches in data handling. A survey by Garter reveals that firms that have adopted these mechanisms have benefited both in real cost as well as efficiency (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 4). Although the use of this category of technology requires manual system support, it offers best optimization solutions to data warehouses.
Need and use of Data marts
Data marts refer to an analytic data application usually handled by fewer users as compared to data warehousing. The technology is a revised information technology designed to optimize the performance of data warehouse. As it was mentioned, one of the major challenges facing organizations is the inability to generate maximum benefits from their existing systems. To leverage companies from this problem, data marts work to offload data warehouses in order to gain high performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Current and Emerging Technology in Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, data marts act as middle partners that create efficiency and effective performance of data warehousing. Based on the emerging difficulties in upgrading data warehouses, data vending firms have rejuvenated their efforts in providing instant solutions to existing IT infrastructures through application of data marts.
Drivers influencing development of Data Warehousing/BI Need for single-ended truth.
It is important to note that inconsistent and obsolete information does not provide a basis for proper and strategic decisions. Businesses have developed need to consolidate their BI data to enable tactful decision-making process. Companies dealing with data warehouses help businesses to design a single-ended or version that incorporates all data with accuracy and reliability.
The competitive business has pushed firms to develop viable strategic frameworks capable of informing the management of the best decisions. Strategic positioning requires establishment of a well-grounded information base to facilitate this process. Therefore, the need for one-stop data warehouse and business intelligence has necessitated the need for accurate and effective DW and BI.
Dynamic Information Needs
It is difficult for many businesses to accurately forecast or predict their future needs in respect of information. Many system applications have proven to be rigid with no capacity to change with the dynamic information needs. To move alongside changes in market demands, businesses require flexible information systems capable of analyzing dynamics of business environment.
To help address this need, business have developed a desire for data warehousing tools that designed to offer flexibility in terms of decision making by the management and chief information officers.
Need for good customer care
Customers are the backbone of the progress of any business and as such, due consideration must be given when designing information systems that facilitate transactions. Research has indicated that about 10% of the customers are responsible for 90% of profits. Therefore, businesses have focused on the need to offer excellent customer service in order to gain market loyalty.
Studies show that data warehousing and its application tools has the capacity to identify best or potential customers. This trend has made businesses to develop impetus for swift and efficient data warehousing tools and business intelligence systems to help align themselves to the market dynamics. Studies show that companies that have applied DW and BI in their operations have reaped maximally. Benefits have included reduced costs of transaction, distribution and, advertising.
Supply chain management.
The growing competition in the business world has necessitated the need for supply chain systems capable of addressing distribution challenges within minimum period. This need calls for partnership with supply chains that have the technological capacity to deliver on promises of the customer.
To help achieve this objective, firms have resorted to investing in data tools that will help them meet customer needs within real time. Traditionally, distributors of products delivered at their own comfort. Contrary to this case, businesses are fighting to gain the largest market share and as such, focus has shifted toward ensuring reliability.
Need for Updated and Accurate information.
Today, businesses thrive under competitive market environments that require from them to make quick decisions. When faced with problems, businesses expect to identify the contributing factors, identify weaknesses, and give responsive solutions to the underlying circumstances. As such, contingent decision plans must be set up in order to enable businesses to leverage themselves from challenges of lacking instant solutions (Data Warehouse par 5).
Therefore, firms need to analyze their internal and external business environments with a goal to identify strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats. This process needs business to access up-to-date data to respond to challenges, as well as utilize opportunities available to them.
Technical Factors influencing development of Data Warehousing/BI Need for Simple systems.
Systems responsible for data handling are generally complicated. There is a growing need for simple, but efficient data management system to help businesses respond to the needs of market environment. Complex systems are costly since they require much time to work on to deliver results.
For example, a complex system would take an average user a longer time to understand or to initiate a transaction. A reporting environment would need a simple, yet efficient IT infrastructure to enable faster production of relevant business reports to enable proper decision-making.
Data warehousing provides an IT platform that generates simple queries when accessing information necessary for business progress (Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends par 4). Data warehousing has inherent ability to simplify this tasks because of its simplistic nature. Since business have been in dire need of such kind of IT tools, their development has been fast tracked to help them meet their need for simple systems.
Evolution of Application systems.
Technology is one of the fastest growing and changing phenomena in the world. Similarly, businesses are inevitably dynamic because of their fragile market environments. Because of this, businesses are continuously in need of support to meet their ever-changing market demands. Changes in business needs do so at faster rate than the growth in returns. As such, there is a need to cut on information costs while remaining relevant to the new information.
The changing business needs that have required an evolving application system resulted in a trend to design a data warehousing applications that would render businesses updated. Data warehouses have developed out of the inability of businesses to offer reliable and inexpensive solutions to their dynamic problems.
Conclusion Technological advances continue to evolve at a high rate with every passing minute. The information systems have played huge roles in the development of business themes, which have facilitated progress. Today, there is a growing need for new information in all spheres of life.
The dynamics of business environment has necessitated businesses to seek information infrastructures to inform managers of the best decision practices that would help to safeguard the business against potential threats while, at the same time, taking advantage of the opportunities.
Developments witnessed in DMBMS are instrumental in ensuring that business intelligence and data warehousing work to benefit organizations.
Today, competition has become the order of the day in the business world. To enable businesses to make up for the changing information needs and reduced costs, IT firms continue to experience pressure in order to yield infrastructure that has the ability to meet customer needs. While designing data warehouse, It experts should be able to examine multiple factors that unite to deliver a DW with ability to meet the demands of the business world as well as cut down on the designing cost.
An examination of the changing fundamental indicators is critical in establishing solutions that would take businesses to the next level of competition. As data increases in business data stores, It designers should be ready to adapt to changing environment to enable organizations make tactful decisions relevant to improving business performance. To achieve this task, they must address issues related to scalability, accuracy, flexibility of data warehousing tools.
Various factors have contributed to the emergence and rapid development of IT infrastructure in terms of DW and BI. Since business intelligence relies heavily on the robustness of information systems adopted by particular business, it is imperative to design DBMS capable of providing a framework upon which business intelligence work.
There are two categories of drivers that account for the emergence and development of DW and BI. These factors include technical and business drivers. Technical drivers have cooperated with the demands of the business environment to ensure that efficient and robust DBMSs.
Business factors consist of all market factors causing a reaction from CIOs and managers in order to meet business objectives. Both vendors and firms will require to adjust to new and advanced in-memory DBMS. Application of IMDBMSs will help to offer solutions to challenges of business intelligence. In return, solutions to BI problems will leverage firms through development of super-products that will become the focus of major vendors.
Works Cited “Data Warehouse.” Data-Warehouse. Net. Web.
Madhu, Zode. “Grids in Data Warehousing.” TDAN.com, 1 Jan. 2009. Web.
“Nine Key Data Warehousing Trends for the CIO in 2011 and 2012.” ITBusinessEdge. 1 Jan. 2009. Web.
Using the information from Albl, define both faith and reason Essay essay help free: essay help free
Many people best understand faith as a religious concept, particularly, the belief in things not seen but that are true (Lewis 56). By contrast, the conventional definition of reason is far from religious; it has to do with the natural sciences deductive thinking and dialectical theories. However, this paper seeks to correct these narrow-minded views and establish a comprehensive position that clearly explains the relationship between faith and reason, since these two qualities are not mutually exclusive.
Faith, as per Thomas Aquinas, refers to the alignment of a person’s being, including his or her mental faculties to “divine truth” (Aquinas 67). To achieve this state, one has to subject himself / herself to the “grace of God”. It refers to a state of total surrender to God’s will that almost requires mental or intellectual blindness.
One has to forfeit a bit of logic for faith to work. Albl gives several descriptions of faith that can better explain this concept. For instance, he says faith triggers a person to wonder (Albl 32). It is not enough for instance to appreciate the enchanting nature of the blue sky, faith asks who made it blue and why.
Another description of faith pertains the view that all that exists because of the creation is a gift to humanity and that all should be grateful for it (Albl 33). It is also the foundation of a person’s trust in anything or anybody else, including self-confidence (Descartes 76). Trusting in what is intangible increases a person’s capacity to believe in what he or she can see or touch. Aquinas imparts that faith requires a portion of the grace of God for it to be fully fledged (Albl 34).
This will is what pushes one’s will to defy their logic and succumb to pure belief. The result is conversion of the whole person, not just their thoughts. Acquiring it is a continuous process that requires a person to train or discipline their minds constantly before it can become a “habit of the mind” (Albl 37).
Reason on the other hand has to do with man’s intellectual faculties. The cause of questioning things in a bid to understand them better, or assessing various options to come up with a sensible decision over what makes sense and what does not. Consequently, Albl posits that faith and reason are actually inclusive of each other and one requires the other to achieve its maximum potential. He puts it succinctly in the statement, “balanced Christianity needs a body of reason animated by the fire of faith” (Albl 38).
This makes clear the jeopardy of being an extremist. Feudists are scholars who restrict the understanding of divine attributes to pure faith and they include theologians such as Tertullian and Soren Kiekegard among others. This school of thought is of the opinion that logic muddles up a person’s understanding of God (Hart and Fischer 87).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their critics are quick to assert that the same God created man a rational being, and expects him be rational about everything, including religion. On the other extreme end are rationalists who believe in cold reasoning at the exclusion of faith. They include philosophy scholars like Rene Descartes and Immanuel Kant among others.
However, a modernist view that most people embrace nowadays posits that faith and reason interrelate, with each complementing the other for a fuller understanding of spiritual matters. Albl captures this as “faith seeking understanding” (33). Thomas Aquinas proposed that anyone seeking to strengthen his or her faith should find an authority upon which to base this faith. For Christians, he proposed the scriptures and by extension the Quran for Muslims.
Reason is a necessary ingredient in theology as it enables scholars to apply mental processes while interpreting scriptures and other religious teachings. Employment of rational thinking of logic further strengthens a person’s conviction that whatever they are studying is true (Hart and Fischer 99).
This is because people tend to trust what they have deduced for themselves better than what they do not understand. The connection of reason with faith makes it an even more important tool. It takes faith in the rationality of the world to accept the results one obtains from employing reason to deduce truth.
Faith and reason are supplementary qualities whose development needs to be at par. When one exceeds the other, one risks acquiring dangerous perspectives that are extremist and close-minded in nature. Theology as a study of religion requires both in equal measure. Reason will enable a scholar to pass judgment on the accuracy of various points of view, whereas faith will turn him or her into believer.
Works Cited Albl, Martin. Reason, Faith and Tradition: An Exploration in Catholic Theology. New York: Saint Mary’s Press, 2009.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Fathers of the English Dominican Province, Christian Classics. Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1981.
We will write a custom Essay on Using the information from Albl, define both faith and reason specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Descartes, Rene. Rules for the Direction of the Mind. Descartes, Rene. Philosophical Essays: Discourse on Method; Mediation; Rules for the Direction of the Mind. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill, 1964. 192.
Hart, Thomas and Fischer, Kathleen. Christian Foundations: an Introduction to Faith in our Times. New York: Paulist Press, 1995.
Lewis, Carl. Surprised by Joy:The Shape of My Early Life. New York: Harcout Brace, 1955.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants
Medicinal Uses of Plants
Importance of Plants in different Cultures
Introduction Plants have many uses in people’s lives and are essential in many aspects of human life. In the prehistoric times, man relied on natural plants to satisfy his basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Prior to the development of agriculture and domestication of plants, the hunter-gatherers derived their livelihoods directly from wild plants.
In addition, plants and plant materials bear a close relationship with many aspects of human culture. Indigenous people use plants for spiritual and ritualistic purposes whereby plants play a pivotal role in material culture within the religious context.
On the other hand, many indigenous plants, both in the past and presently, serve as an important source of food resources to people around the globe. Most importantly, wild plants, especially medicinal plants are indispensable sources of medicine for treating various human illnesses.
In many cultures, various plants are used for medication, consumption, and narcotic stimulation purposes. In particular, different plants serve as food, fodder, fuel, timber, and medicine for various communities. Thus, the uses of plants vary from culture to culture depending on the culture or tribe, indigenous knowledge and the plant species endemic to the region. In the US, there are rich indigenous and exotic plant species used differently by the tribal groups of the American continent (Glenise, 1992, p.199).
However, the traditional knowledge on the use of plant species, particularly medicinal plants is fast disappearing due to disintegration of cultures and exploitative deforestation. The indigenous knowledge on plant species influences the tribal uses of plant resources.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants Although the uses of plants vary from one culture to another, plant uses fall into three general categories: nutritional, medicinal and cultural or ritualistic uses. In the prehistoric times, the important occupation of the hunter-gatherers community was the search for food.
People of various cultures had to possess the indigenous knowledge of the various plants in their locality with regard to their use as food. In particular, knowledge of edible plants as well as poisonous plants, gained through experience, was important. Through experimentation, some plants with no nutritional value were found to possess valuable medicinal properties for treating various diseases.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The nutritional needs of today’s global population largely depend on plant products as their source of food. Out of over 350,000 plant species in the world, 80,000 are suitable for human consumption. However, of the edible plant species, four principal plants viz. maize, rice, potato, and wheat are essential food crops consumed by the majority of the world’s population (Glenise, 1992, p.202).
Plants form a vital source of proteins and carbohydrates for humans. As a result, most of these food crops are cultivated on a large scale to provide sufficient food to meet the nutritional needs of human beings. Legumes (Leguminosae) such as beans and peas and grasses (Graminae) such as maize, sorghum, and millet provide the highest percentage of food for the world population.
Berries such as the Blackfeet Savis berry contain high amounts of Vitamin C and their seeds have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Fruits species, both wild and domesticated, are also a significant source of Vitamin C.
Root vegetables that encompass the tubers, corms, bulbs, and the rhizomes are a valuable source of carbohydrates among various communities. Most of them are rich in starches and sugars for human consumption in many communities (Heiser, 1993, p. 201).
Plant roots are rich in minerals such as calcium and sodium, vitamins, and fibers. On the other hand, plant stems, flowers, and leaves are also rich in vitamins, but have lesser minerals and carbohydrate content. Grains such as maize and rice are stable food products for all communities around the globe.
Plants are also sources of essential products for human use. Trees provide timber for furniture and as building materials for houses and tools. Tree species such as black walnut, pines, fir, and hybrid poplar are significant sources of quality timber for construction, furniture, and paper (Laird, 1999, p. 144). In most cultures, plants are a source of fuel as charcoal or firewood for domestic cooking purposes.
Additionally, certain plant species such as johnsongrass and miscanthus are a source of plant-based bio-fuels, an alternative to petroleum fuels. Food crops including corn and sorghum are also cultivated in some countries such as Brazil for biodiesel for industrial use. Rubber derived from the rubber tree is used in making surgical gloves, machinery parts, tires, shoes among others. Cork derived from the bark of the Mediterranean Oak tree is used as an insulator against sound, stoppers, flooring materials among others.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different plant products are used to make clothes, ropes, and cosmetics for human use. Sisal, cotton, hemp, and rush are common plants that produce fibers yarn into cloths and garments for wear. Cellulose fibers are biodegradable plant materials derived from grasses and leaves used in the production of clothing, ropes, strings, and other products. Natural plant dyes derived from plant seeds, leaves, tubers or nuts are used for dyeing cloths and yarns (Heiser, 1993, p. 204).
The cosmetic sector also relies on plant-derivatives such as anti-oxidants and colors for hair and skin care. Aromatic plants including the jasmine, roses and cinnamon produce aromatic compounds to improve fragrance. Traditionally, in ancient Egypt, incense and myrrh were used in healing rituals and as a fragrance for women (Laird, 1999, p. 146).
Other plants frequently used in the cosmetic industry include soya because of it has anti-aging properties, chamomile, Aloe vera, and lavender. The plant extracts are incorporated into soaps, oils, lotions, creams and other cosmetic products.
Medicinal Uses of Plants Since prehistoric times, plants with active components have been used in the treatment of various human illnesses. In general, traditionally, medicinal plants treated a broad range of diseases such as skin diseases, stomach ailments, and many disorders but their use varied from culture to culture. Traditionally, the active principles in medicinal herbs were isolated through steaming, boiling or burning.
Modern methods are able to isolate and characterize these components and make prescription drugs for treating various human diseases. The use of plant-derived traditional medicine by people across the world as remedies for the treatment of diseases is immense. According to Glenise, over 80% of the world’s population relies on herbal medicine for their primary care needs (1992, p.208).
Medicinal plants have antiseptic, analgesic, anti-parasitic, and anti-helminthic properties, which make them potent against common human diseases. Most medicinal plants are potent when used topically i.e. externally, orally or snuffed in case of dried ground plant parts such as leaves. For example, the Cedarwood (Thuja occidentalis) plant native to Asia and the Americas is used topically in the treatment of skin diseases such as warts and psoriasis (Glenise, 1992, p.217).
Its extracts are applied topically as paste on the skin to cure skin warts and other skin problems. It also serves as a counter-irritant in the treatment of rheumatism and muscular pains when taken orally as boiled extracts. Some properties of plants, including anti-inflammatory, emulsifiers, decongestant, and antiseptics make the plant extracts beneficial for topical use.
In addition, plant species with anti-inflammatory qualities are useful in pain relief and treatment of rheumatism. Herbalists use extracts from rhizomes and plant roots such as Chickweed to treat skin diseases when applied topically. In the American continent, over 25 species of Chickweed have emollient and vulnerary properties hence used to make ointments for the treatment of ulcers (consumed orally), boils, and eczema (Cocks, 2006, p. 451).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The American coneflower, native to Missouri, is another significant source of traditional medicine in the Americas. The dried plant parts including the leaves and roots are used in the treatment of snakebites and dizziness. Its fresh leaves are bound on wounds to relieve pain and prevent inflammation. Medicinal plants are widely used globally especially in Asia where the practice is widely spread. In India and China, the practice of herbal medicine is highly developed as a source of foreign income through export.
In Africa, traditional medicines are preferred to conventional medicines for treatment of various illnesses. The use of herbal medicines is fast increasing in North America and Europe as an alternative treatment of illnesses and ways of maintaining appropriate health. In recent times, Artemisia annua, a Chinese plant, has been discovered to have anti-malarial properties while Prunus africana, which has anti-carcinogenic properties, is incorporated in prostate cancer drugs.
Importance of Plants in different Cultures Ethnobotanical surveys reveal essential plant species within a particular cultural and geographical context. In most cultures, plants are used for nutritional purposes while non-nutritional plant metabolites are used as medicines. The cultural significance attached to given plants revolves around the medicinal-food plant uses (Cocks, 2006, p. 448).
Cultivated crops common to a particular geographical region often have nutritional or medicinal value. In the Mediterranean region, food species with high cultural significance include vegetable species eaten as salads in spring such as fennel (Feoniculum vulgare) and calamint.
Plants also serve as medicines and sources of drugs in many cultures. In Asia, the traditional Unani medicine, which is common in Pakistan, relies on wild medicinal plants and animal products for the treatment of human diseases (Glenise, 1992, p.218). Glenise (1992, p.212) identify 50 species that are a source of herbal medicine for indigenous people in Pakistan. Other indigenous treatment systems such as Ayurveda, Allopathy, and Siddha rely on different plant species to treat various illnesses (Laird, 1999, p. 147).
The Siddha and Ayuverda systems are alternative medicine practiced India uses herbs and meditation to treat various ailments. In India, over 20,000 plant species are used for curing different ailments affecting the traditional communities. Allopathy medicine is a Western medical model common in Europe and America and relies on active biological components in plants to treat various illnesses. In Africa, the plant-derived medicines are widely used among the different cultures compared to conventional medicine.
The traditional Chinese medicine practitioners utilize medicinal plants and acupuncture to treat many conditions. The Chinese traditional medicine dates back to over 5,000 years and relies on natural products including herbs (Moerman, 1998, p.231) Different plant parts such as seeds, flowers, roots and stems are made into teas, powders and tinctures for treatment of various conditions. The effects of the Chinese herbs range from heart-clearing, cooling, and warming effects on patients.
Herbal plants such as Panax ginseng are used in the treatment of diabetes, Momodica charantia, and Psidium gnajava, whose leaves are taken as tea or an infusion to treat hyperglycemia (Laird, 1999, p. 150). Jamaican cultural groups, as well as Afro-Brazilian communities, root tonics and bitters serve as preventatives to common illnesses. Additionally, among the African people, various forms of bitters are used to remove body toxins, treat impotence, improve circulation, and maintain virility.
Certain plant species are used to fulfill ritualistic and religious needs of various cultures. According to Cocks (2003, p. 445), over 50% of wild plants in South Africa are used for spiritual and cultural purposes. In this regard, sacred sites that are of a high spiritual value have distinguished animal and plant biodiversity. Traditional brooms derived from grasses serve as a ceremonial gift for the bride in Xhosa culture, South Africa.
The brooms are used to splash medicine known locally as ‘amayeza’ as a ritual to sanctify the home of the newlyweds (Cocks, 2006, 446). Additionally, African communities use medicinal plants for healing purposes within spiritual, religious, and cultural contexts and in many non-traditional settings such as urban areas.
Conclusion Plants and many cultural practices are intertwined in many respects. Plants and their products primarily serve as food, human medicines, sources of drugs, and objects of religious or spiritual purposes. In most cultures, main food crops such as rice, maize and legumes are highly domesticated to meet the nutritional needs of the people.
Most importantly, herbal medicine is widely used as an alternative to conventional therapeutic medicines. However, the exploitation of plants for various uses depends on the indigenous knowledge and cultural contexts.
Reference List Cocks, M. (2006). Bio-Cultural Diversity: Moving Beyond The Realm Of ‘Indigenous’ And ‘Local People’. Human Ecology, 34(2), 445-451
Glenise, M. (1992). Medicinal Plant Review. Aust J Med Herbalism, 4(4), 199-221.
Heiser, B. (1993). Ethnobotany and Economic Botany. Flora of North America North Of Mexico, 1, 199-206.
Laird, A. (1999). Forests, Culture and Conservation. London: UNEP.
Moerman, E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. New York: Timber Press.
Boxing vs. MMA Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Boxers as Superior Athletes
Introduction For more than a hundred years, boxing as a game has significantly evolved to become one of the most popular sporting activities in the world. This evolution has seen a wide range of personalities join it resulting into a massive support from all parts of the world. Boxing has given birth to heroes who can be compared to the ancient gladiators that were famous during the Roman Empire.
Together with mixed martial arts fighters, they have fully transformed fighting into a professional game across the world (Arrenquin, 2010). Although some people assume that mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters are better athletes than boxers, this notion lies far below the truth. Backed with a myriad of evidence and facts, boxers have remained the most admirable, best and breathtaking personalities.
Boxers as Superior Athletes What makes boxing more appealing than MMA is the manner in which boxers master their moves and employ the right technique timely and accurately. Boxers study and grasp their opponents before making any move. This allows them to combat them in a twinkle of an eye before the other person realizes that they are in a fight.
The study of opponents gives boxers the ability to take on different characters without any fear. Besides mastery of style and analysis of the opponent, boxers ensure that they are never caught in the same position during the fight (Arrenquin, 2010). This makes it hard for the opponent to understand possible moves or position of attack.
Their swift ability to move and change of locations gives them an upper hand in understanding the tricks of the opponent and not vice versa. The most outstanding of all these is the fact that boxers hit but they are never hit. This technique remains an uphill task to MMA players who end up receiving countless punches despite their movements.
What about endurance? Is there any MMA fighter who can withstand the brutality and pain that boxers go through? Too many if not all MMA players and funs, boxing is committing suicide, yet boxers are able to not only withstand it but also overcome it and make history.
The average number of punches which a boxer receives during a fight cannot in any way be compared to countable touches that land on MMA fighters (Blower, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, it has to be mentioned that some boxers have succumbed to the ring punches, resulting into public outcry concerning the safety of the game.
Additionally, boxing may result in injuries leaving players with pain or permanently injured (BBC, 2011). Astonishingly, this has never deterred boxers from scaling to become highly recognized athletes among fighters. It therefore suffices to note that boxers are usually driven by passion and interest in the game regardless of the perceived danger.
Another reason which makes boxers outstanding and more superior than MMA fighters is the rigorous training which they go through before engaging in a fight. Although MMA players do practice and exercise, the nature of boxers’ training is by far challenging and demanding compared to that of the MMA.
Ranging from starvation to road work, boxers are required to undergo these processes in order to meet the standards defined by boxing rules (Blower, 2006). Can MMA fighters endure starvation as a way a fighting prerequisite? This is common to boxers who are expected to be within a given weight range depending on their weight category. They also endure countless sparring round, running and carrying heavy bags among other strenuous exercises without getting weary or giving up (BBC, 2011).
Conclusion To give credit where it is due, it would be prudent to acknowledge MMA fighters as tremendous athletes in the world athletic history. They stir and excite crowds, they have funs around the world but are not superior to boxers. Based on brutal training, sacrifices and longer fighting sessions, boxers are with doubt ranked higher than MMA fighters.
References Arrenquin, A. (2010). Notebook: Why boxing is better than MMA. Appeal Democrat. Retrieved from: https://www.appeal-democrat.com/notebook-why-boxing-is-better-than-mma/article_cfb1504a-b674-5f15-96bc-87854d29f752.html
BBC. (2011). Health: Boxing. BBC. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/
We will write a custom Essay on Boxing vs. MMA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blower, G. (2006). Boxing: Training, Skills and Techniques. New York, NY: Crowood Press.
The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents The main characteristics of a good novel
Defining the main laws of fiction
The inner working and proportion of novels
Henry James in his work “The Art of Fiction” and Joseph Conrad in his “The Task of the Artist” touched upon the problem of measuring the aesthetic value of a work of fiction by certain criteria. The outstanding theoreticians of the English literature Henry James and Joseph Conrad concluded that a novelist is free to use unnumbered ways for showing the glimpses of truth to readers, but should comply with the fiction laws. The structure, sounding and any detail can have impact upon readers’ perception and shape the meaning conveyed in a novel.
The main characteristics of a good novel Discussing the relationship between the morality of novelists and their artistic sense, Henry James and Joseph Conrad concluded that writers have certain moral obligations and need to take into account the possible readers’ reaction to the form and content of their works. James explains the excessive jocularity of certain novels with the negative consequences of an old superstition concerning the admissible wickedness of the literary works.
Though this outdated misconception has been left in the past, its spirit still lingers on and has impact upon stories which are perceived as only a joke (James 856). James disapproves the writers who do not attempt to enhance the gravity of their novels and do not consider the opportunities of competing with real life. Certainly, novelists cannot be compared to historians looking for the absolute truth, but they need to pay attention to collecting the evidence and presenting it to readers to appeal to their feelings, intelligence and common sense.
Writers can make readers to take their works seriously by speaking authoritatively to the minds and feelings of their potential readers. Comparing novelists to historians and other scientists, Conrad stated that writers look for the truth, but use it as a source of inspiration and interpret the facts of real life in their unique ways.
A novelist can manipulate the readers’ feelings, including those of their fears, ambitions and aspirations, but always counts upon their credulity and takes the advantages of it (Conrad 870). However, counting upon the credulity of readers can be rather hazardous because their individual reactions and prior experience are unpredictable.
For this reason, James distinguished between bad novels appealing to the credulity of generation and good ones which can be regarded as true works of art.
The main assessment criteria chosen by James for distinguishing between the two categories of novels include whether the novel is interesting and whether it produces a strong impression upon the audience (James 858). Thus, the main obligations of a good writer are to make his/her novel interesting and to impress readers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Defining a novel as writer’s “personal impression of life” (James 858), the theoretician raises the question of the techniques which should be used for intensifying this impression. The quality of a particular novel can be measured only by readers’ perceptions and impressions from it.
A writer who tries to explain the methods of achieving success in literature faces serious difficulties because it is almost impossible to put into words the individual artistic sense and aesthetics. James claimed that the ways for improving the quality of fiction are innumerable because they depend upon the writer’s personal experience and talents.
Still, a novelist, who can also be referred to as an artist writing a book, should learn from the experience of other writers, analyzing the tones, plot lines and composition of their novels for complying with the main laws of fiction.
Defining the main laws of fiction Though literature cannot be compared to exact sciences, fiction has its unique laws and novelists should comply with them. Literature is all about creativity and individual temperament, but novelists should pay proper attention to the structure and sounding of their works for improving the inner working of the text and hypothesizing the possible impression produced upon readers.
Conrad compared the process of creating a novel to the mechanism through which one individual temperament appeals to a great number of other temperaments (Conrad 872). The variety of possible interactions cannot be predicted. For this reason, in some cases readers can see the meanings which were not initially implied by the author in the text.
In other case, the symbols can be misinterpreted and the novelist’s moral messages misunderstood. Every text is viewed in the context of not only its epoch, literature genre and writer’s heritage and achievements, but also readers’ personal experience.
Therefore, the same text can create different associations in different readers and produce different impression upon them. However, by paying special attention to the composition of the novel and its inner working, a writer can enhance chances for achieving success with the audience.
We will write a custom Essay on The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sincerity and gravity of a literary text are the main principles of making readers to feel, hear, see and believe a novelist. Conrad recommended other novelists to catch glimpses of truth and show them to readers with all their colors, sounds, movements, vibrations and ongoing modifications.
Simmons (2009) stated that Conrad was a proponent of an objective method of withdrawing a novelist from the world of fiction for overcoming the problem of a telling weakness (182). Therefore, the main task of a novelist is not to tell, but to show the plot lines in their development, not expressing the judgments directly, but providing readers with an opportunity to form their own opinions.
Revealing the substance of truth and competing with reality are the main laws of fiction according to the aesthetics of James and Conrad. Conrad criticized the principle of Art for Art and admitted that this sort of literature is deprived of its immortality.
Thus, analyzing the works of these theoreticians, it can be stated that the main laws of fiction are to make it believable and present the realistic picture of life in its dynamics for reaching the responsive emotions of readers.
The inner working and proportion of novels Though exact data and formulas cannot be applied to writing novels, writers should pay attention to the inner working of their texts and intuitively feel the inner balance and proportion of their works for intensifying the impression produced upon readers. Every word and every line of a novel can be significant for the inner working of the novel and appealing to the readers’ feelings.
The inner balance of all the elements of the composition and plot of a work of literature is important, and a strong artistic feeling is required for feeling the entity of the novel and preserving it. Like an artist working on a painting can spoil it with only one unnecessary stroke, an artist working on a book can spoil it with only one unnecessary detail or character.
James emphasized the importance of the inner working of a novel and referred to every new character in a novel like to a new problem in proportion of the whole text (Berland 51). Therefore, a character should be shown in its development, but at the same time to be in the harmony of the rest of the novel.
The form of a literary work can have a significant impact upon the readers’ perception of the text and shape the meanings implied by the authors and created by readers on their own. Working on their books, novelists are free to use their creativity and unnumbered ways for expressing their ideas and appealing to the feelings of readers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Structure of a Literary Work Shapes Its Meaning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, on the other hand, their freedom is limited by the laws of fiction. There are no exact formulas for evoking responsive emotions in readers, but novelists should pay special attention to the inner working and proportions of their literary texts if they want to intensify the effects produced upon readers.
Analyzing the theoretical recommendations of Conrad and James, it can be stated that the work of a novelist is full of challenges and riddles. Creating unique worlds in their works of fiction, novelists need to take into account not only the possible reactions and feelings of readers, but also the relationship between the elements of the text itself which can shape the meaning.
Conclusion Analyzing literary theories of James and Conrad, it can be stated that a novelist should give serious consideration to every detail of a novel, including its structure, inner working and proportion because these aspects can influence the readers’ perception and shape the meaning of the whole text.
Works Cited Berland, Alwyn, Culture and Conduct in the Novels of Henry James. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Conrad, Joseph. “The Task of the Artist”. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. 870 – 876. Print.
James, Henry. “The Art of Fiction”. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and Meyer Howard Abrams. 8th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006. 856 – 859. Print.
Simmons, Allan. Joseph Conrad in Context. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Chester: The company’s strategy Report a level english language essay help
It is sad that many organisations fail to make strategies until an emergency strikes, which is met with much opposition. As a result, Chester settled on corporate-business-functional strategy that included three levels of management.
To start with, corporate strategic level defines the market situation of the products. Much survey was done in order to come up with diversity of goods especially new good which were distributed to different geographical markets. Business strategic level sought to navigate the market situation in terms of competition.
In fact, this strategy made changes that made the company to have more competitive benefits over the other products and in the market. Lastly, functional strategic level did support the activities carried out by corporate and business strategies. This strategic level employed the contributions of information systems, labour as well as production processes to fulfill the activities of business and corporate strategies (Thomas 1).
Effectiveness of the strategy in achieving the company’s strategic and operational goals
Initially, the goods met a lot of competition but Chester decided to maintain its traditional segment as it was providing the greatest amount of positive cash flow, until funds were available to expand market share within the industry. To penetrate into the market with all the products offered by Chester, the supply was monitored so as not to exceed demands while still offering a competitive price.
The modern nature of Chester aimed to produce and sell goods that fulfilled customers demand on technology based products. With improved technology, the company through internet services such as emailing and social sites received orders online. This allowed the company to make more sales to customers online which excluded the middlemen hence minimizing costs.
Strategy’s change expectations in the future to improve operations
This strategy helped in determination of the long-term changes of the organisation under the corporate level. At this level, organisational planning, diversification and specialisation of the company occurred. “Chester developed policies aimed at becoming and maintaining the lowest cost distributor in the industry under strategies based on Cost-leadership” (Thomas 1). Since this company was venturing into market, it enjoyed advantage of selling unbranded products as a start.
Differentiation is yet another strategy that reduced firm’s products susceptibility to cost forces impacted by competitors. The uniqueness to customers attracted their attention and willingness to pay extra to have the product that met their demands. Focus plan assured the organisation victory over certain customers through basing their production on particular system in a given geographical area. The company was strict on the channels of distribution and each stage of production process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under functional level we efficiently incorporated experts who improved the organisation through advertisement, promotion, and marketing research. This was carried out in marketing, inventory control, and shipping production activities. This allowed functional strategies interconnect with other levels and to sum up, this level purposed to increase sales and to make the company outdo the other companies (Thomas 1).
Competitive factors that influenced the timing and outcome of the company’s decisions
Competitors dominated a segment of these sales. The company must have lost battle to their competitors since the inventory records exceeded the minimum requirement of $2 million. It was unfortunate that the situation was not adjustable at the time when this simulation was done.
In conjunction, there was imbalance that posed risk of losing customers to our competitors since stock outs against the expenditure of carrying additional inventory could not meet demand expectations. Given the employed information systems, the company was able to reach more customers who increased our sales. In addition, this must have motivated us to produce more since there was ready market. Some competitors who kept their traditional means of production might have faced a low production (Thomas 1).
However, this overwhelming production might have exceeded the inventories. This in response discouraged some customers who opt to buy from other organisations. The stock price complicates future profitability of the organisation. For instance, liquidation of plant might have brought in cash though shareholders who may wonder about the long term competitive consequences.
The financial factors that influenced the timing and outcome of the company’s decisions
It is evident that if inventory exceeds more than a sixth, there is a possibility of expending more cash that would have declined the performance since the organisation had to obtain emergency loans. These loans are known to have reduced the profit margin.
The company optimistic nature led to surplus in market segment. Had our company exceeded the average product, our sales would have increased. Average product is a key factor on demand level since the demand average requirement should range from 50% to 150%.
From the cash flow statement it was evident that the company had many liabilities that reduced the cash flow. These llabilities almost summed to same ratio to assets in all rounds. Had this ratio been less in favour of liabilities to assets we would have expected a higher ranking.
We will write a custom Report on Chester: The company’s strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was observed that the ranking would have been better since in this duration, the stock prices raised by $ 9.38, which might have been attributed to performance, asset base, debts among others. Quest to expand and automating the organisation might have increased difficulties in debt piling to shareholders. Excess stock price more than $15.00 signifies danger of high debts, loss of market share due to price adjustment and loss of 1 year of production of a new product.
Comparison between the total liabilities total equity and the total cash in $ ‘000 in first three rounds
Work Cited Thomas, Joe. “strategy levels.” Encyclopaedia of business, 2nd ed. Referenceforbusiness. n.d. Web.
The Significance of Early Cinema for Our Study of the History of the Cinema Term Paper best essay help: best essay help
The field of cinema is made up of some media which include; motion pictures, film and movies.The history of cinema, also known as film, traces back to over one hundred years ago from the beginning of the 19th century to date.
The cinema has been its development from its abstract form and today it is the most important means of communication. Since its innovation, motion pictures have a huge impact on arts, technology and politics. This paper discusses the significance of early cinema for our study of the history of the cinema.
In cinema development, the most significant endeavor has been to recreate and present reality through various artistic means which have been developed in line with cinema technology. In art history, we get to learn that cinema was not invented overnight and thus, it is a product of a gradual accumulation of insight and the technology which was available at different times.
The early cinema evaluation in cinema history takes the learner through the pioneering work of many people who inspired Auguste and Louis Lumière to come up with a Cinématographe system, which presented moving pictures in 28 December 1895.
Cinema historians has it that there were many inventions which preceded Cinématographe such as the moving image projections and shadow plays, which traces their origin in Java and India thousand years ago. These included creating a silhouette by manipulating some leather puppets using rods and placed beyond a translucent material. The technology of shadow plays has been adopted, effected and fitted into today’s cinema and are being used.
After this technology of shadows; there was the invention of the magic lantern which was made from a box, a candle which could be enclosed inside and a drawn image. From this invention, there was still the element of projection which is still in use today. The magic lanterns became more prevalent in the 19th century and they came with sophistication as they deployed a number of lenses.
This technology became very popular and the lanterns were present in most parts of the world by the 19th century. Early cinema gives us the knowledge we would never had in the way the technology evolved and the early inventors in the field. In the study of any history, there must be some traceable path of development of the subject matter and so is the history of cinema connected to early cinemas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As early as 1888, Alva Edison posited that, “I am experimenting upon an instrument which does for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear, which is the recording and reproduction of things in motion” (Robinson 138). In this line Edison invented his favorable phonograph and as his initial point, the model of a cylinder was not so promising and so Edison resorted to using a strip of transparent film, a technology borrowed from Marey from Europe. By 1892, two great innovations had been made by Edison namely; Kinetograph, which was used to record images and the Kinetoscope, which was used to view them. But it was soon after that the machines were making a lot of money and he realized that some inventions were threatening their business. This was Edison’s first invention to get into commercial and it fared very well and this can be evident from his statement quoted here, that;
We are making these peep show machines and selling a lot of them at a good profit. If we put out a screen machine there will be a use for maybe ten of them in the whole United States. With that many screen machines you could show the pictures to everyone in the country – and then it would be done. Let’s not kill the goose that lays the golden eggs. (Robinson 39)
Lumière brothers on the other side of Europe are credited for inventing the motion picture and this followed many pioneers who made numerous contributions during that time. The significance of these inventions in the early times is the seeking of knowledge which could be advanced today to produce more accomplished inventions.
The knowledge of early cinema can help those who take film production career especially in the designing and making of films. For example, it was from the early cinema that Henri Langlois recreated movies and from them he won an honorary award in 1974. Langlois showed different early films every night and those who liked his films were amazed at his programming ability.
Langlois had films from the Nazis, which he recovered and refined them and he invented from early films a job which no one thought of before. Therefore, early cinema can be very helpful in enriching today’s entertainment and information industry thus significant to cinema historians. The phantom of the Cinematheque reveals Langlois’ quest for the art form which resembles Lumière’s shadows (Robinson 39).
Moreover, it was Adre Bazin who prospected that film has its foundation in photography and thus possesses the realistic aspect of it. Therefore, he believes that film; as in early cinema, has the ability to capture the real world. This makes us see the sense in the fact that early films captured the reality of the time more than anything else.
The study of the history of film therefore enables students of cinema history to capture the reality of the world when they were being made. Since history reflects many common social aspects which have been carried to today, it is possible to reflect the reality of yesterday in today’s communication and entertainment. This cannot happen without the availability of the early cinema as well as their study.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Significance of Early Cinema for Our Study of the History of the Cinema specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, early cinema cannot be taken lightly in their contribution of today’s film industry. The cinema has evolved from Lumière brothers, to Cohn Brothers and by today we have seen Hollywood give rise to Bollywood and the technology is still in the way of its growth to high heights. Therefore, the inventions of early cinema were more than just a technology at that time and it came along centuries leaving strong foundations.
The film industry, which is leading in offering entertainment, information and education, could not have the way it is today were it not for the efforts of the inventors of cinema. Most of the materials which are incorporated into the film today can be traced back in the cinema error and they act to enrich each other.
This could not have been possible without the knowledge of early cinema innovations. Early cinema therefore plays a significant role not only in the study of the history of cinema but also in its assessment, appreciation and adoption.
Work Cited Robinson, David. Realising the vision: 300 years of cinematography, in Cinema: the Beginnings and the future, edited by Cristopher Williams. London: University of Westminster Press, 1996. Print.
In the Eye of an Advertisement: Reading Between the Lines Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Tracing the Minotaur: The Legend Revived
The Wordplay That Seizes Imagination
Happy Mascots and the Napalm Attack
Tracing the Minotaur: The Legend Revived Enticing the people of higher culture with the products of mass consumption, one has to go with rather specific approaches, mixing the everyday mundane life with more epic issues. Targeting both the middle-class public and more privileged people, Merino wool company decided to create a fusion of the pop-culture imagery and an obvious reference to the Greek mythology.
Hence, the less sophisticated part of the audience was lured with the “sex sells” context of the advertisement, while the higher class could indulge into the associations induced by the image of a beast reminding of the mythological Minotaur.
Taking a closer look at the advertisement, one can see the distinct allusion to the legend of Minotaur. However, in the very picture, the bull’s head, which was the necessary feature of the Greek beast, was replaced with the head of a sheep, which targets the audience’s attention on the required goods – the wool, to be particular, thus, offering a peculiar pun for the people who are acquainted with the ancient mythology.
As Gibbons (76) had predicted, the mixture of the real and the surreal became one of the major features of the advertisements that included an artistic element.
It is obvious that the advertisement comprises the imagery of the Greek culture and the ideas of the modern era which uses the physical attractiveness as the main asset for providing the cover of expenditure for the advertisement and promoting tangible priorities.
Supporting the cultural hegemony, the advertisement at the same time reminds of the alternative for the existing culture. In contrast to the modern image of a successful, self-assured business woman, the advertisement offers a picture of a fragile, adventurous beauty, whose nakedness looks quite controversial, yet fits in with the general mood of the picture.
The Wordplay That Seizes Imagination In contrast to the advertisements aimed at the high-class public, which require the images and ideas that relate to the corresponding layer of culture and need that the implications of the advertisements should be rather subtle, the commercials for the middle-class people are supposed to be more persuasive and contain vivid imagery that is quite easy to intertwine with the slogan of the brand in question. Hence, the advertisement created by Gatorade proved to be one of the most successful brands ever.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to the brilliant legend behind the advertisement, that exercised the idea that practically anyone could become another sports idol if buying the drink, the company also made an efficient use of the slogan. Like many advertisements referring to the popular culture, the Gatorade commercial has also put into practice the idea of using puns as the main attraction.
Discovered not so long ago, the principle of inserting a pun into an advertisement to make it more colorful is one of the basic ideas for creating a mass-culture advertisement, as Danna emphasizes: “Puns are appropriate for ads since they are easily recognizable as humorous, and they are short. These kinds of puns are most celebrated in the ads” (119).
Hence, the combination of the saturated green, red and white, the recipe for the instant success that the brand offers, and the catchphrase used as the slogan for the advertisement work wonders promoting the soda. Moreover, it is evident that the advertisement supports the hegemony, helping people to make a successful career, which tunes with the ideas of the famous American Dream.
Happy Mascots and the Napalm Attack Despite the controversy and the hidden implication of the intense violence, as well as the reminder of the tragic mistakes of the past, the advertisement created by Banksy, the famous street artist, is truly shocking and at the same time frighteningly attractive. The image of Phan Thị Kim Phúc, burnt by the napalm, running down the street and being accompanied by the most cheerful mascots one can ever imagine, Ronald McDonald and Mickey Mouse, has a lot to do with the political issues.
In fact, the entire advertisement is a blend of societal perspectives, consumerism and cultural identities – or, rather, the remnants of the ones Vietnam was left with after the war with South Korea. Indeed, as Beasley and Danesi wisely mentioned, “the use of advertising in the political arena seems to know no bounds” (2).
Even though the advertisement seems to be suitable for all grown-up people to think of the deplorable effects the war between Vietnam and the South Korea had, the message between the lines of the advertisement is aimed at the U. S. foreign politics and at the country’s political leaders.
Criticizing the actions undertaken by the then United States President, Richard Nixon, Banksy lunged against the policy of the government. Delivering the message of the suffering the Vietnamese had to take, Banksy revealed the political and social facts people were unaware of, which made the advertisement controversial and headed against the then hegemony.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on In the Eye of an Advertisement: Reading Between the Lines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, advertisements above tell a lot both about the culture of the nation and the relationships of the latter with the rest of the world. Being another reality that mirrors the world people live in, advertisements can be both encouraging and criticizing. One of the means for people to see their own selves, advertisements cannot change the culture, but can show the ways to shape the existing tastes and tendencies.
Works Cited Beasley, Ron, and Marcel Danesi. Persuasive Signs: The Semiotics of Advertising. Berlin, DE: Walter de Gruyter, 2002. Print.
Danna, Sammy Richard. Advertising and Popular Culture: Studies in Variety and Versatility. The Upper Midwest, WI: Popular Press, 1992. Print.
Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London, UK: I. B. Tauris, 2005. Print.
Plastic Types and Manufacturing Report best college essay help
A plastic material is among the extensive collection of artificial or semi-synthetic organic materials that are used in the production of industrial products. Plastic materials are characteristically polymers with high molecular mass. In addition, they may contain additional substances that help them to improve their performance and/or cut down the cost of production.
The most likely plastic used Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is the most likely used type of plastic.
Why this plastic is selected
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
PVC is highly reliable because of its durability, light weight, flexibility and low cost. In addition, it has a high resistance to out-of-doors exposure as well as high mechanical strength PVC is also very good in reducing solar heat gain. Depending on the additives, PVC combines strength with transparency or color (Ronald and Baird, 1986). This addition of white and colored additives improves the weathering resistance of the PVC materials and products as well as their process-ability. These are some examples of the huge demands made on Polyvinyl Chloride.
What are some alternative plastics and why?
Some of the alternative plastics that are in use today are:
Fiberglass (Glass Re-enforced Polyester, GRP)
The characteristics of the refined GRP compound material are dependent on a large number of fabrication and compositional factors (Blaga, 1978). Some of these factors include resin formulation, curing conditions, filler, fabrication process, the amount and type of strengthening, workmanship, and coupling agent (Blaga, 1978). Glass reinforced plastic is a polyester resin reinforced with glass fibers. It can be used as a structural material by the artist. Fiberglass can be molded into various shapes which add strength to the work of art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This material is durable and light, which makes it suitable for delicate applications in works of art. Fiberglass can easily be reinforced by adding more layers to harden it. Although not strong, this material is cheaper to manufacture (Ronald and Baird, 1986). A Glass Re-enforced Polyester material has found use in applications that require corrosion resistant materials at reasonable costs.
Therefore, Fiber glass materials can be employed as lining materials for conventional pipes that are exposed to chemical or galvanic corrosion (Blaga, 1978). GRP materials are non conductors of electricity and are therefore, induction flows do not have an effect on them. In addition, fiber glass materials have high tensile strength, durability, better strength and low density. Also, the materials have very strong stiffness characteristics. Lastly, as a result of their structure, GRP materials have very long life times.
The most popular acrylic plastics type is Polymethyl methacrylate and it is usually tough and highly transparent. It is also characterized by high resistance to weathering and ultraviolet radiation. Polymethyl methacrylate can also be drilled, formed, colored and molded easily. This quality makes it ideal for many applications in art (Dominick, 1993).
In view of the fact that Acrylics do not form crystalline resins when they are heated, however, they are converted into a shapeless blob that is referred to as an amorphous resin; acrylics have a grand “mold to size” capacity but their resistance to chemical corrosion is poor. In addition, they are fragile and easily broken. This is why they are constantly sprayed with certain types of fiber glass materials so as to stiffen them.
This material is highly reactive and pure. It is also relatively cheap. Formaldehyde plastics have good Color retention properties, and offer moderate water and heat resistance. In addition, they offer good chemical resistance and have excellent dimensional stability (Whitfield, Brown, and Low, 2007).
Polyethylene is highly reliable because of its durability, light weight, flexibility and low cost. Polyethylene is also very good in reducing solar heat gain. Depending on the additives, Polyethylene combines strength with transparency or color. A good number of grades of Polyethylene have outstanding chemical resistance and do not liquefy at room temperature as a result of their crystalline nature.
Different from acrylic materials, Polyethylene materials have better elasticity, and would not break before bending. They are closed cell materials similar to Styrofoam, which do not absorb water and emit any gaseous odors or fumes. In addition, they are tough, electrically insulating, offer poor weathering resistance, have low strength, and have a relatively low friction coefficient (Callister, 2004).
We will write a custom Report on Plastic Types and Manufacturing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What is the most likely process? Used
There are many processes that make it possible for plastics to be changed into a number of useful shapes. These processes, which are employed in the molding or shaping of thermoplastics fundamentally, make the plastic material softer so that its injection into a mold, or flowing via a die, or forming over or in a mold can be done easily. These processes more often than not permit any scrap materials or parts to be chopped into pieces and reused. The most common process that is used is casting.
Casting is the process of art which involves making of an art form from a hollow mold by pouring molten plastic into the mold and leaving it to harden. This technique can be done in various ways. Lost-wax method of casting for instance begins with coating of the model surface with lacquer among other proactive substances.
The model is then placed in a retainer mold where pouring of liquid elastic takes place. To reveal the negative impression, the flexible mould is gently removed from the model when it solidifies. Application of meted material is done from the inside of the flexible mold. Core of investment material is then poured following solidification of the material. To reveal the wax positive, the two halves of the outer plastic retainer molds are removed after solidification of the mold (Dominick, 1993).
Steps in creating a sculpture using direct modeling method of casting
The process starts by preparing your framework of art. The plastic material is simply poured into a box where the artist wants the artwork to carve from. For this illustration, a human head will be used. To start with, a picture of a person’s head is sourced. The next stage that follows involves building an armature.
This is the frame where building of the sculpture takes place. This can be build from any rigid material such as a steel of a wire. A small welder can also be used to make a basic steel frame. The frame is the essential outline upon which the sculptor holds the materials. To build an armature, the artist can use nails and tacks to build together pieces of woods. The length of the wood should be slightly shorter than the length of the head that the artist intends to make.
The wires are then nailed on a piece of hardboard. To make a round shape as intended, the wires are blended together. The wires are then attached to a central position on the piece of wood. This consists of the basic structure of the head. Knowledge of the right mixing ratios of the plastic material is required for the subsequent stage. This stage involved mixing of the plastic materials.
Mix the plastic materials properly to form a resilient material the moment it dries up. When the plastic material starts reacting chemically and hardening, the next step which involves inserting the hand gently into the mixing materials is started. The aim of this stage is to capture any clumps of solids and breaking them up. This stage also helps by bringing the air bubbles to the surface to ensure uniformity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Plastic Types and Manufacturing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next stage involves completion of the armature. Some old rags are torn into small strips and dipped into a mixer of the plastic. The strips are then twisted around the wire support. This process creates a strong support along the wires, and the sculpture starts to form. The strips are then left to dry. Depending on the humidity in the air, this process takes about an hour. Having done with the armature, the final shell is thrown to form the sculpture.
The versatile material is molded till the general shape of the head is built up. In order to get high quality, significant process control is required in this process. Examples of products that are made using this method are slabs, rods, tubing, and sheets (San Diego Plastics, n.d). Examples of materials that can easily be cast include nylons and acrylics (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
One of the advantages of this process is that the artist can continue to add the basic shape even after the paste has dried up. This is because materials can be mixed and casted onto the areas that the artist feels that some elements have been left out. For example, if the artist feels that the nose is smaller than intended; more materials can be mixed and casted to add up the size of the nose. It is however important to avoid adding up more paste when the earlier one is too dry because it may not adhere well. Grooves can however be cut into the dry paste to increase the level of adherence (Raymond, 1990).
This process is frequently employed in the making of complex and intricate shapes, which would otherwise be uneconomical or difficult to make using other methods (Degarmo, Black, and Kohser, 2003).
The better properties of the products that come from permanent mold casting are usually determined by solidification in the metallic mold. This include: superior mechanical properties, homogeneous chemical composition and grain structure, as well as low gas porosity and shrinkage. In addition, the art forms have good surface quality and low dimensional tolerances (Kopeliovich, n.d).
Alternative Processes Thermoforming
This process of thermoforming involves heating a cast or extruded sheet, draping it over a mold, in addition to allowing it to cool so as to fabricate a component (San Diego Plastics, n.d).To ensure that the material better conforms to the profile of the mold, vacuum is used to haul the material downwards.
Air pressure can also be used to blow up a shape or a bubble (San Diego Plastics, n.d). On the whole, these two processes call for the softening of the material in order to allow a low force to be applied so as to shape the component (Harper, 1996). Some examples of components made from thermoforming are motorcycle and boat windshields skylights, signs, and bubble packaging (San Diego Plastics, n.d). An example of this process is vacuum forming.
Epoxy resin and Crystic polyester can both been used with fiberglass to mold solid castings. Vacuum forming, a method for molding thin plastic sheet, can be used for three-dimensional plastic surfaces. This thermoforming process uses through the application of heat and pressure to mold castings (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
This is applicable where identical motif is required in multiples for recurrence within a sculptural arrangement, for instance in Oldenburg’s Profile Airflow (1969; New York, Museum of Modern Art); Richard Hamilton also used this procedure to make plastic imitations of the Guggenheim Museum in New York. In the mid- and late 20th century, plastic have been built into a variety of forms of sculpture, assemblage, montage and collage (Edward, 1994).
Vacuum forming (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Comparatively deep parts are usually formed when the form-able sheets are pneumatically or mechanically stretched before bringing the sheets in contact with the surface of the mold and before the vacuum are applied (Throne, 1999).
The process of vacuum forming is employed in the production of plastic parts many industries; these include cosmetic, food, medical, entertainment, electronics, toys, household products, automotive, athletic equipment, appliance, clothing, office supplies and packaging industries (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Some of the products formed by vacuum forming are inserts, blister packs, clamshells, and trays. This processes’ production time is usually short and this increases the detail-oriented features of production’s time. Many products produced by vacuum forming are sharp and precise detailed, hence making this process a desirable alternative to other molding methods (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
Some advantages of the process include being economical for petite to medium fabrication units, low cost of tooling, quick startup, and effective prototyping. In addition, there is no need to paint the art forms since texture and color are formed in (“Vacuum forming,” n.d).
The modeling is a sculpture process which is additive and it involves materials building up to create/generate a final product/form. It is mostly done on an armature. The sculptor uses their hands to mould the material, which must be pliable.
This process, which is occasionally referred to as matrix transfer molding, is a practice frequently employed during molding. The process starts with the creation of a firm outer shell. This is then followed by the introduction of a softer and more liquefied molding material into the rigid shell and the model. Matrix molding is regularly used to create intricate shapes from composite materials such as glass/ceramic and glass composites (Mazdiyasni, 1990).
According to Mohr et al. (1973) and Agranoff (1975), matched-die molding is among the new processes that are currently in use the process allows for increased automation, and makes use of sheet molding compound (SMC). Molding of complex large art forms is facilitated by SMC.
This includes those that have differences in thickness, sharp radii, molded-in ribs, threads or bosses, comers and inserts. Art forms fabricated by this process have smooth molded surfaces. Many automotive applied products are made using this process (Blaga, 1978)
Injection molding is a process of art used to make detailed three dimensional art forms (San Diego Plastics, n.d). Placement of the material inside the machine’s hopper (Injection molding machine) starts the process. After the placement, the material is then taken to the melting cavity where it is heated.
Injection Molding (Kailas, n.d.)
When the material melts, it is then taken to the pressured mould, fitting into the cavity’s outline. When the cooling process is over, opening of the mould takes place. Afterwards, the mold is closed and waits for the subsequent shot. During injection, mold clamping is critical since the pressure of the cavity rises to 5,000 psi at times. Usually, the molds are made from hardened steel, epoxy and aluminum and are carefully finished (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Squeezing toothpaste from its tube can be likened to extrusion. This process brings into being continuous shapes that are two dimensional. The technique is particularly adapted to production of continuous lengths that have constant cross-sections (Gowariker, Viswanathan, and Sreedhar, 2001). Some of these products are gasketing, film, pipe, sheet, and tubing.
The process involves feeding the material into an extruder where it melts and is then pumped out from the extrusion die. The die and the take-off line can control the ultimate aspects and the shape of the cross-section as the material cools. The extrusion equipment is created and regulated to generate melted plastic at very regular pressure and temperature that control the quality and size of the extruded products (Harper, 1996).
Extrusion (Kailas, n.d.)
This process is used to produce bottles, for example the gallon milk bottle (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
As noted by Gowariker, Viswanathan, and Sreedhar (2001), the calendering process frequently makes use of four heated rolls that are revolving at slightly distinct speeds. In this case, the material is delivered into the rolls, where it is heated and melted. Shaping of the material into films or sheets then takes place. Many products, commonly made from Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), are usually fabricated using this process (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
The process of compression molding usually involves placing a suitable charge of polymer material containing additives into the hollow space of heated male and female mold components (Callister, 2004).
Compression Molding (Kailas, n.d.)
After the material has been poured into the cavity, the mold is closed in anticipation of material cross-linking. Heat and pressure are constantly applied. This makes the plastic material to acquire the preferred mold shape.
Hand lay-up process
The hand lay-up process, which is the oldest technique and the one that calls for a minimal number of equipment, is currently used to fabricate large, hand lay-up and exceptional parts, as well as a fairly small number of miniature components, whose sizes and/or quantities would not validate the cost of production (Blaga, 1978).
This technique entails impregnation of the fiber glass reinforcement using a thermo-settable resin liquid in a gaping mold made from reinforced plastic, wood, concrete, or plaster, and cure is induced at room temperature (Parkyn, 1970; Mohr et al., 1973). A little external or no outside pressure may be applied (Parkyn, 1970; Mohr et al., 1973).
When catalysts are added, cross-linking or hardening of the material occurs at room temperature (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Filament winding is a process of art forming that is said to be an automated edition of the hand lay-up method (San Diego Plastics, n.d). In this process, support filaments are coated using a resin and subsequently wrap around a mandrel. Layers and orientation’s number is dependant on the component’s bearing weight. Only strong and thin hollow pieces remain after the mandrel’s removal. Some examples of parts made from filament winding are street lighting columns and storage tanks (San Diego Plastics, n.d).
Depending on the size and the intended use of the products, there can be no “perfect substitute” for plastics. Although metals could be melted and cast into several shapes, they are bulky and some are very expensive. Wood can not be a substitute for plastics because it can neither be molded nor withstand high temperatures. All the above materials and processes are environmentally sustainable if proper care is taken when dealing with each one of them.
References Agranoff, J., 1975. 1975-1976 Modern Plastics Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, Znc.
Blaga, A., 1978. GRP composite materials in construction: properties, applications and durability. Industrialization Forum, 9 (1), pp. 27 – 32.
Callister, W.D., 2004. Materials Science and Engineering – An introduction. Sixth edition. New York: John Wiley
Group Behavior in Organizations Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Human attitude and behavior
Information processing at group level
Individual and group effectiveness
Characteristics of an Effective Group
The social system in organizations consists of complex sets of human relationships with a variety of associations with each other, as well as the external environment. People in organizations willingly join groups according to shared work practises, habits and interests, just as they belong to other social and cultural groups, into which they are born.
These groups have an effect on the members, including: work traits; mannerisms towards seniors; and quality of work patterns. The groups subconsciously or consciously impose expectations and rules on their members, and it is therefore important for an organization to arrange for either formal or informal training of these groups on organizational goals, in order to achieve positive and aligned work behavior (Davis
The selection process of candidate Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The selection exercise
Factors influencing the selection process
Introduction It has also been an opportunity for me to learn various issues surrounding the selection exercise. The selection process involves such issues as job application, short listings and interviews in order to settle down on the right candidate.
There are various factors that are considered before settling down on the right candidate as we will see in the reflective essay below. The basic areas of concern during the selection exercise are the selection decisions, validity and reliability of short listing and interview practices as a component of the selection process.
The selection exercise is mainly not a single individual’s task but it is rather an exercise carried out by a panel of professionals mainly the human resources managerial team. Decision making is therefore based upon some laid down policies which are agreed upon by the code of ethics or by the selection panel since depending on individuals’ responses may at times bring about contradictions.
The selection panel must therefore carry out adequate prior preparation concerning the exercise whereby it is more appropriate to involve professionals in this field. This is because there are many trained professionals in this field and the selection criteria for various candidates are based upon closely related factors.
However, different interviewers have different interviewing approaches thus though there might be structured approach of the selection process, the interviewee ought to be adequately prepared and flexible in order to convince each member of the panel that he is the best candidate (Hackney and Kleiner, 1994, p. 8).
The selection exercise All human resource professionals appreciate the fact that attracting and retaining the best manpower for a specific job depends largely on the effectiveness of the recruitment, short listing, selection and interview criteria. These are the exercises that largely constitute the selection process.
There are a number of factors that affect the effectiveness of these stages and hence the decisions regarding the “best applicant.” The success in every of the stages depends on both the job seeker and the employer through the human resource section (Buckley, Norris, and Wiese, 2000, p. 116).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in filling any vacant post is recruitment. It involves advertisement of the vacant post either internally, i.e. within the company or publicly, through the mass media. This step allows the qualified and the interested individuals to make application towards the advertised post.
Individuals make their application depending on the interest in the job and their belief that they have the required skills, abilities, and other talents required to do the job well (Catano, 2009, p. 235).
However, due to the high rates of unemployment in many nations and other reasons, it is very likely to find individuals who may not be meeting the specified requirements applying for the vacant position. Furthermore, applicants are mainly beyond the required number in most cases thus calling for the short listing exercise.
The selection panel puts various factors into consideration, as we will see, in order to shortlist only the individuals who are likely to add value to the company in question.
Once the candidates have been shortlisted, personal interviews are carried out to further identify the most suitable candidate since the short listing process may only consider academic and the experience qualifications while the one on one interview enables the selection panel to in identify an individual’s potential.
While I have been participating in this exercise, there are various things that I have learnt from observation and interactions with the rest of the members of the panel that I was not able to learn while I was doing my research paper.
This has enabled me to enrich my knowledge especially on the fact that academic and other kind of testimonials are not enough proof to settle down on the right candidate thus personal interview is always important in order to combine academics and experience with the right character.
We will write a custom Essay on The selection process of candidate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors influencing the selection process Considering the participation I had on the selection process coupled with the knowledge and the experiences I have had with my own research and lectures, I have realized that there are several factors that determine the kind of a candidate that fits a certain job.
One of the factors is the kind of questions that will be asked during the interview (Class notes, 2011, p. 1). Before an applicant qualifies to sit down with the interviewing panel, it means that the individual application is worth short listing thus he processes the relevant skills and qualifications for the post in question.
The kind of questions that he will be asked and the kind of answers he is likely to give will determine his potential for the post in question. In the job market today, there are professionals who are wholly meant for the selection process and the questions asked in the panel are mainly tailor made to fit the needs of the given company (Barclay, 1999, p. 138).
There are three main types of questions “structured interview, unstructured, and behavioral interviewing style” (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002, p. 21) which can be categorized into the main subjects of interest such as:
Intrinsic and motivational factors, skills and abilities, knowledge of the organization, career goals and objectives, experiences in the desired area, extracurricular activities and college experiences, academic programs and achievements, hypothetical questions, accomplishments and achievements, geographic preferences, and salary and benefits. (Hartley and Bruckmann, 2002, p. 21) This enables the panel to get the right picture of the interviewee thus settling down on the best candidate.
Gender is another major factor that influences decision making in a selection procedure (Radford, 1998, p. 108). In many cases, men have always been considered superior to women and this has also been reflected in job allocation thus affecting the selection process.
You will realize that the ratio of men to women in most shortlists varies a lot in many nations with the ratio of men being higher than that of women. Though there is a perception that some jobs are best suited for men while others are best suited for women, jobs that can be done by both genders well still are highly influenced by men superiority complex.
Some of the causes of gender bias in many nations include “parental expectation of children, education, advertisement if vacancies, self perception, nature of the assessment methods, attitudes and the perceptions of the assessors among others” (Radford, 1998, p. 108). This is passed on to the employer “gender discrimination” (Radford, 1998, p. 108) as well as the job seeker “e.g. in education and self selection” (Radford, 1998, p. 108) thus altering the whole selection process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The selection process of candidate by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gender differences and discrimination may not necessarily be structured within the selection process but may be an overall reflection of the selection process. First, the pool of applicants is usually determined by the individual’s decision to apply for the vacant position.
Due to the various forces surrounding the two genders, there may be gender differences in this pool of applicants. The successful candidate is usually a product of the selection process. Both the decision to apply and the selection process usually results to a successive reduction in the pool of applicants. The job definition has a lot of influence on the final selection of candidates which may be further influenced by the number of applicants from each gender (Radford, 1998, p. 108).
The physical factors surrounding a job are another major factor that determines the recruitment and the selection process. Individuals decide to apply for a certain vacant position depending on the desirability of working in a particular organizational environment (Catano, 2009, p. 235).
Some of the physical factors that applicants may consider include the location of the company, size of the enterprise and the kind of industry the job is categorized under. This is influenced by the age of the applicants, accessibility, and whether the job provides autonomy, and opportunities for self development.
Conclusion The selection process is one of the areas that determine the quality of the workforce in any organization. In the world we are living today, people have gone an extra mile to achieve academic excellence thus it is important for the selection panel to be a little bit keen on other qualities of a candidate. Such attributes are mainly achieved through behavioral interviewing style in order to settle down on the best candidate from the pool of academically qualified applicants.
References Barclay, J. (1999) Employee selection: a question of structure. Personnel Review, 28 (1
Death in The Shipping News Research Paper essay help
Introduction A Pulitzer-prize winning novel The Shipping News, written by E. Annie Proulx is a story of a young but dispossessed newspaper reporter, who is constantly searching for his lost self. The affection and sympathy for a flawed human being makes Proulx’s novel distinctly different from the prevailing majority of contemporary works.
Trapped within the gendered reality of his life, this disenfranchised and dispossessed personality resembles a figure of Don Quixote, as he is fighting against wind mills: his efforts are all in vain until death comes into his life. In Proulx’s novel, death exhibits a profound symbolic meaning.
It is equally astonishing and fascinating. It puts an end to someone’s moral tortures and, simultaneously, paves the way to someone else’s successes and achievements. For Quoyle, death is just the beginning of a difficult fight for his own self. In E. Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News, death exemplifies an act of moral capitulation and subsequent revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through the moral and spiritual salvation to love.
E. Annie Proulx is one of the most outstanding writers of our times. Her works are equally unusual and fascinating. Her characters uncover their talents and values through re-articulation and re-birth. The Shipping News is no exception: a Pulitzer-prize winning book, The Shipping News presents a dramatic story of a disenfranchised man looking for his self.
Quoyle, the protagonist of Proulx’s novel is trapped within the gendered reality of his tragic being. Constantly torn between his unfaithful wife, sick parents, and work and, as a result, disentangled, Quoyle is just a fragment of the surrounding reality, with no sense of selfhood (Flavin 240). In her book, Proulx observes how Quoyle is fighting against the realities of life. In The Shipping News, death comes as a form of salvation. It gives him Quoyle a second chance to win the game of life.
Quoyle, his wife Petal, and his parents are the major players of the death game. Quoyle’s life is a sequence of failures, which no one can break. “From this youngest son’s failure to dog-paddle the father saw other failures multiply like an explosion of virulent cells – failure to speak clearly; failure to sit up straight; failure to get up in the morning; failure in attitude; failure in ambition and ability; indeed, in everything. His own failure.” (2)
This tragic picture of never ending failures is further supplemented with the image of Petal Bear, Quoyle’s wife, whose sexual desire for Quoyle turns into detestation once they are married (Proulx 13). Quoyle brings his children around, while his wife is searching for sexual adventures (Proulx 14).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Petal travels in the U.S. and pretends not to recognize her children when she comes back home (Proulx 15). A life full of torture – this is how readers see Quoyle, his life and his family. Yet, even then Quoyle does have a chance to cope with all his troubles, if not for his parents.
“First the father, diagnosed with liver cancer, a blush of wild cells diffusing. A month later a tumor fastened in the mother’ brain like a burr” (Proulx 17). Readers do not realize that the gruesome picture of Quoyle’s life is just a preparation stage of his journey to salvation.
Death will become the turning point in his returning to the community and his self. In Quoyle’s situation, death is the only and, probably, the best way to personal happiness. Death will give him the freedom he needs to move on the course prescribed by his inner desires and not his family or wife (Flavin 240). It may even give him a sense of satisfaction for being a personality.
It goes without saying that Quoyle’s life is invariably associated with the changes that happen in his community. Stakeholders play one of the major roles in creating and reconstructing Quoyle’s life. Inherently submissive to the conditions and circumstances of his existence, Quoyle accepts community stakeholders and their decisions for granted.
It is not until he loses his wife and parents and moves to Newfoundland that he succeeds in actualizing and articulating his best human features (Stewart). These are stakeholders that affect the direction of his moral and spiritual evolution. At the beginning of Proulx’s novel, even the best Quoyle’s features, including his striving to care for his family and children and his sensitivity to failures, carry profound negative connotations. Once in a new community, these features pave the way to Quoyle’s personal happiness.
Quoyle’s aunt Agnis Hamm becomes his salvation: the main stakeholder and one of the main characters of Proulx’s novel, Agnis Hamm says: “You’ve got a chance to start out all over again. A new place, new people, new sights. A clean state. See, you can be anything you want with a fresh start” (Proulx 27).
Aunt Hamm gives impetus to Quoyle’s restoration and rebirth. The novelty of the community surroundings is like a fresh breath to Quoyle. He gradually moves from the sense of inadequacy to the sense of community belonging. He develops a voice needed to articulate his emotions and concerns.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Death in The Shipping News specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He is no longer silent; nor is he a failure to himself and the rest of the community. The new community provides Quoyle with a unique opportunity to re-establish himself as a personality who deserves respect and love. This way is thorny and paved with tears, but what he gets at the end turns death into the source of new, unique opportunities for Quoyle. It seems that life itself gives Quoyle a second chance to win the game of life.
In Annie Proulx’s novel, the topic of death is important, since it exemplifies an act of capitulation and revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through spiritual and moral salvation to love. Death marks the beginning of Quoyle’s profound restructuring through self-exploration and self-analysis.
It is not an easy task, as the man cannot proceed to self-analysis before he comes back to his family and community history. Death turns The Shipping News into a unique source of knowledge about Quoyle’s ancestry. It allows Quoyle to understand the hidden causes of his personal and family failures.
This spiritual journey to inner peace and balance is associated with the pain of realization that Quoyle’s family “was a savage pack. In the olden days they say Quoyles nailed a man to a tree by ‘is ears, cut off’ is nose for the scent of blood to draw the nippers and flies that devoured ‘im alive” (Proulx 97).
This knowledge creates a moral controversy and a gap of misunderstanding between Quoyle and the rest of the Killick Claw community. Death reflects and emphasizes the need for a profound mental restructuring, which will take out the best features and leave violence and sexual abuse of Quoyle’s grand-relatives behind.
Without knowledge of his past, Quoyle cannot become a whole with his identity and selfhood (Flavin 240). While learning his past, Quoyle reconstructs himself and becomes honest and assertive (Flavin 240). He learns how to be happy and how to keep this happiness in his hands.
From the lowest point of disenfranchisement, through self-analysis, Quoyle finally achieves the ultimate point of completeness, where love is possible without pain and torture, and where it is not wounded and wrenched and comes only once (Proulx 234).
In Proulx’s The Shipping News, death is the end of Quoyle’s silence and the beginning of his voiced, well-articulated future. Seiffert writes that Proulx’s The Shipping News is essentially about Quoyle’s development of voice, followed by the sense of identity and belonging (515).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Death in The Shipping News by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He begins his journey through Proulx’s book as a silent giant, a heap of flesh, with his marriage a painful disaster and his parents in the state of a death climax. He falls short of words, unable to express the complexity of feelings and emotions.
He silently listens to his wife as she is having with her new boyfriend in their living room: “He did not get up but lay on his back, the newspaper rustling with each heave of his chest, tears running down into his ears” (Proulx 16).
Following his wife’s drunken death, Quoyle becomes the sole decision-maker in his family. The life of his children is in his hands. He can finally envision his own future. He is no longer tied by circumstances. He is no longer trapped in his home place.
This is when he finally feels as if he had lost silence (Proulx 321). His voice becomes his guidance – an expression of his intuition and an articulation of his desires and thoughts. He is finally capable of expressing of his deepest feelings and thoughts. He can finally release his sentiments and passions without being judged for them.
Death in Proulx’s novel reflects Quoyle’s connection with stakeholders, since death is the main factor of homecoming and returning to the community for Quoyle. This is where the connection between Quoyle and stakeholders becomes particularly important.
This process is traumatic but effective – the pain of coming back to forefathers is further compensated by the triumph of knowledge and self-awareness. In Polack’s words, Quoyle’s life after the tragic deaths of his wife and parents reflects the “symmetry of redemption”, when the pain of loss causes and encourages purification from the sins and failures of the past (93). Quoyle’s new relationship with Wavey Prowse intensifies his sense of community belonging.
This sense, in turn, facilitates Quoyle’s transition to a new stage of self-creation and love: “Quoyle and Wavey side by side, feeling sympathy for each other. Herry breathing down their necks. The car moaned up the hill through the rain, away from the school” (Proulx 183).
Wavey is a point of connection between Quoyle and the new place he is in (Stewart). She is the source of harmony and balance between Quoyle and the rest of the community. This sense of belonging teaches Quoyle the skill of love, of which he was not capable before. This love turns into the main factor of Quoyle’s embeddedness and strong foundation in his new community (Stewart).
Proulx leads readers to the point, where death no longer looks formidable. Proulx reconsiders death from a new perspective, which gives it new meaning and life. It appears that death is not against life; rather it is the beginning of everything.
Cruel as it may sound, for individuals like Quoyle who surrender themselves to the circumstances of life, death is the only way to spiritual restoration and relief. This representation of death is equally complex and unique. It gives the reader some food for thought. We should care about this unique representation of death in Proulx’s novel, as it is never too late to reconsider even the most tragic events in a different, positive light.
Conclusion A Pulitzer-prize winning novel The Shipping News is a story of a young dispossessed newspaper reporter, who constantly tries but cannot find his lost self. Proulx’s novel is essentially about what death can bring and what effects its causes on people.
In E. Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News, death exemplifies an act of moral capitulation and subsequent revival, equally painful and inevitable, which is leading Quoyle through the moral and spiritual salvation to love. Death is the end of Quoyle’s silence and the beginning of his voiced, well-articulated future.
Death in Proulx’s novel reflects Quoyle’s connection with stakeholders, since death is the main factor of homecoming and returning to the community for Quoyle. Proulx leads readers to the point, where death no longer looks formidable. We should care about this unique representation of death in Proulx’s novel, as it is never too late to reconsider even the most tragic events in a different, positive light.
Works Cited Flavin, Louise. “Quoyle’s Quest: Knots and Fragments as Tools of Narration in The Shipping News.” Critique, 40.3(1999): 239-247. Print.
Polack, Fiona. “Taking the Waters: Abjection and Homecoming in The Shipping News and Death of a River Guide.” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 41.1(2006): 93-109. Print.
Proulx, E. Annie. The Shipping News. USA: First Touchstone Edition, 1994. Print.
Seiffert, Rachel. “Inarticulacy and Silence: Annie Proulx’s The Shipping News.” Textual Practice, 16.3(2002): 511-525. Print.
Stewart, Robert Scott. “Tayloring the Self: Identity, Articulation, and Community in Proulx’s The Shipping News.” Studies in Canadian Literature, 23.2. Web.
Speaking in Tongues in Acts Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Acts 2: 1- 4
Acts 10: 44- 46
Introduction Speaking in tongues is an interesting phenomenon with Christianity. In many occasion, people who witness this phenomenon for the very first time would find it funny, amusing, or even annoying. Such a reaction can be understood easily since this matter has also proven to be complex even to Christians and Theologians.
It seems to be an issue that is beyond the natural means of human understanding. Besides this mystical understanding of the phenomenon, there are various cultic Christian groups that strongly use this phenomenon to pray. The phenomenon is commonly used during prayers and it is evident with particular denominations in the Christian religion.
Considering all the confusing circumstances that surrounds the idea, it is necessary to have an in depth look at the topic with regards to what the Bible says about it. The topic can be found in the books of Acts of the Apostle and the book of 1st Corinthians. In this paper, the understanding of this topic in a biblical perspective will be based from the book of Acts of the Apostle.
The book of Acts of the Apostle was authored by Luke and he is the first one to account on this issue in the Bible. During Pentecost after the ascension of Jesus Christ, speaking in tongues was first experienced by the disciples of Jesus when the Holy Spirit came upon them. This happened seven weeks after Jesus’ Crucifixion1. Before leaving, Jesus instructed the disciples to wait in Jerusalem for the coming of the helper. This was a promise to bring a helper to mankind who is the Holy Spirit. This was the beginning of the first church.
This instant and another occasion in the book of Acts do we see people speaking in tongues. The other place in the Bible where this topic is touched is the letter that Apostle Paul wrote to the church at Corinth. In Acts this was a symbol that God used to prove that the Helper, Holy Spirit has arrived. During this day, everyone in the room in which they were praying received the Holy Spirit and began to pray in incomprehensible tongue.
Some churches and believers believe that this sign has to occur in somebody in order for them to be sure of the full filling of the Holy Spirit. Just like in the book of Acts, they emphasize on an evident to show that true baptism has occurred. At the same time, there are other churches that though it is permissible to exercise the practice, they never lay so much emphasis on the phenomenon. Other churches on their part, do not allow this.
One of the major questions that come into our minds whenever we hear of this topic as Christians is that is that, should every person who claims to be a Christian speak in tongues during baptism of the Holy Spirit?2 There are so many people who just find it difficult to practice the phenomenon.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More And at the same time, there are people who equally find it easy to speak in tongue. The other issue of concern is whether speaking in tongues is the proof that the Holy Spirit has descended upon somebody. Thirdly, there has been this issue of linking spirituality to tongue speaking and people have always wondered whether practicing this phenomenon makes someone closer to God.
Acts 2: 1- 4 Speaking in tongues has a purpose in the church and in the book of Acts of the Apostle it says that tongues of fire rested upon each of them “…a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them”3.
From this passage in the bible, a few things could be noticed. First of all this was the beginning of the first church and they needed the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Just as Christ had promised them that He would send them a helper, they could not begin anything without the arrival of the helper. The evidence that the helper had come, had to be something sensible. People could see the actual tongues of fire as they descended upon everyone in the room. This was after a violent wind sounded like coming from heaven and filled the whole room.
It is also clear that the different tongues were the enablement of the Holy Spirit4. Nobody spoke something that the other was speaking. Each tongue was different. This is not a common thing nowadays because the congregation normally tries to emulate the tongue that their pastor uses during prayer.
The tongues were different foreign languages. It is argued that the Jews in that room represented the different native languages of the world. And when the Spirit came upon them it gave them the ability to speak in these foreign languages. The people who came by to watch them were amazed to see fellow Jews from Galilee speaking in their own native language.
This whole scenario then became misinterpreted by the on lookers. They thought that these people were drunk because they spoke in strange tongues that no one could understand. This made Peter to come out explaining what was happening. Peter had never had confidence to speak in public with such authority as he did on that day.
This authority is also part of the evidence that the Holy Spirit had filled him. The Holy Spirit gives confidence once it fills a human soul. It may be unnecessary to use the evidence of speaking in tongues to prove that the Holy Spirit has come upon you but once a person shows confidence in the gospel of Christ and speaks without fear or shame.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Speaking in Tongues in Acts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During the day of Pentecost, there were three events that took place sequentially. The first one was the sound like a wind which was followed by something that looked liked fire that settled on each one of them. Lastly there was the speaking of tongues.
Peter rose to speak, he did not use tongues to address the people; he only preached and called for baptism of the Holy Spirit and repentance. Also from the passage it is unclear whether the Peter advised the people to be baptized and speak in tongues or just to be filled with the Holy Spirit. It was unclear whether the manifestation is the Holy Spirit filling people’s hearts or the speaking in tongues.
Acts 10: 44- 46 Other passage in the book of Acts where this phenomenon is displayed is Acts 10: 44 – 46. In this passage there is introduction of a non Jew5. Ever since Jesus ascended into heaven, the church has been composed of Jews only. Peter had gone to the house of a gentile on invitation.
Then Peter began to speak and preach to the entire crowd that was gathered there. He spoke about Jesus Christ and forgiveness. Just as he was speaking the Spirit of God came down on everyone who was under his voice and they all began to speak in tongues, both Jews and non Jews.
This was an amazing phenomenon to the entire Jewish community that was there because to them they had never witnessed Gentile speaking in tongues. In this context, it can be understood that the miraculous power of God which was manifested by the Holy Spirit coming down on the entire non Jew group, was not only meant for the Jews6. This power was extended to the whole world and the entirety of humanity. He used this miraculous sing to make it clear to the Jews the love of God and his acceptance to the whole world.
Lastly, in the chapter 19 verses 1 to 6, the final passage on this topic is displayed. In this passage Paul is in Ephesus, and he meets some disciples of John the Baptist. They had no idea about the gift of the Holy Spirit. So Paul taught them about the Holy Spirit. In the process of preaching, the Holy Spirit filled each one of them leading to the manifestation of speaking in tongues7.
In conclusion, this topic of speaking in tongues is not a requirement for one to be filled with the Holy Spirit. These circumstances told in the book of Acts, had special significance. The first case was the beginning and expansion of the church to the entire world. The second case had the significance of God showing his love to the entire world; meaning that everyone is accepted by God.
Bibliography Brawley, Robert L. Luke-Acts and the Jews: Conflict, Apology, and Conciliation. Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1987.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Speaking in Tongues in Acts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Barrett, C. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles. ICC. New York, NY: T
Information Systems Management Report cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
ICT in the UK: Public Services
Labour and conservative ways to technology
Comparison of other Government’s ICT with that of the UK
Challenges of ICT
Introduction Information communications technology is a general term that explains more about the integration of management systems. These systems include: intelligence, telecommunications and systems of audio-visual, which are currently used by information technology.
It involves all the technical ways of handling information and enhancing communication. It consists of telephony, audio and video transmission, broadcast media, network-based monitoring and control functions. ICT can be viewed as the combination of audio, visuals and networks enhanced by a link system. Economic incentives that result from this merging of network systems are large as they promote cost saving and effective organizational growth.
ICT in the UK: Public Services The UK government does not have effective information technology schemes. This is as a result of low allocation of budget share to the ICT and public sector. However, the government has come up with a strategy, which is expected to deliver public services in a better way at low costs.
The strategy involves sharing and re-use of ICT appliances. As stated by National Audit Office, (2007) this is intended to improve efficiency and productivity thereby reducing wastage and chances of project failure. Online transactions are scheduled to be opened for citizens and firms so as to promote policy debate and good collaboration during public service delivery.
Supply of government ICT is focused in a way that small and medium organizations are allowed to participate in an attempt to reduce bureaucracy. This is facilitated by creation of common ICT infrastructure that is built on mandated common standards. Transparency is enhanced through publication of government contract’s details so as to attract the necessary attention from all interested enterprises.
Current prediction of the UK’s public service ICT indicates that the sector is likely to experience a marginal decline. This is nothing compared to the wider cuts on spending, which should be reversed to ensure growth in a given short period of time. The total spending for 2010-11 financial year is estimated at 17.99 billion pounds.
This is expected to decline in the next financial year to stand at 17.75 billion pounds and later a mild decline throughout 2012-13 financial year. The sequence will overturn and see the spending rise to 18.27 billion pounds in 2015-16 indicating an increase of 1.5%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The processes of cutting operational costs bring about maintenance, increased spending on managed services as well as outsourcing. Rationalization of investment and infrastructure technology in the working of mobile is another form of saving.
This contributes positively to the hardware investment maintenance, offsetting of pressure so as to increase the lifespan of printers and Pcs resulting from the new spending on mobile devices. Cutting of government’s expenditure is seen as the main factor in use, but there has developed a new move to bring reforms in the public services.
The reforms are expected to be initiated by the local government followed by radical reforms in health sector. This will generate a considerable ICT investment by reversing the current spending trend. Businesses of various government branches have been joined together after the central government engages itself in a quest to reduce spending. This will see it spending more on outsourcing and reducing the overall cost of ICT in Whitehall. Other departments such as defence, transport and criminal justice are also expected to recover slowly.
Labour and conservative ways to technology Labour and conservative are two parties in the UK, which have persistent differences in policy formulation and in the ways society should be shaped. The two parties have clashed in economic sector on the cause of deficit and the appropriate method of handling it.
Conservatives condemned the growth of private debts, which were allowed by the Labour party. Butler, (1994) commented that the Labour opposed the review on spending and advocated for the need to delay cuts on expenditure.
In the public service, the set plans to distribute power to GPs have received a description, which portrays it as a dangerous experiment when public spending is reduced. The parties have differed in the education sector where: the labour party have analyzed the idea of free schools critically and opposed the move to raise tuition fees in universities to 9000 pounds, the cutting of funding for school sports and the ending of EMA payments of 16-18 year old youths.
The party has also opposed the planned educational reforms describing it as a backward move that makes the development strategies stagnant. Concerning the welfare reforms, the labour party has criticized the alleged move to cut housing benefits and elimination of child trust fund claiming that, it would cause poverty.
We will write a custom Report on Information Systems Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from having disagreements and distinct points of view, the two parties enhance democracy in various ways: They allow people to participate in elections freely, provide information to the public that might not otherwise be made public, enhance accountability and allow the existence of opposition to act as a watchdog.
The parties have also shown unity of agendas assumed to be brought about by the internet. Both have taken common grounds on how the government requires change although from different philosophies. There is a developing consensus of the parties, which will enable the adoption of long-term reforms in terms of state operations and its relationship with the citizens. Through their technological proposals, it is clear on how the two parties view the future status of the state.
This is because they have capitalized on the internet as the only medium of communication between the citizens and the government. The internet is perceived to offer people a chance to reinvent democracy and enable them to make decisions thereby influencing public policy. The conservatives have also developed a competition that will create a platform of tapping wisdom and ideas of dealing with tough policy challenges.
In the council of Barking and Dagenham, there is evident democracy in the way they hold elections and later form opposition. The mayor must be an existing councilor and assumes the role of conducting ceremonies in the borough. The council of Kensington and Chelsea has a united local government and a common town hall as well as administration.
There is equal representation of all citizens in the council governance signifying a well-developed democratic system. The council of Barnet has majority of councilor elected in the local government being conservatives. This has made them dominate the council and at times make decisions with no one to oppose. This also made them lose money in investments with a report showing that the procedures followed were not genuine.
Comparison of other Government’s ICT with that of the UK The government of the UK has the worst IT schemes in terms of effectiveness. Ross, (2003) argued that comparing UK with governments such as Canada, Japan, New Zealand and US, the government of the UK lags behind in many ways. There is recorded poor performance of e-government and a series of failed ICT projects with most of them based on public sector.
Allocation of contracts to a limited number of suppliers has caused problems in the UK. This has contributed to lack of expertise and poor ICT as compared to other nations.
Challenges of ICT For ICT to be fully adopted there must be affordable access created and infrastructure such as electricity which might not be there. Introducing ICT in education would mean a change in methods of teaching, re-training of teachers and added costs of purchasing new teaching equipment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Systems Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As people continue using the ICT, their culture is likely to change with respect to the technology in use. ICT brings about dissemination of indigenous knowledge, which when published on the internet gets exploited without economic benefit to the poor owner.
According to Cooke, (2007) most people with skills end up losing jobs and as ICT seem to create jobs; they are always different from the disappearing ones. ICT pollutes the environment since most of them contain toxic substances. Disposal of electronics waste proves a great challenge in waste management.
Recommendations Establishment of government policies would give guidance to the procurement of ICT systems resulting to the involvement of smaller companies in the business. Hall, (2010) suggested that, the government should provide enough ICT facilities in school to facilitate easy learning and adoption of e-learning.
Proper waste management should be put in place in order to control environmental pollution. Political differences should be kept aside when it comes to formulation of development related policies so as to enhance unity in the process. Countries should define boundaries of what qualifies to be published in the internet. This would prevent exploitation of indigenous knowledge from poor people.
Conclusion From the report it is evident that the government of the UK has undeveloped ICT system due to its practice of cutting ICT expenditure. The rivalry that existed between labour and conservatives greatly hindered development and adoption of ICT in the UK. The UK has a poor ICT system as compared to ICTs in other countries hence the call for improvement.
There are many challenges related to ICT and they range from education, through cultural to economic well-being of the society. However, ICT can help countries tackle their health, social and economic problems leading them to the realization of millennium goals.
References Butler, G. (1994). British Political Facts, 1990-1994, UK: Macmillan publishers.
Cooke, P. (2007). Regional knowledge economies market, cluster and innovation, Cheltenham: Edward Edgar.
Great Britain: National Audit Office. (2007). improving the Disposal of Public Sector Information, Communication and Technology. UK: The stationary office.
Hall, D. (2010). The ICT handbook for Primary teachers: a guide for students and professionals, UK: CRS press.
Ross, S. (2003). Britain since 1930, UK: Evans publishing group.
The “Modern Times” Movie Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Examination of the Movie
Introduction The movie “Modern Times”, widely considered to be Chaplin’s greatest work follows the adventures of Chaplain as he attempts to find a suitable job despite various unfortunately events and high jinks causing him to lose jobs one after the other.
While the movie itself is a comedy it does have various hidden metaphorical meanings which lend the film a greater brevity and meaning as compared to other silent films of the era. One theme which is expanded on in a comedic fashion is the effect being incarcerated has on an individual and his ability to adjust to society after being imprisoned for such a long period of time.
Examination of the Movie Towards the middle part of the movie people can see that Chaplain, after being released from jail, finds himself longing to be sent back to prison and being so far incapable of finding a proper job for himself. In reality this particular scene can be reinterpreted as the experiences newly released ex-convicts have when they are released from jail.
For a majority of them social reintegration is a harsh reality after years of being in a prison system where all their needs were taken care of (Coakley, 18). For them, reintegration is a harsh and arduous affair wherein due to their history of being a felon they are often derided against or shunned due to their past history.
As a result, this causes them to lose the ability to gain a stable means of employment resulting in them turning back to a life of crime either to survive or to be sent back to jail where they can at least be provided with somewhat decent living conditions.
It is this very experience that lies at the heart of “Modern Times”, while the film does express sentiments akin to the life of people during the modern day era it also reveals how due to societal changes in this era of ours people who have previously been incarcerated have no choice but to continue a cycle of crime as a result of the attitudes of the local populace.
While the film is comedic in nature it actually reveals the flaws of today’s modern society wherein people have to act in a certain way, be a certain type of person or behave in a prescribe manner in order to be accepted in society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Chaplin’s decidedly awkward actions are actually a parody of how people learn how to conform to a society where being “different” often times leads to uncomfortable if not harsh circumstances. In fact it can be stated that the film itself shows how society itself has created prisons for the various individuals who live in it wherein they are unable to escape from the roles society has created for them as a result of their need to conform in order to survive.
Conclusion Based on my interpretation of the film it can be said that one of the reasons why “Modern Times” has been so critically acclaimed is due to the fact that it was able to explore several themes regarding society with the main character saying little if nothing at all. In fact it can be stated that the depictions shown in the movie, though comedic in nature, are startlingly accurate to the way in which people in society have become so fixed in acting in such a particular way that they don’t even realize the prisons that they have created for themselves.
Works Cited Coakley, Sarah. “Jail break. (cover story).” Christian Century 121.13 (2004): 18.
MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.
BMW Luxury Cars Essay essay help online: essay help online
The core customer value for BMW luxury cars are prestige and hi-tech performance in their endeavors. Having full understanding of the specific needs of their target group, BMW has largely considered the psychographic factors of its customers.
As it has been revealed, BMW targets active individuals who have achieved success at their early age, desiring prestigious and super-performing luxury cars like themselves. Notably, the customers of BMW are technology oriented and very active in their life-time, as they pursue success in their ventures. In this regard, the brand seeks to establish strong relationship with its customers by providing them with the driving experience they desire in their life-time.
As it has been revealed, the luxury cars having the BMW brand name are in three series including MBW 3, MBW 5 and MBW 7. These three series of the MBW brand are the ultimate core aspects for maintenance of customer loyalty to the BMW luxury cars.
More specifically, the MBW 3 series provides its users with extra-ordinary performance as it is made to facilitate self actualization among the customer target base. Precisely, BMW 3 series seeks to establish trust and loyalty with its customers by offering splendid personalized experiences with the product. After the users of BMW 3 advance into more experience with BMW luxury cars, they move further to acquire BMW 5, which is more expensive, but maintaining the outstanding performance of BMW luxury cars
. On the other hand, BMW 7 series is meant for the already established customer base for BMW luxury cars as it propels higher the user-oriented experience with the BMW products through its advanced features to facilitate prestige and higher performance than 3 series. It is important to note that, 7 series is much more expensive that 3 series since it is mainly meant for company’s loyal customers who have had prior experience with the former series.
Following the currently competitive global markets, the development of products to achieve competitive advantage forms a real of success among brands marketers. Since the customers’ needs of BMW products are based outstanding performance, more innovations of the existing products need to be done to come up with more superior luxury cars capable of competing with potential competitors like Mercedes Benz among others.
More so, powerful advertisements based on psychographic factors of the customers’ needs to be made. For instance, creation of short films showing the uniqueness of BMW products on the context of other competitors may be quite appealing. Since visual advertisements are more accurate and highly effective, the films will be able to attract target customers’ attention largely. As a result, success and efficiency in marketing BMW products will be realized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, a variety of channels in marketing the BMW luxury cars would be more appropriate to reach wider customers base. Since the target customers for BMW are always busy and very active, the use of precise and direct advertisements over the internet would be quite effective so that the customers don’t waste time interpreting information of the advertisement.
It can also be recommended that, the product promotion uses the internet to collect information about the needs of their customers with respect to the specific aspects of the luxury cars which need to be improved. By having enough data about the accurate needs of the target customers, it would be easier for the company to modify the cars to intersect with the specific needs of the customers.
How do ethnic minority married women compare their life in the UK to the life they had in their own country? Research Paper college admissions essay help
Aim and Objectives of the Study The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how the quality of life of married minority women in the United Kingdom compares to their life before migrating to the country. Other objectives of the paper will include:
Factors that have led to a change in their lives in the UK
The role of marriage in changing their life in the UK
Role of gender equity programs in influencing the life of ethnic minority women in the UK
The influence of race relations in their lives in the UK
Literature review Before doing any analysis on the status of ethnic minority married migrant women in the UK, the paper will carry out an overview of what the situation of ethnic and migrant women in the country is. The Women and Equality Unit (2004, p 2) asserts that there is a discrepancy skewed to whites favor when it comes to job attainment.
According to Dustmann
HIV/AIDS by Allan Whiteside Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents The Problem
Dimensions of the Problem
The Problem HIV/AIDS is a disease that is easily transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and pregnancy. The HIV virus weakens the victim’s immune system and after some point the disease becomes the medical condition known as AIDS. At this point the body can no longer counter the effects of infection.
But the worst part of all is the fact that there is no known cure. Thus, the disease can spread from one village to the next and from one city to the next to overwhelm local governments and health officials. It will eventually become an epidemic if nothing can be done to stop the spread of the disease.
It is a lethal medical condition that once infected the carrier of the virus is expected to die but this does not have to be the case for most people, if only they can have access to treatment that can mitigate the impact of the disease.
Dimensions of the Problem The problem with HIV/AIDS is not only limited to the mortality rate and the epidemiology of the disease but also the social problems that it brings. First of all AIDS can easily shorten the life expectancy of the patient. This is especially true in places where there is no adequate healthcare system that can help in mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS.
In addition to the healthcare aspect of the problem there is also the social side of the issue. In the early years of its history, HIV was linked to homosexuals and drug addicts. Thus, when the community finds out that a person has AIDS then the inevitable isolation and persecution can occur.
In addition there is still widespread ignorance of the disease and therefore the fear of infection is high even if scientifically speaking it is impossible for a person to get infected unless specific conditions are met.
Evaluating Evidence The study used scientific data as well as historical data. The study traced the emergence of the disease as well as the response of different nations. There was a section that provided an overview of the organizations and the personalities involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aside from science and history the study also used textual evidence, specifically literature, to show that the concern for AIDS/HIV has gone global. The study highlighted an advertising campaign with the catchphrase “Don’t Die of Ignorance” and it was printed on a leaflet that was distributed in every household in Great Britain (Whiteside, p.103). The study also mentioned the use of multimedia to enhance the campaign against the deadly disease.
The study was carefully put together and as a result there is almost no way to misinterpret what the author tried to convey. It is clear that the cause of the problem is HIV/AIDS and that the impact of the disease is the reason why other issues emerged such as poverty, gender inequality, corruption in government etc.
However, if one will ask why there were so many preventable deaths then there is indeed another side to the story. The reason is not just the virus but other social forces as well that help exacerbate the problem.
The widespread impact of AIDS/HIV especially in Third World countries cannot be solely blamed on the epidemiology of the virus but also on the social conditions that exist in a particular nation or geographic area that help explain the spread of the disease and the high mortality rate.
This is the major focus of the study. Although the discovery of a cure is the most important issue when it comes to HIV/AIDS, the need to improve preventive measures and how to enhance treatment has occupied the thoughts of many people including those that have the resources and influence to make an impact in the fight against HIV/AIDS. It has become very clear that the problem is no longer local but global.
Conclusion There are three major issues when it comes to HIV/AIDS. First of all there is inequality when it comes to access to information and treatment that could easily reduce the impact of the disease. Secondly, the HIV/AIDS epidemic cannot be contained by quarantine or other measures that can prevent the spread of the virus (Fee
Children as Future Consumers Essay college essay help
Introduction Materialism and consumerism may not seem like a problem to many, but it defines majority of the current population. The most gullible group is of course the children, whose innocence captures advertisers and marketers, who in turn force parents to spend on the products being sold.
There are a variety of factors leading to a lot of consumption by children, for example, advertisement and peer influence. This paper will deal with the topic of materialism and consumerism; the positive and negative effects of consumerism especially on children; and finally mitigation strategies to be undertaken to ensure that children are better future consumers.
Materialism and Consumerism Materialism has been defined as the tendency to be materialistic i.e. have the desire to spend the resources one owns on material things and attaining a comfortable lifestyle in general. Consumerism on the other hand puts a direct link between how many things one owns and their happiness (Chapter7, 2009, p. 1).
These two go hand in hand and the distinction line between them is very thin. Both go beyond the necessity of satisfaction of needs and they create the desire to want to own more and consequently create an image. Hence majority of the reference in this paper will be on consumerism, though the terms may not be used interchangeably.
Capitalism is heavily influential on consumerism (Chapter7, 2009, p.2). A capitalist economy will have the mindset of creating more market for themselves, ensuring “same consumers buy more of the same” or having innovations that will definitely increase demand (Kapur, n.d. p.1).
When there is an “economic crisis”, government will go to the extent of ensuring that people consume more just so as to sustain the economy (Chapter7, 2009, p.3). Thus consumerism is a concept that goes beyond the individual and has far reaching effects even to the economy of any particular state. As Kapur (n.d., p.1) stated, “children were invented as consumers” (Kapur, n.d., p. 1), a sad but a real truth and fact, and they are serving their purpose in fuelling the economy.
Children between the age of 9 and 14 are more susceptible to being materialistic and hence end up being heavy consumers (Goldberg, 2002, p.1). This age group has been called the “tweens” a name given because the 9-year-olds have not reached puberty while the 14-year-olds are past puberty (Goldberg, 2002, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children are majorly targeted for the following reasons: they have their own money, they determine how their parents spending trend and they are the major future consumers (Zoll, n.d. p.1). In the US, $36bn in sales per year, is directly connected to children consumers (Goldberg, 2002, p.1), while in the UK, £30bn is from the child market (BBC, 2008, p.1).
In Australia, a lot is invested to advertisements targeting the “tweens” to the point that when they are young adults, their sense of choice has been heavily corrupted and they can barely make independent choices without being influenced by brands (Hamilton, 2006, p.8).
In the past, there was a huge difference between goods or services available to the ordinary people and those who could afford the highly priced ones; not anymore indicates Hamilton in what he called “democratisation of luxury” (Hamilton, 2006, p.1).
The poor are competing with the wealthy as regards their consumption (Hamilton, 2006, p.1). A definite sign that consumerism in the society has increased, can also be observed from the number of cars owned by individuals, the cars they drive, mobile phones, different home devices, entertainment gadgets, obesity in children among others (DeAngelis, 2004, p.52).
In an article by Zoll (n.d., p.1), she quotes a clinical psychologist who states children are so inclined to their friends possessions and how their desire is to make money when they grow up or become older (Young, 2011, p. 1). How did children become so obsessed with their looks and possessions? What has led to the increase of consumerism?
Factors Leading to Increased Consumerism Advertisement
Advertisement in this day and age is part and parcel of our world and its effect is felt everywhere, from online sites, to mobile phones to billboards on the streets, to commercial breaks in between television shows. They not only promote products but also sell “cultural practices” for example it’s the in-thing to have this or that (Nordicom, 2006, p.110).
These advertisements are geared to lure the consumers, especially children who watch about “25,000 ads a year” in the US (Chapter7, 2009, p.1), while in the UK, the numbers are much lower at about 10,000 (Shah, 2010, p.1).
We will write a custom Essay on Children as Future Consumers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children are also a prone target since they will not only enhance current markets but also enhance continuity since they will be identifying particular brands (Shah, 2010, p.1). Children are expected to nag their parents to the point of driving them to buy the advertised good (Chapter7, 2009, p.4). Marketing and advertising is not a concept that appeared out of the blues, but it’s been evolving with time, meaning in the future it may even get worse (Abela, 2006, p.3).
Past History and Peer Pressure
Children with a less fortunate background are also prone to materialistic behaviour, in a sense to try and make up for their misfortune (DeAngelis, 2004, p.1). In the UK, as stated in an article by Bennett, over 69% of “poorer children” desired jobs with very good salaries and were more involved in shopping as compared to 28% of the children who came from well-to-do families (Bennett, 2008, p.1).
A different study also showed a connection between low income and “mental health problems” in children: for weekly incomes below £100, 16% of children were affected, for £300- £499, only 8.6% children are affected and for incomes over £700 only 5.3% (Bennett, 2008, p.1)
. When the children themselves were asked they admitted to wanting to fit in with all the latest fashions or technologies (Bennett, 2008, p.1). Peers use commodities to gauge the value of their opponents a trend to “keep score with each other” (Lawson, 2006, p.1).
The blame should not only be placed on outside influence but parents are also considered to have a part to play (Shah, 2010, p.1). There are those who will encourage good values to their children and hence to some extent shield children, but its generally hard for them to beat the advertisers and marketers who even have qualified professionals to make sure that advertisements achieve the desired effect (Shah, 2010, p.1). Absenteeism of parents is also another thing to be considered since they are normally busy working in order to give the child a better future but in the process, it leaves the child unattended and unshielded (Nordicom, 2006, p.117).
Education and Consumerism
The school institution which is supposed to be a safe haven for children has become otherwise and education has been “commercialized” (Shah, 2010, p.1). All fields have been infiltrated from trips to school materials that are sponsored by different companies who ensure the children are aware of the products that are on offer for them (Shah, 2010, p.1).
“Educational news programs provided free to schools contain advertisement” (Chapter7, 2009, p.4). A case in point is that of a company in Britain which had the promotion that “the more chocolate one ate, the more sports equipment one gets” all in an effort to get the kids to be actively involved in sports (Shah, 2010, p.1).
For instance, “a basketball would be about 170bars of chocolate” a very ironic promotion since the children would now have health risks and issues to deal with (Shah, 2010, p.1). The same case goes for the US, where the “education system” is a booming business netting around “$650bn” (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Children as Future Consumers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With all the aforementioned factors leading to increased consumerism among children, there are visible effects that act as a signal. The positive and negative effects of consumerism are discussed below.
Positive and Negative effects of Consumerism Consumerism is mostly associated with the negative aspects, which are quite many in comparison, but there are positive aspects to be considered. Among them: a country’s economy is heavily influenced by the spending power of the population, hence the higher people spend, the more a country benefits; higher productivity; availability and variety of goods and services offered; creation of job opportunities; better lifestyles, among others (Shukla, 2009, p.1).
The many negative effects include: children being exposed to environments not appropriate for their age, hence very detrimental to their growing up (Goldberg, 2002, p.1); the saving culture especially in the youth, is destroyed and replaced with a spending trend (Goldberg, 2002, p.1); high risks of depression, “less happiness”, and various “social pathology” (DeAngelis, 2004, p.1).
There are increased rates of crime, especially among the youth, due to the gap between those who have and those who don’t (Lawson, 2006, p.1). In order for “failed consumers” to obtain what the “rich have”, they will definitely result to theft (Lawson, 2006, p.1). There is also a connection between “materialism and a reduced well being”, since people will be chasing after desires instead of meeting their necessities (Abela, 2006, p.2).
Another detrimental effect is the impact consumerism has on the environment (Chapter7, 2009, p.2); lands are used to build houses, malls, warehouses (Verdant, n.d. p.1). The pressure is also put on natural resources due to the ever increasing production of various commodities (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Debt is also not far off from individuals who are trying to maintain a lifestyle that they cannot afford; this is especially in reference to parents who turn to credit cards for solutions (Chapter7, 2009, p.1). This is no wonder why children cannot learn the saving culture since the credit card has taught them the concept of buying now, and pay later (Chapter7, 2009, p.1).
Current Policies Children should be taught from an early age that they should not chase after what the advertisers are out to sell, but should in fact place more value to who they are rather than what they own (Bennett, 2008, p.1).
Different states and nations are trying to curb the effects of advertising since it is the one that heavily influences consumerism to children: advertising in Sweden has been stopped since the year 1991, especially during “children’s prime time”; in UK, as of 2008, “junk food advertising” shown to children during their television program time below 16 has been enforced (Shah, 2010, p.1).
Greece for instance has also banned the “advertising of toys to children between the hours of 7am and 10pm” while Quebec put a stop to all advertising targeting children under 13 years of age (Zoll, n.d. p.1). Despite all these restrictions gaining a lot more popularity in Europe, in the US it’s not so because marketing to children are seen as a First Amendment right.
The industries themselves have not been left behind in trying to take up control measures to ensure that children are well guarded (Nordicom, 2006, p.111). Some of the products that industries have taken initiative to “self-regulate” are to do with alcohol, tobacco, junk food among others (Nordicom, 2006, p.111). As for the entertainment industry, parental guidance has been promoted but only with so much success (Nordicom, 2006, p.112).
Dr. Elliot Barker, who is a Canadian psychiatrist and child advocate, offers the following recommendations with regards to the current consumerism: meeting children’s emotional needs so as to eliminate the need to substitute this by being materialistic; families participating in activities that are “non- commercial”; effective parenting, among others (Hunt, 2004, p.1).
Young also proposed focusing on “spirituality, relationships, philosophy, learning and ethics” as the greater solution to not falling in the trap of consumerism (20011, p.1). Other than these methods that are aimed at increasing the persons value, different methods have also been proposed including: “higher gasoline taxes”, “progressive consumption tax” i.e. the more one consumes, the more they are taxed, and tax is exempted for money that is saved, improving public goods and services so that people do not fall back on privatized goods and services (Chapter7, 2009, p.13).
Conclusion The children are definitely to be protected from all the “insanity” of advertisement and they are to be allowed to grow up in environments that allow them to make independent choices as consumers and not to be arm-twisted per se.
When children follow the right path of consumption, then future generations will not be enslaved by consumerism since they will have good examples to emulate and hopefully positive values will have been instilled in them.
References Abela, A. V. (2006) Marketing and Consumerism. Web.
Bennett, R. (2008) Pressures of Consumerism make Children Depressed. Web.
Chapter7. (2009) Consumerism. Web.
DeAngelis, T. (2004) Consumerism and its discontents. Web.
Goldberg, M. (2002) Children and Materialism in the New Era. Web.
Hamilton, C. (2006) Marketing and Modern Consumerism. Web.
Hunt, J. (2004) The Natural Child Project. Web.
Kapur, J. (n.d.) Rehearsals for War: Capitalism
Standardization of language Expository Essay best college essay help
Necessity is the mother of all invention, this is a common phrase and it applies to language. The need to communicate led to the development of languages. With time, these languages have developed to suit the requirements and preferences of the people. These changes are responsible for the various languages and accent that are available worldwide.
Change in language is therefore an inevitable and a natural process (Crystal). Although change in language is unavoidable, people always want to stick to their known ways and methods of speech. The issue of what is the correct language remains a big issue.
If there is a perfect language, to what standards should it be. People have expectation on their language and they make a judgment. This essay therefore begins by looking at standardization followed by language expectations and finally the judgment on language use.
Standardization of language is the process through which a language has been codified, this process also include grammar and spelling development. It is also through standardization that writing of a language in an official format becomes possible. Standardization is of great benefits to a language.
Through standardization learning and teaching of a language is facilitated. The benefits that results from standardization of a language are numerous but the main issue that follows standardization is who is responsible for standardization of a language. The next issue is of course the need for standardization and if there are some persons responsible for standardization.
In the past, language standardization process has been hijacked from the hands of linguistics. In fact, the process has been utilized as a way of creating identity for a state or a group of people. Institutions of learning have also been linked with language standardization process.
Politics have also played a big role in standardization of language with the bottom line being the creation of dominance. Different standards in language have also been responsible in the creation of social classes that are present in today’s world. Language has been viewed as a cultural capital and that it create the differences between social classes, the educated and the uneducated (Finegant PBS. Org).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deresiewicz emphasized on the role language standards play in society classification by stating that “mastery of standard English language was the ticket of cultural admission” (New York Times). This shows that although standardization of language is important for development of the language and people’s culture the process has often been misused.
In order for the full benefits of standardization to be realized then it is important that standardization of a language be done for promoting the language.
As stated, the natural process of language change still applies in standardization of a language and therefore the people should be the main stakeholders in the standardization process. The process should also be a natural process, which implies that the process should not be influenced externally.
Expectation of a language to people goes beyond a tool or means of communication. People therefore have varied expectations for their language. With language, people expect to share their personality and to express their message beyond their words. As claimed by (Baron PBS. Org) people expect their “language to express their solidarity or group identity.”
For this reason, people expect language to create a distinction between genders, educated and uneducated. Expectation on language variation across gender is of great interest compared to the other expectations.
The main reason for this interest follows from the fact that there is a variation in language across gender even if other factors that cause language variation among people are constant. In the English language, for example “men are said to swear a lot, to be more coarse and casual.
Studies claim that American women know more color terms and men know tool names; that women use more qualifiers and diminutives” (Dennis Baron PBS. Org).
We will write a custom Essay on Standardization of language specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Language change and use is subject to people’s judgment, people therefore judge a language as a bad and good language. How people use and judge a language determines its effectiveness and development. This in turn determines the survival and continued use of a particular language. As noted by (Nunberg PBS. Org) “the English language will survive its current critics complain.”
This shows that even though the English language is under harsh judgment it has a well-established structures that will ensure its survival. Survival of a language should be therefore the key factor that should govern its standardization, expectation and judgment.
Conclusion The use of any particular language reflects the changes that have taken place in the language. Language change is an inevitable natural process and people have not readily accepted these changes. Language standardization is essential in development of the language but the process has been applied for other varied reason.
People expect their language to serve a role that is beyond communication. After all is said and done language remains a subject of judgment from the people , where the judgment should be aimed at development of the language.
Works Cited Baron, Dennis. Language
Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Usual Diwali Celebration Style
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries
The European and Australian Diwali
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada
Diwali in other Parts of the World
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions
Introduction India is a beautiful country. It has unique festivals one of which is Diwali, otherwise known as Deepavali, the festival of lights. This festival is undoubtedly the most popular of the Hindu festivals.
Like most of the festivals celebrated mainly by Hindus, Diwali has a mythology and a historical basis behind it. Legend stories purport that Hanuman, the monkey god, crucial devotee of Lord Rama, brought the long-awaited message, declaring Rama’s return to his kingdom following an exile of fourteen years.
People refer the festival to as the festival of Sweets. Giving sweets is an activity that has become a tradition in these celebrations.
Usual Diwali Celebration Style Hindus, Sikhs, and Jains celebrate the festival that lasts for five days. The dates vary based on the Indian lunar calendar (Robinson 123). The celebration has extended outside India to the Diaspora.
It is a mainstream in Britain and countries like Indonesia, the United States, Malaysia, and Singapore. They have incorporated the festival in their local traditions (Robinson 123). Besides eating Indian food, most people outside India are still unfamiliar with the usual Diwali food.
The most common food during this celebratory period is sharing and eating sweets. Indians and other people celebrating the festival eat plenty of sweets during that time.
They also prepare confectioneries, desserts and sweetmeats, which come between snacks that people eat all the time. The sweetmeats or ‘Mithai’, as popularly known, are the most common and the favorite foodstuffs. It is hence the foods, which capture Indian cookery psyche outside India.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In India, it is customary for family members and friends to come together in the celebration. They also exchange gifts. In most cases, they exchange sweets, candy, dried fruits, and other snacks (Robinson 124). People dress up well for the occasion. They share, and exchange gifts of clothes and perfumes as customary activities.
Diwali Celebrations in Other Countries Since Diwali is significant to Indians as Christmas is for Christians, its celebration is extremely essential. During this celebration, people have their homes lit up with candles. They decorate the streets and businesses with lights.
The European and Australian Diwali Hindus in other parts of the world celebrate Diwali in a unique way. In the South East Asia, and Indian populations elsewhere in the world, people celebrate the Diwali somewhat differently. Where the Hindus are fewer, they only put on lights and celebrate it in their homes.
On the other hand, when they are many, they take the celebration seriously. The Indians make the celebration seem like a tremendous cultural scene. The United Kingdom has a well-established Indian demography, which allows the country to conduct bigger public events (Richman 67).
Since there are many Indians in Australia and Europe, people conduct the large-scale Diwali events like carnivals and fairs in cities. In Australia, the celebrations are common in Melbourne and Sydney. In the United Kingdom, they are mainly in London (Richman 67).
Featuring in these events are fabulous firework displays, public music and dance performances, stalls that provide services mainly painting henna, stalls selling assorted Diwali sweets, herbs, savories, and people often burning an effigy of the demon King Ravana (Plum-Ucci 12).
People also dress up nicely for the occasion with women wearing their best jewels and silk outfits. Some put on mehendi, temporary decorations of henna on their palms. Since people also refer the celebration to as the celebration of lights, they light various lights: candles, and lanterns, at the event, in houses and even around homes (Plum-Ucci 17).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women present sweets on shiny, silver trays and garnish the dishes with candlelights called diyas and some time with jewels and flower petals (Plum-Ucci 55).
The Indians in Britain are usually enthusiastic about this festival (Richman 69). They clean their homes, decorating them with lights, mainly candles and lamps. The most salient part is that they also exchange gifts. This tradition goes back to the harvest time when people could offer gifts of their harvest.
Today, they give sweets. The common sweets are barfis and laddoos. Different Hindu communities come together in a central place like in London for the celebrations (Richman 69).
As the event has become more popular, people have observed non-Indians also joining the Diwali festivals. Sometimes the festival of light falls on same dates as the British Bonfire Night on fifth of November. This inspires joint celebrations, which are thrilling (Richman 71).
In Australia, Diwali is not a public holiday recognized across the country. Nonetheless, there is always traffic during the event. Parking places remain fully parked during the period of holding the event. Most Indians close their businesses for the celebrations.
Their Indian community has sent a request to make Diwali a public holiday in the country. In Australia, it is customary for families and friends to share and exchange gifts. In most cases, these gifts are sweets, dried fruits and candy. However, during the main festivity, elaborate food takes center stage.
There is also exchange of perfumes, clothes and soaps as gifts. Other appropriate gifts are lamps, candle stands and fireworks.
Festival Celebration in USA and Canada All the communities with Indian populations, or those who identify themselves as Hindus, always celebrate the festival of lights (Plum-Ucci 18). The celebrations here are mostly in homes. In Canada, some families organize trips to Niagara Falls in Ontario where the festival of lights takes place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This often happens because the winter festival and Diwali often fall on the same dates (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232). This Niagara festival is usually a spectacular event with an amazing display of lights and fireworks. There is usually adequate entertainment for families ranging from food, music and dance among other activities (Khandelwa 61).
In America, there are some cities with large populations of Indians and Asians. Hence, these communities sponsor large Diwali events (Shah 43).
For instance, Cupertino in California has set a day aside for which the celebration of lights takes place. There is usually, music and dance, cultural performances, foods and gift vending and many other forms of entertainment in cities (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
In cities, where there are diverse populations, people honor the event. The celebrations take place in Hindu temples like New York (Khandelwa 61), Phoenix, Chicago and Minneapolis. These communities still honor the celebration of lights by lighting up their houses just to celebrate the victory of Rama against demon king Ravana (Torpe 7).
This symbolizes the victory of light over darkness (Plum-Ucci 23). Hindus believe that, during this day, the goddess of happiness roams the earth during the day of celebrating Diwali.
She looks for the purest, cleanest and brightest house, which she enters. It is apparent that the celebration differs in different parts of the world. However, they maintain the general spiritual meaning. That is to increase awareness of the inner light.
Diwali in other Parts of the World In Asia, especially Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, people celebrate Diwali by placing lamps and candles on banana leaves together with coins and incense sticks. People then float these lights on a river. The view of thousands of candles along a river is always spectacular during the evening of the Diwali celebrations.
In Thailand, one can describe the Diwali celebration as insanely huge. They refer it to as Lam Kriyongh. In Singapore, people refer the celebration to as ‘Deepavali’. The government recognizes it as a public holiday. Its uniqueness is that, a light-up Little India District typically marks it.
The celebration is almost as Diwali customs in India where people come out exchange gifts, have merry performances. Distribution of sweets is the best part of the celebration, as it involves the giving out of sweets of different types.
In Nepal, people refer Diwali to as ‘Swanti’ or ‘Tihar’. The celebrations last for five days just like in the other countries though traditions done during the celebration slightly vary from those done in India.
People decorate the entire country with various lights and lamps in celebration of victory of Rama (Torpe 8). Women prepare exceptional foodstuffs especially sweets of different forms for making this festivity (Ganeshram, and Velloti 135). There are also lively performances, fireworks and crackers everywhere.
In Mauritius, Africa, people celebrate the event with considerable passion. It has been an age-old custom. The native believe the celebration begun even before the return of Lord Rama (Plum-Ucci 6). Diwali here holds a distinct significance for the natives for the coronation of Rama as King.
People celebrate by lighting earthen lamps in lines that make images and they worship Lakshmi (Torpe 6), the goddess of earth (Shah 41). They also burn crackers to scare the evil spirits roaming the earth.
Incorporating Diwali in other Traditions In the western nations, Diwali celebrations are evidently not as typical as they are in India. There are often some little variations from the traditional way of celebration (Shah 41).
In most cases, the elements of the Hindu culture, which may relate to Diwali, are also present in the celebration to highlight Indian customs and culture. Dances and songs prevalent in Hindu culture often find their way into the celebrations (Khandelwa 61).
For example, it is not a surprise to find men and women performing the ‘Dandiya Rasa’ dance in Diwali celebration outside India. This dance features wooden sticks. Besides, in other places, one has to see Punjabi Bhangra songs and Bhangra dances that people perform during the festival of light (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 233).
The dance and songs date back to the eleventh century. During that time, the Punjabi farmers would celebrate the coming of the harvest season by dancing to Bhangra folk dance.
The Punjabi musicians who have travelled to western countries popularized the folk dance hence causing the dance to be a popular culture in certain aspects of the western society.
Bhangra is currently popular in the United Kingdom and Canada. Because of the zeal to popularize the Indian culture during such fairs and festivities, there are numerous Indian merchandise also sold during these events besides the food not related to the festival (Khandelwa 61).
Therefore, the festival of lights in countries abroad forms a frightfully convincing way of knowing the Indian culture and understanding Hindu religion. In fact, some places the celebration is all about getting to know the Indian tradition.
The Diwali is a prominent religious celebration for three religious groups – the third largest celebration in the world (Torpe 4). Buddhists, Hindus, and Jains celebrate it. The festival is becoming more popular across the worlds, as more people from different nationalities, ethnicities, and races join in the festivals (Khandelwa 62).
When joining a Diwali festival, it is indispensable to expect more than just gifts. There is usually colorful pomp with elaborate meals, singing and dancing, as well as many other activities associated with the culture.
The goal of Diwali is to teach a tremendously significant lesson to everyone. That ‘good’ always triumphs over ‘evil’ the same way Lord Rama won the battle (Torpe 4).
The festival reminds people of the importance of thanksgiving. It helps in teaching family values and friendships, thus, persuading people to value these things.
Above all, the ceremony teaches people to be charitable to the less fortunate in the society. At this time, it encourages people to share and offer gifts to others. During Diwali, people usually salute one another in English as ‘happy Diwali’ (Coward, Hinnells, and Williams 232).
Conclusion From the Diwali celebrations across the world, it is evident that without sweets, then the event will not qualify as Diwali. The sweets sweeten the ceremony for everyone attending it.
The sweets are exchanged among everyone: young and old, and male and female. Hindus also share the sweets with other people from other religions, mostly those connected to them. The habit of giving gifts is also encouraging, as it spreads joy to every person involved, whether in India or abroad.
Works Cited Coward, Harold. Hinnells, John, and Williams, Raymond. The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. New York: Suny Press. 2000. Print.
Ganeshram, Ramin, and Vellotti, Jean-Paul. Sweet Hands: Island Cooking from Trinidad
Four Functions of Management Theory Essay scholarship essay help
Management involves the effective organization of organizational resources in a way that is likely to help the organization in the achievement of its policies and objectives and aspired goals. Management is therefore a vital aspect of any organization.
Responsibility of management is normally left on the hands of managers who act as the stewards of owners interests in the respective organizations (Griffin, 1996). Managers in all organizations almost perform the same basic functions.
These functions entail; planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Buffett
Population Pyramids Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Comparison of the three pyramids
Introduction The current population of a country is a product of the past trends in the population of the county under investigation. Consequently, this population will determine how the future population of the country will be. This has been demonstrated by a comparison of the population pyramids of the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia.
A part from the past population trends in a country, other factors determining the current population of a country include the economic level of the country, influence from other countries and the effects of globalization.
This paper will discuss the effects of the current population in the United Kingdom, Indonesia and Ethiopia. This will be achieved by comparing the population current population pyramids of these countries. From the population pyramid, the paper will give an insight on the future expectations of the population in the countries under investigation.
Comparison of the three pyramids The current United Kingdom population pyramid indicates a fare distribution of people across the ages. The number of people in each age group in the United Kingdom is almost the same. From the pyramid, it is clear that this population is made up of more middle aged people than young people.
It is, therefore, possible to conclude that the United Kingdom has an old population. This can be attributed to the effects of civilization and modernization which brought about the issues of family planning. The pyramid indicates that most of the people in the unite kingdom are in their fertile age, yet the number of children is less compared to older people.
With this population trend, the population risks a drastic decline in future. The small percentage of young people as indicated by the pyramid will not be able to maintain the population after the current people in their fertile age bracket will be aged (Ehrlich, 2001).
From this population pyramid, it is clear that life expectancy n the United Kingdom is high. This can be attributed to the good health care of the people living in the United Kingdom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike in the United Kingdom, there are more young people in Ethiopia as indicated by the pyramid. A close analysis of the Ethiopian population clearly indicates that majority of the people in the country are young people.
The pyramid presents Ethiopia as having a young population. This can be attributed to the fact that Ethiopia is a third world country. In its efforts to develop, the Ethiopian government has been able to provide adequate medical services to its people.
The people of Ethiopia have started applying modern farming techniques and this has in turn resulted into more food being produced to feed the population (Connelly, 2010). The presence of few old people in Ethiopia indicates that life expectancy in the country is low. Many scholars attribute this to the many tropical diseases in Africa.
With adequate medical services, the motility rates in Ethiopia has reduced significantly and this has been reflected by the population having many young people. In addition, the introduction of science and technology in food production has ensured adequate food in Ethiopia.
Consequently, the availability of food in Ethiopia has raised the fertility of the people, thus high birth rates as indicated by the pyramid. Going by this population trend, one can conclude that the population of Ethiopia has a very high potential of growing in future.
Many people in Ethiopia are below the fertility age as indicated by the pyramid. This means that by the time these young people reach their fertility age, the population is bound to grow tremendously (Weeks, 2011).
In Indonesia, the population pyramid indicates a gradually increasing population. From the pyramid, the difference between the young people and the middle aged people is not big. This indicates a stable population.
We will write a custom Essay on Population Pyramids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This stability can be attributed to the fact that Indonesia is a developing country that is affected by the effects of modernization and development. For instance, the people of Indonesia have started to embrace scientific methods of birth control.
Indonesians are also affected by polices adapted by other nations to check its population. The effect of this to this is that the population of Indonesia will grow gradually despite having a large number of young people (Pearce, 2011).
A close analysis of the population pyramid of Indonesia indicates a higher life expectancy as compared to that of Ethiopia. This shows that there is a better lifestyle in Indonesia than in Ethiopia.
Conclusion In conclusion, the above is a discussion of the current population of three countries. From the discussion, it is clear that all of them have a unique population trend depending on the past population and other factors that have been indentified as influencing the population trend.
Consequently, the future of the population in these three countries will depend on the current population. For instance, mature population as is the case with the United Kingdom means a population decline in future while a young population as is the case with Ethiopia will result into population increase. The population of Indonesia may not indicate any significant change in future.
References Connelly, M. (2010). Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population: London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Ehrlich, P. R.
Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls Proposal college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction It is certain that drug misuse and addiction is viewed as chronic diseases in western society. However, the views of drug use have taken a variety of forms over the centuries. Initially, the drug use was positively feted but this view changed gradually and drug use became condemned as evil.
The reason for the changing attitudes does not always bear any logical explanations as to why a particular attitude was adopted at a given point in time. Nevertheless, it is easy for majority of us to agree that the current view of drug abuse is a logical one.
A hundred or so years ago, drug use was legal. Anyone could have walked into a high street store and buy cannabis, or cocaine or whatever else one wanted over the counter.
By this time, drugs were freely available throughout history and across cultures in the western societies. The idea of prohibition that was pressed forward largely by the aim of alcohol elimination from the society was an ultimate disruption with the traditional wisdom of public policy.
In the beginning of the 19th century, the only familiar drugs available to the west were alcohol and opium but, by the early years of the 20th century, a constellation of substances that form the modern category of illegal drugs –opiates, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and psychedelics- all found their way into the society. This was partly as a result of the international trade and scientific discoveries.
Today, modern western societies based on complex industrial and commercial systems loathe and prohibit the use of drugs for other uses other than for therapeutic reasons. This is built on the fears of loss of individuality as a result of addictions to a drug or the sensations it produces.
It is also based on the fears of the impacts of the drug use, concerns over the reduced productivity that’s likely to cause harm to the user and the society and so on. In general, drug use and misuse touches on concerns for safety, well-being, progress and the condition of the addict and the society at large.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Question What are the psychological effects of chronic marijuana use in young women and girls?
Literature review Gender and ethnic differences in drug use
Wallace et al (2002) examined ethnic differences in legal and illegal drug use among American senior grade students and focused on girls. In this study that applied cross-sectional data from large, multiethnic, and multinational representative samples, Wallace et al administered questionnaires to total thousands of girls and boys in senior grades.
Results of the study showed that marijuana was the most widely used illicit drug by American girls. On average, 20% of 8th graders, 38% of 10th graders and 45% of 12th graders admitted to using marijuana. Between 1-3% of the girls admitted to using it on a daily basis while 19% admitted to using it in the last 30 days.
The findings also revealed that ethnic differences in drug use among girls existed. Drug use among Native American girls was higher than Mexican, Puerto Rican, and white girls. It was even lower among the African American, the Latinas, and the Asian Americas (Wallace et al., 2002).
On gender differences, the data indicated that boys are more likely to abuse drugs in each of the grades surveyed. Very high rates in alcohol use were recorded among girls in all grades. On average, 1-2% of the girls were daily drinkers.
The trend observed in marijuana use among girls in ethnic diversities was also recorded here. Native American girls led the pack with the Asian Americans trailing. Similar results were reported for cigarettes.
An important limitation of this study was that it researched on high school seniors alone leaving behind the onset of drug use among the young people and those who dropped out of school before they joined the senior year. Another limitation is that the research was carried out about 10 years ago (2002).
We will write a custom Proposal on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Current trend data reveal that although there was a considerable difference between boys and girls drug users, the prevalence of drug use has now converged with time.
In 2003, Bryant et al carried out a survey to establish how academic achievement, attitude and behaviors influence drug abuse during teen-age years. The group collected biennial data regarding alcohol cigarette and marijuana use among people of between 14 and 20 years (Bryant et al., 2003).
On cigarettes use, it was reported that females smoked more than males. It was higher for the white students than it was for the African American and Latino students. Instances of cigarette smoking were higher for students with lower academic achievements than it was for those who performed better.
In terms of motivation and school attitudes, a comparable development was reported. While predicting variations in change in drug use over time, results showed a linear increase in cigarette use from age 14-20 being high among the whites than for African Americans and Latinas.
It was much higher for those with lower academic achievement in the eighth grade (Bryant et al., 2003).
Still interesting was the realization that alcohol use was higher for females than for males and still higher for white students than for African American students. A similar trend to cigarette use was reported for alcohol use for misbehavior, loneliness, motivation and school attitudes.
Regarding quadratic growth, female’s alcohol use accelerated at a lower rate from age 14 to 20 compared to their male counterparts. Similarly, results were consistent for marijuana use as a higher progressive increase was reported among females than among the males.
Like in other researches, this study was limited as it was based on adolescents’ self-report and researched on three drugs alone. Cannabis, which is in high use among girls, was left out.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Drug use and misuse in western society: Effects of chronic marijuana use among young women and girls by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In a research to establish conjoint developmental trajectories of young adult substance use, Jackson, Sher, and Schulenberg (2008) used the national representative data from Monitoring the Future Project to reveal developmental courses of heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use (Jackson, Sher and Schulenberg, 2008).
They applied 4 waves of data ranging from ages 18-26 in a multicohort young adult sample. In this study, they examined comorbidity by cross-classifying group membership in drug use trajectories.
In the final stage, they examined the extent to which risk factors such as sex, race, delinquency, alcohol expectation, and academic achievement and so on influenced the combinations of comorbidity happened in much greater extent than was by chance.
Their results identified four courses of substance use that were in agreement with those occurring in the literature.
According to their probe, heavy drinking, smoking and marijuana use highly increased the patterns of comorbidity. The inquest showed that delinquency, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies and religion predicted a combination of comorbidity that featured an early onset of chronic high use.
Cross-sectional relationship between cannabis and other drugs
In general, their report indicated a high cross-substance use over emerging adulthood revealing a similar developmental timing to use. This was largely due to experience of developmental transitions that are likely to influence the use of different drugs.
Individuals have a tendency to use multiple drugs due to a common vulnerability to each and not as a result of directional relations among drugs such as cross-tolerance.
Approaches of Business Strategy Concept Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Today there are a lot of different approaches to understanding of the concept of business strategy. If we consider the problem from a contemporary perspective, this concept can include the peculiarities of the process of adopting of appropriate action plans and distributing of the resources for carrying out the plans to meet the desired objectives.
Moreover, there is the problem of determining of the most effective and significant approaches to examining of the principal theories for the strategy development.
There can be defined two approaches which require further studying with the references to the peculiarities of the modern business tendencies. They can be considered as the prescriptive and the emergent approaches (Mintzberg 1990).
Referring to the peculiarities of the emergent approach as the ‘hustle as strategy’, Bhide (1986) affirms the critical importance of this approach to strategy in a financial services business firm.
Embracing this approach to the strategy development, he presents a scenario where the firm can take the advantage of transitory opportunities. Bhide affirms that flexibility, agility, and hustle are more important than a fixed plan.
Employing the processual view of business strategy, he postulates that the strategy is a continuing process of negotiation and adjustment of routines, as a way to make sense of the chaos in the world (Bhide 1986).
Thus, such strategies are seen as ‘emergent’, with their coherence accruing through the action and perceived in retrospect, while successive small steps eventually put the organization ahead in terms of customer focus, profit maximization and market leadership (Harfield
Seriousness of Global Warming Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Global warming is considered to be one of the most significant problems. The problem touches upon the rise of temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere as well as the influence of gaseous emissions and combustion gases, which are the reasons for the ecologists and scientists’ concern. Therefore, the anthropogenic factor comes into effect.
There are a lot of scientific articles as well as books and other sources which are devoted to the ecological problem. Generally, global warming is described as a rise of temperature. One of the authors who studied this ecological problem carefully, the author Cline (1992) states that “the most serious general problem is that the reports—especially their policy aspects—focus too much on climate change up to a fixed date, 2030, instead of giving equal emphasis to the longer-term changes that will result from human actions between now and 2030.” (p. 44)
The consequences of global warming which influence the future must be taken into consideration, but if one thinks about the present, there will be no need to anticipate things. The question which the ecologists ask themselves is what is to be done next? The actions of those who give consideration to this global ecological problem are not coordinated, as their quantity is not enough to affect others. Of course, it is easier to think about negative consequences which will take place in future, but not to take measures now.
There are many factors which are related to the origin of the ecological problem. However, global warming depends mostly upon the so-called greenhouse effect which is re-radiated towards the lower atmosphere. (NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2007) The above-mentioned effect is the most important factor of the Earth’s temperature regulating.
In most cases it is the anthropogenic factor which is considered to be the principal reason of global warming. A carbon dioxide which is the main element of the greenhouse effect exceeds its norms by numerous times. For instance, various combustion gases influence the increasing of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Earlier, people thought that the climate changes depend upon the solar influence; however, today this point of view is recognized to be outdated. On the one hand, the statement makes sense; on the other one, the impact of solar effect is recognized to be rather small in comparison with greenhouse influence, so, the earlier statement is negligible.
Today, it is possible to predict the results of climate changes. Thus, computer technologies allowed to create the so-called climatic system to determine the interaction between global warming and greenhouse effect. The strange thing is that it is not the concentration of greenhouse gases which causes the climate changes, but their interaction with various physical processes does.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One may say that there are no visible results of the ecological problem. It is a wrong opinion. The negative consequences of global warming are noticeable on small islands. The problem touched the human health as well, so there is a strong necessity to find the solution to the problem. The global ecological problem is related to every person who lives on the Earth. Thinking about global warming and its possible consequences, is the first step of the problem solution. Underestimating the global warming is a mistake.
Reference List Cline. W.R. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/read/99472197/the-economics-of-global-warming
NOAA Satellite and Information Service. (2007). Global Warming. Web.
Joy Daycare Marketing Plan Report custom essay help
Joy Daycare pricing strategy Consumers within Joy Daycare target market are most likely to be concerned with quality than price. As identified previously, this target market consists of young parents who are sensitive to quality care for their children, and less concerned about pricing issues.
This implies that, although penetration pricing is the easiest for while introducing a new product, it might not be effective under these circumstances (Iacobucci, 2011). The latter author also underscores that penetration pricing (setting lower prices) is extremely risky since competitors’ might decide to retaliate.
Furthermore, reduction in price conflicts with Joy Daycare product and branding strategies. Consequently, premium (skimming) strategy will be adopted based on the belief that quality will mitigate price sensitivity among consumers.
According to Iacobucci (2011), skimming involves setting the pricing above the current market rates at the initial stages of introducing a new product. However, this strategy is short lived because it attracts other firms into the market.
Pricing tactics Cost based vs. value based pricing
According to Rao (2009), pricing is a significant, but delicate component of marketing mix. Apparently, pricing can either make or break a product, thus optimum care is necessary while making this significant business decision. This is because for a product to survive, it must be tolerable to the target market to promote profitability.
This implies that, the most fundamental pricing tactic should aim to satisfy cost and value criterion. On the same note, pricing for Joy Daycare services will consider the cost and value aspect, commonly referred as ‘cost-based pricing’ and ‘value-based pricing’(Rao, 2009).
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, Joy Daycare will strive to hire the best caregivers to ensure that children receive quality training. Obviously, this is going to increase business operation costs; hence, penetration pricing cannot work in our favor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, we also have to consider the perceived value of Joy Daycare services before settling on a certain price. Rao (2009) underscores that, value-based pricing is founded on the customers’ perspective about whether consumers considers the price to be reasonable.
Discounted and/or differential pricing
Similarly, Joy daycare will offer some discounts to parents who enroll two or more children to the center. Moreover, to promote word of mouth advertising we are going to offer some special rates to those who refer their friends to the center.
According to Rao (2009), differential pricing is not a unique phenomenon and most marketers have utilized it to promote customer royalty. Similarly, Iacobucci (2011) utilizes the term ‘target pricing’ whereby different prices are charged to customers within the same target market.
However, although this strategy might work in the business’ favor, it might be ineffective in the long run especially when one child attains pre-schooling age.
This implies that, the business will face an immense public relations challenge while trying to convince such parents to adjust their payments upwards. Nonetheless, the business will have to bear those costs since the benefits of discounted pricing are likely to be more than the costs involved.
Legal and ethical issues of pricing tactics
Noticeably, competition among businesses has become the biggest hurdle towards success. Against this background, some unscrupulous marketers may misuse the pricing aspect to shove off their competitors out of business. Moreover, some tactics might be exploitative to customers.
On this notion, several business laws have been put in place to eliminate unlawful and unethical pricing strategies. As a result, it is imperative to explore some ethical and legal implications of the pricing tactics adopted by Joy Daycare.
We will write a custom Report on Joy Daycare Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, discounted and/or differential pricing might be perceived as discriminatory since the consumers are purchasing a similar service, but at different prices. However, as long as Joy Daycare can prove that the strategy does not favor some customers at the expense of others, then the tactic is neither illegal nor unethical.
Joy daycare distribution channel
Daycare service is a unique product that defies the norms of marketing distribution channels. Iacobucci (2011) accentuate that distribution channels are adopted depending on the desired promotional and place marketing mix aspects.
Since daycare service is consumed at the place of purchase, the wholesaler/distributor/ retailer relationships are not applicable in this marketing plan. Consequently, Joy Daycare services utilizes exclusive distribution channel because the service is restricted to a centralized location.
This is implies that, the producer (Joy daycare center) interacts directly with the consumer (parents) without the necessity of middlemen services. On the same note Iacobucci (2011) adds that good/service that adopts exclusive distribution channels demands additional promotional aspect in order to educate the target market on the availability and advantages of those products.
As epitomized elsewhere in this marketing plan, quality and excellent service is the core differentiation strategy for Joy Daycare business. The key to the business success calls for heightened efforts to generate consumer delight at the point of service delivery in order to achieve the stipulated marketing objectives.
Consumer delight will enable Joy Daycare to cultivate consumer loyalty; thus increased enrollment will enable the business to achieve the targeted growth rate of 10% p.a. Moreover, brand image will also benefit from the cultivated loyalty.
References Iacobucci, D. (2011). Marketing management: 2010 custom edition. Mason, OH: South- Western Cengage Learning.
Rao, V. R. (2009).Handbook of pricing research in marketing. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joy Daycare Marketing Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Language and Communication for Business and Commerce Essay essay help site:edu
Communication in any organization is a very important aspect as it can make or break an organization. Companies generally do not have a public language (Lang, 2010). It is of great importance that when the hiring is taking place, there is absolutely no tribalism or nepotism going on and that people are hired purely on a merit basis. Cultural identity helps in facilitating an extensive role in organizational interpersonal relationships hence being of great relevance when it comes to cultural identity.
Culture is often defined as “the coherent, learned and shared view of a group of people about life’s concerns that ranks what is important, furnishes attitudes about what things are appropriate, and dictates behavior” (Jameson, 2007, p. 5). When it comes to organizations, people or groups of people are known to be the main components of cultures.
This is evident in that when individuals want to spend a substantial amount of time in an organization working together, they end up thinking alike and sometimes taking up the organization’s cultural practices though not necessarily.
If one was to study different organizations and the different professionals involved, one would understand this concept. For example in the defense force, the culture of hierarchy is very well displayed in that they themselves can tell the ranks that their fellow officers are in and they have a way or some form of respect for those in high ranks. This is evident when one watches them in their places of work.
This is a culture that was developed and has been passed on thus not an easy form of culture to disband. Most professions require that before you are indicted into the profession formally, you ought to sign a code of ethics and conduct stating that you will adhere to the laid out guidelines and procedures in a bid to live by the governing code (Coopl, Etzion
Positive Psychology Chronicle: A Retrospective at the Results Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Positivity Ratio Assessment
Satisfaction with Life Scale
Strengths Finders Assessment
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Because of the negative factors that have the most deplorable impact on most people nowadays, positive psychology as a means of letting a certain amount of positive emotions into people’s lives is absolutely inevitable.
Once considering the specifics of one’s character and realizing the issues that prevent the given person from efficient work and the relaxation, one can come up with specific ideas on how to improve the existing situation. With the help of the given chronicles, the mechanisms of people’s emotions and the change in the latter can be approached.
Thus, analyzing the peculiarities of people’s strengths, one is likely to come to certain conclusions about the role of positive psychology in the modern life and its impact on people.
Positivity Ratio Assessment Allowing me to assess the emotional state that I am most often in, the given activity offers rather fruitful discoveries concerning my own character and the main features of the temper.
Although the given test suggests only the figures that imply quite concise information, the Positivity Ratio Assessment is a perfect way to learn if the situation requires certain improvement.
The Positivity Ratio Assessment allowed me to evaluate the degree of positivity in my vision of the world. Providing a statement and offering me to evaluate how close to the truth the given statements are, the test allows to single out certain features of my character. The test helped me to figure out how positive my thinking is.
It is important to mark that in the given assignment, it is quite essential that five variations of answering the question are offered so that the results of the test could be more precise and, therefore, more credible. However, it is still worth keeping in mind that, even answering the questions of the test, one might not be sincere enough.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the obtained results, the score equals 1.17, which means that certain improvements should be made. Positioned as the “tipping point” (Fredrickson 2009) of the test, score 1.17 presupposes that certain progress towards a more positive life perception can be made.
Satisfaction with Life Scale I must mark that Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire presupposes much more room for specific clarifications and comments on each of the questions, and, thus, a larger variety of results.
The score that was the result of answering each of the questions made 31, since the points from 1 to 6 were labeled as “Strongly Agree” (as cited in Snyder, Lopez
Democracy in Canada Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Democracy in Canada
Canadian Democratic Gap
Introduction Democracy is a form of government where people have equal rights, make decisions concerning their lives and have a direct or indirect participation in the social, economic, cultural and political pillars within their country. This represents a political system where the choosing and replacing of the government is done by use of a free and fair election where there is active participation of citizens both in politics and civic life.
Democracy in Canada Canada is not only a federal state, but also one of the most developed economies in the world and in a world democracy audit of 2010; its democratic stature saw it clinch position 8 worldwide (1).
This represents a strong standing within its democratic structure and governance. In a nut shell, Canada is an independent constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy where the government is steered by a parliamentary system which consists of elected members of parliament. Canada also has a number of political parties and the government is headed by a Prime Minister.
Canadian Democratic Gap Though Canada is among the countries which are highly ranked in the realms of democracy around the world, it has a number of limitations and in-adequacies within its political system. Over the last decade, there have been a number of intensified calls for reformations within the democratic political institutions within Canada. This is in regard to how the democratic institutions serve to confer legitimacy upon the power of the Canadian state.
This democratic gap has been as a result of the populist tradition which is in dominance. The populist tradition holds that democracy is instituted by the practice of voting hence ignoring that these democratic societies are characterized by a number of other factors such as the rule of law, individual rights and protection liberties, freedom of press.
One of the challenges that the Canadian democracy has been facing is the lack of conforming to the Westminster parliamentary system especially when it comes to the administration of democratic procedure. This is as a result of the wide spread ignorance among the people and institutions on how the Canadian political system functions.
According to populists view, politicians are supposed to serve as public agents who propel the values of the population, but in Canada this is not the case because the public is divided on a number of interests that are related to pluralism of fundamental values (2). This is visible in that, the political tradition runs from the old Social Credit party, cuts through reform (The Canadian Alliance) and finally to the Conservative party.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This aids the proponents of the populist tradition who hold that all political legitimacy should be anchored through a popular vote. This proves that there is a deficiency of knowledge and information among Canadians who are misconstrued by the government’s opinion poll. Thus, most of them do not understand and are ignorant on the mechanisms within which the government operates in the tenets of economic and political systems.
This has encouraged irresponsibility within the formations of political opinions as well as biasness in putting social preferences in order. For example, the fact those voters have to choose between parties while voting in respect to the current Bill which prefers Liberals to Conservatives and Conservatives to NDP party.
The other prevalent problem is the fact that the current democratic model supports and encourages a strategic orientation to the political process that it is inclined to serve the individual private interests as opposed to the Canadian population. This has decapitated the population from actively participating in political agendas. This shows the extent to which parliament has aggravated to individualist mode of rule as opposed to the public interest mode of approach.
Another pressing issue in the Canadian democratic structure is the mode of leadership approach. Democratic politics central function is to create government which is the same primary mandate for the parliament. This is not the case in Canada because parliamentarians blindly endorse whatever legislation that is tabled by the cabinet such as same sex marriage legislation in 2005 which brought a lot of issues within institutions, parliament and from the population.
The first-past-the-post system in Canada has had a number of negative effects where it has greatly promoted regionalism. It has also promoted the formation of majority governments in the provincial level where some of the parties which did not have a popular vote have been instrumental in creation of these majority governments (3).
The fact that the Canadian senate members are appointed rather than elected has led to low levels of popular legitimacy and representation of a number of people such as Aboriginal people. This has also brought in a compromise within the senate where small provinces have taken advantage of the reform to create a fifth column for provincial interests within the federal government.
Conclusion Issues pertaining to Canadian democracy raise the arguments as to whether Canada still stands to be among the most outstanding democratic states around the world. But in counter to this, it has had a number of commendable amendments which also propels it to be among the best. For instance, the Canadian government initiated a new youth program that is meant for the youth to be actively involved in the country’s politics.
We will write a custom Essay on Democracy in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List 1. World Audit. (2010). World Democracy Audits: World Audit Website, Web.
2. Daniele A. (2004) Cosmopolitan Democracy and its Critics: A Review, London School of Economics
The ‘Obesity Epidemic’ and the Analytic Model of Bio-power Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The unhealthy child
Bio-power and Obesity
Introduction Childhood obesity is a term used to refer to children who are overweight by virtue of having excessive body fat, which can negatively affect their health and wellbeing. In light of the increasing number of children who are overweight and the embedding risk of young people developing complicated health problems, obesity in children has been referred to as an epidemic (Aphramor 2005, p. 315).
As a result, school health syllabuses, community resources, websites, television programmes, and health/physical education textbooks have been widely used to target young people in campaigns and intervention programs aimed at teaching them various ways of living healthy.
In so doing, societies and popular media have achieved to influence the way young people are thinking about their bodies and eating habits (Bordo 2003). In this paper, we will look at the various ways the society and popular media construct ‘the unhealthy child’ relative to the notion of bio-power.
The unhealthy child As mentioned earlier, one of the major discourses driving the changes in the way people think about their bodies and eating habits is the ‘obesity epidemic’. Here, the notion of biopower has been used to create certain ‘truths’ or ‘imperatives’ about childhood obesity, which are now widely accepted and used to regulate bodies and certain desirable qualities of health among the young people (Aphramor 2005, p. 317; Bauman 2001).
These ‘truths’ are explicitly delivered through various avenues including physical/health education in schools and communities. Therefore, through various media and information sources, people are led to believe that there is a clear causal relationship between overweight and obesity, which in turn affects one’s health.
In most cases, obesity and overweight have been used interchangeably, which then follows that one major instrument of measurement (Body Mass Index) has been used for both concepts.
Besides the body mass index (BMI) scales for characterizing overweight people, the children’s weight has been directly linked to various behaviors including playing computer games, lying around on the couch, and watching too much television among others (Jutel 2000, pp. 113-125).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, unhealthy children are also associated with poor eating habits such as consumption of sugary foods, less fruits and vegetables, and foods high in saturated fats. All these are major ‘truth’ claims, which are implicated in the way the society views overweight or obese children.
In the long run, it is common practice to have overweight or obese children being stigmatized and victimized because they are referred to as the ‘other’. And the most immediate risk of objectifying overweight children as the ‘other’ revolves around the way in which other groups of children relate or treat them.
Various surveys document that most overweight people get accosted in streets or reprimanded by their personal physicians for their poor health practices.
These and other acts of humiliation suffered by the overweight people lead them to blindly accept the imperatives underlying the obesity epidemic and the need to change their bodies and lifestyles in order to fit into the normalized social health prescriptions (Jutel 2000, p. 120).
Bio-power and Obesity According to Foucault (1997), the notion of bio-power involves certain truth discourses regarding the desirable attributes of human beings, authorities with the ability to hold the truth, intervention strategies to sustain life and health, and modes of subjectification, which allow people to work individually or collectively for the benefit of life and health.
As a result, the significant aim of bio-power is to improve life through seeking productive control over individual or collective life. Accordingly, the elements of bio-power highlighted in the foregoing discussions play a role in sustaining the idea of obesity epidemic in the society and popular media in many aspects.
Here, the obesity epidemic is treated as a ‘truth discourse’, thereby occasioning the popular intervention strategies delivered through various information channels such as health promotion policies, school curricular, and the media (Rabinow
Models in problem formulation and identification Essay essay help online: essay help online
There are several approaches to problem formulation and identification. Most of these models employ the use of various techniques. A person can choose one model over the other depending on the nature of the problem to be identified, and solution to be formulated.
Problem identification and formulation is rather a creative process. Therefore, this essay shall focus on creativity models used in problem formulation and identification. These models rely on problem definition as the key to its solution.
The simplex model use creativity to provide a practical method for a collaborative win-win problem solving model. The underlying technique in this process is the deliberate use of creativity in defining a problem. The model approaches a problem situation with a joint creative problem definition to provide a room for win-win results.
The model has four stages. The first stage involves the generation of the problem and fact finding, and then conceptualizes of potential definition, and idea of the problem. The next stage involves optimization of ideas, and the preferred action plan. Finally, the parties gain acceptance and implement the solution (Bateman
The role of the line manager in managing under-performance Report essay help online free
According to Swamson, 2009, human resources are the most precious factor of production that an organization has; to benefit from their intellectualism, an organization need to manage them effectively.
Human resources department has the role of ensuring the right number of staffs in terms of quality, quantity, and experience are maintained within an organization. to conduct their role effectively, personnel managers need the support of the entire workforce particularly those in management positions.
Line managers have the role of heading revenue-generating departments and are responsible for achieving an organization’s main goals; to effectively undertake this task; they need to manage their human capital effectively.
When managing their immediate subordinates, line managers play a crucial role in enhancing performance among the staffs; they act as team leaders, mentors, coaches, and team players (Armstrong, 2006). This paper discusses the role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs.
Human resources performance management Performance management within an organization refers to activities undertaken by an organization to facilitate the attainment of their corporate goals and objectives in an effective and efficient manner.
The focus of effective performance management is to improve an entire organizations performance; it may focus on a certain area, department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service with the sole aim of ensuring that efficiency has been attained in an organization.
The concept of performance management was coined by Dr. Aubrey Daniels in the late 1970s where he looked at an organization from a scientific angle; he suggested that there is need to focus on total improvement of the organization for both behavior and results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Human resources need to be managed effectively to facilitate the improvement of efficiency in the organization; the rate of performance as well as the processes they are using to attain high results need to be vetted to improve them accordingly.
Performance management aims at attaining three main corporate objectives as facilitating financial gain of an organization, enhancing and growing motivation in the workplace, and improving management control.
Performance can be seen as the difference between actual results verses desired results; it is always the desire of a company to record high actual results than the desired results/budgeted result.
Performance management is a continuous process that entails not just evaluation of the rate of performance of an organization but enacting such measures that enhance the improvement of processes within the firm.
Other than focusing on human capital, performance management aims at improving structures, infrastructures, and physical components of an organization; it involves partnering of teams of workers for future improvement.
To improve future processes and results, there is always the need to measure, gauge and analyze past and present performance of an organization (Bandt and Haines, 2002). Performance management can be analyzed into four main stages as:
At this stage the management has the role of setting goals and objectives to be attained with a specified period of time considering the available factors of production.
We will write a custom Report on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When setting the standards of the company, the management has to be very genuine on how it will evaluate the outcome of the organization; this calls for vetting the resources available and making the right combination of available assets.
The standards can only be attained if processes are improved and people skills enhanced to facilitate high performance. Performance indicators should also be placed and indentified as they assist keeping the company accountable of its current performance (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010)
With set standards and expectations, leaders should develop performance measurement indicators, the measures enacted include gap-analysis (gap analysis involves considering the difference between the set standards and the actual standards attained), outcomes of data systems, and statistical responses.
Reporting of progress After comparing the outcomes of a performance management process, the next most crucial aspect is to make regular reports to analyze the progress of the process.
There are times that the process may give mixed reports likely to suggest that the business is not keeping pace of the standards expected; in such an event the management have the role of enacting remedies to the process.
quality improvement process
With the standards set and the right pathway determined, the next most crucial exercise that managers should do is to document the determined right path of operation. It is through the documentation that changes can be effected within processes and human resources training and learning exercises are set.
Line managers Line managers are mandated with the role of managing micro-teams within an organization that accomplish a particular exercise in an organization. In current management strategy, tasks are divided among different task forces that are mandated with the role of giving a certain output to the organization.
For example a manufacturing company may have the following departments, manufacturing, processing, human resources, supplies, procurement, sales, marketing, finances among others; the above departments may be lead by departmental heads assisted by line managers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of the line manager in managing under-performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In small organizations, departmental heads can double up as line managers. Line managers have the role of improving their employee’s performance through their actions and leadership skills (John, 2004).
The role played by line managers to manage under-performance among staffs The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise. They manage underperformance through:
team spirit enactment and reinforcement
Line managers are team leaders of the sections they head; they have the role of ensuring that their team is effectively managed.
Effectively managed teams have the capability of enhancing the growth of strong team spirit that leads to efficiency, innovation, invention, and creativity within teams. there are different management practices that line managers should enact to facilitate the growth of team spirit, they include enacting effective communication systems where team leaders and members can discusses issues freely, creating a favorable working environment, and acting as the linkage between subordinates and top management.
Management experts have suggested that one of the most causes of underperformance or poor performance among staffs comes from lack of team spirit and ineffective teams. When teams are weak, opportunities are lost and businesses exposed to risks.
The understanding of this major role of creating a favorable working environment is the parting-point that line managers need to understand and take effective measures as a result.
Orchestrate teams are created when line managers have effective teams management strategies thus issues affecting his team are addressed effectively to avoid chances of failure; orchestrate teams are highly productive.
line managers and talent management
Under performance within an organization can be managed if human capital talents and intellectual capabilities have been managed effectively. At the level of line management, managers at this level need to understand how to handle their employees to facilitate the growth of their talents and intellectualism.
Line managers should take their time and understand the strengths and weak points of their team members and enact such policies that combine strengths and weaknesses optimally for high results.
One area that results to low human resources performance is when their talents, skills, and strengths fail to be matched with the kind of job in their company; they tend to become bored and unsettled.
When tapping human capital talents, line managers should have the skills, professionalism, and right attitude to build a winning team. An organization made of well managed talents has a competitive advantage over its competitors as this is an asset that is limited to individuals.
Other than managing talents, line managers should have the capability of combining their human capital effectively; the combination should be able to take advantage of human capital strengths and mitigate against any human resources risks.
Morale and attitude of employees is determined by the kind of relationship the company develops with its employees. When morale and attitude is low, it follows that the employee’s production is low and inefficient.
When managing a large team, line managers should have the team further divided into smaller micro teams on a certain basis, this helps in dealing with matters from a micro-angle which is likely to bring better and more satisfying results to the company.
involving employees in decision making
Decisions are the driving force of an organization, organizations that have effective, quality, and timely decisions have strong competitive strength. In contemporary management systems, management gurus are emphasizing the need to make decision via scientific decision making process; scientific decision making process requires that management involve their subordinates when making business decisions.
The inputs of subordinates are considered crucial as they might have some insight information either derived from experience, education or their intellectualism. When human resources are engaged when making decisions, they develop ownership to the decision and work hard to ensure that it has been attained.
By itself, engaging human capital when making decisions results to highly motivated staffs that are willing to work an extra mile for the benefit of the company.
In the event of failure, the human resources are willing to learn from the past activity; they take it as if it is them who wronged thus they are willing to take up the entire blame. Since line manager is the person on the ground or who is close to the subordinates, he should be the first element to involve his human capital in decision making.
He should learn how to guide the subordinates in giving their views, how to disregard that information that is not essential, and how to differentiate quality input by employees without hurting either. With such a policy, the human capital become motivates and willing to give their input to the organization.
Looking at involvement from another angle, when subordinates are involved when making business decisions, and the decision give rise to better working condition and improved performance, they become motivated and willing to learn. the satisfaction that subordinates derive from the knowledge that their input has given positive results is enough motivation to assist them work harder and improve their performance in terms of efficiency and loyalty.
With this in mind, line managers have the responsibility of ensuring they have structures that involve subordinates in decision making and communicating the results of the decisions with time.
Any challenge that comes along should be discussed and solution sort for the same. as a manager, line managers should be given some float to assist them arrange some social activities like team building with the aim of thanking subordinates and involving them when forging the way forward for the organization (Swanson, 2002).
enhance learning and training in the organization at micro-level
Business processes are changing fast, for competitiveness and high competition, organizations need to have employees who are dedicated, experienced, and well versed with the changes in their industry. Line managers’ act as coaches, trainers, and mentors in their departments; the extended role of line managers means they need to be knowledgeable of what changes are taking place in their industry as well as how to handle the situation.
When training, mentorship, and coaching is well embraced, leaders learn the weak areas of their subordinates and make such efforts that will assist them improve in the said area.
Line managers have the role of establishing the training needs in an employees and enacting such measures that enhance training by the subordinates; by so doing the line manager is assisting human resources and top managers enhance performance and productivity in the company. training can be done by internal parties who are experienced in a certain area or can involve third parties like experts, gurus, and professionals in particular areas of interest.
line managers in recruitments, promotions, demotions, and performance appraisals
When making decision on the employee to deploy, human resources managers should consult line managers who advise them on the right candidate to deploy in terms of education, experience, age and gender.
It is through recruitment that an organization is able to get the right caliber of employees who can handle the business situation of the company effectively. In the event that line managers fail to offer such quality advice, they are likely to mislead the company and get employees who are inefficient, inexperienced and who have little input to give to the company (Pause, 2009).
When the right candidates have been selected for a particular position, line managers have the role of orienting them to the company systems and organizational culture. With the move to include them in organizational culture, the companies need to have a positive culture that will enhance production.
Positive organizational culture involves having structures that facilitate the development of favorable working conditions and informed decision making procedures.
After recruitments, line managers should be actively be involved when appraising employees, the appraisal model should be a balance score board system as it assists the management know the exact strength of its human capital and make decisions on the kind of interventions they can make to facilitate an orchestrate team.
When appraising line managers should give their recommendations on what they think is fit for the company and the employees at large. the appraisal method adopted by a particular company can break employees or build them, in the event they are appraised by a person they are sure understands their issues, they are likely to give some personal business related information that can be of much benefit when making decisions.
Sometimes differences occur between the appraisal gotten by an employee and what the employee think its right for him or her, in such cases, the employer has the right to determine the right approach not to discourage or de-motivate the employee.
In most cases, appraisal comes with an appreciation or an acknowledgement to the staff; the right performance appraisal is thus important as it will assist the company give the right appreciation to the right person for the good of the company.
Line managers play a direct role when choosing the kind of employees that have to be deployed in their organization; they need to advice the management on the right candidate and enact such policies that will see them get the employees on board.
The growth of a candidate in an organization is determined by line managers thus they need to be fair and just to their subordinates. When the right employees have been deployed, chances of under-performance will be reduced; there will be structures that will enhance staff skills development for the benefit of the company.
Management gurus have suggested that one of the best methods to ensure high productivity in an organization is to have the right number and quality of employees at all sections (McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson, 2001).
line managers and fulfillment of psychological contracts
One area that many organizations have ignored is the appreciation that they have engaged in some psychological contracts with their employees; they are affected by the psychological and emotional well-beings of their human capital.
Human beings have different attitude, potential, emotional intelligence, and perceptions; the differences need to be professionally managed as it affects the performance of employees. effective line managers ensures that the psychological contracts of their employees have been fulfilled; in the book, “Organizational Behavior” by, MeShane, Olekalns, and Travaglione, the writers are of the observation that for a highly motivated staff, managers should look into their psychological, emotional, and intellectual well-being; this looks into the social aspects of employees and assists keeping them at peace with the system.
The advantage that line managers have is that human behavior can be predicted as well as molded; the most important thing is to know the right intervention to make to facilitate positive behavior reinforcements. line managers assisted by policies enacted by human resources management should enact policies that will facilitate the growth of positive behavior in their organization; the right method create an environment that enables a favorable working condition where employees feel their emotional and psychological needs are respected (Legge, 2004).
In managers in top management decision making and advising their subordinates When making corporate goals and decisions, line managers have the role of participating in the decision making and making sure that the right decisions have been made.
When in top management meetings, line managers should understand that they are representing a certain section so any decision that is likely to affect the section negatively should not be made. In this case, the line manager should understand that he is a link between the top management and subordinates staffs thus should keep a top gear approach which looks into issues from all sides.
Underperformance may result from decisions that are not attainable; this means that it might be optimism on the part of the management as they might not understand what is actually happening on the ground.
Line managers should be up to the challenge where they advise on the attainable targets as well as advice on what should be done to make the attainment of the goals even easier.
For instance they might recommend the adoption of a particular technology, buying of machinery or any other business action that will facilitate the attainment of corporate goals and objective.
It adds no value for line managers sit in top management positions without offering insight details that can assist in making the right attainable targets for their team. Despite this, the attainment should be justified and one that will ensure that the talents, capabilities, and skills in the team have been utilized effectively (MeShane, Olekalns and Travaglione, 2020).
Conclusion Line managers have the role of managing micro-teams within an organization; they are team leaders mandated with the task of enacting policies that fit their organization model. The role of line managers in managing underperformance among staffs is facilitated by their leadership skills; in the event they have effective management skills, they are likely to improve their staffs skills and expertise.
To manage underperformance line managers should work with top management and subordinates to determine their organizations strengths and weakness.
With an understanding of their organizations strengths and weaknesses, line managers should actively be involved in decision making to ensure their team’s interests has been considered. Some of the management practices that the managers need to take include talent management, skills development, psychological contracts fulfillment, and performance appraisals.
References Armstrong, M., 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. New York: Kogan Page.
Bandt, A. and Haines, S., 2002. Successful Strategic Human Resource Planning. San-Diego: Systems Thinking Press.
Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. ,2010. Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach.New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
John, B.P., 2004. Organizational Behavior, from theory to Practice. New York: Wiley.
Legge, K., 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities (Anniversary ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
McGoldrick, J., Stewart J.,
Intercultural Awareness Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Advantages of Intercultural Communication
Introduction Culture implies different things to different groups. For example, anthropologists define culture as the way people live. Others define it as the system that incorporates the biological and technical behaviors of community within their verbal and nonverbal systems.
NASW (2001) defined culture as “the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs, values; and the institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group” (NASW, 2001, 1).
It is the totality of behavior passed from one generation to the other. Intercultural awareness campaigns try to figure out how people understand each other irrespective of their cultural differences (NASW 2000). 21st century living is described as a multicultural society in a global village.
Therefore, one may ask, what kind of communication and interactions are required to create a climate of respect, diversity tolerance with unified common goals? More so, one may wish to find out whether it is possible for neighbors to embrace their cultural differences (NASW, 2007).
Bennet outlined a great scenario on how a group of primates gathered around a bonfire would fight or take off on the sight of another group of primates heading to their fire place. This is exactly how it happens even to the more advanced primates Homo sapiens.
Arguably, our ancestors avoided people from other cultures in the best way they could. If all measures to avoid their interactions were unsuccessful, they opted for other measures such as converting them into their way of life.
Those who became stubborn to assimilations were ripped out of existence through killing; there is evidence of genocide from the history. Therefore, dealing with cultural differences, understanding it, embracing it and respecting it is vital to intercultural awareness and especially communication (Bennet 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Intercultural Perspective Understanding objective culture is very different to understanding a foreign culture. There exist perspectives, which view that learning about other cultures, their social, economic, political way of life, their linguistics, arts and so forth are sufficient to understand culture.
However, there are professors, in such sectors as linguistics, who still are unable to communicate with people from that particular community irrespective of how broad their knowledge is. Understanding objective culture merely adds knowledge about the foreign culture but does not generate much cultural competence.
On the other hand, understanding phenomenological features that define a group, and the way the group reasons and behaves will mark a step to identifying with the culture of that group. It is defined as subjective culture.
Subjective culture is defined by Bennet (1998) as “the learned and shared patterns of beliefs, behaviors, and values of groups of interacting people” (p. 1). This type of perspective is said to be more likely to lead to intercultural competence. However, it requires understanding objective culture to understand subjective culture and to have social reality (Bennet 1998).
Many people ignore the advantages of cultural orientation. Most of them, view intercultural communication as the grammatical rules applied in spoken and written practices.
To some, learning about cultural practices poses a threat to their values. Some of the non verbal perspectives of communication from various cultures are picked from TV programs and movies, which have very little for communication purposes or, which may be of faulty conceptions (Bennet 1998).
Another problem with cultural perspectives is stereotyping and generalization. For example, it is very common to take notice of people discussing that a certain lady is not behaving like a Latin woman and so forth. This is so especially with the Arabic culture and Islam where gender roles are strictly divided.
We will write a custom Essay on Intercultural Awareness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is hard to find women from such communities in leading positions in politics or other fields. Stereotypes occur when behavioral assumptions are held by all members of a particular culture as shared traits. Such characteristics assumedly common can be respected by the observer (positive stereotype) or be disrespected (negative stereotype).
Either of the stereotypes is negative in intercultural communication because they often give false conceptions regarding the community or have partial truth in them. Secondly, stereotyping is an act of encouraging prejudice among the cultures.
However, it is important for a culture to develop identity to make a cultural generalization. Assuming that each person is an individual may lead to naive individualism (Martin
Process Analysis and Problem Solving Research Paper custom essay help
Introduction The level of competition in different industries in which organizations operate today is high and calls for increased competitiveness. In order to improve the competitiveness, firms could engage in different firm activities that may include process improvement.
This may call for analysis of the problem and seeking different ways of solving the issues. In order to improve business processes, an organization needs to have the necessary knowledge and expertise. The business process could be attained through establishment of change such as business process reengineering.
In spite of the good intentions of the changes, there is always resistance to change that could lead to project failure as examined in this paper. In addition, this paper examines reengineering as an example of process improvement in organizations.
History of Process Improvement Change is a constant element in organizations given the dynamic business environment that firms operate in. Organizations operate in many business environments that are characterised by free entry and exit, increasing competition and technological advancement.
In order for organizations to maintain their competitiveness, they need to embrace change and improve their manufacturing processes, service delivery and operations. Process improvement has occurred in firms over many years.
Over many years, quality improvement in firms was done using regular inspection and changed over time to total quality management and the modern six sigma approach. Process improvement concept was first used by Harrington James in 1991 when he published in his book on process improvement.
The method involves redesigning and reengineering business process in order to improve quality of an organization’s output while gaining a competitive edge at the same time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since its introduction, process improvement has been able to be applied in many firms. The application of information technology in the process is a vital ingredient that will revolutionalize the future of process improvement in firms.
Process Improvement in Firms The improvement of business processes in an organization has not been smooth for most firms. As the management of an organization introduces change in the company, there is always resistance to change with most employees opting to remain with the current processes of the firm.
According to Hammer