ACME Mexico ISM Plan Report College Essay Help Online

Table of Contents Introduction

Roles Analysis

Responsibilities Analysis

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction In the present-day world of informational society, knowledge management seems to have become an integral part of the mechanism of any organization. By analyzing the existing information sources and delivering accurate data on time, a company is able to use the data in question to its advantage and improve its performance impressively.

However, information acquisition is not the only issue that a company must resolve in order to succeed; apart from the analysis of information sources, the concept of professional responsibility must be introduced and roles and responsibilities must be distributed among the members of the personnel.

Despite the fact that the ACME stores clearly lack cohesion between their departments (Information required for change of control or change of ownership or both for radioactive materials license, n. d.), it can still be assumed that the company is most likely to succeed with the introduction of the principles of shared knowledge into the information management standards.

Roles Analysis The company must be given credit for its well thought out structure (Background information ACE Home Improvements, n. d.). Indeed, after a thorough consideration of the organization chart, one will notice that roles have been distributed reasonably among the members of the company.

ACME has a CEO, as known as the Project Sponsor, whose role is to handle the operation of the company (ACME Autopartes, SA de CV, n. d.). He plays the role of the company leader and the person who is in charge of efficient communication within the organization, as well as the communication of the company staff with the representatives of other companies.

The CIO, or the Project Manager, plays the role of the CEO’s assistant, providing the latter with the information regarding the Information Management Plan (IMP) (Acme Electric Manufacturing de México, S. de RL de CV Company profile, n. d.). The company also has the so-called Project Team, which consists of seven people and includes the COO, the CFO, the CLO, the Director of Marketing, the Director of HR, Store Operations Manager and the IT Applications and Integration Manager.

The role of the Project Team members is to make sure that their departments deliver high-quality performance. To be more exact, the IT Applications and Integration Manager’s role is to coordinate the work of the IT department, the Store Operations Manager makes sure that the operations are carried out properly, the Director of HR plays the role of the HRM department supervisor, the Director of Marketing makes certain that the marketing strategies have been defined and that the marketing specialists deliver high-quality results, the CLO performs the role of a learning manager, the CFO plays the part of a financial manager, and the COO’s role is that one of the company’s operating process supervisor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the Support Staff includes the Assistant CIO (role: helping the CIO), Customer Service Manager/Front-end Manager (role: communication with the customer), Logistics Manager (role: handling transportation issues), Inventory Control/Security Manager (role: promoting security within the company), Director of Financial Analysis (role: defining the company’s financial strengths and weaknesses), Director of Staffing (role: managing the HRM department) and Training and Business Development Manager (role: providing the staff with training options).

The ACME Company Members’ Roles

Responsibilities Analysis Speaking of responsibilities, the next chart shows in a very graphic way what each of the stakeholders listed above is supposed to perform within the company. For instance, the CEO is responsible for the entire operation of the company. While considerably generalized, the given statement still defines the responsibilities of the company CEO quite precisely, stating that the CEO is responsible for the implementation of the information management plan (IMP).

To be more exact, the company CEO must make sure that the ACME Company has enough resources to fulfill its mission. The CIO, in his/her turn, is responsible for the design of the information management plan, in accordance with which the CEO of the company makes his/her decisions. IT Applications and Integration Manager are responsible for the organization of the information management process; the Store Operations Manager is in charge of his/her department and the corresponding procedures and policies.

As for the Support Staff, the Assistant CIO is responsible for providing credible information to the CIO, Customer Service Manager/Front-end Manager is in charge of relationships with the customer, Logistics Manager is responsible for the Logistics Department operation, Inventory Control/Security Manager is accountable for the company’s security, Director of Financial Analysis is responsible for the company’s financial transactions, Director of Staffing is responsible for the HRM department operations, and Training and Business Development Manager is in charge of generating new business opportunities.

The ACME Company’s Members’ Responsibilities

We will write a custom Report on ACME Mexico ISM Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The ACME Company has been doing relatively well over the past few years, yet its system of roles distribution and responsibilities delegation seems to have become quite dated.

While the company should be encouraged for using a relatively simple system of roles distribution, which allows for a clear and fast production process, it still could use a better cooperation between its departments. In addition, the concept of professional responsibility should be introduced into the company so that the employees could be motivated in a more efficient manner.

Reference List ACME Autopartes, S. A. de C. V. Web.

Acme Electric Manufacturing de México, S. de R. L. de C. V. Company profil. Web.

Background information ACE Home Improvements. Web.

Information required for change of control or change of ownership or both for radioactive materials license. Web.

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Talent and Succession Management Strategy Case Study college essay help near me

Executive Summary Succession planning strategies have become very important in the current competitive market. There has been a shift of focus in succession planning strategies. Initially, it was a method meant to select the most appropriate chief executives. However, firms currently use it as an approach of selecting the most qualified candidates for various positions. At BP, the management has been keen on its selection of individuals to hold various posts within the firm.

The focus has been to select candidates with appropriate skills to these positions. However, the current strategy has not been effective enough in identifying and nurturing talents among its employees. This has affected its efficiency. The management must therefore, consider refocusing its strategy to be comprehensive enough to capture special talents among its workforce, and determine the approach of using the talents in its management strategies.

Introduction and Background of BP Company Introduction

The current business world is becoming very competitive, especially due to the increasing number of firms competing for the same market. According to Rothwell (2010, p. 112), business units must find ways of managing this competition if they expect to succeed in protecting their market shares.

In such a competitive environment, marketing plays an important role in enabling firms to understand the needs of their consumers, produce goods that meet their needs, and deliver this product in a way that would yield maximum value to them. This way, a firm would be able to attract and retain a large pool of loyal customers. According to Hawkey (2002, p. 35), marketing has gained a lot of relevance in the near past.

There has been a shift of focus from the 19th century’s emphasis on production strategy, to the 21st century’s focus on social marketing. In those early years, competition was almost nonexistence. Firms’ main concern was to present their products to the market. Consumers lacked alternatives, and therefore, they would be forced to buy what was presented in the market.

This changed as we approached the 20th century. In the current market, the competition is so stiff that firms have to employ marketing strategies in order to remain competitive. For this to happen, Olsen (2013, p. 89), says that a firm must have a pool of talent among its employees at managerial levels. It must have the right people who are competent enough to take it to the next level in terms of creativity and innovativeness.

Succession planning strategy has therefore, been considered very important in the current business environment as a way of identifying and nurturing talents. Succession planning in the current business environment goes beyond selection of top management officers. It also involves having the right workforce at various sensitive positions within the firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Liteman (2003, p. 78), for a firm to be able to take maximum advantage in the marketing strategies, there is a need to have a skilled and talented workforce that has the capacity to manage the changing environmental forces. Skilled labor is major assets that can enable a firm survive negative environmental forces in cases where other competitors failed. Talent is core in enhancing creativity and innovation within a firm.

Firms may find it challenging to identify some of the relevant talents that can help them move a step further towards success. It requires the management to develop strategies that would help them identify and nature talents among its workforce as a way of gaining relevance in the market.

BP is one of the leading oil companies in the world. It has gained a reputation in the market because of the competence of its successive leaders. This would make one believe that succession-planning strategies at this firm is effective. It would be important to capture some of the background information about this firm.

Background of BP

BP, also known as British Petroleum, is a large British oil company that was started in 1908. A group of geologists, led by William Knox was commissioned to conduct an exploration of oil in Iran, and their exploration proved successful. When the geologists confirmed that there were rich oil reserves in Iran, they quickly developed Anglo-Persia Oil Company as Burmah Oil Company’s subsidiary.

When the British government realized the potential of the oil reserves in Iran, it moved with speed to take a leading shareholding in this new company in order to control its operations. At this time, tension had started developing in Europe, and countries were preparing themselves for war. The firm experienced massive expansion during the First World War. During this time, oil had become an important commodity in the industrial sector.

The firm received another major boost in the Second Word War as it played a major role in providing fuel both to the industrial sector and to the military during the war.

It expanded vary rapidly through mergers and takeovers. It has also formed strategic alliances with some of the leading oil and gas companies such as the Royal Dutch Shell and the Russian TNK to improve its global market coverage. The early success of this firm was attributed to its effective leadership. Top management of this firm remained focus on the market forces, and this helped it grow rapidly.

We will write a custom Case Study on Talent and Succession Management Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Randhawa (2007, p. 82), BP currently operates in over 80 countries across the world, with over 20,800 service station. It has taken a vertical operational approach, which means that it is involved in oil exploration, production, refining, marketing, and distribution of petroleum products. It is also involved in power generation, petrochemicals, renewable energy, wind power, and biofuels.

This diversity is a clear sign that this firm has had the right workforce at the management and other levels within the firm. Based on its revenues in 2012, the firm was ranked the world’s fifth largest company. Although BP has been very successful in the market, it has met some challenges that have affected its operations in the market. The world is increasingly getting concerned with issues of environmental protection.

However, BP has scored poorly in its environmental protection strategies. The firm has been subject to a series of litigations due to failure to manage its plants or other petroleum facilities. In 2005, its Texas Refinery Plant exploded, causing death of its 15 workers. It was fined millions of dollars because of this accident. In 2006, Prudhoe Bay oil spillage that spread to North Slope in Alaska earned it $ 25 million for lack of its ability to protect the environment.

The Deep-water Horizon remains the largest oil spillage in the history of this industry. This has not only earned this company serious loss in terms of billions of dollars in fines, but has also tainted its image in the market. In a business environment that has become increasingly sensitive on environmental protection, BP has lost its glorious image to some of its competitors, especially in United States.

The recent unfortunate accidents clearly demonstrates that BP need to identify better talents that would enable it achieve efficiency in its operations. It is a sign that its current succession planning strategies are not effective enough to identify the most appropriate talents for various sectors within the firm. Its diversification into renewable energy is a sign that the management has been effective enough to tap on new talents that can bring new ideas to the firm.

However, the series of accidents that have taken place in the last one-decade resulting in deaths and huge sums of money being paid as fines is a clear warning that the current strategy is not successful enough to identify the most appropriate talents for its operations. According to Goad (2004, p. 78), the Deep-waters Horizon oil spillage was because of incompetent engineers at this firm who underestimated the pressure and the reaction at the exploration site.

This resulted into massive loss to this firm and damage of its reputation in the market. Reactive strategies are no longer appropriate in the market. The firm cannot wait for such unfortunate incidences to occur in order to initiate a reaction. It must have a proactive team that has the capacity of understanding the changing technological factors and determine how the firm can operate within these factors.

The fact that this firm has been on record for polluting the environment over the last decade demonstrates that there is a gap in the current talents that are within this firm. The current workforce lack special talent that can enable them understand the instruments used in the exploration, production, transportation, and storage of petroleum products. It is a clear indication that something must be done to rescue BP from any possible accidents that may hurt its operations further.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Talent and Succession Management Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Objectives of the research

Sobol (2007, p. 79) notes that research is a very complex and expensive process that must be conducted with a clear purpose to be met. Stating the objectives helps the researcher in identifying facts that should be collected from both the primary and secondary data sources. As stated in the introduction, energy sector is the backbone of other sectors of the economy in any given country.

Therefore, this important sector must be treated with a lot of care in order to achieve maximum benefit from it. With the current prevailing external environmental factors, firms are under great pressure to find ways of operating at their best in order to remain competitive. Efficiency, effectiveness, and innovativeness are key to achieving the desired success in the market. These factors concern the capacity of human resource. This means that the management and employees at various levels must have the right skills and talents.

Talent has been considered a core value that enables firms to be creative in their operations. BP must find a strategy of identifying and nurturing talents among its top management and other junior employees for it to be successful in the market. Its succession planning strategies must be effective enough to identify employees who have the best capacity of undertaking various activities within the firm. The following are some of the specific objectives that this research seeks to achieve.

To understand the succession planning strategies that BP has been using to identify the most qualified individuals for its top leadership.

To determine the current strategies that are used at BP to identify and nature talent among its employees

To determine the level of talent that has been natured at BP using its current strategies.

To determine how the current talents at BP has given it a unique market advantage over its competitors.

To identify some of the gaps in the current succession planning strategies that makes it less effective in identifying and nurturing talents among its employees.

To develop a strategy that would be most appropriate for this firm in identifying and nurturing of talents for its top leadership and junior employees.

The researcher seeks to meet the above objectives in an effort to give a report that will make BP a better and more competitive firm in the sectors where it operates.

Literature Review According to Goad (2004, p. 56), employees are the most important assets that any organization can have. Success of a firm depends on the quality of the employees, especially at the top management. It is becoming apparent that firms’ competitiveness in the market would directly depend on the quality of workforce it has.

Successful firms in the market are creative and innovative. They develop products that are unique, giving their firms opportunities of taping into new markets that are yet to be flooded. In the energy sector, the stakes are even higher, especially due to the increasing concern for the environment.

Firms in this sector must come up with ways in which they can make their productions in the way that is very safe to the environment. This means that these firms must have appropriate leadership and workforce that will be able to bring innovation in their respective areas of operations.

Succession planning strategy has been considered very crucial for firms as a way of identifying talents and skilled workforce with the capacity of understanding the prevailing market forces. According to Sims (2007, p. 92), although many people view succession planning as a relatively new approach of selection of employees and top managers, it has been in existence for a very long time. Firms are faced with the challenge of redefining themselves beyond their current operations.

Randhawa (2007, p. 30) notes that firms are still struggling to find the best employees who can handle various duties effectively. Although a few have developed succession planning strategies that enables them to identify, develop, and retain special talents among their employees, most firms still lack such programs.

According to Jackson (2011, p. 90), firms have failed to develop strategies that can enable them identify the most appropriate workforce, retain them because of their skills, and help them develop their career even further. Randhawa (2007, p. 94) notes that although BP is one of the best employers in various countries around the world, it has experienced a relatively high employee-turnover within the past one decade. What makes this situation even more unfortunate is that some of these employees are hired at rival firms.

They transfer all their skills and experience to these rival firms, giving them a better chance of beating BP. This is attributed to lack of clear strategies that can be used by the firm to identify and retain the most qualified employees to boost its operations.

According to Goad (2004, p. 71), succession planning is taking a completely new dimension in the current competitive business world. Firms are forced to go a step higher in their operational strategies in order to achieve success. The market is experiencing changes, and firms must adopt these changes in order to remain competitive in the market. In the energy sector, there has been a strong shift of focus from the use of petroleum products, to bio-safety products.

Companies in the energy sector are forced to shift their focus into environmental friendly fuels. To achieve this, there is need to have a management unit and a workforce that understand the environmental dynamics.

Succession planning strategies therefore helps in identifying and nurturing special talents within the firm that can enable it manage the dynamic market environment. BP Company is one of the leading energy firms in the world. Its ability to remain competitive in the market largely relies on its human resource management strategies.

Discussion Current human resource development strategies at BP

BP has come to appreciate the importance of having highly qualified human resource at various levels of management. The firm has developed strategies, which are geared towards helping it develop its current workforce to increase their capacity in handling various activities within the firm.

The management has developed in-service training programs for its employees, which is meant to instil knowledge on them on the current issues, especially changes brought about by the emerging technologies.

These learning programs have been developed to not only target junior employees who are at operational levels in this firm, but also leaders in the senior management positions. This has yielded positive fruits for this firm. According to Dahlke (2012, p. 95), BP has been able to adopt the emerging technologies within the past one decade at a relatively faster rate than before.

Performance management

Employees form one of the strongest pillars within an organization that will always determine the capacity of a firm to be successful in the market. The performance of employees depends on a number of factors. As Atwood (2007, p. 89) notes, one of the important factors that would determine the performance of employee is their level of competence. Different tasks within this organization require different skills that employees should have.

Having a workforce with the right skills would always determine the success levels that can be achieved within the firm. BP needs technocrats, besides the qualified management unit. In each category, there must be a way of selecting the best-qualified candidates. The status of this firm shows that the management has made an effort to recruit the most appropriate candidates for various sectors.

Performance management involves close monitoring and coordinating of employees’ performance with a view of optimizing it in order to increase its performance. At BP, the management has set structures meant to monitor activities of employees per department, and ways in which this performance can be enhanced.

The firm has been promoting teamwork, a scenario where employees form small workgroups with the aim of achieving specific objectives within a short time span. This way, it becomes possible to break down strategic objectives into short-term goals, and to determine how these goals can be realized in the best way possible in order to make the firm achieve its strategic objectives.

Talent identification

Succession planning has increasingly become important in the current market because of the increasing levels of competition. According to Rothwell (2005, p. 38), the market competition has gotten so stiff that it forces firms to develop new approaches of remaining competitive. Identification and nurturing of talents has become very important in nurturing employees to assume various leadership position.

Firms require people who have learnt skills in various fields with the capacity to make the firm achieve success in its operations. However, it is important to note that these skills are commonly found in other competing firms. For this reason, firms need more than just skills in employees. They need a workforce and a management unit that have the capacity to come up with something that is beyond the market expectation.

They need a workforce that is innovative enough to come up with new ways of running various activities. They need talent in leadership. At BP, the management has programs running to help nurture creativity and innovations among its workforce. The program creates an environment where people with creative minds are given opportunity to transfer their creativity into practical actions within the firm. However, it is important to note that the current structures at this firm leave some gap.

For instance, the programs do not focus on how the firm can identify these talents even in cases where employees are reluctant to demonstrate that they have special skills. The current system has been more focused on how to identify skills other than talents. Skills are important for efficiency, while talent is core to having innovative workforce. This firm must develop new approaches of identifying talents as proposed in the recommendations below.

Talent assessment

In succession planning strategies, Fager (2007, p. 57) says that a firm should have a clear mechanism of assessing talents whenever there is need to hire individuals at the managerial positions. Talent assessment involves identifying the level in which the identified talents are relevant to the organization. As stated above, the strategies used by BP in managing its human resource is more effective in identification of skills other than talents.

However, the system has been very effective in developing skills and talents that have been identified among its employees. The firm has large laboratory equipment in the United Kingdom and in the United States. At these facilities, the management would offer its workforce opportunity to test their newly developed skills.

This has helped the firm come up with a group of employees who understand the changing environmental factors. The management has been proactive in its talent and skills assessment strategies. The firm has been developing strategies meant to encourage creativity in its workforce.

Career development

According to Singer (2010, p. 135), having career development programs within a firm helps in nurturing employees and improving their performance which helps in improving its overall performance. At BP, there is an elaborate career development program meant to enhance the performance of the workforce and improve their workplace experience. In order to motivate employees, it is always important to create an environment where they feel that they can enhance their career paths.

BP has perfected this strategy. At this firm, employees are given perfect opportunity to develop their careers in various fields. The firm has in-service training programs, which are meant to enhance the capacity of its employees. The firm has also developed scholarship programs for its employees who are intending to further their education in different fields.

Employees are also offered promotional opportunities based on their performance record at the firm, and their loyalty demonstrated after a given period. This has seen employees make concerted effort to improve their performance and loyalty to the firm because they are well aware that such efforts will always be rewarded.

Most of the senior managers of BP are employees who have been with this firm for very long time, starting their careers as junior employees and earning promotions based on their commitment to the firm. This makes other employees feel that they have a better future with the firm in case they can remain committed to it, and enhance their performance.

Conclusion and Recommendations Conclusion

It is clear from the discussion above that succession-planning strategies are very important in enabling a firm to be competitively unique in the market. Technological advancements have brought common ways of approaching various operational activities within the firm. Firms within the same industry would have similar tools and equipment for their operational activities based on technological inventions.

This means that a firm cannot rely on some of these universal tools to gain competitive advantage in the Market. BP has come to realize this fact. Some of its major competitors in the market can easily access most of the sophisticated tools it uses in its production strategies.

For this reason, the only way of achieving success in the market is through development of a unique workforce. To do this, succession planning is very important for this firm in identifying special skills and talents among its employees. The current succession planning strategies at BP have been effective in nurturing talents.

This has helped the firm to achieve success in the market. However, the discussion above shows that there is still a gap in this strategy, a fact that has denied BP an opportunity develop new ways of improving efficiency at various plants, especially in the North American regions. It would therefore, be necessary for the firm to consider the following recommendations.

Recommendations

In order to achieve maximum benefit in the market, the management of BP must realize that the current succession planning strategies are not optimally effective, and this could be the reason behind the recent series of accidents at some of its plants. This is a clear demonstration that the firm needs to identify more qualified and talented workforce, and skilled managers who understand the prevailing technological changes to help it operate efficiently. The management should consider the following.

Succession planning strategies should not just be focused on the top management of the firm. Every individual within the firm is a candidate for promotion to a higher rank. Before they can be promoted to those higher, ranks, adequate training is important to ensure that they can manage new responsibilities.

Succession planning is not one session event that should only be undertaken when it is confirmed that there is need for promotion. Rather, the management of BP should consider it a continuous training process meant to impart desirable skills on employees to enable them handle future responsibilities.

Firms are currently using technology in their succession planning strategies in order to ensure that the most qualified candidates are picked for various promotional opportunities. BP should consider using this approach to enhance its performance.

List of References Atwood, C 2007, Succession planning basics, ASTD Press, Alexandria.

Dahlke, A 2012, Business succession planning for dummies, John Wiley

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Effects of PCBs on the Immune System, the Respiratory System, and the Liver Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract Toxicants are poisonous substances that are produced artificially and introduced to the environment as a result of human activities. These toxicants have serious implications on human health. For instance, they have been found to affect vital organs of the body and lead to death in some cases.

PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) are among the most dangerous persistent organic toxicants in the environment that have been known to adversely affect the health of humans, animals, and the environment. This article focuses on the effects of PCBs on the respiratory system, the immune system, and the liver.

A toxicant is a xenobiotic substance that produces hazardous effects on the body or the environment. Toxicants are introduced into the environment through as a result of human activities. Most of these toxicants mostly circulate through the body and accumulate in specific target organs, which they eventually affect adversely.

However, others can damage any cell or tissue that they come into contact with. There are numerous toxicants in the environment, including heavy metals, non-metals, radioactive pollutants, and persistent organic pollutants (Kacew

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People’s Responsibility in the Social Media World and Its Effects on the Reputation Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Risks associated with using social media

Practices of good use of social media

Conclusion

References

Abstract Social media has developed to become one of the largest and popular platforms in the cyber world. However, this rapid growth has brought many challenges on the use of the social media platforms. This is because social media portrays users and their characters over the internet.

This allows for sharing of many aspects of their lives appropriate, offensive, tormenting and useful. Through social media, there is sharing of messages, photos, videos and documents easily. Technology is indispensable with easy access to internet enabled mobile phones, digital cameras, smart phones and web enabled video cameras used in everyday life. With the sharing of such personal information on the internet, various vulnerabilities to reputation are inevitable.

Technology has greatly advanced with the possibility of people creating and modifying tasteless images and videos online using easily available software. Employers can also obtain personal information by doing profile search on employee profiles for recruitment purposes. This can be damaging to employee-employer relations and life at large. Content posted online is permanent since it is available for reference.

Social media offers a dangerous platform where people can create false profiles and enter chat rooms with unreal names. It is important to think before making commitments to the online associations and relationships or posting images, videos and content. Some aspects of private life need to be kept confidential, not for the whole world to know through social media platforms. The available social media platforms include Face-book, twitter, MySpace, meet-up, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Instagram and Flickr.

We are responsible on social media for whatever content we decide to share irrespective of the perspective. Hiding or using a wrong identity does not help since the computer or web enabled device has a unique ID that identifies it online. Authorities can be able to trace the source and origins of the material posted online and hold them accountable. Social media are vital in peoples lives as they use it for business, hating on others, bullying, offend others, network and share information.

Risks associated with using social media The way people interact, communicate, do business and learn has undergone a revolution by social media. This presents risks in security, privacy, legal, intellectual property, and employment practices (Merril

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The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction The international trade in the US grew much faster after the Second World War. Trade between the United States and the rest of the world has played a significant role in the growth and development of the US economy over the past years. Since the US is a superpower nation, other countries view trade with the country to be quite important.

There are a number of benefits that arise from the trade relationship between the US and the rest of the world. First, the exports and imports of goods and services result in an improvement in the standards of living of the citizens. This comes about because exports generate revenue to the economy while imports increase the amount of commodities available for consumption. This further leads to a reduction in the prices of goods and services.

On the other hand, international trade has a negative impact on the economy in a number of ways. A major drawback is the risk of survival of the domestic industries. Economists claim that international trade results in the reduction of job opportunities and wages. This can be attributed to the fact that an increase in import leads to a reduction in the amount of goods and services produced by local firms. On the contrary, surveys show that the imposition of restrictions on trade does not favor both consumers and the producers.

Aim of the paper The paper seeks to analyze the impact of export on the US economy. Specifically, the paper will analyze the impact of foreign trade on GDP, standard of living (measured using per capita income), and other variables.

Literature review

There are several studies that have been carried out to analyze the impact of export trade on the US economy. Besides, there has been continuous debate on the trade-off between the positive and negative impact of trade on the US economy. The result of these studies has called for the needs to come up with policies that create a balance between the negative and positive impact of trade. An example of such study was carried out by James Jackson in the year 2013 (Jackson 6b).

In the study, Jackson used the computable general equilibrium model that integrates data on export trade and other economic variables for about 100 countries. The author also made use of the Michigan Model and Estimates as an extension of the computable general equilibrium model (Jackson 16b).

The study was based on cross sectional secondary data. Jackson observed that export and import trade enables countries to use their resource endowment more proficiently. This enables them to maximize the variety of goods and services they provide to their citizens. It also results in an increase in the standards of living (Jackson 11b). The author further stated that the economies of the world engage in trade with an aim of maximizing their national interest.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jackson further pointed out that nations engage in trade on the basis of comparative advantage. The author stated that individuals within a nation will tend to focus on areas they have strong skills. Based on this, the citizens will focus on the production of goods and services in the areas they have comparative advantage and exchange with countries that produces other goods and services (Jackson 14b). This creates the concept of exports and imports in international trade.

In the paper, Jackson stated that export trade alone does not account for the economic expansion or contraction of key variables in the economy such as income level, output level, wage rate, and distribution of income because exports accounted for only about 14 percent (in the year 2012) of the GDP of the country (Jackson 11b).

However, the author stated that from a production point of view, import and export trade leads to movement of both labor and capital from productive sectors of the economy to less productive sectors. This strengthens specialization and improves efficiency in the economy.

The research conducted by Jackson further reveals that the movement of capital and labor from one sector of the economy to the other results in an adjustment of costs and improvement of efficiency. Jackson had the same findings in the earlier research paper that was published in the year 2008 (Jackson 27a).

The second study was conducted by Robert Krol in the year 2008 (Krol 1). In the study, “the author carried out a review of the empirical studies that evaluate the impact of foreign trade on the US economy” (Krol 3). Specifically, the author focused on the factors that cause an increase in import and export trade, the positive impact of foreign trade, the effect of international trade on employment and wages, and the cost of restrictions on foreign trade. Krol reviewed the work of various scholars and came up with a number of observations (Krol 4).

To start with, Krol observed that the concept of comparative advantage was a key motivator for international trade. This implies that countries still engage in trade on the basis of their comparative advantage (Krol 4). Further, Krol observed that there are a number of factors that explain the growth of import and export trade.

The study showed that the growth of income explains about sixty six percent of growth in foreign trade, trade freedom accounts for twenty five percentage of the growth of foreign trade and a decline in the transportation cost explains the rest of the expansion of foreign trade (Krol 4).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, it can be observed that the three factors explain the growth in international trade. The study also pointed out that a change in government policies on foreign trade had a significant impact on the expansion of foreign trade. A change in any of the factors will result in a change of the volume of international trade. The research further indicated that an expansion of international trade has contributed to a high rate of growth in the economy.

It also contributed to the growth of income in economies that are open. The author has indicated that a unit growth of trade results in a unit growth of per capita income (Krol 4). Further, removal of trade barriers across the world will result in an increase in the growth of world income by approximately $2 trillion. Such action will result in the growth of income of the US economy by about $500 billion.

Further, the research shows that free trade between nations result in significant economic benefits. Further, Krol observed that competition that arises as a result of free trade results in lower prices of goods and services. Besides, such competitions lead to an increase in the variety of goods and services that are being offered to the consumers (Krol 4).

The final research was conducted by Oscar Afonso in the year 2001 (Afonso 1). In the paper, the author attempted to explain the economic theories that explain the impact of international trade on economic growth. In the study, Afonso focused on “the impact of international trade (from a commercial and technological aspect) on physical accumulation and quality of productive factors” (Afonso 1). The author observed that during the classical period, international trade had a positive impact on economic growth.

The research further shows that during the neoclassical period, import and export trade did not have an impact on the economic growth of the nations that were being analyzed. This situation was experienced until the 1960’s (Afonso 27). Further, the author stated that the recent theories have explained better the positive relationship between international trade and economic growth. Afonso also pointed out that there is significant empirical evidence to show that trade liberalization affects economic growth positively.

The author pointed that in developed economies, trade liberalization increases the domestic rates of innovation. Finally, Afonso pointed out that the effect of international trade varies depending on the level of growth and development of the trade partners, the level of technological development, and level of human capital development.

Thus, the author stated that countries cannot achieve equal results from international trade. Based on the literature review above, it is evident that engagement in export trade generates positive results on an economy. Thus, data for the US economy will be collected to verify the above findings

Data

A comprehensive internet research will be carried out as part of secondary research on the available data on export trade on the economy of the US. The data will comprise of export of good and services, import of goods and services, total investment, gross national savings, foreign direct investment, employment, and GDP per capita.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Export Trade on the US Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Specifically, the data will be retrieved from the US Bureau of Commerce website (US Department of Commerce 1). The source is reliable because it is updated by the US Department of Commerce on a periodic basis. The data will cover a period of 33 years that is, between 1980 and 2012. The values of these variables are presented in exhibit 1.

Discussion To analyze the impact of export trade on the economy, it will important to first analyze the degree of association between the variable. This will be measured by the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient matrix is presented in exhibit 2.

The correlation coefficient matrix indicates that there is a strong positive association between the export of goods and services and import of goods and services (0.9652), total investment (0.8289), gross national savings (0.7628), foreign direct investment (0.7739), employment (0.9262), and gross domestic product (0.9546). This implies that an increase in revenues from export will result in an increase in the other variables.

Apart from the establishing the degree of association between the variables, the coefficient of the variables can also be established to determine how a change in variable will result in a change of the other variable. This can be achieved by carrying out a regression analysis.

A simple regression will be carried out to determine the effect of exports on the other variables. The result of regression analysis is presented in exhibit 3. The positive coefficients in the regression analysis indicate that an increase in export by one unit results in an increase in the values of import (by 1.4734), total investment (by 0.948), gross national savings (by 0.6161), foreign direct investment (by 0.2009), employment (by 0.0355), and gross domestic product (by 6.3202).

Conclusion The paper carried out an analysis of the impact of export trade on the economy of the US. Secondary data was collected to analyze the impact of export trade on various economic indicators. The study shows that indeed the export trade has an impact on the economy of the US. Specifically, export trade has a positive impact on total investment, gross national savings, foreign direct investment, employment, and gross domestic product. The results are consistent with the observations in the literature review section.

Exhibits Exhibit 1 – Data

Export of goods and services $billions Import of goods and services $billions Total investment $billions Gross national savings $billions Foreign direct investment $billions Employment Persons millions Gross domestic product, constant prices $billions 1980 591.94 619.34 1,212.53 1,135.58 35.69 99.30 5,833.98 1981 588.22 612.51 1,299.61 1,236.02 48.55 100.40 5,982.08 1982 514.68 551.03 1,135.17 1,120.63 22.67 99.53 5,865.93 1983 484.26 574.47 1,191.91 1,044.83 18.30 100.82 6,130.93 1984 509.49 682.53 1,462.76 1,259.43 41.72 105.00 6,571.53 1985 493.86 682.25 1,452.17 1,198.07 32.72 107.15 6,843.40 1986 512.52 724.69 1,460.14 1,126.08 56.67 109.60 7,080.50 1987 565.73 791.06 1,495.39 1,206.83 90.93 112.44 7,307.05 1988 667.13 832.59 1,502.99 1,344.61 86.77 114.97 7,607.40 1989 728.72 856.04 1,541.64 1,328.27 98.86 117.33 7,879.18 1990 770.63 878.94 1,489.98 1,269.88 67.68 118.80 8,027.03 1991 805.60 841.92 1,367.42 1,271.40 31.30 117.71 8,008.33 1992 839.67 883.04 1,420.27 1,217.08 26.19 118.49 8,280.03 1993 848.14 931.45 1,498.00 1,224.20 66.47 120.26 8,516.18 1994 913.40 1,030.88 1,648.98 1,369.35 58.46 123.07 8,863.13 1995 1,005.25 1,117.55 1,686.90 1,493.83 71.56 124.91 9,085.98 1996 1,055.18 1,172.29 1,785.07 1,616.63 105.21 126.72 9,425.85 1997 1,138.13 1,259.05 1,939.15 1,802.79 125.92 129.57 9,845.93 1998 1,121.28 1,311.47 2,072.42 1,933.09 210.44 131.48 10,274.75 1999 1,145.62 1,449.13 2,221.12 1,966.82 335.18 133.50 10,770.63 2000 1,238.72 1,671.68 2,340.53 2,029.05 364.04 136.90 11,216.43 2001 1,138.52 1,549.53 2,186.77 1,868.98 185.03 136.94 11,337.48 2002 1,093.25 1,558.89 2,158.91 1,693.03 91.96 136.48 11,543.10 2003 1,111.14 1,649.20 2,215.42 1,649.41 68.05 137.73 11,836.43 2004 1,225.13 1,867.38 2,418.65 1,796.50 151.52 139.24 12,246.93 2005 1,311.19 2,037.27 2,564.23 1,918.81 138.97 141.71 12,622.95 2006 1,431.67 2,180.40 2,666.08 2,127.26 286.42 144.42 12,958.48 2007 1,571.79 2,246.31 2,590.43 1,927.60 321.67 146.05 13,206.38 2008 1,709.47 2,366.39 2,380.47 1,757.38 307.99 145.37 13,161.93 2009 1,457.15 1,814.05 1,877.33 1,420.47 128.11 139.89 12,757.95 2010 1,670.90 2,134.46 2,020.71 1,595.25 245.49 139.07 13,062.98 2011 1,857.81 2,361.78 2,059.90 1,621.03 228.46 139.87 13,299.10 2012 1,411.40 2,192.96 2,203.92 1,781.61 178.27 142.39 13,587.65 Source of data – US Department of Commerce 1

Exhibit 2 – correlation coefficient matrix

Export of goods and services Import of goods and services Total investment Gross national savings Foreign direct investment Employment Gross domestic product, constant prices Export of goods and services 1.0000 Import of goods and services 0.9652 1.0000 Total investment 0.8289 0.9056 1.0000 Gross national savings 0.7628 0.8003 0.9435 1.0000 Foreign direct investment 0.7739 0.7799 0.8078 0.8339 1.0000 Employment 0.9262 0.9427 0.9333 0.8639 0.7555 1.0000 Gross domestic product 0.9546 0.9806 0.9160 0.8229 0.7465 0.9819 1.0000 Exhibit 3 – summary of regression output

Import of goods and services Total investment Gross national savings Foreign direct investment Employment Gross domestic product, constant prices Coefficients 1.47344195 0.947981706 0.616098386 0.200852621 0.035517018 6.320219593 R-square 0.931670731 0.687073688 0.581869667 0.598961275 0.857864653 0.911197485 Works Cited Afonso, Oscar 2001, The Impact of International Trade on Economic Growth. Web.

Jackson, James 2008a, Trade Agreements: Impact on The US Economy. Web.

Jackson, James 2013b, Trade Agreements: Impact on The US Economy. PDF. Web.

Krol, Robert 2008, Trade, Protectionism and the US Economy. PDF. Web.

US Department of Commerce 2013, US Economic Accounts. Web.

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The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning Synthesis Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Model and theory analysis: Review of research

Conclusion

References

Introduction A number of issues such as changes in product design, branding and employee are likely to cause risks that threaten supply chain. Risk management in this field is a fundamental activity at the executive level in most organizations.

Several studies have developed various models and theories that attempt to provide an explanation of the need for supply chain management in reducing risks. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze some research articles from various authors with an aim of exploring theories and models developed over the last few decades.

Model and theory analysis: Review of research Lin and Zhou (2011) carried out a study to address the impact that product design changes have on supply chain, with a special focus on the risks involved. Using a case study, the researchers developed some concepts that attempt to explain how supply chain runs under risks when the product design changes significantly.

The theory attempts to show that such changes predispose an organization to a number of risks in supply, policy and delivery. Moreover, this theory suggests that change in product design leads to an array of risks at the internal level, which in this case involves research and design, production, planning, organization and information.

This theory seems to indicate that any change in the product design that may have a significant impact on the customer and retailer’s perception of a product is likely to expose the supply chain system to these risks, which means that both customer-requested and company-initiated change in product design exposes the supply chain system to these risks.

Using an in-depth longitudinal case study, Khan, Christopher and Burnes (2012 examined the impact of product design on the supply chain risk. The case study was based on a major cloth retailer in the United Kingdom. The researchers aimed to address the questions associated with the increasingly important issues of the impact of product design on the risks involved in supply chain management. The case study leads to a concept that was used to explain the impact of product design in the supply chain and the associated risks.

The researchers theorize that risk management in supply chain is heavily dependent on the product design, where recognition of a design is a creative function of managing risks. In addition, the theory attempts to show that recognizing product design is a fundamental platform, on which risks are managed with ease and effectiveness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This concept attempts to show that recognition of product design must be one of the major activities as well as requirements for risk management at the executive level. In addition, this theory seems to have closer association with the theory developed by Lin and Zhou (2011), as both of them emphasize on the need to consider product design as one aspect or factor that may lead to risks as well as effective management of risks in the supply chain.

Christopher and Peck have attempted to present a good analysis on how supply chain management can effectively control risks by building a resilient supply chain system. Although the research is an analysis of findings rather than an empirical study, it provides the reader with some important theories that attempt to explain how product design impacts the supply chain in modern organizations.

An important model developed in this article is the argument that building a resilient supply chain depends on a number of features that can be engineered into the supply chain to improve resilience. Among these factors is the need to focus on product design, which should be incorporated into the general designing for the supply chains in organizations.

In addition, the concept argues that product design plays a major role in the process of understanding the supply chain and its structure. According to the article, products are the major aspect of a supply process, which means that their nature and impact on the whole process are fundamental. Therefore, failure to focus on product design when engineering supply chains is likely to involve risks that threaten the integrity and effectiveness of a supply chain management in a globalized business environment.

This theory is important in providing some background information on the need to focus on product design when managing and engineering supply chains. In fact, it shows the important role that product design plays in mitigating risks in supply chains.

The article by Chopra and Sodhi (2005) is based on real-life examples of how risk management in supply chain poses threats to the business process in a modern business environment. The authors used two cases in which an electricity supply plant operated by Royal Philips Electronics in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was hit by a lightning in 2000.

The massive surge the impact of the lightning caused at the grid started a fire that completely destroyed the plant’s microchips. Nokia Corporation was one of the major customers of the Royal Philips at the time. The impact of the lightning caused a massive reduction in the number of microchips at the Royal Philips stock, which made corporations like Nokia and others find it difficult to deal with the company.

We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is worth noting that Nokia Corporation had more than one supplier in its supply chain strategy, which made it possible to switch from ordering chips from the Royal Philips on a temporary base. This proved effective in risk mitigation.

On the other hand, the authors compared this situation with the impact of the problem at Telefon AB Ericsson Corporation, another major customer of the Royal Philips Corporation. This company had a single provider of chips in its supply chain. The company suffered from the problem, which led to a complete shut down of operations until the Royal Philips resumed production.

From the two examples, the authors attempt to develop a theory, in which they explain the need for an effective design in the supply chain system. In this theory, the authors argue that corporations that use multiple designs for a product that is either sold or outsourced are likely to mitigate the risks involved when one product line or design is affected by any problem that may arise. In other words, this theory hypothesizes that multiple supply chain designs are more effective in risk management and mitigation than single-design supply chains.

Supply chain management in the process of supplying and delivering high risk products such as oil and gas proves to be one of the most crucial aspects of managers in these corporations.

In fact, high risk but, at the same time, high profitable oil and gas production and supply provide a good example of how risk management in the supply chain can be enhanced with product design. Vosooghi, Fazli and Mavi (2012) used this example to develop additional concept of product design and its impact on supply chain management in the oil supply industry.

The researchers use the fuzzy analytical hierarch process (FAHP) to weigh and analyze the risks related to crude oil supply chain. The study, carried in Iran, developed some theory that can be used to explain how risks can effectively be managed and mitigated in crude oil supply process.

This model argues that regulation and environmental risks as well as cooperation polices can be viewed from a design perspective. Although the theory does not deal with product design, the conclusions made in the article indicate that the way, in which the product is designed, usually influences the effectiveness of risk management in the supply chain.

The aerospace industry is another high-risk field that requires attention when studying risk management and product design. Sinha, Whitman and Malzahn (2004) developed a study, in which they aimed at explaining how risk management can be effected in aerospace industry. The researchers argue that most of the supply chain systems involve a single supplier, which is likely to increase risks involved.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Supply Chain Risk Management in Ensuring Smooth Functioning by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, risk management proves to be an important area of management in companies that adopt this system. The researchers’ aim was to develop a model that can mitigate risks in supply chains adopted by aerospace companies. The results of the study have provided some models that can be used to mitigate risks in these companies.

According to the study, IDEF0 concept is a model that mitigates risks in the aerospace supply chains. The model has five stages: risk identification, risk assessment, planning, and failure analysis and continuous improvement. Although this model focuses on a number of issues, it is worth noting that the design of the products in the supply chain system is a fundamental aspect of the model.

Tang (2007) published an article that explains the risks involved in supply chains and how they can be managed with effectiveness even during crisis. The researcher develops a model that attempts to show how supply chain managers can enhance the supply chain to navigate through major disruptions whenever they occur.

According to this model, inherent fluctuations are the first aspect that increases the risks, which implies that they should be the first issues to address in management. Secondly, the model indicates that corporations must design and reengineer their supply chain systems to enhance resilience and the ability to withstand the impacts of major disruptions. In addition, the model indicates that enhancing residence is strongly linked to the process of retaining apprehensive customers.

Goh, Lim and Meng (2007) developed a study, in which they attempted to develop a model for enhancing risks management in globalized supply chain networks. The study, carried out in Singapore, provided a scholastic model that indicates the need for risk management in supply chain to reduce the threats involved in globalized organizations.The model, known as multi-stage global supply chain network, incorporates a number of supply chain aspects in a globalized business system.

For instance, it considers a new focus on related risks such as supply, demand, disruption and exchange as the most important areas of focus in managing risks.

In addition, the model provides a new solution methodology that makes use of Moreau-Yosida regulation, design and logarithm that enhances the process of risk management and mitigation in diagnosing risk associated problems in globalized and multi-staged networks. Although this model is difficult to implement, it is highly effective in managing and mitigating risks in supply chains.

Sheffi (2001) takes a different approach to developing a model for risk management and mitigation in supply chains. In this article, Sheffi (2001) takes an example of risks posed by terrorism as a major threat to modern supply chain systems. The author analyzes the companies that were affected by the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US. Using several examples, the researcher develops a model for explaining the importance of supply chain management in risk mitigation.

This model focuses on two issues. First, it argues that corporations must adopt strategies to set certain operational redundancies in order to enhance their preparedness for risks. Secondly, it focuses on reduction of reliability on lead time and certain demand scenarios. The model suggests that private public partnership is the best way, trough which companies can organize themselves into networks that will enhance risk management and mitigation.

In 2007, American corporations IBM, KPMG and ACE sponsored a study with an aim of revealing the best practice for managing risks in supply chains. The researching institute, the Economic Intelligence Unit, developed a comprehensive study and a report that show their hypothesized model for managing supply chain risks in the modern concept. In its simplest form, the model suggests that risk management is a discipline that has moved from loss avoidance to assume a new position as the key contributor to market advantage.

According to the model, this is achieved through improved corporate reputation and better stand among the companies with the role of oversight such as rating industries. In addition, the model hypothesizes that risk management in supply chains has become an area that needs both technology and workmanship, because ideas must be generated, devised and implemented.

In addition, it indicates that technology is an additional source of risk for supply chains, especially at a time when supply of products has gone virtual thanks to the internet technology. However, the author’s model does not imply that technology should be avoided. Rather, it suggests that technology and workmanship should be integrated to provide the best method for mitigating and managing risks in supply chains.

Conclusion From this analysis, a number of aspects should be noted. For instance, the models developed over the years to enhance risk management in supply chains tend to focus on the product, product delivery and internal aspects of the management. They incorporate the ideas of understanding the risks, developing prior knowledge of the risks, ensuring everyone is involved, company-company or company-public sector relations and the use of technology.

Although the models are different, most of them attempt to show that supply chain is one of the areas of corporate management that runs under high risks due to the link between the company and other parties in its supply chain system.

Therefore, changes in product design, branding and employees are likely to cause risks that threaten supply chain. Risk management in this field is a fundamental activity at the executive level in most organizations. These models/theories have attempted to provide an explanation of the need for supply chain management in reducing risks.

References Chopra, S

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Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Identifying the Problem

Applying the ACA Code of Ethics

Nature and Dimensions of the Dilemma

Potential Courses of Action

Evaluating Potential Courses of Action

Implementing the Course of Action

Making a Follow-up

References

Identifying the Problem A code of ethics is very important in the professional lives of people in different professions. However, a code of ethics cannot replace human minds that have the ability to question, judge, experience emotions, and even act depending on different situations. Ethical codes cannot replace the struggles that people in helping professions like counseling go through with simple quick solutions.

The ethical struggles are sometimes unique situations, puzzling questions and demanding personal responsibilities that call for practical solutions not clearly stated in the codes of ethics. Sometimes conflicts arise between unclear codes of ethics and the need for practical solutions thereby presenting dilemmas.

The case of Wilma, a counselor in a community agency, and Donna who is a client suffering from an anxiety disorder and panic attack is a real dilemma. Wilma discusses information that is considered private by Donna in a public place. The right to privacy implies that the decision of information such as opinions, emotions and personal data that someone is willing to share with other people is at an individual’s discretion. There is also a problem of breach of confidentiality on Wilma’s side.

The code of professional ethics requires Wilma to keep the information she has on Donna a secret (American Counseling Association, 2005). The code of ethics applies even if the information seems harmless. There is a moral obligation by Wilma to ensure that Donna adheres to her treatment plan and gets better from her current situation hence the dilemma as stated in article 7.B.1 (South Carolina Department of Labor Licensing and Regulation, 2006).

The simple fact that Wilma makes an inquiry on Donna’s progress in the presence of another person is a breach of privacy. Wilma’s frustration with Donna’s laxity with the homework she is given during the therapy session causes her to ask Donna about the homework. The context in which the confrontation occurs is wrong as both are in a public place. Furthermore, Wilma is not alone since she is in the company of a friend.

Perhaps Donna’s visits to the community agency counseling center are a secret and the information divulged to anyone else may lead to further complications especially now that she is being helped overcome her condition of panic and anxiety. There is a possibility that Wilma is the reason Donna is not able to complete all her homework. They may be having problems such as a personality clash or a situation where Wilma is not competent enough to handle Donna’s case.

A case of fidelity presents itself in this situation. The situation is a combination of an ethical and a clinical issue. An ethical issue arises due to the breach of the right to privacy and confidentiality. A clinical issue, on the other hand, comes about as the context in which the confrontation occurs may be a precipitating factor in a panic attack episode. Donna may get a panic attack as a result of the counselor’s indiscriminate behavior.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Applying the ACA Code of Ethics Wilma’s conduct is evidently inappropriate according to the American Counselors’ Association (ACA) Code of Ethics. Section B.I.b code of ethics on respect for privacy states that, “Counselors respect client rights to privacy. Counselors solicit private information from clients only when it is beneficial to the counseling process” (ACA, 2005, p. 8). At the specific moment, there is no therapeutic process in play hence a breach of ethics.

In section B subsection 1.c, there is a code concerning respect for confidentiality, which requires “counselors do not share confidential information without client consent or without sound legal or ethical justification” (American Counseling Association, 2005, p. 8). Wilma shares Donna’s issues from a personal perspective. The concern does not appear therapeutic since it is out of frustration that she chooses to check on her client’s progress and not as part of the therapy sessions requirements (American Counseling Association, 2005, p.8).

According to section B in subsection 3.c., the code is clear on the setting in which to divulge confidential information. It is in a public setting that Wilma makes her inquiry from Donna. Donna is a waitress in an eatery that is obviously a public place. The sessions are meant to take place in a private place where the client does not feel intimidated or have feelings of insecurity with regard to personal information in possession of the therapist.

The code states that “counselors discuss confidential information only in settings in which they can reasonably ensure client privacy” (American Counseling Association, 2005, p. 8). ACA code of ethics in section C subsection 2.a requires that therapists practice according to their limits of competence. Their competence is established by things such as the counselors’ education levels, supervised experience and necessary credentials.

Nature and Dimensions of the Dilemma As mentioned earlier, the situation between Wilma and Donna is an ethical dilemma. This is a pure dilemma as the ACA codes of ethics require that Wilma maintains confidentiality unless otherwise stated.

Nevertheless, an obligation stated in the principle of beneficence binds Wilma to ensure that Donna gets well. The fact that Wilma is a counselor in a community agency also presents a possible challenge that she may not be competent enough to handle cases of anxiety and panic attack disorders yet Donna needs help to overcome her current condition.

Potential Courses of Action There is a need for Wilma as a professional counselor to follow strict guidelines as required by the ethical decision making model. At this stage, she must identify potential action plans to solve the ethical issue presented. There may be a need to be very strict with Donna, therefore, undermining her right to autonomy. She may also choose to let Donna go if Donna is not willing to accomplish her therapeutic tasks since Donna’s well-being is largely dependent on how well she accomplishes her tasks.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, failing to accomplish these tasks is synonymous to time wasting. A possible alternative is following Donna to her place of work and checking on her progress in private. This is likely to help her accomplish the therapeutic tasks required to make Donna get well. Wilma also has a choice of changing the therapeutic approach she uses on Donna as a new approach may yield better results.

There is a chance to refer the client as Wilma may consider Donna’s case as that which is beyond her competence level. This is in accordance to chapter 36 article 7 section B.10 of South Carolina Department of Labor Licensing and Regulations (2006, p. 21), which states “when a professional counselor determines an inability to be of professional assistance to a potential or existing client, the counselor must, respectively, not initiate the counseling relationship or immediately terminate the relationship.

In either event, the counselor must suggest appropriate alternatives and be knowledgeable about referral resources so that a satisfactory referral can be initiated. If the client declines the referral, the counselor shall not be obligated to continue the relationship.”

Evaluating Potential Courses of Action There are possible repercussions that may arise due to the course of action taken. The repercussions should be considered in detail for the best course of action to be applied. Since Donna has a legal right to autonomy, her freedom of choice should at all times be respected even by her therapist.

The respect holds even when the choices she makes have little or no sense, for instance, the choice of not completing her therapeutic homework. There is a possibility that Donna may take actions against Wilma if her autonomy is undermined. The actions may include reporting Wilma to her seniors or even taking legal action.

Wilma’s plan to release Donna from her therapeutic care may also have consequences. The consequence of this action is failure to maintain the client’s welfare to the highest possible level that is a legal duty of the counselor.

Following Donna to her place of work may present a legal issue. This action can be interpreted as stalking. The final possible plan of action is referring the client. However, this action may also have its shortcomings. The suggestion may not go well with Donna for reasons such as fear of the unknown.

She can also interpret her case as so hopeless that she cannot get help elsewhere having failed in the first instance. Donna may also experience feelings of rejection since she may not consider the referral objectively and might take it personally. In such a case, it is important to let Donna know that she is special and unique and that she needs someone who understands her better.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Dilemmas in The Case of Wilma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implementing the Course of Action The most appropriate course of action in the Donna and Wilma case is to refer the client (Donna). Perhaps there are reasonable explanations why Donna fails to do her homework. These reasons may be beyond Wilma as a professional counselor. This then requires Wilma to accept that her competence is limited.

Therefore, she should allow Donna to seek help elsewhere. The referral is in line with the ethical principle of veracity. The principle of veracity is the counselors’ honesty in accepting their limitations as professionals. Wilma should be careful to consider all consequences the situation may bring to her as a professional (Akfert, 2013).

There is a need to explore all options carefully as referring Donna might bring up additional ethical issues. Wilma needs to do a critical evaluation of the decision to refer Donna and check if it is fair to do so. Wilma must consider how comfortable she can be with the decision if the same is suggested for her.

She should be comfortable recommending this solution to another counselor in a similar dilemma. She should also consider the universality test, which is a necessary condition for approval of the course of action taken (Akfert, 2013). The universality test entails how well the issue goes down with the press and the community at large. The action should receive positive publicity should the information leak out to the press.

Making a Follow-up The final stage in the ethical decision making model is making a follow- up. Wilma should follow up Donna’s case to check whether her referral yields the anticipated outcome. Counselors handle an array of diverse of circumstances and each clinician has his own distinct style of handling the different situations. Therefore, Wilma should accept her shortcomings in handling Donna’s case and resolving the dilemma.

References Akfert, S. K. (2013). Ethical dilemmas experienced by psychological counselors working at different institutions and their attitudes and behaviors s a response to these dilemmas. Educational Sciences: Theory

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Price-Cap as Monopoly Rogulation Mechanism Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Historical Background

Economic Components of the Price-Cap

Starting rates in the price-cap Strategy

Index variable

Conclusion

References

Introduction After the rising costs of inputs and the prices arraigned by the opponents are taken into account, price-cap regulation is launched to guard the buyers while making sure that the businesses continue being cost-effective (Alexander

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Recognizing employee contributions Report best essay help

Due to challenges on both external and internal working environment, organizations are now left with no option but to adopt effective incentive programs for their employees in order to maintain or improve organization’s performance. This is mainly on the basis of employees’ efficiency and effectiveness at work.

Relating payment to performance has been the dream of every employer though it is a very difficult endeavor. It is true that fair pay is a cornerstone of the agreement between every employer and employee during the time of employment. But one common assumption made is that additional payment can directly influence performance of a specific employee. Take an example of employees in admissions office in a university.

Developing ways of motivating and recognizing employees’ contributions to enroll students is not that easy. One way would be to involve employees in decision making process regarding their pay. Because they are aware of attitudes required of them to perform better, this would be an effective tool to empower them.

Various methods can be used in determining incentive pay. In this case, there will be two ways of determining incentive pay in order to attain admissions objectives. Firstly, incentive will be paid based on employees’ performance in term of average time spent with every new student admitted. Time is critical during admission and therefore employees should take the least time possible with each new student admitted.

This will ensure that students do not spend so much time in queues waiting to be served which usually leads to exhaustion and subsequent dissatisfaction. This means that the bigger the number of new students admitted, the higher the incentive and vice versa. Secondly, incentive pay will be determined by each employee’s capacity to communicate university’s values to students during their first day. This is tricky but very important method of determining incentive pay.

Paying employees for performance using this method is difficult because it is hard to measure specific performance outcomes. The first method will be tailored towards individuals where each employee will be given incentive based on the number of new students admitted. However, in the second method, employees will be assigned to groups where they will be required to come up with the ways of communicating the core values of the institution during the time of admission.

Creating an effective incentive pay program will involve a number of key steps. To start with, it is important to state again that an incentive pay is a reward to encourage employees to behave in a certain way. Then, questions should be asked about who must be a part of the program, what the objectives are, what the types of incentives are needed, whether any form of training is required to participants to understand the program better , and how and when the program should be implemented?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The participants are employees in the admissions and the objective is to meet admission goals. Incentive will be given in a form of money and reward at the end of academic period and all employees will be trained on this in order to understand the program. It is important to remember that this program is needed so as to recognize employees’ contribution in admission of new students. They will be motivated by considering how good they perform in terms of quantity and quality of work done.

Reduced time during admission, new students’ satisfaction, and employees’ motivation are some of the expected benefits of the program. It is rational to state that the success of this program will be determined by extensive involvement of the employees to develop it to a greater extent.

Employees’ perspective will be considered with regard to what their interest is and what is likely to motivate them (pay, rewards, time-off). The program should be simple to understand and employees should be able to simply figure out what they have earned without much difficulty. Finally, the program will be communicated to the entire organization through a well-developed communication plan.

The concept of a balanced scorecard is simple and can be executed in many different ways. It was designed and formalized in early 90’s with core objective of using balance parameters to measure the status of a business (Kaplan, 2008). It goes beyond looking at financial metrics to include other parameters in a balanced equation to evaluate how a business or an organization is doing. The original scorecard addressed four main areas:

Financial: how financially successful is the business?

Customer perspective: how can you win customer loyalty and retain it?

Internal business environment: what is your success in executing core objectives of the company?

Innovation perspective: what elements contribute to learning, innovation and improvement?

Below is a balanced scorecard tailored to emphasize on shareholder value, employee value and customer value for the university. Three different measures are used as a perspective for each of the three values.

Area Shareholder’s value Customer’s value Employee’s value Measure Increasing shareholder’s value Customer’s (student’s) satisfaction Employee’s satisfaction Variables Maximizing shareholder’s value Increasing loyalty, repeat Employee’s retention, Employee’s motivation Regarding the shareholder’s value the key objective of the university would be ensuring that shareholder value is maximized over a long period of time. Share value is determined through forecasting free cash flow of the institution.

Creating incentive package for the employee in the admission office of the university is not an easy task. It tags along with major difficulties. Before looking at the difficulties, it is important to illustrate reasons for giving incentive pay in order to face the challenges facing us head-on. Incentives are given to align pay to performance, to allow good performance to earn more and motivate poor performers.

We will write a custom Report on Recognizing employee contributions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Incentive program can be a tool of communicating clearly various measures of success and to ensure that everyone in the institution understands them. There are two main challenges in designing the incentive pay in our scenario. To start with, it is very hard to measure employees’ output using the parameters stated. For instance, it will be challenging to quantify how it is better to ensure that each employee is handling students and communicating the core values of the university during admission.

Although a questionnaire will be provided to every student, rating using this method may not give accurate measure of employee performance. Secondly, employee may just do exactly what they are measured on. It is critical to remember that each employee has a baseline pay and incentives are paid when an employee performs above expectations. When parameters are well understood by everyone, they are likely to just meet what is required to earn incentive pay. This will hinder them from going a mile ahead to perform exceptionally.

Incentive pay plan is made up of many different elements though cash reward is the one predominantly used by virtually every organization, especially in sales and marketing (Vinogradov

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