A Client plays a crucial role in determining the outcomes of a therapy program. A counselor and a client must establish a good partnership in order to obtain the necessary information regarding client’s problems. The client should be actively involved in a decision making process when it comes to the choice of his/her therapy.
In addition, a counselor should take into consideration client’s preferences and include them into a therapy program (Isaacs, 2003). In some cases, a client may require more information regarding therapy program but fail to make decision on the therapy program.
Client may influence therapy outcomes by ending the therapy prematurely. He also determines whether he/she will go through the therapy process. Premature termination of therapy occurs when a client stops receiving therapy before attainment of the required goal or objective (Loretta
The strategic training of employees in healthcare organization Term Paper essay help
The strategic training of employees in the health care organization is a priority. The research focuses on the reasons for the training of the health care employees. The study includes the different ways of training the employees to prioritize the patients’ benefits. The cost-effective strategic training of the health care organization’s employees should ensure evident dominance of the health care organization market segment.
The culture of the health care organization influences its ability to manage the employees. Likewise, health care management emphasizes all employees must implement a patient-based work attitude. Peter Ginter (2006) emphasized the employees’ prioritizing of the patient’s needs over the needs of the employees ensures a competitive advantage.
The healthcare organization would have an edge over the competitors in the same health care market segment. The clients would prefer to return to health care health care organization that pamper and prioritize the patients’ needs. For example, the Baptist Hospital in Pensacola, Florida, created its vision to be the best health care organization in the United States.
The chief executive officer revised the company’s organizational culture to achieve the challenging vision. Griffin Hospital in Derby, Connecticut engaged in the clients-based health care organization strategy successfully. The patient satisfaction of the health care organization services had soured to almost 98 percent.
In addition, the health care organization’ client-based culture translated to having more meaningful employees. The employees felt happy being an important part of the patient’s health-recovery program. Consequently, the employee turnover ratio had favorably dropped. The Derby hospital created a strong selling employee-based point that edged out the competitors in the community.
Management focused on enhancing employee teamwork. Each of the employees had been retrained in the art of health care servicing. The employees were taught to use teamwork in their aim to prioritize the clients’ health care needs. The employees were persuaded to contribute their share for the entire health care organization team to succeed.
The teamwork-based retraining of the health care organization’s employees is grounded on consensus. Consequently, each employee contributed his or her share to the success of the health care organization’s health care program. Each employee is normally proud to go out of one’s way to give excellent health care services to both the inpatient and outpatient clients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The employees are persuaded to cooperate as well as coordinate with the other health care workers for the quicker recovery of the patients. However, the patients are taught that hastening the recovery of the patients must not result to lesser quality health care services.
For example, the medical technologists must reduce the time needed to come up with the medical exam results. The medical exam results include the patients’ blood type, stool exam, urine exam, and other related exams. The health care organization’s nutritionist generates a report of the diverse food needs of the health care organization’s patients.
Likewise, the nurse spends more quality time beside each patient. Quality time does not mean the quantity of time spent. Rather, quality time means the quality of each time used on each time period spent with the inpatient and outpatient health care organization clients.
The health care organization’s employees are trained to implement human values within the entity’s premises. To ensure success, the health care organization pampers its health care employees. However, the pampering of the employees must be within allowable cost containment limits. The health care organization is like any other organization; it needs revenues to pay for the cost of running a health care facility.
The health care employees are given an above average salary in order to ensure loyalty. Loyalty translates to a reduction in the number of employees resigning from the health care organization. Loyalty includes giving more than 100 percent of the health care employees’ quality services. Loyalty entails observing the employees showing their loyalty by pampering the patients with above-industry services (Blum, 1996).
Further, the organization must hire employees who are loyal to the health care organization’s goals and objective. Study conducted showed that absenteeism translates to poor work output in the health care setting. A study conducted at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center outpatient clinic indicated there is an inverse correlation between a health care worker’s sick leaves and work output.
However, employees having red flags of continuous Monday absences and Friday absences result to poor health care organization work output. Management must strive to resolve the absenteeism issue to increase the workers’ overall performance results.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The strategic training of employees in healthcare organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees who refuse to comply with the entity’s client-based work priorities must be removed from the organization. The employees who refuse to decrease their lackluster service quality during their stay in the health care organization must be retrenched.
The employees showing unabated laziness in the performance of their health care organization duty shall be unceremoniously. The employees who refuse to comply with other client-based policies of the health care organization shall be dismissed from the health care organization (Libet, 2001).
James Johnson (1995) proposed the health care organization should train the employees to adhere to the health care organization’s total quality management. Total quality management is grounded on patient-centered culture. The company must hire the new employees based on their capacity to tow the line or obey the current and prospective policies and procedures of the organization.
The right employees shall be those who help in the organizations creation of value through patient health care activities. The leaders must impose on the employees that the organizational culture must be implemented at all times, without exception.
Mary Richardson (1999) theorized the leaders of the health care organization must be examples of organization’s culture. The leaders implement a variety of value enhancing strategies. The leaders, including shift supervisors, shall show loyalty to the company. The same leaders must show a patient-centered health care work attitude. The leaders must be accessible to the subordinates for advice or help.
The leaders serve as guides for the current and future subordinates in terms of complying with all patient-centered health care responsibilities. The leaders must confront and even reprimand each subordinate who violates the company’s patient-based health care procedures.
The leaders must focus on determining if the health care procedures are being done with an eagerness to help, not an eagerness to finish the job. Consequently, most of the patients can easily see if the nurse or other health care professional love their job or simply going through the motions of health care services without any concern for the patients’ present health condition.
The leader must immediate move to stop a nurse or other health care organization worker who refuses to change one’s behavior to what is expected of them. The leaders must also monitor each employee to ensure no one steps out of line. There are times when the nurse is too busy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The strategic training of employees in healthcare organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such times tempt the nurse or other health care professional to violate the health care organization’s work benchmarks. The leader will roam the shift in order to deter the subordinates from thinking of violating any health care organization policies and procedures.
The health care organization must focus on its employees aiming for health care awards. The SSM Health care is sponsored by the Franciscan Sisters of Mary in St. Louise, Missouri. The SSM health care organization is one of the biggest Catholic health care delivery systems in the United States. It has a huge 4,500 inpatient health care bed capacity.
The same SSM Health care enjoined its employees to strive to do their best in their duty to bring back the patients to their prior fully recovered health status. Consequently, the SSM Health care won the prestigious Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award in the area of health care organization. The said award is offered to organizations that excel the best quality service in separate categories.
The said SSM Health care’s aim is to work for excellence in all facets of the health care organization. Excellence, in the SSM Health care tradition, is focused on striving to improve whatever has been improved. Improvement is a continuous process.
Further, the secret to SSM Health care’s winning the prestigious Malcolm Baldrige Award can be divided into four areas. First, the SSM Health care organization set up a framework for analysis, decision, making, and action. The setup resulted to the entity’s focusing on the more important areas for improvement. The SSM Health care organization sets up a set of criteria to determine the prioritization of activities.
Next, the SSM Health care organization’s leaders draw up several alternatives to resolve each employee- related and patient-related case. Taking into consideration all the alternatives, SSM health care organization’s management chooses and implements the chosen recommendations for implementation. The implementation is classified as the action plan.
Second, SSM health care organization’s management instructs its employees to do their share to accomplishing the organization’s mission. The management designs and implements its patient-based mission by taking all inputs from the affected employees. The employees’ inputs include their opinions, suggestions, recommendations, and complaints.
The integration of the employees’ inputs is a good management strategy. The patients will be more than willing to comply with management’s mission strategies if their inputs are included in the crafting of the organization’s mission statement.
Some of the employees may be resistant to the company’s instructions to implement its mission statement if their inputs were not asked. One good reason is that the mission statement may be too high for the employees to implement. The employees’ inputs are necessary in order for health care organization to realize that the employees’ inputs are needed to make the mission statement more realistic.
Third, the SSM health care organization’s management impress on its employees that it is the results that counts most. The setting of the company’s goals will serve as a guide for the employees to pursue. However, the actual outcome of the employees’ outputs will translate to the employees’ performance grade. Each employee is made accountable for one’s individual actions.
The action accountability includes one’s compliance with the overall team performance. This means that the employee’s performance is a failure if each t employee’s team’s overall performance score is a failure. The purpose is to ensure that everyone in the team cooperates with the other members of the team.
Team scoring is grounded on the theory of synergy. Under the synergy theory, one employee’s output plus anther employee’s output is equal to more than two person’s outputs. This means that the team effort is more important compared to the performance of each team member’s performance.
Going back to the organizational goal issue, the accomplishment of organizational goal is grounded on the synergy contributed by each member of the team. The goal is significantly influenced by the capacity of each employee to contribute their optimum share to the achievement of the organizational goal.
In the case of SSM health care organization’s management, the health care organization implements different goals for different activities. The management ensures that all activities can geared towards accomplishment of the preset goals and objectives.
After each activity, the SSM health care organization’s management compares the actual health care organization output against the preset benchmarks. The SSM health care organization’s management adjusts the benchmarks in relation to the actual health care organization output.
For example, management will increase its periodic goals or benchmarks if the goals are easily reached. However, SSM health care organization’s management will lower the prior period’s benchmark or goal if the employees find it very difficult to comply with the prior period’s goals, benchmarks, and objectives.
The goal setting and achieving is very important to both health care organization’s management and the affected health care employees. Both management and the employees will feel proud when they reach the health care organization’s benchmarks, goals, or objectives.
On the other hand, both management and the employees will be disheartened when the actual work performances do not reach the established benchmarks, goals and objectives.
Fourth, the SSM health care organization’s management implements a dedicated leadership stance. The employees are welcomed by all leaders of the health care organization. The employees can approach their supervisors, managers, and other higher ranking officers.
The employees are encouraged by management to voice their complaints, suggestions, recommendations, and other inputs. Management impresses on the employees that their inputs are very important to the overall health care organization’s continued leadership in the health care organization market segment. Management immediately acts on the employees’ inputs.
The employees are happy with the current management-employee relationship. In return, the employees feel they are a much-needed part of the health care organization’s success. The employees contribute by placing the patient’s interest over the employees’ own individual interests.
Because of management’s attitude towards their employees, the employees do not have second thoughts on transferring to other health care organizations. Because of the employees loyalty and dedication to the health care organization’s policies, procedures, goals, benchmarks, and objectives, there is lower management restructuring.
Further, the success of the SSM health care organization’s management’s employee strategy influences the employees’ eagerness to excel in all their assigned health care tasks. Both management and employees contribute to the streamlining of the organization’s overall health care activities.
The employees contribute to the streamlining in terms of faster issuances of mammogram results, allowing the patients a round the clock visiting privilege, as well as approving the inpatient’s ordering meals from outside the hospital any time of the day or night.
Such patient- pampering activities are grounded on the organizations’ stance to give the patients full allowable control of the patients’ life while recuperating inside the health care organization. However, the patients’ control is limited by the health care organization’s policies. Thus, the patients cannot violate any of the entity’s policies.
Furthermore, the organization pampers the employees. Normally, a pampered employee will return the favor to management. Offering the employees above-average salary will persuade the employees to work more quality hours. The offer of other benefits like paid leaves will encourage the employees to stay with the health care organization longer.
Offering better working conditions will convince the employees to spend more hours beside the patient and lesser time idling around in the health care organization’s nurses’ station reading newspapers or pocket books.
Management takes care of its health care organization employees’ welfare to increase employee loyalty. A study had been conducted on the health care needs of the National Health Services employees. The management of many health care organizations includes the caring for the health of its employees. The caring part includes giving affordable salaries and benefits to the employees.
However, management must have enough cash inflows to pay for the budgeted employee salaries and other benefits. A study was conducted on 2,300 health care workers generated a 44 percent response. The findings of the research indicated that most of the health care organization’s management persuades their employees to have a healthy lifestyle.
Consequently, a majority of the health workers are physically healthy. In addition, a majority of the health care organization employees surveyed were focused on improving their current health care status. In addition, a majority of the surveyed health care organization employees do not smoke. Likewise, it is normal for the health care organization employees to drink intoxicating liquor or drinks within the recommended levels.
Further, most of the health care organization employees exercise to keep themselves healthy. The managers or leaders of the health care organization were very instrumental in persuading their employees to prioritize having a healthy body so the can continue in the health care organization’s efforts to aid in the recuperation of its inpatient and outpatient clients (Jinks, 2003).
Primarily, management must base their employee benefits on their resources. Basically, all businesses are engaged for a profit. The health care organization sets up its operations to generate cash inflows. Cash inflows are generated from selling its health care services. The patients pay for the services offered by the health care organization.
Consequently, an increase in the health care organization’s patients translates to an increase in the company’s cash inflows. An increase in the organization’s cash inflows precipitates to an increase in the health care organization’s capacity to increase the health care employees’ salaries and wages. The health care organization’s services include all physical exam services.
The physical exam services include mammograms. The services also include blood pressure monitoring. Other health care services include X ray of different patient body parts. Likewise, the health care services focus medical advices. The heart doctor offers medical advices and prescribes medicines for the recovery of the heart patient.
The diabetes doctor offers medical advice and recommends medicines to be taken to relieve the symptoms and to help in the recuperation of the diabetes patient. The surgeon is hired by the health care organization to help in the surgery of its patients.
The surgeon also offers advice and dictates the medicine intake schedule of the surgery patient. The revenues are needed to pay for the salary and other benefits of the health care organization patients (Besley, 2008).
However, the hospital administration should not exceed its budget. The health care organization must achieve its bottom line. All organizations are required to achieve their bottom line in order to avoid bankruptcy. The bottom line occurs when the company, especially the health care organization, generates net profits.
A net profit occurs when the health care organization’ total revenues exceed the total expenses of running the daily operations of the business. The employees’ salaries and other benefits are included in the company’s total expenses.
An increase in the salaries and benefits precipitates to a decrease in the company’s net profit figure. If necessary, it is very evident that the health care organization must retrench its employees to order to achieve a bottom line financial status (Brigham, 2001).
Based on the above discussion, the strategic training of employees in the health care organization is of prime importance. There are several reasons for the training of the health care employees. Some of the reasons include prioritizing filling the needs of the health care organization patients. Another reason is ensuring employee loyalty to the health care organization.
Another reason is to ensure employees prioritize achievement of the health care organization’s goals, benchmarks, and objectives with flying colors.
The organization must ensure that its employee salaries and benefits are not significant enough to remove the health care organization’s necessary bottom line financial status. Indeed, the cost-effective strategic training of the health care organization’s employees should ensure significant dominance of the health care organization market segment.
References Besley, S. (2008). Essentials of Managerial Finance. New York: Cengage Press.
Blum, T. (1996). Workplace Characteristics and Health Care Cost Containment Practices. Journal of Management, 22, 675-701.
Brigham, E. (2001). Fundamentals of Financial Management. London: Harcourt Press.
Ginter, P. (2006). Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations. New York: J. Wiley
Public Administration Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Government as a Catalyst: The Thompson-Perry Argument Support or contradict?
According to the Thompson-Perry argument, collaboration involves interactive co-operation between two or more bodies with mutual interests (Stillman, 2009). The two groups are not always in the same domain or share similar interests, but they come together in a collaborative effort and combine their resources to achieve a common goal.
The case study ‘Government as a Catalyst’ ultimately supports the Thompson-Perry argument. Although it may not be a perfect model of the Thompson-Perry argument, it contains three key elements that make it remarkably similar.
First, it involves a collaborative effort between several stakeholders that have similar interests. Secondly, the stakeholders involved are all interested in making the situation a win-win situation for all of them. Third, and perhaps most importantly, it follows Thompson and Perry’s process framework.
The Philadelphia Municipal Wireless Network (MWN) is a perfect example of the initiative that involves ‘collaborative public management’ with the interest of the public, private sector and the economy as a whole to benefit. It requires co-operation of the public sector and the private sector, as well as the citizens, for it to succeed. With a MWN in the city, Philadelphia’s socio-economic potential was broadened.
As a result, the local economy was improved, there is an increased communication at a cheaper price, and businesses benefir from a boost in the internet connectivity. Today, most businesses and individuals are significantly dependent on the internet.
Finally, the Philadelphia MWN initiative follows the three key steps of the collaboration process: negotiation, commitment and implementation.
The Collaboration Process
Thompson and Perry maintain that collaboration is a process-oriented phenomenon involving negotiation, commitment and implementation (Stillman, 2009). This cyclic process is supported by the Game Theory. As research has shown for several times, during a period of a socio-economic dilemma, individuals are more likely to invest in ways that will change the system itself in order to promote joint outcomes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although a definite definition of collaboration does not exist, there are certain elements that all definitions must have. First, the collaboration process involves a number of stakeholders brought together by common interests with the aim of benefitting mutually.
Secondly, collaboration becomes possible when the stakeholders create rules and structures that govern their relationship. Finally, the stakeholders interact through a series of formal and informal negotiations.
The process’ three key phases are all interrelated cyclically, and they are assessed by all stakeholders based on reciprocity. Negotiation is usually the first step in the collaboration process. During negotiation, different stakeholders interact with one another via formal bargains and informal sense-making.
Once formal and informal relationships are formed and certain terms areagreed upon, the process moves to the commitment phase. During this phase, the stakeholders commit to the future of their relationship via formal contracts, the ability to solve free-rider problems and psychological contracts.
Finally, the actions agreed upon are implemented. During this stage, an organized effort is put up by different parties to carry out the required actions. Implementation involves a high level of personal interactions and co-operation from different organizations.
A Different Model?
The ‘Government as a Catalyst’ case has all the classic elements of the Thompson-Perry argument. The entire project has the three distinct steps of their argument, i.e. the negotiation, commitment and implementation stages (Stillman, 2009).
At the initial phase of the process, the Philadelphia Wireless released a statement stating that they aimed to provide wireless internet connectivity throughout the city. The main purpose for this was to provide basic digital infrastructure for schools, businesses, community organizations and citizens (the stakeholders).
We will write a custom Essay on Public Administration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All these stakeholders would benefit from the availability of this technology to achieve different goals. As the negotiation process goes, this first step was vital in planting the seed of interest into the minds of these stakeholders.
Philadelphia Wireless then got these stakeholders to commit to the process by negotiating with them and explaining their intentions. They also took into consideration the role that would be played by all stakeholders in the process.
They realized that the government, for example, was not interested in providing wireless internet, but was willing to give the private sector the necessary support it needed to make the project’s implementation possible. Once all stakeholders were on board, Philadelphia Wireless, a creation of the city, was given a green light to roll out the project. It is clear, therefore, that the process was a detailed model of the Thompson-Perry model.
Public Accountability and Public Acceptability Meaning of terms
According to Rubin’s text, it is reasonable to deduce that public accountability refers to the obligations that public agencies and enterprises, entrusted with public resources, have towards those that have assigned these responsibilities to them. In this case, the latter refers to the public, since it elects officials to public offices and entrusts them with the responsibility to manage public funds that they remit to the government through tax.
The public officials have a responsibility to ensure the resources allocated to them are utilized to the benefit of the greatest section part of society over the long term. Public acceptability, on the other hand, refers to the degree to which the public agrees to a budget drawn up by the public entity responsible for managing public funds. The public accepts budgets that appear transparent, detailed and allocate the funds responsibly.
Tension caused by Public Accountability and Public Acceptability
The tension is caused by the difference in interests between the two parties. The public always wants, and has the right, to see clearly how their resources are utilized by people to whom they assign this responsibility. They work hard, pay taxes diligently and expect to receive acceptable services from the government through public institutions.
Public institutions are given the responsibility to ensure they provide different services to different members of society. Some of the key services provided by these institutions include national security, social services, and adequate infrastructure.
As expected, different members of society are more concerned with different aspects of their lives. The lower class of America, for example, is more concerned about how much public institutions allocate to healthcare, while the upper class might be more concerned with more abstract issues like national security.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Administration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The public institutions are faced with a dilemma, because of the fear of offending one group of people over another. Using the example of America, the lower class will feel more aggravated if public funds are channeled towards funding the war in Iraq while they lack basic needs.
The upper class, however, feel as though public resources should be allocated to ensuring public safety, so that people are able to work hard and ensure they have basic needs.
This dilemma applies insurmountable pressure on the public institutions, which must apply a delicate balancing act to their budgets and ensure all resources are properly budgeted for. As a result, they often end up in not pleasing all sections of society, and the result is a public tension.
Death of the Spy Satellite
The spy satellite is a perfect example of how public accountability and public acceptability can cause substantial tension in public budgeting. In the beginning of the 1990s, the spy satellites that were gathering intelligence for the CIA were getting old and needed improved technology, particularly since global security had worsened in the post-Gulf war era.
The CIA, therefore, decided to launch a number of lightweight satellites that would use radar and optical technology to spy on enemy locations and bring the information back to earth safely and faster than before.
Each new satellite would cost approximately $1 billion to build, which is relatively cheap for a satellite, and about $450 million to launch. CIA’s ultimate goal was to improve national security, which was expects of them by the public.
The budget was opposed, however, by the public – via congress – since it was considered to be too extravagant. At the time (the mid 1990s), the government was searching for means of minimizing costs, reducing public spending and working on a shoestring budget.
Congress argued that the project was not feasible in the long term, given that the plan was to spend approximately $5 billion in five years. The project’s budget was not acceptable to so many fragmented sections of congress, in which case the public most likely felt the same.
Currently, the most contentious issue in terms of public-resource spending is the war in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. According to many estimates, the United States has spent between three and four trillion dollars. The war has also led to the death of approximately 236,000 people since it began ten years ago.
The primary reason the country entered the war was to eliminate the external threat that terrorists posed to the nation, particularly in the wake of 9/11. When the country entered the war, its budget was not of a primary concern. The government had placed priority on protecting the citizens of America.
However, ten years and nearly four trillion dollars later, the country ponders as to whether it was necessary to keep American troops in Iraq any longer. The US economy is reeling from the effects of the recession, and with rising costs of living, rising unemployment and increasing socio-economic pressure, tension rises as to whether it is still practical to support the war. While public institutions are accountable for the nation’s security, the public is finding it hard to accept the budgetary cost of a war that, it is argued, not helping improve security in the United States.
Helco’s Concept of Issue Networks Reinventing School Lunch
Helco’s concept on issue networks is unique: he believes that America does not pay as keen attention as they should to issue networks, particularly within the government.
Issue networks, also referred to as ‘iron triangles’ by Helco and other scholars, are small alliances of interest groups who came together to promote single or numerous government policies. Their support of these policies is centered upon a mutual benefit that they receive from this policy in place.
The National School Lunch Program, launched in the United States in 1945, was intended to make sure that all school-going children received at least one meal a day. This was a national drive to lower levels of malnutrition, promote the health of these children and to reduce the burden on these children’s parents.
It was an initiative by the Food Consumer Service (under the US Department of Agriculture), the State Departments of Education and funded partly by the federal government. The children receive milk, a protein source, a carbohydrate source, and fruit or vegetables.
Fast forward to 2011, and obesity is the fastest-growing problem among school children in America today. However, the food rations have remained the same, leading certain lobby groups to campaign against the food these children are fed with.
One argument is that the Department of Agriculture maintains the menu simply to promote farmers within the continent, and the federal government has turned a blind eye to these protests because of the mutual interests of a number of organizations.
However, not many Americans know about or bother to investigate these issues, and the voice of the protestors is nothing but a flicker. This is a perfect illustration of Helco’s concepts on issue networks in the United States.
Public Administration Training
Implications of Helco’s Concept
Three key elements of issue networks affect the training of public administrators. First, Issue networks seeks for what is complex in what would otherwise be easy issues. Members within a policy network realize that policy objectives are mostly vague, and results are difficult to measure. Participants, therefore, juggle these complexities, and demand that all experts within the different fields have the knowledge and ability to juggle these complexities too.
Secondly, Helco’s concept argues that issue networks help to bring consensus among different interest groups. Government policies are usually aimed at ensuring there is a right outcome on an issue. However, the definitions of what is right being not always clear. Iron triangles are usually formed to campaign for what they think is right, and the result is always consensus.
Finally, issue networks tend to go against what most politicians, who end up in being the policy markets, believe in. The norm in politics was to take credit for success, avoid appearing weak and focus on an opponent’s weaknesses. Today, policy networks have placed politicians on the back foot.
Taking credit for matters makes the politician appear to lack knowledge of intricate policies. Spreading blame threatens certain established institutions and may raise expectations in the politician to levels beyond their means. Issue networks have, therefore, created lukewarm policy makers.
Alteration of the Role of Public Administration, Caused by Helco’s Concept
Helco’s view on issue networks does not change the types of jobs and tasks that public administrators perform, but alters the manner in which they are done. It sensitizes them towards formulation and implementation of public policies. Policies must favor as many stakeholders as possible or certain iron triangles are bound to protest against it.
There is only one argument that could be raised regarding the role of issue networks in changing the types of jobs. The argument that public administrators perform is that there are some networks that have been known to influence public administrators. At times, the pressure applied by these external interest groups is positive, while, at times, they serve the selfish interest of these groups.
Alteration to My Thinking
As a public administrator, there are two ways that Helco’s concept has changed my view towards being a public administrator. First, it has made me aware that the American public pays less attention to issue networks than they ought to. This means that it is easy for a small iron triangle to influence how public policies are made and implemented.
Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, issue networks could promote fair policy making by promoting consensus among policy makers. They ensure that when a public decision is made, different stakeholders within society get a fair ruling.
Although this may create vague policies, at least the interests of the majority are served in the long run. Not all members of society can be pleased, but democracy dictates that at least a large majority of the public should benefit from decisions made by public officers.
Friedrich’s and Finer’s Central Ideas Case study: Torture
In his text, Friedrich’s central idea is that administrative responsibility is at a much wider scope at the moment, and it is no longer simply a responsibility for executing formulated policies (Stillman, 2009). In essence, he means that when a policy has been formulated, it does not mean that those charged with administering it are only responsible to themselves, but they are responsible to other parties as well.
They have a responsibility to ensure that the interests of the majority are met in a fair and legal manner. However, an unfair action has to be carried out for the benefit of the greater effect then the action could be justified.
Finer shares a similar principle. He argues that public servants are responsible to the elected representatives of the public. These representatives have the right to determine the cause of action of all these public servants to the smallest degree feasible. This is one of the core values of democracy.
Torture has often been justified as a necessary evil, required to extract information or achieve results for the benefit of the majority. Friedrich’s argues that the administration has the greatest responsibility to the majority. When all else fails, torture may be justified as a means to an end.
Finer’s sentiment lies along the same line. However, he specifies that decisions such as these have to be passed through a hierarchical judicial system for approval. The actions of a person are accountable to a number of other people.
The central argument in the torture case is that it is justified to torture a prisoner of war if certain conditions are met. A scenario is given, where there is a ticking time bomb, and a prisoner has been captured and is believed to have some information about his bomb.
The only condition that would warrant torture is if the suspect knew the location of the ticking bomb, and if he was aware of the planned attack. In addition, all other means of obtaining information have to be exhausted before torture is resorted to.
Public administrators, in this case the federal government and the prison services, had the responsibility to ensure that a majority of the citizens are secure, according to Friedrich. In the Abu Gharib case, torture would only be justifiable if there was a ‘ticking time bomb’ that the government was aware of.
Democracy is based on fundamentals like these. This, unfortunately, was not the case, since these prisoners were arrested at random with insufficient evidence of terrorist activity.
Finer argues that there must be an external agency that has authority over a person or an entity. It is vital that an administrative structure exist (Stillman, 2009). Without an oversight body, it is easy to have prisoners tortured and treated unfairly in the hands of their captors. If, however, the hierarchical judicial system comes to the decision that torture has to be used to obtain certain crucial information, then it is justifiable.
Friedrich argues that government officials should have a little room to work with the mentality that prevails in prisons like Abu Gharib, where the responsibility to protect the innocent in America gives soldiers and security personnel a little justification to ‘do whatever is necessary’ to obtain information.
Securing public interest
One of the best ways to secure public interest is to involve them into the decision making process. Through their elected representatives, every scenario, decision and matter that will not bring the majority of the population to harm must be passed to the public for scrutiny.
Although it makes the process longer and complicated, it eliminates the danger of a public office that is not adequately monitored and evaluated. Since public office bearers have a responsibility to the citizens, they should avail information that will not harm national security in any way to the hands of the public.
Finer’s arguments also support the notion that leaving public institutions in the hands of a few individuals, without creating a link between these institutions and the public, there is bound to be potential for evil. The government sets up various controls measures that individuals and groups must abide to. Without these regulatory measures, the interest of a few will be exalted above the interests of the public.
Friedrich, however, gives a slightly different view to the statement above. He argues that government officials ought to be given more room to maneuver, or as he puts it, some space for the ‘inner cheek’. A public official ought to be given some latitude to work in an environment that would be mutually beneficial to the majority.
Friedrich’s argument carries some weight, particularity when one considers the amount of a pressure public worker works under. It is difficult enough to have a tough working environment, and adding the pressure expecting perfection and braying for blood at the slightest mishap is unrealistic. Giving public administrators some space to maneuver allows them the luxury to find the best way of carrying out their duties.
Dwight Waldo Ethical Behavior in the Public Office
One of the most crucial lessons by Waldo was that public office bearers had obligations to different stakeholders. They were obligated to the constitution, law, nation, democracy, family, friends, humanity, God/religion, rules and the profession.
These elements are part of the twelve obligations of a public office holder. They bind the public servant, and act as guideposts upon which his career may flourish and most importantly, fulfill his duty.
Waldo also teaches the concept of ethical mapping. This is a guidepost upon which one bases his moral standards when making an ethical decision in the work place. The public service sphere is a world full of discordant values that often lead a worker to a the wrong way and makes him unsure of where to make a stand.
Ethical mapping, as described by Waldo, is a way of finding ‘where we are’. This helps public servants find a way of proceeding with their professional lives in the work place. The twelve obligations, discussed above, are the main guideposts used when making an ethical map.
In addition, Waldo helped to contextualize the idea of public administration in a world where it did not exist at the time. Instead on basing their decision on basic principles, public servants ought to rely on contingent intentions and value pluralism.
By basing their decisions only on facts, public figures are less likely to take into account the needs of the community around them. Basing decisions on values, on the other hand, enhances an individual’s sense of obligation towards the community that he serves.
Compare and Contrast
The case study ‘George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA’ describes a small restaurant in Virginia where CIA officers were frequent visitors. Apart from its famous beer-soaked chilly dogs, the restaurant was also known for one unique feature: the officers were never given bills by the waitresses.
Before leaving, the customers would go to the owner of the restaurant, tell how much they had eaten and paid for their meal before they left. This example is used to illustrate how Waldo’s theory of ethical mapping and obligations towards, among other things, humanity, could be applied to help improve honor and honesty within a community.
On the flip side of the coin, the case ‘The Blast in Centralia No.5’ describes how 111 miners died after an explosion rocked a small town in Illinois. The mine within which the explosion took place belonged to Centralia Coal Co. The government had the responsibility to ensure that all mines were inspected for worker safety.
The deaths were caused by ignited explosives that were fired in a non-permissible and dangerous manner. An investigation later revealed that the possible causes of fire were the shot firers and their open fires. The manager of the mine was later charged with failing to safeguard the mine.
These two stories show contradicting sides to Waldo’s lessons on public administration and ethics. As it has been discussed already, the CIA officers felt an obligation to the café to pay for their orders. The mine’s administrators, on the other hand, were not interested in ensuring the mine remained safe for its workers.
The government also felt no sense of obligation towards the nation and its citizens by failing to close down the mine after inspecting it and finding it did not meet the required safety standards. If the management of the mine and the officers responsible for inspecting it were able to follow the ethical sense of doing their business rather than being driven by business principle, the accident might have been prevented.
Important Lessons for Practicing Public Administrators
There are three main lessons that public administrators are able to take away from the contrasting stories above. First, the main aim of a public administrator’s job is to ensure that their work is for the benefit of the majority in society.
They are meant to be guided by their personal values and not by the systems and its values. Using Waldo’s obligations as guideposts, they should develop the ability to make decisions and carry out their duties based on their personal values. Using an ethical map is a convenient way to get started. Ethical maps help public administrators to know where they stand ethically.
Secondly, public administrators need to know what is at stake when they carry out their work. Taking the example of the mine explosion, if the public administrator responsible for inspecting the mine had conducted a thorough job, 111 lives would not have been lost that day.
There are certain public administrators that work in highly sensitive public sectors, where small mistakes could put the lives of other people at risk. Such sectors include food, health, sanitation and medicine.
Finally, the CIA story may paint a rosy picture of how public administrators ought to work in the public domain. However, attaining such a high level of discipline and dedication is not a simple task. First of all, as described beforehand, the public domain is not as tightly knotted as the CIA.
These are highly-trained individuals who undergo rigorous training to ensure they are completely ready to take on the sensitive nature of their work. However, public administrators should borrow a leaf on how to maintain the rigorous discipline and stick to principles no matter how difficult the working environment is.
Reference Stillman, Richard. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases 9th ed. Stamford: Cengage Learning.
Decision Making as an Essential Process of an Organization Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Types of Managerial Decisions
Steps in Decision Making
Decision-Making Stages (Phases)
Making High Quality Decisions
According to Monahan (2000), a decision is a choice between two or more alternatives. Decision making is an essential process in the running of an organization. Through it, a manager has the option of selecting different courses in order to improve the operations of an organization. The productivity of an organization depends on the action taken as a result of decision making.
The output can be an achievement or a judgment of the choice taken. Each and every organization operates by people making decisions. A manager plans, organizes, staffs, leads, and controls his/her team by implementing decisions. The effectiveness and quality of these decisions determine how successful a manager will be (Ray, 2009).
In the course of his/her operations, an administrator is constantly making decisions. Being an administrator is a challenging task. This is due to the fact that they often find themselves in situations where they have to make tight decisions.
In a single day, an administrator makes a lot of decisions either consciously or unconsciously. Decisions usually involve the application of considerable human judgment and experience before a solution is obtained (Monahan, 2000).
Types of Managerial Decisions According to Monahan (2000), there are five types of managerial decisions. These are:
Organizational and Personal Decisions
Individual and Group Decisions
Routine and Strategic Decisions
Programme and Non-Programme Decisions
Policy and Creative Decisions
Organization decisions are those decisions that are made to progress the interest of the organization. They are made to advance the interest of the organization.
When an administrator performs formally in his or her role as per the expectations of the organization, he makes decisions for the organization and the power can be delegated to the other members and calls for decisions at subordinate levels supporting it which end up becoming a chain of behavior throughout the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The decisions made by the managers affect everything that happens in the organization and the decisions that the managers take, they do it as individuals but not as part of the specified organization. This in turn affects the overall organization culture and behavior of the organization.
The management normally makes the personal decisions of an organization. A manager thus makes these decisions exclusively as an individual and not as an organization. The decisions the administrators make may affect the organization sometimes directly or indirectly.
Individual decisions are made by this or that person within some organization. Most of the times, these entail normal problems that an organization is likely to encounter in the course of normal operations. The most usual places for the Individual decisions are small autocratic organizations. Group made by a group of people who have a purpose. Making decision as a group encourages all the members to participate.
Routine decisions are made continually following some well-known rules, measures and policies. People do not have to collect new data and hence can be taken without debates or negotiations. On the other hand, strategic decisions are those key decisions that may affect the running of an organization.
Due to this fact, they are normally made by key managerial figures within an organization. They help in coming up with the desired plan and hence they need thorough data collection and analysis of the likely choices in the organization. The introduction of a new program or a system may be reckoned to be a strategy.
Programmed decisions deal with fairly routine and recurring problems. These decisions have short-term force. A person who is about to take a decision should analyze the situation from the analytical point of view and then take or suggest the appropriate way out or a solution to this or that problem.
Non-programmed decisions take place when the situation is hard to be figured out and when it is difficult to find a appropriate solution. Policy decisions are essential and are taken by the top management. People who deal with the implying of policies are used to take the operating decisions.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Decision Making as an Essential Process of an Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Steps in Decision Making In any organization, administrators like managers have to make decisions that help to solve problems in an organization. The process of decision-making is a continuous process in the running and management of an organization. As stated earlier, the decision-making process is a critical aspect of an organization.
It has to be made using the right information, with the right strategy and at the right time. This will ensure that an organization operates in an effective and efficient manner.
According to Ray (2009), William
No Child Left behind Ethical Issue Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In January 2002, President Bush administration put into law the NCLB (No Child Left behind) act. Seemingly, the act was meant to improve the standards of education for all American children.
However, the act has faced a lot of criticism due to its inability to deliver the needed results and most importantly, due to issues of ethical concern. This paper investigates and tries to answer two main questions. Is NCLB act ethical? Of what value is it to Atlanta Public School?
Ethical Issues First, the act uses a yearly-standardized test for all students notwithstanding that different children have different educational capacity. This makes the learning structure look more of a competition and survival for the fittest rather than a place to nurture and develop abilities.
Ethically speaking, the education system should aim at providing opportunities for children to discover and develop their intrinsic gifts. It should not be a field of competition.
Secondly, the act creates a field of academic discrimination. According to the act, children who fail to meet the standards have to work extremely hard and even transfer to performing schools. This creates two groups of children in the society failures and academic giants. This is not ethical since education is certainly a multivariate discipline and several factors may contribute to a child’s failure.
Thirdly, the system heavily punishes school administration as well as teachers in terms of sanctions, funding and performance evaluation without considering the multifaceted nature of education.
Sanctioning of non-performing schools makes everything worse since it destroys the school reputation and jeopardies its ability to regain academic status (Robicheau, 2006). It does not come by surprise that schools such as Atlanta Public School has to cheat on the standardized test in order to keep the school running.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the act fails to meet ethical standards by setting a standardized test for students of different capacities, abilities, and background. Is it not a test for the academically bright? What about the students talented in other fields such as sports, why not have standards for sports and other facets of life? It is an issue of ethical concern when the society brands failures and winner based on one academic standard (Robicheau, 2006).
Atlanta Public School came in to the public limelight when it was alleged that the school was cheating on the standardized test (Toppo, 2011). Cheating is not ethical at all but it certainly reflects an ethical vicious cycle. The NCLB act fails to meet ethical standards by setting unrealistic goals to students and the schools. In return, the schools cheat in order to survive (Toppo, 2011).
From the cheating scenario at Atlanta Public School, it is evident that the NCLB act is of no value to the school. The school is trying to do what needs to be done for survival. Perhaps, the act needs to be revised to make it more realistic for schools such as Atlanta Public School.
Conclusion NCLB act has failed to meet ethical standards by not addressing all variables of academic system. It is not sensitive to issues such as cultural background, personal ability, social status, family background among others. It just makes education system survival for the fittest hence losing its ethical value. No wonder schools such as Atlanta Public School cheat since the system is of no value to them.
References Robicheau, J. (2006). The Absence of Ethics in No Child Left Behind. Retrieved from http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archivesum07/robicheau.pdf
Toppo, G. (2011). Atlanta public school exams fudged. Retrieved from https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2011-07-06-Atlanta-schools-standardized-test-cheating_n.htm
The Overall Attractiveness Of Countries As Potential Markets And/Or Investment Sites Report custom essay help: custom essay help
The spread of globalization has led to the fact that many business operators shifted their focus from the local market to international community. Business operators are considering either exporting their goods directly to their target markets or investing in the countries themselves. However, there are several considerations that business operators should look into before venturing into any international market.
Among the issues to be considered before establishing international markets include the overall attractiveness of the targeted countries as potential markets for investment. This includes the potential of the targeted market in terms of business opportunities and the political ideologies help by people in the targeted market.
Other factors include political stability which in turn determines the security of foreign investors in the targeted country. This paper will discuss the overall attractiveness of investing in China.
Qualities of a good market Population
For a market to be considered as attractive to both investors and foreign business operators, it should exhibit certain characteristics. The aim of investing or establishing a market is to earn revenue in terms of profit. This in turn will be realized through the sale of gods and services. It is, therefore, important for business operators to consider the population of the market.
The reason behind classifying population among the important factors to be considered when planning to establish a foreign market is that most business activities target people. This, therefore, means that the more people the country has, the higher the demand will be.
In our case, China is among the most populated countries of the world. This high population provides a perfect market for our consumer goods. Twenty percent of the world’s population is believed to be Chinese (Anil 2011:103).
This makes China the most populated country in the world with an approximate population of 1.3 billion people. Although China adapted the policy of one child per couple, the population in China remains high. This makes China a target of international business operators. Given that our company is dealing with sports cloths, we should consider a market with a large population of young people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Chinese people are historically known for their sporting activities (Scott 2011:90). This sporting tradition added to the large population in a growing economy provides an excellent market for our sporting commodities. It should also be noted that there are many business opportunities in China. This has made competition in a given commodity relatively lower compared to the markets in developed countries.
A research contacted by Anil (2011:100) indicates that many business operators in the Chinese market have specialized in providing basic needs such as food and shelter to the large population. According to this report, three quarter of international business operators in China have invested in architecture and banking business. This means that our area of specialization is free from competition.
Politics has a great influence on the economic activities of a nation. For instance, a political system that values individualism will ensure free market trade. With such a political ideology, individuals are empowered to pursue their private interests for the overall good of the society. Political stability also determines peace in a country (Plaftker 2010: 49). No business activities can thrive in a country without peace.
I chose China because it is politically stable and has a good environment for business. Political activities such as elections can impact any business in a great way. For instance, disagreements during elections can result in lawlessness in a country. In such situation, business organizations cannot continue with their operations for fear of losing their goods. A country’s currency may also be politicized leading to its loss of value.
This in turn brings depression in the country economy which may affect business negatively. It is, therefore, wise for business operators to critically analyze the country’s political trends before establishing a market.
Countries that are believed to have a stable political foundation are more attractive as compared to countries that face frequent political instabilities. Research has indicated that politically stable countries are more secure compared to politically unstable countries.
China has a strong political system based on the rule of law. The existence of a constitution which was implemented and adapted in 1982 promises internal investors and foreign traders’ security for their investments. The communist party, which is the only political organization in the country, promises to guard the rights and freedoms of all people. According to the Chinese constitution, all rights belong to people.
We will write a custom Report on The Overall Attractiveness Of Countries As Potential Markets And/Or Investment Sites specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that people have the mandate to manage their social, economic and cultural activities without unnecessary interference of the government. This is a major boost for business operations in the Chinese country (James 2009:112).
Economic status of a country
The economic statue of a country determines the nature of activities in the country. The world has categorized into three classes depending on the levels of economic development. Countries which are considered to be economically stable are referred to as developed countries while the underdeveloped countries are called third world countries.
Developing countries, on the other hand, are countries that are in the process of developing their economies. In our case, China is a developing economy and thus provides a perfect market for our consumer goods. Unlike in developed countries where the market is saturated with consumer goods, demand for consumer goods in developing countries is very high (Anil 2011:101).
On the other hand, supply for the goods in these countries is not as high as in developed nations. This combination of high demand and low supply raises the prices for our goods, thus there is high profit for our company (Marina 2010:35). The rationale for our not extending our market to underdeveloped countries is that people in these countries do not have the purchasing power for our products.
Most people in underdeveloped countries life are below the poverty line due to lack of income generating activities. Consequently, people lack disposable income and the demand for consumer goods is low.
It should be noted that business operators should not only look at the current economic status of a country but also the potential of the country’s economy to grow in the near future. China, being a developing country, has a potential for economic growth. Our entering into this potential growing economy promises our company with future positive growth (Antonio 2010:99).
Accessibility of the market
Business activities involve a lot of movement of both the goods and the traders themselves. Successful business people will search for the customers. In this case, transport and communication networks become very important factors to be considered when planning to establish a foreign market. A country with good transport and communication networks will attract foreign investors.
The rationale behind this attraction is that the business people will be able to find customers wherever they are either by taking the goods to their door steps or through advertisement using the mass media. Good infrastructure transport infrastructure in a country helps business operators to reach out to people with ease (James 2009:33).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Overall Attractiveness Of Countries As Potential Markets And/Or Investment Sites by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The security of both the gods and business people is also guaranteed by good transport and communication networks in a country. China is among the most advanced countries of the world that embraces modern technology. As a result of this technologically oriented culture, China has excellent transport and communication networks.
As a matter of facts, nations of the world are now turning to borrowing technological assistance in transport and communication from the Chinese government. Good transport and communication networks in China ensure a swift transportation of goods to the market.
The communication network helps in searching for markets within China while transport networks ensure that goods reach the customers as demanded and in good shape. Many airports and air strips in China will enable us to transfer our sporting garments to the markets without delay (Fernandez 2011:88).
Competition in the market
China is among the rapid growing economies in the country. Many people are, therefore, concerned with the major development projects such as infrastructure and food production. Introducing sporting cloths in China will give us an opportunity to maximize the sell of our products.
With many business opportunities in China, business operators will specialize in different business opportunities thus leaving less competition in our area of specialization. When this possibility of few business operators are combined with the high demand for sporting cloths in China, the prices for our products will automatically go up (Frank 2008: 27).
The interpretation of this is that a lot of revenue will be collected and our company will grow. After establishing market in China, we can then reinvest more capital in order to capture the whole country. The fact that we shall be among the first to venture into the Chinese market with our unique products is an added advantage to us. As reported by our Director, our products have the potential of competing at international levels.
Entering into a market that has less players with internationally appealing products will ensure that the brand of such a product is preferred by many people in the future. Venturing into the Chinese market at this perfect time will sell our brand of sporting clothes and ensure a positive growth of our company in the future (Laurie 2009: 45).
Conclusion The above discussion indicates the factors that business operators should consider before establishing a foreign market. The growth and prosperity of any business activity in a foreign country depends on the above factors. China as a country has all the above factors and, therefore, stands out to be the most attractive target for our company to contact its business activities from.
Good transport and communication networks in China will ensure that our products are taken near to the customers with easer, while the sporting tradition of the Chinese people ensures a ready market for our sporting cloths. I would, therefore, advise that we consider China as the most attractive country to start our overseas market.
Bibliography Anil K. Gupt (.2011) Getting China India Right: Strategies for Leveraging the world’s fastest Growing economies for Global Advantage. New York: Siege
Antonio Fernandez (2010) China Entrepreneur: Voice of Experience from 40 Business Pioneers. London: Oxford University Press
Fernandez Juan (2011) China CEO: A Case Guide for Business Leaders in China. Wyland Publishing: Adelaide
Frank T.Gallo (2008) Business Leadership in China: how to Blend Best Western practices with Chinese wisdom. New York: Cambridge
James McGregor (2009) One Billion Customers: Lessons from the Front Lines of Doing Business in China. London: Cambridge
James Kynge (2011) China Shakes the World: A Titan’s Rise and troubled future—and the challenge for America. New York: Oxford University Press
Laurie Underwood (2009) China CEO: Voice of Experience from 20 International Business Leaders. Beaut Books: Sydney
Marina Yua (2010) The transformation of an Emerging superpower and the new opportunities. London: Oxford University Press
Plaftker Ted (2010) Doing business in China: how to Profit in the World’s Fastest Growing Market. New York: Siege
Scott D.Seligman (2011) Chinese Business etiquette: a guide to Protocol, Manners, and Culture in the People’s Republic of China. London: Oxford University Press
Media Management Norms in the Industry Essay writing essay help
Alabarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006, 275) believe that media management stands alone as a distinct field of management for two major reasons. The first reason is the unique position that media organizations as well as their output occupy in the cultural and political life of societies and nations where they operate in (Cook 1998, 122; Sparrow 1999, 46; Golding
International communication in Saudi Arabia Quantitative Research Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction Communication is among the most important factor that is considered while building business or personal relationships. Throughout the world, people have dedicated much effort in establishing and improving their communication skills. Similarly, Greene and Burleson state that a lot of research has been conducted in order to provide people with the information needed to facilitate effective communication.
In Saudi Arabia, international communication has for a long time been hampered by language barriers and cultural beliefs, which limits peoples’ ability to communicate with foreigners.
However, due to globalization, technological advancement, education and economic aspirations, there has been a notable improvement in this regard. As such, majority of the Saudi citizens acknowledge the importance of communicating to foreigners and others desire to communicate to the visitors in order to advance their own interests.
This can be evidenced from the increase in international relations between Saudi and other foreign nations, the significant increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting Saudi and the fact that most Saudi citizen can speak at least one or more foreign languages. This section shall set out to detail the methodology used to gather information regarding Saudi’s citizens desire to communicate to visitors.
To this end, a brief overview of the research method selected shall be provided and an explanation as to why the research method is the most appropriate for this kind of research shall also be provided.
The processes used to gather the information shall also be detailed and the ethical and legal considerations that have to be made highlighted. All this shall be done to ensure that the data collected is credible and acquired in a manner that is ethically and legally acceptable.
Research methodology Catherine (2002) defines research methodology as the structured process used by researchers in order to collect data on the issue being studied. Depending on the type of data being collected, research often fall under two main categories: qualitative and quantitative research.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Quantitative research method refers to the processes used to gather scientific and statistical data, while qualitative research methods are applied in social sciences studies. Considering that the topic under discussion relates to social sciences, this research shall adopt qualitative method of data collection.
Research design Ranjit (2005) states that application studies can be classified into two broad categories. These categories are: pure research and applied research. The author further states that applied research is done when the researcher seeks to solve a specific and practical question or to understand a given phenomenon.
This research fits this description and it shall be descriptive in nature. According to Liamputtong (2009), descriptive research sets out to systematically describe a given situation by evaluating the attitudes the participants have towards the issue or phenomenon being studied.
Considering these facts, this study shall be a descriptive research since it seeks to describe, explain and understand Saudi citizens desire to communicate to their visitors.
Sample population A stratified random sample shall be used to select participants for this research. Stratified random sample refers to the process through which the population is divided into mutually exclusive groups such as age, gender, educational level and financial status among others. After dividing the population into such groups, random sample are drawn from the selected groups.
The sample population will consist of 100 randomly selected participants. 25% of the selected subjects shall be aged between 25 and 30 years, 50% shall be aged between 30 and 50 years and the remaining percentage shall consist of participants above the age of 50 years.
The rationale behind this selection is that people aged between 30 and 50 years constitute the largest percentage of the working class in Saudi.
We will write a custom Essay on International communication in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, they are better placed to give valuable information as to why the Saudi citizens desire to communicate to visitors and the importance of such communications from an economic and socio-cultural perspective. The main channel of contact shall be through interview schedules and random face to face meetings at different avenues.
Primary data collection Primary data regarding this topic shall be collected through interviews, surveys and questionnaires. These tools of data collection are the most appropriate since they enable the researcher to collect accurate and reliable data from the selected subjects. Khanzode (2004) asserts that an unstructured approach is most convenient when conducting a qualitative research.
He bases this assertion on the fact that the unstructured approach “allows flexibility in all aspects of the research process (Khanzode, 2004, p. 19).” Unstructured approach to inquiry is appropriate in this research since it enables the researcher to explore the nature of the phenomenon being studied and to evaluate the variations in that situation.
The questions designed for the interviews, surveys and questionnaires shall focus on answering the research questions. In this research, intercept interviews shall be conducted.
Kothari (2008) asserts that intercept interviews are convenient because they enable the interviewer to reach known period within a short time, they are the only method that can be used to reach people with unknown addresses and they involve talking to people in their homes, offices or on the streets. The surveys and questionnaires enable researchers to gather large amount of data quickly and conveniently.
Seeking consent There are ethical issues that must be considered before collecting data for a research. Mainly, they involve the researchers conduct throughout the research and the concerns raised by the selected participants. To ensure that this research is conducted in an ethical manner, all participants shall be required to sign an informed consent form.
According to Catherine (2002), an informed consent form is a document signed by a research participant showing that he/she understands all aspects of the research including why the research is being conducted, how the research shall benefit the participants or society, the risks of the research and how the findings of the research shall be used.
Ensuring that all participants of this research have signed an informed consent shall guarantee that the process of data collection was done in an ethical manner.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International communication in Saudi Arabia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Processing data According to Konthari (2008), processing and analyzing collected data is a process that consists of various closely related operations. The purpose of this process is mainly to organize and summarize collected data in a manner that it answers the research questions designed for the given study. The operations used in this research shall include:
This is a process through which the researcher examines the collected data with an aim of identifying and correcting errors where possible. Editing is important since it enables the researcher to detect errors and omissions that may influence the results of the research.
Classification is a process through which edited data is arranged in groups depending on common characteristics that are important to the phenomenon being studied. In this case, data collected shall be classified in different themes such as economical benefits, social benefits and cultural benefits.
This is a process through which collected data is summarized and displayed in a compact form pending further analysis. In most cases, it involves arrangement of data into rows and columns for purposes of comparison, space conservation and statistical computations.
Data analysis Data collected in this research shall be subjected to content analysis. Content analysis is the process through which a researcher examines the content of the responses given by participants in order to identify main themes that appear and are related to the topic being studied.
Reporting the findings This section shall serve as a summarized version of the methodology section. In this section, I shall summarize what has been done, what was discovered and the conclusions that I have made from the findings regarding the topic.
Limitations Like any other research, there are some foreseeable challenges that I may face as a result of my research methodology. Firstly, there is always the risk that the subjects may not give me accurate data during the interviews, the survey and the questionnaires.
Secondly, there is a room for error and bias if I ask the wrong questions and during the sample selection process. Despite these challenges, I believe that this quantitative method is the most appropriate for this specific research.
Conclusively, this paper has explained the methodology of conducting a research, various factors that should be considered when coming up with a research methodology have been highlighted, and their relevance to research discussed.
References Catherine, D. (2002). Practical Research Methods. New Delhi: UBS Publishers’ Distributors.
Khanzode, V. (2004). Research Methodology. New York: APH Publishing.
Kothari, C. (2008). Research methodology: methods and techniques. New Jersey: New Age International
Liamputtong, P. (2009). Qualitative research methods. London: Oxford University Press.
Ranjit, K. (2005). Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, (2nd.ed). Singapore: Pearson Education.
Nature and Effectiveness of Steve Jobs Leadership Essay essay help free
Steve Jobs was the CEO of Apple Inc. until his death on October 5th 2011 (Apple, 2011). While at Apple Inc, Steve was successful in leading the organization into the right path. Through the technical innovations that were unleashed by the organization coupled with its proper marketing strategies, Apple grew to be one of the leading corporations in the field of Information Communications and Technology (ICT).
To achieve all this, Steve Jobs had a rather unique style of leadership. His leadership style comprised of a mix of qualities and strategies that aimed at improving the operations and status of the organization in order to achieve the set goals and objectives of Apple Inc.
Steve was born in 1955. In the year 1976, he partnered up with Steve Wozniak to form the Apple Computer Company. A year later, the company released its second generation computer; Apple II (Wether and Chandler, 2006). Apple II was successful. It made Apple to be considered as one of the leading computer companies in the world.
As a result, the company went public in 1980. In 1984, the company released the Macintosh. This computer was the most user friendly PC at that time. It was easier to navigate through its operating system, it was smaller, had an attractive interface and most importantly, the computer ran efficiently (without making noise).
This was a game changer in the field of computer manufacturing. It influenced the production of other computers up to the present day.
Due to the growth of the company, Steve Jobs needed an experienced CEO to lead the organization. As a result, he hired John Scully who was the CEO of Pepsi Cola (Wether and Chandler, 2006). However, the differences between these two individuals led to the exit of Steve Jobs from Apple. He went ahead to form his computer company called NeXT. He also bought an animation company called Pixar that mainly focused on commercials.
Through his inspiration, Steve managed to lead these two companies to success. However, in 1997, Apple and NeXT merged and Steve Jobs became the interim CEO of this new organization. A few months later, he announced that he was the CEO of the company. The influence that he had, he led these two companies to success up to his death in 2011.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steve Jobs was a visionary leader. He was able to lead the organizations that he headed or was a part of into desirable heights. Steve Jobs was the CEO of Apple Inc., NeXT and Pixar. When Pixar merged with Walt Disney, he became the board member of Walt Disney and influenced the production of several animated Box Office films.
When Steve Wozniak showed Steve Jobs the first apple computer, Jobs managed to convince Wozniak to sell the computer rather than giving its out for free which was the idea of Wozniak. This therefore led to the birth of Apple Computer Company in 1976 (Wether and Chandler, 2006).
Through research and innovation, Jobs and Wozniak released the second generation of the computer; Apple II. This led to the growth of the company and in 1984 the Mackintosh was released. These advancements in releasing new generations of the computers that were better and more efficient were all influenced by Steve Jobs.
Being a visionary leader, he aspired in coming up with better versions of computers and computers applications that aimed at making the life of man much easier on earth. When he fell out of apple in 1985, the company did not do well. Instead, it almost ran into debt.
However, his return to Apple in 1997 had a great impact in the operation, running and sustainability of the company. In the year 2001, Apple released the iPod. In 2007, the iPhone was released and the iPad soon followed. It is through his visionary leadership that the company was able to innovate and market such products.
A visionary leader articulates the desired status of an organization. However, it is the work of the employees of the organization to come up with means and strategies of achieving this desired state. Steve Jobs wanted Apple Inc to be the leading innovative company in the field of ICT. It is the motivation, desire, integrity and hard work of the employees at Apple Inc. that made this possible.
With the application of the expectancy theory, Steve Jobs managed to motivate his employees by giving them a chance to bring in their ideas and innovations into the company. At times, he gave his employees the chance to make decisions which he would finally weigh to see the impacts that they may have on the organization. As such, employees felt as being part and parcel of the organization and respected.
We will write a custom Essay on Nature and Effectiveness of Steve Jobs Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This in turn boosted their morale and improved their performance. In an interview, Steve Jobs stated while hiring employees, he had to ensure that they had love for the company.
He believed that once this is achieved, the rest would come in naturally. According to him, if the employees will not have love for the company, then they will be working to achieve their own individual goals and not the goals of the company. To guarantee that both parties benefit, Jobs ensured that the goals of his employees and the company are both achieved.
Other articles state that Steve Jobs was an Autocratic leader. In an interview, Jobs stated that there are over 100 individuals who report to him directly. As a result, he had to ensure that every activity within the organization conducted as per the expected standards. In most of the occasions, the expected standards were his way. Jobs therefore manipulated the activities and operations of Apple Inc.
He expected perfections and as a result, he only maintained members of staff that were not good but great in what they do. However, he embraced team work and affiliation among his employees. He also believed in diversifications of activities in his organization.
He also participated in the invention, production and presentation of new products to the world. Finally, unlike other CEOs, Jobs focused on changing the world to be a better place. He was not motivated by monetary gains but by innovation.
Establishment of Tim Cook On taking over from Steve Jobs, Tim Cook needs to establish a strong leadership. This will ensure that the organization continues to operate in an effective and efficient manner as it was operating during the reign of Steve Jobs. First, Tim needs to deviate from the autocratic leadership style that was being used by Steve Jobs. Instead, he needs to adopt and implement democracy in the organization.
With this new style of leadership, employees will have the chance to participate in the process of decision making. This method will increase the participation of employees in key activities and processes of the organization regardless of their level of operation or qualification. This style will also act as an avenue to utilize the innovations and ideas of all the employees.
The organization will therefore stand a better chance of coming up with technical innovations that will change the lives of many individuals in the world. This will be in line with the current goals and objectives of the organization. In addition, democracy makes the employees to be motivated. This will in turn increase their loyalty and productivity to the firm.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nature and Effectiveness of Steve Jobs Leadership by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tim Cook also needs to adopt the pacesetting style of leadership. In this form of leadership, the leader of an organization is sets the specific standards of performance that his employees are expected to meet.
In order to maintain the traditions of that were set by Steve Jobs, Tim Cook needs to ensure that activities and operations are conducted in a better and faster way, effectively and efficiently. To ensure that this is achieved, Cook has to ensure that he maintains a competent staff. His employees should also work as a team. This will make the organization to achieve its goals and objectives much easily.
Tim Cook also needs to have a mix of interpersonal skills. He should have desirable listening and communications skills. He should also be charismatic, understanding, smart, wise, respectful, transparent and open. This will ensure that he behaves in a desirable way (Wether and Chandler, 2006).
These skills will also assist him to have good relationship with his employees and stakeholders. He will also be able to make wise decisions in tight situations. This will in turn lead to the overall success of the company.
Finally, Tim Cook needs to maintain a desirable organization structure, behaviour and culture within the organization. All the employees at Apple Inc. need to have respect for one another, work together as a team, and treat clients with integrity and respect.
Most importantly, they should work to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization as well as their personal goals and objectives. Once these considerations are put in place, Tim Cook will be a successful leader of a successful organization.
References Apple Inc, n.d, Remembering Steve. Available at: https://www.apple.com/stevejobs/
Wether, W and Chandler, D. (2006) Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Stakeholders in a Global Environment. Miami. Sage
Qur’an and Its Interpretation Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction There are different theories that explain the understanding and interpretation of the Qur’an. The study of these theories is called Qur’an hermeneutics. Qur’an hermeneutics is important as it enables the Qur’an texts to be meaningful and applicable to the contemporary Muslims. Currently, there are several groups of Islam that came about because of diverse interpretations of the teachings contained in the Qur’an.
The interaction of Muslims with the rest of the world is influenced by their understanding of the interpretations of the Qur’an. The intensity of interpretations of Qur’an verses differ from one group to another.
These interpretations determine how different groups of Islam perceive the various facets of their faith (Rahman 2002). This discussion intends to look at how contemporary scholars are challenging the traditional Qur’an interpretations.
Discussion The Qur’an is one of the chief sources of law in Islam. It also contains the rules that Muslims should adhere to while worshipping and the religious obligations of each person. The Qur’an does not clearly differentiate between the law and ethical issues.
Therefore, these instructions needed to be added on. Prophet Muhammad and other scholars came up with supplementary interpretations and instructions. These instructions and interpretations were used in formulating the Islamic law (Knysh 2007).
Muslims regard the Qur’an as the source of all truth. But some issues in the Qur’an are contradictory and therefore it was necessary to find solutions that could clear the ambiguities.
This necessitated a thorough interpretation and creation of commentaries on the Qur’an in order to guide the Muslims in their daily lives. Some verses are also unclear and it is not easy for an ordinary Muslim to understand them without interpretation (Rippin 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Qur’an has many meanings and therefore man can interpret it to any level. There is no end to the interpretations of the Qur’an. The texts have the outer and deep meaning. Anyone who is able to interpret its deepest meanings finds happiness. Some understand the inner meanings as future revelations of what is to come (Schimmel 1994).
The Muslims have a practice of reciting the Qur’an verses. Reciting enables the Muslims to read and at the same time listen to the verses. This helps the Muslims to comprehend their deep meanings. While reading the Qur’an, the reader is supposed to understand that those are the words of God the creator.
The reader should also have the fear of God. This can be achieved by thinking about the qualities of God like omnipresence, omnipotence, among others. The reader must also seek to understand the message and assume that God is speaking to him/her in that text. He/she should contextualize the text to his/her personal situation and perceive the text as a message from God (Sands 2006).
There are various reasons why the interpretation of the Qur’an was necessary. Firstly, the Islamic religion spread to different countries and there was a need to explain some difficult words contained in the holy book. The Qur’an was written in Arabic and when other people who spoke different languages converted to Islam, they could not fathom some difficult Arabic words.
Thus, interpretation was necessary so that every believer of Islam could understand the Qur’an. Another reason is that some concepts in the Qur’an are clear while others are ambiguous. Therefore, there was a need to clarify the ambiguous concepts for everyone’s understanding. The ambiguous texts could easily be misunderstood by the readers and therefore wrongly applied.
Consequently, the interpretations ensured that the messages were correctly construed. Moreover, the stories narrated in the Qur’an have scanty details and therefore there was a need to expound on them so that the readers could understand them.
In addition, problems arose after the death of Prophet Muhammad because he was the leader. People did not know who to turn to for guidance. This necessitated the interpretation of the Qur’an so that people can seek answers from Qur’an interpretations (Leaman not dated).
We will write a custom Essay on Qur’an and Its Interpretation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are various groups of Muslims. These include the liberal, conservative, reformist, progressive, socialist, traditional, and secular Muslims, among others. These groups believe in different interpretations of the Qur’an. Many Muslims still rely on the traditional Qur’an hermeneutics for their daily guidance in behaviour and ethics (Dakroury not dated).
Throughout history, there have been many contentious interpretations of the Qur’an. The traditional interpretation of the Qur’an is referred to as the tafsir and it started with Prophet Muhammad. The remarks of Prophet Muhammad have been a major subject of interpretations. According to the Qur’an, the Muslims are supposed to do what the Prophet has commanded and stay away from what he has prohibited.
Prophet Muhammad interpreted several teachings to his followers. He explained to them the implication of various texts in the Qur’an. For example, he explained to his followers how to perform prayers five times daily. The prophet also interpreted unclear texts to his followers, for instance, the expressions about the whiteness of day and the darkness of night.
He also explained various concepts about the worship of God alone and his messenger, the omnipotence of God, the dead animals that can be eaten , life after death and various other Islamic issues in the Qur’an. The interpretations of Prophet Muhammad are brief and touch on certain verses of the Qur’an and not the whole text.
The interpretations of the Qur’an by Prophet Muhammad are not recorded because the prophet did not want the people to confuse them with the Qur’an. These interpretations have been passed on through word of mouth from one generation to the next.
The Prophet considered the confusion of his interpretations with the Qur’an as a very great violation. He wanted a clear distinction between his words and those of God so as not to confuse the Islam believers (Abdul-Raof not dated).
After the death of Prophet Muhammad, his followers came up with different interpretations depending on the general knowledge. They applied their own wisdom and other commonly known facts to explain the Qur’an. In addition, they used the knowledge of Islamic proceedings and the wisdom they had gained from their closeness with the Prophet.
They used the knowledge they had gained from the prophet through personal questions that they asked him. Some of the followers who continued with the interpretation of the Qur’an after the death of the prophet include Ali Talib, Abd Abbas, Abdi Mason and Ubai Kab. Ali Talib has given several interpretations but some scholars claim that some of his narrations are true while others are false.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Qur’an and Its Interpretation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Abbas explains unclear matters in the Qur’an from the viewpoint of the People of the Book. He interprets some concepts like the dimensions of the ark Noah built, among others. The students of Abbas have recorded his teachings in a book. Masud’s interpretations are mainly concerned with legal matters.
Kab is from a Jewish background and therefore he has a sound knowledge of both the old and new testaments. He does not support the recording of Qur’an interpretations for fear of peoples confusing it them with the word of God (Al-Sheha not dated).
The companions of the prophet base their interpretations on the Qur’an, the teachings of the Prophet and their own opinions. The Qur’an offers interpretations of some concepts within the text. For instance, similar expressions can appear in different parts of the Qur’an. A concept can appear in one verse and then be repeated in another one. In addition, parables are given in one part and then explained later in the Qur’an.
The followers moreover relied on the teachings of Prophet Muhammad to carry out their own interpretations. The teachings of the prophet offered them the necessary guidance that they needed while interpreting the Qur’an on their own. If they failed to get a concrete explanation from the Qur’an and the teachings of the Prophet, they relied on their own opinion and general knowledge.
They applied their own experiences and wisdom in making judgments about the Qur’an teachings. The interpretations by the companions of Prophet Muhammad are brief and do not explain all the verses in the Qur’an. Some of them have been recorded for the purpose of learning. Their interpretations are not structured according to the Qur’an verses.
Therefore, the verses do not flow the way they do in the Qur’an but are arranged according to the themes that they explain. The interpretations of different companions are similar in terms of legal rulings because they used to live in close proximity but their artistic knowledge and linguistics skills vary (Abdul-Raof not dated).
The students of the companions, known as successors came up with their own interpretations. The successors’ interpretations are brief and touch on certain Qur’an verses. Their interpretation is based on the view of the companions.
The successors have also explored contentious theological issues like the traits of God. The opinions of different successors vary depending on their teachers and their proximity from one another. The successors have also relied on the information from Christian and Jewish converts in their interpretations (Schimmel 1994).
The interpretations of the Qur’an that Prophet Muhammad, the companions and successors offered was only relevant at that time. Many laws were derived from the traditional interpretations and such laws are irrelevant today.
Almost all Muslims agree that the most credible interpretations of the Qur’an are the interpretations contained in the Qur’an verses. Next is the interpretation by Prophet Muhammad. If sufficient understanding can not be extracted from theses two, people should then turn to the interpretations by the companions, successors and other scholars (Leaman not dated).
Currently, the Islamic scholars have turned to new ways of interpreting their religion. They seek to challenge the traditional interpretations and replace them with current ones. These scholars seek to find ways in which the twenty-first century Muslims should understand the Qur’an teachings.
The scholars are attempting to give contemporary meaning to the teachings of the Qur’an while retaining the message and basic beliefs of the Islamic religion. However, they have faced hostility and mistreatment because the conservative Muslims feel that they are propagating anti-Islamic ideologies.
The Muslims who still uphold the traditional interpretations feel that these modern scholars are misleading other Muslim believers and are going against the teachings of God (Welchman 2007).
In the contemporary world, the viewpoints of scholars about the interpretation of the Qur’an have changed. These scholars agree with the basic principles of Islam like fasting during Ramadan, praying five times daily and other Islamic practices like giving of alms. However they are against some interpretations of the Qur’an teachings, which they argue are not relevant in the current times.
Modern Muslims can not understand the relevance of some laws in this era. The society has changed and therefore the Muslims’ view of issues should change too. It is not easy to apply traditional interpretations to modern issues relating to human rights, women emancipation, and holy war, among others (Rapoport 2005).
Many Muslim scholars have faced many problems while trying to interpret some of these issues in the modern context. The contemporary Qur’an hermeneutics was brought about by the need to explain the Islamic teachings to meet the demands of the current world.
The Muslim scholars are trying to find a way to interpret the Qur’an teachings so that they can be applicable to modern Muslims, governments and international organizations (Freamon 2006).
There are several scholars who are pushing for reforms in the interpretations of Islamic texts. Some of them feel that the traditional interpretation of the Qur’an does not fit in the modern setting and therefore re-interpretation should be done.
These scholars advocate for gender equality in Islamic practices, reform on views about some customs and inappropriate dress, independent interpretation of the Islamic teachings, among others. The interpretations that are being used and which are the source of Islamic law were only meant to be applied by the people who lived during those times.
Currently, those laws and interpretations are out-dated and archaic and therefore have no place in the modern setting. Thus some changes need to be made to those interpretations so that they can be applicable in modern life (Haddad 1988).
Other scholars propose that the Qur’an should be considered a source of godly motivation and the interpretations should be ignored. Others suggest that the Qur’an alone should be considered as the Holy book and all other texts written by Islamic scholars should not be used.
These scholars advocate for the rejection of any other writings apart from the Qur’an as a source of guidance for the Muslims. Scholars like Ghulam Ahmed Pervez of Pakistan feel that only the Qur’an should be read and used for daily guidance and any other writing should be disregarded.
These scholars claim that some interpretations of Islamic law are not applicable worldwide as they do not fit in the current context. The scholars also accept the basic Islamic teachings as true but are against their interpretations and applicability to modern life (Khadduri 1984).
Contemporary scholars feel that Hadith and Sunna are not authentic and that these two do not bring out the original meanings from Qur’an verses. They should therefore not be relied upon in making any decisions. These traditions were passed down by word of mouth for hundreds of years before they were recorded. Therefore there is a likelihood of them getting distorted by each generation.
Moreover, some rules derived from Hadith and Sunna like stoning of adulterers and female circumcision are old fashioned and against the teachings of the Qur’an. The Qur’an does not advocate for such actions and therefore those are rules made by the interpreters.
Additionally, Some Qur’an verses have been interpreted out of context in order to validate the interpretations of the Sunna and Hadith. The interpreters construed them wrongly in order to meet their own personal ends (Abou El Fadl 2001).
One of the controversial issues is the interpretation of Islamic laws. Contemporary Muslim scholars reject traditional Qur’an interpretations which are old-fashioned and instead advocate for readings which can be applied in the contemporary setting. They are also against the use of single verses from the Qur’an to develop Islamic laws.
For instance, Nasir Abu Zayd argued that the teachings of the Qur’an should be interpreted based on the time that they were written and are not applicable to current matters. He proposed for a reinterpretation of the Qur’an which takes into consideration new opinions about the religion and should consider that modern Muslim societies have undergone a lot of change.
Nasir has conducted several researches and the aim is to promote modern Islamic thinking. He intended to create a link between the traditional and modern Islamic views about democracy, human rights and equality. However his beliefs landed him into trouble with the conservative Muslims with claims that he was against the Islamic faith (Rahman 2002).
Scholar Ghulam Ahmad Parvez feels that the Qur’an has enough teachings to guide the Muslims in their daily lives and therefore the laws derived from early interpretations should be done away with. He argues that each generation can find relevance by reading the Qur’an alone and interpreting it in their context. He therefore does not see the need for the Hadith or the Sunna (Farah 1984).
Muhammad Abduh also advised the Muslims to stop relying so much on the traditional interpretations of the Qur’an but instead use logic while interpreting the Qur’an in order to fit in the current world. He urged the Muslims to exercise their freedom of will, thinking and expressing their views. In addition, he was opposed to traditional Islam practices like polygamy. Such practices are degrading to the women.
He advocated for equal human rights for all and was against slavery and any form of discrimination. According to him, all human beings are equal before God and therefore should be treated equally and with respect. Moreover he believed in making peace with everyone and made efforts to create friendships between Muslims and people from other religions like Christians (Wadud 1999).
Rashid Rida also saw over-reliance on traditional Qur’an interpretations as the reason why Muslim communities lag behind in technological developments and other matters. Therefore they should adopt more civilized and current laws and ways of reasoning in order to be at the same development level with other communities. He felt that the Qur’an should be reinterpreted to suit the current circumstances (Webb 2000).
In the tafsir tradition, no one was supposed to read the Qur’an on their own and derive an interpretation. They feared that unless a person was trained, he /she would misunderstand the meaning of the texts. However, in the contemporary world, even untrained people are reading and interpreting the Qur’an on their own.
Islamic scholars are in support of this as they feel that every Muslim has a right to read the Qur’an on his/her own and apply its meaning according to his individual experiences.
The Muslims have a right to make independent interpretations of the Qur’an as the available interpretations are sometimes misleading and biased. Today, the Qur’an has been translated in many languages and is readily available on the internet and other sources (Saeed 2006).
Contemporary Muslims also do not agree with the traditional interpretations about human rights. They believe that all human beings are equal and their human rights should be respected. Therefore the traditional interpretations allowing injustices like slavery are not applicable in the modern world.
The Qur’an contains information about slaves and how they should be treated. Such verses were only applicable at the time when slavery was practiced and are therefore not relevant in the current setting. Therefore, such teachings and the laws derived from them should be ignored by the modern Muslim (Abu Zayd 2001).
In addition, contemporary scholars do not agree with traditional Islamic interpretations which discriminate against women. Some of the laws that they do not agree with include the tolerance of polygamy for the men while women are not allowed to practice polyandry (Esposito 1982).
Another law states that women are entitled to a less inheritance than the men. These laws clearly show that Muslim women have less authority and rights than men. In the current world, people believe in gender equality and equal opportunities for both men and women (Mattson not dated).
Some Muslim scholars are also opposed to the traditional role of women in prayers where they are supposed to pray at a separate place or behind the men. In some mosques, women are supposed to enter through the back door and perform their prayers at a secluded place away from the men.
The scholars argue that this is not in line with the Qur’an teachings as even prophet Muhammad allowed women to pray together with the men. Therefore, such rules were intentionally distorted by the interpreters of the Qur’an so as to deny women their rights (Corbin 1986).
Women are also not allowed to lead prayers in a congregation comprising of both men and women. Women are only allowed to lead their fellow women in prayer. Contemporary Muslims advocate for women to be treated equally with men and even encourage them to take up leadership positions in their countries.
They also feel that women should not be segregated from men during prayer and should also be allowed to lead the prayers provided they are sufficiently knowledgeable about the Qur’an (Badawi 1995).
Scholar Amina Wadud is a great advocator of women leading prayers. She broke the norm by leading Friday prayers. Some Muslim scholars were in support of this while conservative Muslims termed it as wrong and against the teachings of Islam. Amina continues to lead Friday prayers in different places around the world.
Conservative Muslims have not accepted this and they threaten renounce the Muslims who attend those prayer meetings. Amina has written several books encouraging Muslims to treat both men and women equally (Mutahhari 1991).
Abu Zayd and Leila Ahmed also advocate for equal rights for women as the Islamic laws discriminate against them. These laws were written when the society was male-dominated. Now the society has changed and such laws that degrade women are not applicable.
Samira Bellil wrote books detailing how Muslim women suffer under traditional Islamic laws which undermine them. She argues that the traditional Islamic beliefs are very constraining and are not relevant in the contemporary world (Khan 1995).
Other Muslims feel that women should not be forced to wear the head veil or hijab as they can wear any other clothes provided they look modest. Ahmad Ghabel argues that it is not a must for Muslim women to cover their head and neck but they are obligated to cover their bodies only.
Modern scholars argue that the Qur’an commands both men and women to dress modestly but that does not mean that the women should always cover their heads (Masud 1997). In fact, some of them like Hedi Mheni and Fadela Amara support the banning of the hijab in some countries like France.
They feel that holding on to such traditions will lead to women being denied more of their rights. The Qur’an was wrongly interpreted because it does not mention the covering of the head with the hijab. They call for the emancipation of Muslim women so that they can fit in the modern society (Barlas 2002).
Modern scholars like Fatima Mernissi argue that the traditional Qur’an interpretations have been manipulated to take advantage of the women. She says that the Qur’an does not support the discrimination against women as the wives of Prophet Muhammad were treated as equals.
The writers of the Sunna and Hadith distorted the Qur’an verses and denied women their rights for their own interests and material advantage. She challenges Muslims to be wary when following some of the teachings from the traditional Qur’an commentaries because they might not be reliable (Mernissi 1985).
The Muslim personal law discriminates against women in matters of divorce, polygamy, marital property and children’s custody. Modern Muslim scholars are opposed to this law and are proposing reforms. These reforms should be made with the inclusion of women’s views and other opinions based on the Qur’an teachings.
The law should be reformed because when these laws were put in place, the society was male-dominated and therefore it favours men. These interpretations completely degrade women and they can not continue being discriminated in this era (Barazangi 2004).
Mohammed Arkoun feels that contrary to the past beliefs that aspects of western culture should be removed from Islam, the Islamic and western worlds should be connected. He argues that Muslims should combine both the Islamic and western ways of thinking.
Muslims should not just understand their culture but also that of other societies. Arkoun offers a method of interpreting the Qur’an by making it open to several interpretations. Therefore, the Qur’an can be interpreted to fit in the modern context (Gunther 2004).
Discussion of topics related to sex openly is prohibited in Islam. However modern scholars argue that this should not be the case as these topics are discussed openly in the Qur’an. In addition some verses have been misinterpreted in the hadith to validate actions like the beating of women by their husbands (Kurzman 1998).
Contemporary scholars are against the idea of perceiving Islam as a political group. They are in favour of separating contemporary secular democracy with religious matters.
They believe that the teachings of the Qur’an were meant to be applied during the time when it was written and their application to the current world should be done sensibly. Traditional interpretations maintain that the Qur’an and the hadith authorize an Islamic government (Sonbol 1996).
Liberal Muslims are also against the traditional interpretation of the concept of Jihad as armed violence. They propose that this should be interpreted to mean an inner religious struggle. These Muslims advocate for non-violence and forbearance, and are open to peaceful solving of conflicts with other Islam groups, Christians, Jews, Hindus and other religions (Barlas 2006).
Contemporary Muslim scholars are also against the Islamizing of knowledge and coming up with divisions meant for Muslims, for instance divisions like the economics of Islam or the science of Islam. These scholars feel that the secular sources of knowledge are sufficient and there is no point in studying knowledge from religious perspectives.
Supporters of Islamizing knowledge propose that the knowledge that should be used by Muslims should have concepts of civilization and western culture eliminated from it. In addition, Islamic concepts should be infused in all branches of current knowledge (Lampe 1997).
Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that most of the traditional Qur’an hermeneutics are not applicable in the current world. Most of the interpreters of the Qur’an teachings either misinterpreted or included their own opinions in the interpretations. Moreover some of the laws derived from those teachings have no place in the current setting.
This has compelled modern scholars to try and come up with more applicable hermeneutics of the Qur’an which suit the modern Muslim. These scholars are faced with a very daunting task as they are challenging the beliefs that Muslims have been espousing for a very long time. All the same, there is a need for the Muslims to transform their views on several issues, lest they will lag behind in development.
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Home Delivery of Medication Research Paper online essay help: online essay help
Executive Summary This paper is a feasibility study to evaluate the dynamics associated with setting up Empire Home Delivery services in the US market. Empire Home Delivery Service is a hypothetical company that deals in the delivery of medication throughout the United States (US). This paper identifies that, the supply and distribution of medications is subject to intense regulations as the main deterrent to trade.
However, this paper notes that, Empire Home delivery services, has a lot of opportunities to explore in this market (home delivery of medication) because the market is vibrant and it has few participants. However, to succeed in this business, this paper observes that, Empire Home delivery service needs to have a well-distributed drug network that will be able to deliver medications whenever they are ordered.
This requirement emphasizes the need for the company to set up drug stores in various locations where it operates.
With such infrastructural network in place, this paper observes that, a vigorous online marketing campaign would be appropriate for Empire Home Delivery services to succeed because it will ensure that, the company reaches a wide audience at very minimal costs. These dynamics withstanding, this paper recommends that, Empire should commence business.
Problem Statement The medications supply market in the US has often experienced several operational problems. These problems are multifaceted, but the end-user (who is often the patient) is the one who suffers most. However, the drug supply market is not immune to market changes that happen in today’s world.
The general business environment has mainly changed because of shifts in consumer tastes, preferences and technological advancements (Madura, 2006). From this understanding, the home delivery business has picked up in many business segments such as food delivery, grocery delivery ( and the likes).
Major retail companies in the world, such as Wal-Mart and Tesco, have adopted the home delivery strategy for the supply of their goods and services. Tesco has especially specialized in the delivery of groceries through an online platform where orders are placed virtually. However, the drug market is not similar to the food market, though they share the same business model (home delivery of goods).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, both types of businesses aim to satisfy the same consumer needs. However, for a long time, many businesses have not ventured into the delivery of medications through the home delivery business model because of the sensitive nature of the drug market and the numerous legislations that surround it (Smith, 1991, p. 61).
Conversely, drug users have experienced tedious hassles of having to frequent hospitals and drug stores to buy drugs. This situation has created an environment where there is a lot of time wastage and manpower loss because people could use their time to do other productive things, instead of making frantic trips to hospitals and drug stores to buy basic medications.
Though this environment prevails, the drug market is unique to conventional markets because its end-users are normally not in a perfect physical condition to visit drug stores or hospitals to purchase drugs. Often, most consumers at the tail-end of the drug supply chain are patients who may be ailing from a certain condition, or who are not in the right physical state to drive or walk to drug stores to get their medication.
However, considering the dynamics of the current market, most of such patients have been forced to travel long distances to buy drugs (though their physical conditions may not allow them to do so). Sometimes, some patients have been forced to miss their dosages because they were not in a good position to purchase drugs (Madura, 2006).
Also, considering the fragile nature of sick patients; emergencies (which require a prompt administration of drugs) may turn out to be fatal experiences because patients may be unable to obtain drugs when they need them most.
This situation may be further worsened by a scenario where a patient stays alone and does not have a helper. Moreover, certain drug stores have strict operating hours that are not flexible to patients’ needs. These dynamics form the basis for the venture of Empire home delivery services into the medications supply market.
Project Business Requirement The success of home delivery businesses thrive on several factors. First, there needs to be a technical infrastructure that supports the ordering and placement of goods (Wysocki, 2010, p. 1). For instance, the earliest home delivery businesses started with the creation of the telecommunications infrastructure where customers ordered for goods by phoning home delivery companies.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Home Delivery of Medication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today’s business environment is also characterized by the same model of business but the internet has significantly changed the entire business landscape because most home delivery businesses rely on websites for ordering. This technological platform is cheaper and more effective for today’s home businesses because it is spontaneous, and many homes are currently connected to the internet.
Confirmations for orders may also be placed through the same platform and customers can be guaranteed that their goods will be delivered to their doorsteps. For the success of home delivery businesses to be realized, such technological infrastructures need to be in place.
However, even as Empire Home Delivery service strives to adopt this technological infrastructure, emphasis will be laid on ensuring this platform is secure for payments. A guarantee for secure payments will therefore be sought because payments will have to be made online.
More importantly, research studies show that, customers always prefer a simple and effective payment option for home delivery businesses and Empire intends to live up to this expectation (Wysocki, 2010, p. 1).
The delivery of medication through the home delivery business model is however prone to several legislative guidelines which normal businesses would not experience. The drug market is excessively regulated because it is a sensitive market that touches on human health. Existing drug regulations therefore try to uphold safety standards for the good health of the citizenry.
It is also important to note that, home delivery businesses are likely to infringe on the tight safeguards implemented to observe high safety standards of drugs.
The same situation has also been experienced in the supply of alcohol (through the home delivery model) because critics have observed that, a home-based business model (in the alcohol supply market) is likely to circumnavigate existing regulations which are meant to discourage under-age drinking (Fukumi, 2008, p. 72).
For instance, it would be simple for an underage teenager to order alcohol to his (or her) residence, thereby bypassing the requirement to produce an identification card for alcohol purchasing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Home Delivery of Medication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The same principle applies to the drug market because some drugs are considered to be highly addictive and certain consumers may want to abuse them. Such is the situation observed in the sale of prescription drugs because people tend to abuse such drugs for non-medical reasons (Fukumi, 2008, p. 72).
Somewhat, this observation has also been made regarding the use of marijuana because it is recommend for medical use (in certain cases, such as, the treatment of cancer). However, some people have abused such regulatory provisions and consequently ordered marijuana for non-medical use (Fukumi, 2008, p. 72). Considering such dynamics, the home delivery of medications is subject to a lot of regulations.
Nonetheless, these regulations cannot be overlooked. For home delivery businesses (engaged in medical supplies) to succeed, there ought to be a keen compliance to such regulations.
Compliance to such regulations may mean that, some medications may be exempted from the array of products to be delivered because there may not be an existing legislation that governs the distribution of the drugs (in the context of the home delivery business).
Description of Products and Services The supply of medication through the home delivery model is expected to be done through an online platform. Medications that require a doctor’s prescription will not be sold through this business model. The online sales strategy will be able to transcend the geographical boundaries that conventional drug stores are limited to.
This business model will also be able to capitalize on the opportunities that technology provides the healthcare sector because Empire Home delivery services will be able to market its products to new market bases, which do not fall within the limitations of conventional drug supply systems (Gay, 2007).
Through this online business model, Empire will be able to realize a positive growth projection because drug users will be able to gain access to drugs from the convenience of their homes. There will not be any significant changes to Empire’s product offing because its array of products is strongly limited by existing legislations. Therefore, any product modifications will have to be excluded from the context of this study.
Marketing Strategy Empire’s marketing strategy will be based on online techniques, where virtual marketing tools such as, e mail listings, promotional advertisements (and the likes) will be used to improve customer loyalty and seek the participation of potential customers (Gay, 2007).
Since Empire home delivery service is a new company, it is crucial to acknowledge that, it will not have the capacity to develop an internal expertise pool that is able to develop a sophisticated technological infrastructure to handle payments, orders, feedbacks, marketing services and the likes.
Consequently, this paper proposes that, such services will be outsourced to an internal market place provider who can design such a technological platform. Though this process will be outsourced, it is crucial to understand that, the technology already exists, and since it has been tested in other home delivery companies, the risks associated with its implementation will be significantly reduced (Gay, 2007, p. 2).
Regardless of the sophistication of its marketing tools, Empire home delivery services still needs to differentiate itself in the market. To do so, Empire should aim to personalize its products and services through the development of new product packaging (Meyerson, 2005, p. 23).
Currently, many medical supply companies operating the home delivery business do not personalize their packaging, and Empire aims to capitalize on this opportunity.
Empire will also adopt an e mailing list to support its online marketing strategy because it will use this platform to send product promotions, sales advertisements and similar marketing tools that complement the company’s marketing strategy. This sale strategy will not be designed to sell medications but rather, to market the company to customers (Meyerson, 2005, p. 23).
Costs will be an integral factor to be considered in the formulation and implementation of Empire’s marketing strategies. Since most of the company’s marketing strategies are electronic, minimal costs are likely to be incurred. The only (relatively) expensive marketing strategy will be the direct mailing strategy.
Nonetheless, in spite of these marketing costs, Empire expects to realize high returns from the same marketing campaigns. However, if an effective marketing strategy is to be realized, the working staff needs to be properly trained. The training costs will be considered as part of the company’s start-up costs.
Product/Service Market The market for medications has always existed since the existence of human science. The pharmaceutical industry is perceived to be a lucrative industry of the 21st century because of the surge in terminal illnesses and increased consumer purchasing power (Fulco, 1995).
For instance, the pharmaceutical industry is known to have low overheads of operation and a high return on investments. The high return on investments has been a common feature of the pharmaceutical industry, for a long time. For instance, among the fortune 500 companies, the pharmaceutical industry was estimated to rake more returns than the combined median of all the existing companies within the category (Fulco, 1995).
For example, during the late 80s period, statistics showed that, new drugs introduced during the period raked in close to $36 million in revenue after tax deductions. This profit margin was estimated to be two to three percent more than what other industries projected, even after considering the risks of researching and developing the new drugs (Fulco, 1995).
The market for home delivery medication is not crowded. However jurisdiction laws seem to affect the extent which independent companies can operate. The most established companies that engage in the trade (delivery of medications) include RX America, and Direct RX (Critser, 2007). Other companies that engage in the trade (delivery of medications) do not specialize in the exclusive delivery of medications.
They include the delivery of other goods such as groceries, meals and the likes. This last group of competitors is not going to be a threat to Empire Home Delivery services because they do not specialize in the delivery of medications (per se). Adopting a simpler and convenient platform for ordering and delivering service is going to be relied on as the main strategy for outperforming the competition.
This strategy will be backed by an online marketing strategy that is expected to increase the customer pool. Empire should ensure its products are distributed to different customer locations from the nearest store location, thereby ensuring timely shipping and the avoidance of bureaucracies and inconveniencies of operating one store.
The operation of several drug locations will be a costly affair (in terms of maintenance and initial setup costs) but considering the future company projections, the establishment of several outlets is still going to be a viable strategy.
Success is expected to be realized from the stocking of adequate inventories and the realization of customer satisfaction because Empire anticipates that repeated purchases and word-of-mouth marketing will sustain the company’s sales.
Organization and Staffing Empire’s focus on online marketing as its major marketing tool is expected to be independent from the company’s structural makeup. Nonetheless, the company needs to employ more staff if it intends to achieve its objectives (especially regarding customer satisfaction). A staff of 50 people will be appropriate in the early stages of the company’s lifecycle.
The main position to be filled will be the online sales manager, where directions regarding existing (and upcoming) sales opportunities will be formulated. The second (main) position to be filled will be the online marketing manager.
This office is expected to undertake a comprehensive market research that includes the identification of target markets and the identification of workable strategies to satisfy the needs of such target markets. Both positions require a direct reporting to the director of marketing.
Strategic Management The anticipated financial breakdown for setting up Empire home delivery service is explained in the following table.
Measure Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four Year Five Five-Year Total Sales projections $350,000 $425,000 $500,000 $650,000 $800,000 $2,725,000 Staffing Costs $160,000 $170,000 $200,000 $235,000 $255,000 $1,020,000 Projected Material, Shipping, Insurance Costs $42,000 $58,000 $70,000 $78,000 $84,000 $332,000 Training for Sales and Marketing Staff $75,000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $75,000 Website Maintenance $22,000 $25,000 $30,000 $35,000 $40,000 $152,000 Designing, Building and Implementation of Online Store $100,000 $0 $0 $0 $0 $100,000 Cost of purchasing Transport machinery and equipment $399,000 $253,000 $300,000 $348,000 $379,000 $1,679,000 Cash Inflow -$49,000 $172,000 $200,000 $302,000 $421,000 $1,046,000 This table accounts for all aspects of the initial operating and setup costs. However, these costs are subject to several assumptions including a constant store sales projection, and a completion of operating expenses with one year (there should be no balances carried forwards or backdating).
Findings and Recommendations After weighing the findings of this feasibility study, this paper recommends that, Empire should commence business because is stands a good chance of succeeding. This recommendation is based on certain key findings. On the technical front, this paper notes that, Empire should use new technology to minimize the severity of projected operational risks.
Secondly, this paper observes that, though the medical supply market is heavily regulated, there are immense opportunities to exploit the distribution of legal and easily accessible medications. Sensitive prescriptions will therefore not be included in the group of products to be distributed.
This paper also identifies that, the home delivery of medications is not a very competitive market and Empire stands a good chance of succeeding because there is more incentive for investments in this regard.
However, considering the minimal competition that exists in the market, there is a strong need for Empire to differentiate its products and services. Through personalization of the products’ packaging and a sensitive “customer care” framework, Empire will be able to differentiate itself from other market participants.
Through this feasibility study, this paper acknowledges that, an online marketing strategy will be most appropriate for Empire because it poses several advantages to the company. First, the company will be able to reach more people at a minimal cost. Secondly, Empire will be able to gain access to markets that it would otherwise not have accessed using conventional marketing techniques.
Also, through the financial projections table, this paper identifies that; Empire will be able to break-even during its second year of operation. Moreover, from the paper’s financial projections, this paper identifies that; Empire will be able to achieve high market success if it maintains an active in-store and online presence where it can be able to communicate with its customers and amicably deliver medication to them.
References Critser, G. (2007). Generation Rx: How Prescription Drugs Are Altering American Lives, Minds, and Bodies. Michigan: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Fukumi, S. (2008). Cocaine Trafficking In Latin America: EU and US Policy Responses. New York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Fulco, C. (1995). Development of Medications for the Treatment of Opiate And Cocaine Addictions: Issues for the Government and Private Sector. New York: National Academies Press.
Gay, R. (2007). Online Marketing: A Customer-Led Approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Madura, J. (2006). Introduction to Business. London: Cengage Learning.
Meyerson, M. (2005). Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. New York: Kaplan Publishing.
Smith, M. (1991). Pharmaceutical Marketing: Strategy and Cases. London: Routledge.
Wysocki, R. (2010). Effective Project Management: Traditional, Adaptive, Extreme. London: John Wiley
Sports Event Management Dissertation college admission essay help
Introduction Within the past decade there has been an unprecedented demand to host major sporting events by several of the world’s most prominent cities. This is due to such events fulfilling certain multi-leveled economic, social and political agendas in the form of a much improved local economy and greater community pride over hosting the event, which results in more prominence for local government officials (Emery, 2009: 158).
On the other hand based on the work of Emery (2009) sporting events are seen as rife with mismanagement with occurrences such as ticketing problems, crowd problems, financial problems and other such situations that detract from the overall success of the event (Emery, 2009: 159 – 160).
It is based on this that this literature review section will explore effective and efficient methods of sports management involving the tripartite relationship of sport, media and event funders/personnel in order to show what is necessary to successfully manage a major sporting event.
Furthermore, this section will also aim to explore aspects of sports management related to its necessity, challenges to its implementation, logistical features necessary as well as what goes into its overall planning and conceptualization.
It is expected that by the end of this section readers will be able to identify: success factors related effective sports management, understand aspects related to its logistical implementation as well as be able to understand the underlying management structure that is present at any major sporting event.
Research Method For this particular paper, what will be utilized is an ethnographic approach wherein a descriptive report will be created through the use of various observational techniques along with a range of approaches as determined by the researcher. The benefit of such an approach is in its ability to provide a holistic view of the topic being studied along with an emphasis on content and an understanding of the work setting involved.
It is a qualitative method of research that places an emphasis on learning and understanding how particular phenomena, which is reflected in the knowledge and systems developed in a particular field of study result in guiding influences towards a particular group, culture or practice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The data collection methods normally utilized in this form of research method usually utilizes questionnaires, interviews and observational data. While for this section academic journals will be utilized other sections will use other methods of data collection as determined by the ethnographic approach.
The very essence of this particular type of research method is that it focuses on describing the nature of the subject/topic being studied and as such its goal is to create a portrait so to speak of the informants, community or subject that is at the focus of the study.
It must be noted though, that the ethnographic approach stipulates that during the process of data collection the researcher should not impose their own bias on the data and as such particular emphasis is placed on the reliability of observed data backed up by relevant academic literature.
Project Management Project management can be described as a discipline wherein the five processes of initiation, planning, executing, controlling and closing come together in order to achieve a specific goal (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 107). In a way, it can be seen as an effective means of organizing people, managing resources and planning outcomes so as to meet the requirement of a specific project.
What must be understood though is that project management differs greatly from business management due to business operations being repetitive and permanent in nature whereas projects are often temporary and differ in content on a case by case basis.
Examples of project management endeavors can be seen in the promotion of a particular product utilizing a new branding strategy, the creation of a new product line for a company or actions which focus on creating a greater sense of public awareness of the company’s adherence to Corporate Social Responsibility (i.e., charity work or replacing new equipment to comply with environmental regulations).
It must also be noted that project management is often constrained by factors related to scope, time and cost and as such it is the goal of all project managers to implement a process that takes these limitations into consideration in order to create a high-quality outcome that fits within such constraints.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Sports Event Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In summary, it can be stated that project management is a step by step procedure utilized in order to accomplish a goal within the scope, time and cost limitations imposed upon the process being implemented by the project manager.
Event Management The discipline of event management came about as direct result of the proliferation of large and small events occurring at the local level and the need to implement proper management procedures to ensure their success (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 100).
On the other hand, Adams and Thomas (2005) note that as a professional discipline events management is still in its infancy and state that “there is no overarching process drawing all the different functions or activities of event management together despite the proliferation of textbooks, trade publications and community programs” (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 100).
Despite this, the event industry is still one of the largest employers in the world and actually contributes towards positive economic impacts for local communities.
What must be understood is that the way in which an organization chooses to handle a particular event is known as events management and is composed of organizational objectives spanning factors such as: organizing funding, managing staff, assigning roles and responsibilities, marketing and public relations, ticketing, security, etc. (Kose, Argan and Argan, 2011: 2)
As Kose, Argan and Argan (2011) state “The linkages between the various departments within the organization required to handle events and the flow of this information between them is the focus of event management” (Kose, Argan and Argan, 2011: 2).
It is based on this that the practice of events management can be summarized as a way in which organizations implement guiding practices so as to influence the flow of activities, events and people within a particular venue to ensure smooth methods of operation and a successful climate for socialization, presentation and observation.
Relations between Project management and Event management As the number, size and complexity of special events have increased within the past three decades it has become increasingly apparent that proper management and planning efforts are needed in order to make such events a success. In fact, it is not uncommon for business events, such as professional conferences, to attract 5,000 or more attendees with sporting events drawing in people by the thousands as well.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sports Event Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This creates simultaneous problems in the form of crowd and traffic control, proper scheduling, ticketing and overall organization, which needs to be addressed otherwise the entire event will descend into chaos.
While the discipline of event management has been utilized as of late to address this need the fact still remains that it is still in the process of developing a sufficient body of knowledge to be recognized as a profession. As Adams and Thomas (2005) indicate there is a need for an overarching process in its development and as such this is where the discipline of project management enters the picture.
By utilizing the body of knowledge of project management as a guide for development the field of event management has quickly developed into a profession by using the project management model as the basis for its management practices.
Adams and Thomas (2005) pursue this particular line of reasoning by indicating that while special events form an industry-specific group the fact still remains that they are still projects and function as projects (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 113).
In fact, Adams and Thomas (2005) compare special event management practices as being derived from project management practices with components currently utilized in event processes being a mixture of both project management and event management disciplines (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 111).
Further evidence of this can be seen in a comparison of the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) with that of the special events management practices from the work of O’Toole examined by Adams and Thomas (2005).
PMBOK defines an average project life cycle as consisting of the following five processes: “an initiation process which authorizes the project or plan, a planning process that defines and refines objectives which allows the best of alternative courses of action to be attained, an executing process involves carrying out the plan using the resources allocated, a controlling process which monitors and measures project progress regularly to ensure appropriate corrective action can be taken when necessary, and a closing process which involves a formal acceptance of project completion and the termination of any contracts” (Adams and Thomas, 2005: 107).
In comparison 6 of the 13 special event management processes consisting of: scope, time, communication, human resources, risk and procurement are virtually identical to the project management knowledge areas indicated in PMBOK.
Not only that the seven other event management processes describe by O’Toole which were examined by Adams and Thomas (2005) comprising of: finance, design, stakeholder, site choice, sponsorship, marketing and deadline while not identical to PMBOK knowledge areas can actually be found within several existing PMBOK processes (Adams and Thomas, 2004: 112).
It is based on this that it can be seen the relationship between project management and event management is a co-relational one wherein the processes and methods evident in event management today are based of the knowledge base created by project management.
This was done in order to fulfill the overarching process stated by Adams and Thomas (2005) as a necessity in order to help guide and develop the body of knowledge utilized by events management in making itself into a valid profession.
Sport Event Management The discipline of sports event management came about as a direct result of the need to employ proper organizational and management skills for events attended by thousands, viewed by millions and the logistical complications that arise with having to ensure that the sporting event begins and ends on schedule.
As described by Chadwhick (2009) sports management can actually be considered quite different from mainstream management practices due to the element of uncertainty surrounding particular sporting events (Chadwick, 2009: 169).
No manager can accurately predict which team may win an event, what the crowd reaction will be or what possible problems may arise as a direct result of thousands of people being gathered within a single location.
It is based on this that sport event management focuses on creating a logistical management structure whereby the factors that can be addressed such as event management, crowd logistics and event preparation can be achieved effectively and efficiently so as to minimize the amount of problems that may possibly occur (Appelbaum, Adeland and Harris, 2005: 69 – 82).
What must be understood though is that proper sports event management should not be considered as merely being isolated to within the confines of the event itself rather community partnerships in holding particular events are equally as important so as to ensure proper event management.
From the perspective of Reverte and Izard (2011) social capital (S.C.), which refers to the stocks of social trust, norms and networks which people may access to solve joint problems, is a necessary aspect of proper event management (Reverte and Izard, 2011: 37).
They build up on this argument by indicating that S.C. generates civic engagement and allows individual resources to be transformed into collective attributes which enables members of a local community to cooperate resulting in shared trust, cohesive actions and the creation of permanent relationship networks which reinforce mutual benefits among the members of a community (Reverte and Izard, 2011: 38).
By utilizing this sport event management creates a beneficial working relationship with members of the local community resulting in better organizational performance and efficiency of operations as compared to a purely event-oriented management style.
Why we need sport events Economic Impact
Allmers and Maennig (2009) in their examination of the economic impacts of the FIFA Soccer World Cups in their respective host cities showed that while sporting events delivered a certain amount of excitement and media exposure there is usually a positive return of investment associated with cities hosting such events (Allmers and Maennig, 2009: 500).
For example, when Allmers and Maennig (2009) examined the economic impact of the FIFA World Soccer Cup in Germany from 2000 to 2008 it showed a dramatic increase in the number of overnight stays by foreign tourists by at least 1.1 million.
In fact, surveys conducted by the World Cup during the event revealed that tourists, both local and international, spent on average 6.0 to 11.4 days in Germany during the World Cup season (Allmers and Maennig, 2009: 502).
The economic impact of the amount of visitors takes the form of increased sales revenue, more jobs generated as well as greater international media exposure which translates into the potential for more foreign tourists in the future (Taks, Kessene, Chalip, Green, Martyn, 2011: 187 – 201).
Aside from having a positive economic impact on local communities Schulenkorf (2009) reveals that sporting events actually also have a positive social impact. As Schulenkorf (2009) explains, societies that were previously divided due to ethnic or religious differences were actually brought together as a direct result of sporting events being held in their city or region.
In a sense, sporting events augment the normal patterns of behavior of divisive communities by establishing a common social identity which creates a positive impact on general living conditions of people living within that particular area that used to be rife with ethnic and religious conflict (Schulenkorf, 2009: 121).
Other positive social impacts described by Schulenkorf (2009) come in the form of socio-cultural experiences by visitors to the event, which in turn helps to promote cultural exchange and greater foreign tourism to the area.
Challenges on Sport Event Management Challenges to sport event management, though numerous, can actually be divided into two distinct categories namely: organizing the event itself and managing the sport structure or venue in which it is held.
As Ulfik and Nowak (2009) indicate in their study examining main threats evident during big sporting events effective management of sport structures actually entails a far different organizational nature as compared to the challenges of organizing the sporting event that is to be held in it (Ulfik and Nowak, 2009: 902).
This is due to the fact that on average major sports stadiums can hold 53,000 to 78,000 people depending on the event in question resulting in possibly thousands of people rushing into limited entrances in order to get to their seats or thousands of people rushing out as soon as the event is over (Ulfik and Nowak, 2009: 903).
Not only that there are logistical aspects to take into consideration such as proper ticketing and registering, monitoring crowd flows through particular entrances, ensuring that there are enough restrooms or portable toilets for the crowds to use not to mention ensuring that no brawls or pre or post-match fights occur between fans of opposing teams.
There are also issues related to security that should be taken into consideration, such as the possibility of hidden weapons, bombs or even the possibility of terrorism. It is this and other factors that present numerous challenges for properly managing a sports structure or venue during a special sporting event.
On the other end of the spectrum exists challenges related to successfully organizing and managing the sports event itself. These challenges come in the form of proper logistics involving the scheduling of events, ensuring that equipment is delivered on time, making sure that participants are properly attended to, integrating event planning with proper media coverage, as well as a variety of other concerns to numerous to cite.
Based off the work of Minis, Paraschi and Tzimourtas (2006) all challenges involving proper organization of a sporting event such as the Olympics can be placed into three distinct categories:
external clients – this refers to the media, the sports committees, local government etc.
functional areas – this refers to the areas where the events will actually take place
the logistics of the Olympic venues – refers to proper crowd control, scheduling as well as other similar concerns (Minis, Paraschi and Tzimourtas, 2006: 622).
It is only when such factors are adequately addressed that sporting event can actually be called a success.
Sport Event Management success factors Introduction
As the number of sporting events has grown within the past two decades it becomes necessary to determine what aspects define a successful sporting event and how such aspects might be utilized in planning session of future sporting events so as to ensure their success as well.
It is based on this that this section explores the various sports management success factors and how they interrelate in order to create a truly effective method of management that is able to make an event a success.
As such this section will examine the correlation between proper planning, the implementation of logistics, the proper use of venues and resources as well as various other factors that help to facilitate the creation of a proper organizational structure.
It is expect that by the end of this reading readers will be able to determine how particular practices are implemented and how they themselves can utilize such practices in order to create their own methods of proper methods of sports management.
Understanding of the philosophy surrounding the events
All events have some form of underlying philosophy that are behind their inception.
For example, business conferences highlighting entrepreneurship have the underlying philosophy of encouraging the development of new business while sporting events on the other hand such as soccer, basketball, tennis or the Olympics have philosophies ranging from the spirit of fair play and competition to man overcoming his limitations and achieving the near impossible.
One study by Schulenkorf (2009) presented the social utility of sports events and how they contribute to greater social cohesion and this becomes their underlying philosophy (Schulenkorf, 2009: 120 -122).
The importance of understanding the philosophy surrounding event is based on the need to organize and implement management and promotion structures that highlight this specific philosophy and portray it to local audiences and international viewers alike since it is only through this that a sporting event gains a greater degree of importance and meaning behind it merely being a competition.
Understanding participant expectations
Based on the work of Herstein and Jaffe (2008) participants in sporting events can be divided into two main categories each with its own unique set of expectations:
Event participants – the main purpose of this particular group is to participate in the event thus their expectation is that the sporting event and category they’re in is properly organized, scheduled and is set to the standards of their particular sport.
Event Spectators – for this particular group their primary purpose is to watch the event thus their expectations are focused more towards proper seating arrangement, crowd control, hassle-free ticketing, clear facilities, visible security in the form of guards, proper restrooms and the presence of concession stands if they feel hungry in anyway.
As Hernstein and Jaffe (2008) explain proper management of any sporting event is not limited to just ensuring that the event is underway it also means that event managers need to ensure that all the needs of participants and spectators are met since they are the primary “consumers” so to speak and it is important for any manager to ensure that consumers are satisfied with a product or service (Herstein and Jaffe, 2008: 36-40).
Establishment of SMART objectives/organizational goals
SMART objectives for an organization can be defined as (S)specific, (M)measurable, (A)attainable, (R)relevant, and (T)time-bound. They form the core of what will be organizations overall plan for a specific event and as such are used as guide to ensure proper compliance with the events overall organizational goals. It must also be noted that aside from acting as a guide SMART objectives also act as limiters of actions.
They prevent management practices that veer away from the established organizational plan of the organization and as such help to prevent actions that could be considered wasteful, time-consuming or detrimental towards the effective implementation of the end goal (Te and Ye, 2011: 143 – 145).
Based on this it is important to first establish SMART objectives before planning out management practices logistical structures so as to ensure that there is an underlying structure to follow when planning out the event.
Establishing Event organization structure
For sporting events such as basketball, baseball, or tennis a common tournament format utilized is the elimination-style wherein winners play other winners until a final champion is decided for a particular competition.
In the case of sporting events such as the Olympics wherein events such as the javelin throw, hammer toss, 10-meter sprint and gymnastics individuals are measured by individual skill and merit instead of being placed into a tournament style of play.
In either case, it is necessary to establish a proper event organization structure in order to examine the number of entries into particular events and schedule a specific number of draws for the limited amount of playing surface.
For this a Decision Support System (DSS) is necessary in order to develop a proper tournament schematic of events and create an efficient and organized structure for the events occurring at multiple venues at different times (Kostuk, 1997: 183 – 190).
While there are numerous available software models to choose from the fact remains that such a system is necessary in order to help organize large scale sports events occurring simultaneously in one location.
Proper financial planning/ budgeting
When the 2007 Formula One Grand Prix was held in Singapore numerous logistical challenges appeared, first and foremost among them were the inherent costs associated with the event which were estimated at US$ 103 million (Henderson, Foo, Lim, and Yip, 2010: 60 – 71).
The success of sporting events such as the Formula One Grand Prix is not only measured by positive public perception regarding the event itself but also by the profit and positive economic gain achieved (Emerald Group, 2010: 9 – 13). If an event costs more than what was brought in it cannot be considered successful at all.
Thus proper financial planning/ budgeting in the case of sporting events needs to take into account budget allocations for the venue, staff expenses, equipment expenses, media and marketing expenses as well as miscellaneous costs that may appear (Deery and Jago. 2010: 8-11).
One way in which proper financial planning and budgeting can be achieved is through cooperation with public and private entities in order to share the cost of event in exchange for concessions regarding sponsorships, profits and other benefits for the event.
Proper logistic operation
In managing a sports event it necessary to implement proper methods of logistical operation so as to deal with concerns related to administration of the event and facilities, local community relation and finally media and marketing (Nichols and Ojala, 2009: 369 – 375).
In the case of sporting events logistics takes the form of practices that help to streamline operations in such a way that everything is properly scheduled, people know their tasks, adequate resources have been allocated to the appropriate sections and there is an underlying support structure in place so as to help mitigate any problems that may arise (Nichols and Ojala, 2009: 369 – 375).
What must be understood is that without proper logistical methods in place no matter how good a plan is made at the inception of the event it will be rendered useless without logistical practices involving people, resources and venue administration in place to help both guides and limit actions as they are performed across a variety of different aspects of the event.
Good infrastructure development and Management
One of the major problems faced with managing a major sporting event such as Olympics is tendency to add more resources, personnel or complications than is necessary for the event to properly succeed.
Doolen and Worley (N.I.) explain in their examination of contemporary methods of management infrastructures that the utilization of the “Kaizen event” namely the reduction of material, labor, time, and space which can actually be equated into the term “lean performance” actually results in improved performance in several industries (Doolen and Worley, N.I.: 1).
With Kaizen events focusing on structured improvement to improve technical performance of targeted work areas this enables the creation of far more effective means of operation and management and thus can be a viable method to be implemented in the current sports event management structure so as to improve performance while reducing costs related to excess resources and personnel.
Development of the plan
When creating the initial outline of a plan to manage a particular sporting event it is necessary to take into account multiple factors such as cost, venues, staffing, marketing and media as well as other aspects related to the efficient and effective management of the event.
Studies such as those by Ziakas and Costa (2010) suggest utilizing both the social capital within a given location as well as the host community’s event portfolio to attain the necessary network connections to make an event a success. Social capital at this point acts as a way of creating a cooperative collaboration with members of the local community to facilitate the effective allocation of resources and plans to ensure the event goes smoothly.
The event portfolio, on the other hand, acts as system assembling different event stakeholders into network that serves multiple purposes so as implement joint strategies to achieve specific ends (Ziakas and Costa, 2010: 1 – 6).
This means that multiple events occurring at the same local venue at differing times can actually confer to create a cooperative network to make each of their events a success through resource and contact collaboration. By utilizing these intial steps the planning of an event can go smoothly with potentially few problems occurring.
Professional working teams
As evidenced by the study of Celuch and Davidson (2009) human resources are a vital part of any major event to be implemented since they represent the skills, expertise, creativity and professionalism to make an event a success (Celuch and Davidson, 2009: 241).
In this regard the creation of professional working teams of such individuals is necessary to handle the administrative, marketing, venue and media-related aspects of any major event to be created.
Task delegation is an important facilitator of effective and efficient operational procedure since without it operational capacities tend to mix resulting in confusion regarding pertinent instructions, relevant and irrelevant activities, as well as general confusion regarding who is responsible for what, when and how (Ogden and McCorriston,2007: 319 – 325).
It is due to this that individuals responsible for the creation of the event need to separated and delegated into prospective teams so as to avoid any foreseeable logistical dilemmas and ensure that operations run smoothly.
Proper marketing and media plan
For any major sporting event it is crucial to develop local support due to possible resident opposition playing a detrimental role in creating or even maintaining proper functions once the event is underway.
Thus from the perspective of Ritchie, Shipway and Chien (2010) proper marketing and media planning should not only encompass promotion of the sporting event as a means of drawing in spectators and allowing millions around the world to watch it but it should also encompass creating local support in order to facilitate positive relations in terms of relaying how the event is a boon for the local community (Ritchie, Shipway and Chien, 2010: 203).
Through their study of the local population for the 2012 Olympics it was revealed by Ritchie, Shipway and Chien (2010) that media portrayal of the event as well as progressive local marketing acted as effective tools for changing local perceptions and as such should be utilized in all sporting events as a means of gaining local support.
The term “atmospherics” refers to the way in which commercial spaces are designed, which take into account a consumer’s response to the structure in terms of the way it looks, it amenities, its iconography, imagery, etc. For sports event management, this takes on the meaning of the aesthetics of the event location and the way in which it affects the mood of the spectators and participants alike.
For instance, in the study of Hsu (2010) lighting quality was seen as an important aspect of the visual perception of audiences, which contributed to the overall success of a sporting event (Hsu, 2010: 693 – 699). Poor lighting affected the visual representation of events as they occurred and actually detracted from audience satisfaction of a particular sporting event.
What must be understood is that people are influenced by the visual cues they perceive and as such this affects their moods, behaviors and emotions towards a particular venue. Thus it becomes of paramount importance that from aesthetic perspective sporting event venues should be pleasing to the eye in the form of eye-catching and exciting colors and displays so as to appeal to the need for visual stimulation by audiences.
Local political support is a necessary factor in properly setting up any major sporting event within a country. As evidenced by the work of Spyropoulos (2004), which examined the connection between politics and sporting events it was seen in the case of Greece leading up to the 2004 Summer Olympics that political support was necessary in even getting the necessary structures underway.
What must be understood is that a major sporting event such as the summer Olympics requires the construction of necessary facilities, the establishment of proper management structures in order to deal with the influx of visitors and their effect on local traffic arteries and public transportation, proper funding as well as several other factors necessary to make any major sporting event a success (Spyropoulos, 2004:74- 84).
It is due to this that local political support is necessary to provide the necessary structures, funding and support in order to make sure that a major sporting event can become a success.
Adhering to the set procedures/protocol
Once the proper plans and organizational structures have been implemented it becomes necessary to ensure that there is proper compliance to set procedures and protocols established (N.I., N.I.: 1- 8).
The reason behind this is simple, if left to their own devices each part of the organizational structure may implement either conflicting schedules, implement overlapping events, and create general chaos in what was originally a fairly well-organized management structure.
Taking such factors into consideration it is necessary for any successful sports event management team to ensure compliance to all protocols and procedures by implementing stringent quality checks and follow-ups to make sure that all is what it should be (N.I., N.I.: 1- 8).
It is only by doing so that a truly effective and efficient system can work properly without people getting in the way of themselves or creating conflicting self-created procedures that would “throw a wrench” into efficiency created.
Proper risk management
Proper risk management in the case of sports event management takes the form of ensuring that there is a sufficient level of logistical support to handle problems as they occur and deal with them as necessary (Kim, N.I.: 1 – 8). It is naive to think that all problems can be solved through proper planning and an efficient logistical structure.
A well-seasoned event manager would realize that problems occur not only during the event creation phase but during the event itself. It is based on this that is is important to implement a central logistical structure to observe the sporting event, find problems as they occur and implement fixes as soon as possible so as to prevent the problem from getting worse (Kim, N.I.: 1 – 8).
Examples of this can be seen in problems that may occur in sufficiently coordinating and controlling the crowd of people going in and out of the venue, the possibility of long lines at the restrooms or even unruly crowds during the event itself (Walker, Heere, Parent, and Drane 2010: 659 – 680). As such these present numerous risks to the event that need to be dealt with in order to ensure its success.
Conceptual understanding about successful management of sport event
Based on the various factors presented in can be seen that the successful management of a sporting event is based on minimizing challenges and risks that occur at the onset and during the event while ensuring that there is a sufficient logistical infrastructure in place in order to ensure proper organizational efficiency (Riggs, Epting, Hanky, and Knowles, 2011: 299 – 204).
It was seen that sports event management is not limited to dealing with creating the event alone but also needs to take into account positive relations with the local community in order to get any major sports event underway.
This involves having to implement marketing and media relations in order to portray the positive aspects of a sporting event and how it will not detrimentally impact members of the local community and in fact will be a boon to them.
Also, while it may be true that a sporting event does create a distinct positive economic impact with local businesses the fact remains that it should be profitable venture for the organizers as well.
Taking this into consideration it is often necessary to create links with local government and private companies to share in the burden of managing and initially funding the event so as to ensure that there is a sufficient monetary and organizational structure behind the event itself.
What must also be taken into consideration is the fact that a sports event can be considered as a form of project and as such it is constrained by factors related to scope, time and cost. As such taking such limitations into consideration it is necessary to implement an backbone logistical structure so as to ensure that there is an organized method behind the operations of the sports event management team.
This is done by first implementing SMART goals, creating a logistical overlay of what is necessary for each department, separating staff into individual teams and giving each team their own aspect of the event to be responsible for. By ensuring that each team complies with their given instruction this creates an effective means of ensuring that the sporting event can become a success.
On the other hand, it is also equally important to note that managing a sporting event is not limited to creating the event itself but ensuring that it has a positive impact on the participants and spectators as well. This involves implementing positive atmospherics during the event so as to create an effective visual stimulation for players and audiences a like.
Reference List Appelbaum, S, Adeland, E and Harris, J, 2005. Management of Sports Facilities: Stress and Terrorism Since 9/11. Management Research Review, 28, 69 – 82.
Chadwick, S, 2009. From outside lane to inside track: sport management research in the twenty-first century. Management Decision, 47, 191 – 203.
Celuch, K and Davidson, R, 2009. Human Resources in the Business Events Industry. International Perspectives of Festivals and Events, 1, 241 – 249.
Deery, M and Jago, L, 2010. Social impacts of events and the role of anti-social behaviour. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1, 8 – 28.
Emery, P, 2009. Past, present, future major sport event management practice: The practitioner perspective. Sport Management Review, 13, 158 – 170.
Farris, J and Van Aken, M, N.I. Longitudinal Analysis of Kaizen Event Effectiveness. Blacksburg, VA 24061: Virginia Tech, Oregon State University.
Henderson, J, Foo, K, Lim, H and Yip, S, 2010. Sports events and tourism: the Singapore Formula One Grand Prix. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1, 60 – 73.
Herstein, R and Jaffe, E, 2009. Sport hospitality as a business strategy. Journal of business strategy, 29, 36 – 43.
Hsu, C, 2010. The effects of lighting quality on visual perception at sports events: a managerial perspective. International Journal of Management, 27, 693 – 777.
Kim, J, N.I.. The worth of sport event sponsorship: an event study. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, N.I., 1 – 14.
Kose, H, Argan, M and Argan, M, N.I.. Special event management and event marketing: A case study of TKBL all star 2011 in Turkey. Journal of Management and Marketing Research Special event management, Page 1 Special event management and event marketing: A case study, N.I., 1 – 11.
Kostuk, K, 1997. A decision support system for a large, multi-event tournament. INFOR, 35, 183 – 196.
Minis, I, Paraschi, M and Tzimourtas, A, 2006. The design of logistics operations for the Olympic Games. International Journal of Physical Distribution
Migrants Services in Auburn Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Protecting refugees who have left their homes because of armed conflicts and abuses is among challenges facing the world. Australia, being among the international community members, has a responsibility of taking care of these refugees until the situation in their country is resolved.
For each 1000 inhabitant, Australia has about 1.1 refugees; this is overwhelming when it is compared to the United States with 6.2, Germany with 7, Syria with 75.5, UK with 8.4, Canada with 17.9 and Jordan with 84.4. Australia has major concerns on how it offers basic services to its refugees; this includes insecurity in housing and economic exclusion, complex situation in the provision of rental houses, among others.
This issue requires attention because refugees, as everyone else need safety, security and an environment that gives them determination. Also, as other refugees, refugees in Australia require special care because of the displacement, trauma and health issues they go through as they seek for refuge (Kelaher and Manderson, 2000).
There is a need for them to be close to community programs and support services that will help them live a normal life. Auburn is a location in Australia, with the majority of its inhabitants being refugees; this study will explore how services are offered to these immigrants in Auburn.
Literature Review Since the early 1940s, Australia has had a unique experience with more than five million people having settled in the country from other countries. Demographic research in Australia indicated that more than ninety percent of its population can trace their original countries with a minor exception of close to two percent, which is made up of Torres Strait islanders and Aborigines (Castles, 1992, p. 549).
According to Castles’ survey in 1992, immigration has remained a central point of concern for many leaders in Australia, and this is mainly attributed to the need for nation building and planning. He further noted that one out of five people in Australia is an immigrant with cities like Sydney and Melbourne being highly affected. As a result, Australia has become one of the most diverse countries in terms of cultural diversity (Murphy, 2011).
It embraces a myriad of identities from around the world including America, Asia and Africa. The question, which researchers have always tried to answer is the major cause of influx of people to Australia and how this movement impacts the country’s development. Are there any challenges encountered by service provides and immigrants in Australia?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Waxman, communication is considered as a major challenge for immigrants from non-English speaking nations. Commonly affected people are usually from Iraq, Afghanistan and Bosnia who mainly settled in Sydney (Waxman, 1998, p. 761).
His study further identified Afghans to have the highest level of English proficiency, a factor attributed to their longest period of time spent in the country as compared to their counterparts from Iraq and Bosnia. Language is known as a key communication tool which undermines many immigrants in Australia.
For those who are not proficient in the language, access to important information like health becomes a major problem. This is seen as a major challenge that faces new immigrants from the three mentioned countries.
Besides difficulties in accessing essential services, immigrants in Sydney and other cities in the country fit in the society with a lot of difficulties. With a considerable population of Australia speaking English, immigrants view it as an interaction barrier as a result of not being able to communicate with the host country (Dunn
Sabena Belgian World Airlines Case Study college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction Sabena Belgian World Airlines was started in 1923, headed by Carlos Van Rafelghem who later suffered a stroke in 1990, calling for a new leadership. Godfroid was later selected to head the airline and his industrial restructuring skills were seen as an added advantage. By this time, the airline had faced major challenges, including losing its monopoly in European routes.
Given the government’s unwillingness to support unprofitable airlines, the industry suffered significantly from unfair competition. However, due to its tendency to higher many citizens, Sabena Airline enjoyed government protection by covering its losses, with an aim of protecting employment.
As a result, this excess number of employees made the company to suffer from inefficiency. Until Godfroid took charge, the airline’s image had been tainted, thus the new leader had a huge task of bringing change and driving the company towards a competitive advantage.
Statement of the problem When Godfroid took over, the company faced some long-term problems that included:
Excess staff members who did not have the appropriate skills for their positions, as they were employed due to political reasons;
Competent leaders faced hindrance from unmotivated employees, hence unable to play their managerial role appropriately;
The company faced the problem of poor customer service and poor marketing requirements;
The management avoided direct communication with its employees;
Effective supervision was not carried out as a result of poor leadership, while management accountability was absent.
The company also experienced a stream of losses and the national debt was growing; therefore, Godfroid took over a company that was on the verge of bankruptcy.
Short-term problems included High fuel costs that resulted from the gulf crisis;
Passengers cancelled traveling plans due to the unstable conditions of fuel prices, hence resulting to low profits for the airline;
Low wages for the employees was evident, and due to the poor management, employees were hardly rewarded.
Poor management was evidenced by lack of clear job description and organization chart, resulting to lack of coordination. Godfroid had been put in a challenging position of achieving profitability and a competitive advantage by averting bankruptcy, and eliminating the mismatch between debt and equity.
Causes of the Problems The financial situation of Sabena continued to deteriorate, a situation that the Belgium government had to take control of for some time. The government had volunteered to absorb small losses until the company was stable enough, as long as the airline provided jobs for citizens; however, the airline could not handle the pressure and made significant losses by 1990, almost heading to bankruptcy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Primarily, appropriate recruitment and selection process was not followed, as most employees had been employed for political reasons other than qualifications.
Therefore, the skilled leaders ended up being frustrated, resulting to them quitting the company. According to Odden (2011, p.9), recruiting the right personnel for the right job is productive to the company; therefore, the highest performing organizations recruit and retain the most competent employees, as they improve organizational performance.
Therefore, the main reason for the quitting of competent leaders in Sabena Airlines was ineffective human resources, which results to lack of effective management of human capital.
According to Waltson, Gallagher
Organizational Behavior, Motivation and Conflict Management Essay college essay help near me
Organizational behavior is the analysis and application of information about the peoples’ actions in an organization (McCuddy, 2011). The purpose of organizational behavior is to build a healthier relationship by achieving human, social and organizational objectives (Romando, 2010).
Moreover, managers study the behavior of the organizations to understand how people are motivated because motivated employees are indispensable to a company triumph while unmotivated employees cause conflict (McCuddy, 2011).
Motivation is an internal drive that accounts for persistence of efforts at work, while motivation theory is the process that describes what triggers and directs human behavior (Romando, 2010). There are three categories of motivation theories and they include content, process and reinforcement theories (McCuddy, 2011).
Content theories focus on internal factors that direct a human behavior, process theories focus on the thoughts of people that direct their behavior while the reinforcement theories put an emphasis on controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences (Romando, 2010).
Content theories strive to satisfy the people needs and they include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, ERG theory, two-factor theory and acquired needs theory (Romando, 2010). Maslow’s theory has categorized needs into five levels in order of priority as physiological, safety, social esteem and self-actualization, while ERG theory has classified needs into existence, relatedness and growth needs (Romando, 2010).
Existence needs are the desire for physiological needs; relatedness needs are the desire for a good relationship while growth needs are the desire for personal development (Romando, 2010).
On the other hand, two-factor theory suggests that hygienic factors in workplace lead to job dissatisfaction and they include status, security, supervision and policies while motivator factors affect job satisfaction and they include achievement, growth, recognition and responsibility ( McCuddy, 2011). Moreover, acquired needs theory categorizes needs into achievement, affiliation and power needs (McCuddy, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an organization, managers strive to meet the needs of employees from physiological level going upwards because employees whose needs are satisfied are highly motivated to produce more ( McCuddy, 2011).
Additionally, a balance between hygienic and motivation factor promotes a conducive working environment (Romando, 2010). For instance, in an organization where the salary is high and employees are responsible for whatever they do productivity is high (Romando, 2010).
The process theories of motivation include Adam equity theory and Vroom expectancy theory (Romando, 2010). Equity theory outlines that people measure fairness of their work outcome in relation to others and besides, felt negative inequity is when an individual feels that he has received less than others in proportion to work input while the vice versa is felt positive inequity ( McCuddy, 2011).
Therefore, in order to motivate employees, a manager should deal with the equity comparison by recognizing that comparisons are inevitable, thus communicating a clear evaluation for any reward given (Romando, 2010). According to Vroom Expectancy theory, the motivation of a person is a function of valence, instrumentality and expectancy (Romando, 2010).
For instance, in an organization motivation is low in the absence of the three functions while it is high when valence is positive and expectancy and instrumentality are high (McCuddy, 2011). Therefore, managers should strive to have a positive valence and a high expectancy and instrumentality in order to motivate the employees.
Reinforcement theories of motivation include classical conditioning and operant conditioning (McCuddy, 2011). In classical conditioning, learning occurs through conditioned stimuli, while in operant conditioning learning is through consequences of behavior (Romando, 2010).
For instance, in classical conditioning an employee may hear his boss criticism and loose psyche for work and the same behavior is repeated every time the criticism is heard ( Romando, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Behavior, Motivation and Conflict Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, in operant conditioning, an employee may work overtime and get praise and as a result, he will be motivated to work overtime (McCuddy, 2011). Therefore, a manager should facilitate behavior that results in pleasant outcome because its repetition is possible, as the employees are motivated (McCuddy, 2011).
Proper management of conflict creates collaboration in the workplace while unmanaged conflict creates division therefore; managers need to be familiar with conflict management strategies used in the workplace (Heathfield, 2009). Conflict management strategies include avoidance, compromise, compete, accommodate and collaborate (Heathfield, 2009).
According to avoidance strategy, confrontation of the conflict does not take place and the conflict resolve on its own (McCuddy, 2011). On the other hand, compromise strategy involves considering the opinion of both parties and the solution sought is acceptable to both parties (Heathfield, 2009).
Furthermore, competition strategy entail meeting one’s own needs no matter the cost and it is a win and lose strategy that is important when the relationship with the other party is not significant (McCuddy, 2011).
Besides, accommodation is a strategy that allows the fulfillment of the other person needs at the expense of one’s own needs (Heathfield, 2009). Finally, collaboration strategy involves acknowledging the differences between both parties and finding a common solution (McCuddy, 2011).
Although the above conflict management strategies are important, collaboration and confrontation work best in the organization. This is because the two strategies involve both parties working together to find a solution (Heathfield, 2009). As a result, the solution reached is acceptable to both parties and this reduces the chances of occurrence of another conflict that can be due to dissatisfaction of one party (McCuddy, 2011).
References Heathfield, S. (2009). Workplace Conflict Resolution: People Management Tips. Journal of Management Studies , 43 (89), 117-123.
McCuddy, R. (2011). Organisational Behaviour and Motivation. Journal of Public Adminstration, Research and Theory , 345 (174), 179-190.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Behavior, Motivation and Conflict Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Romando, R. (2010). Motivation Theory in an Organisation. Journal of Management , 786 (46), 45-60.
The benefits through physical exercise for people with heart failure conditions Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Required Information to explain the report better
Introduction We all know about the benefits that can be accrued to our health through physical exercise. As such, people with health problems such as heart are no exception here. In their study, Tierney et al. explored how the personal beliefs of people with heart failure problems influence heir participation in physical exercise. Below is a citation for the study on the above topic carried out in the UK by Tierney and others. Tierney et al. (2011).
What influences physical activity in people with heart failure: A qualitative study International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48, 1234-1243. In their study, Tierney et al. focused on the characteristics of physical exercise within the group of people with heart failure conditions.
Such characteristics were based on the personal perceptions of heart failure patients on the importance/non importance of physical exercise as an important factor in improving their health condition. The above study is of significance since previous research on the same topic had avoided the element of personal attitudes and beliefs towards physical exercise.
In concluding their report, Tierney et al classified a number of factors that influence the behavior of people with heart failure conditions towards physical exercise as either intrinsic or external. Such factors shape the personal beliefs of people with heart failure conditions towards physical exercise; hence, affecting their participation in physical exercises as a result.
When the literature on related research was reviewed, it was noted that all of the previous research that had been done on the issue of physical activities for people with heart failure conditions had centered on observations made at heart rehabilitation centers.
Although there is literature review focusing on the opinions of people with heart failure (on their health condition), no research had been done on the perspectives of patients with heart failure conditions towards physical exercise. In this particular research report, all the researchers were academic professionals in the field of nursing and health from the UK.
The participants of this particular study comprised of 22 individuals (15 males) aged between 53 and 83 years living in the UK. So as to accommodate existing differences in gender, age and other factors, purposive sampling was used. The study above centered on three clinics for people with heart failure conditions in the UK.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Researchers used partly structured interviews to collect data for this particular study on the factors that affect physical activities for people with heart failure conditions. Research Interviews were conducted over the telephone. The purpose of the researcher at this stage was to obtain the personal views of participants on physical exercise as an element in promoting their health conditions.
In obtaining their results, researchers tried to identify the factors (based on personal beliefs) that cause participants to involve in physical exercise or not. The data that was obtained during the research enabled the researchers to conclude that both intrinsic and external factors played a role in influencing patients with heart problems to involve in physical exercise.
As it is normally the case, researchers obtained requisite permission to implement the above study from the relevant ethical committee. Moreover, caution was taken to withhold the information that was provided by the participating patients from their health providers; thus, efforts were made to withhold the identity of the participants as much as possible.
However, It remains arguable that based on the specific information that the participants had provided, It would not be difficult for health providers to map such information to a particular participant. On reviewing this particular study, I have learnt important information on research. First, I have acquainted with the steps and processes that one needs to follow when carrying out a research.
It is therefore necessary for a researcher to develop a comprehensive guide to all the steps that are required to complete a research. Depending on what a researcher is intending to achieve, he/she is required to design a research plan in accordance with the research needs.
For example, if a researcher is unable to target a big proportion of the population under study, then, he may need to adopt qualitative research as opposed to quantitative research. Likewise, data collection methods need to corroborate with available date technique.
Depending on what one intends to achieve, an appropriate research design needs to be adopted. It is particularly important for one to obtain and acquaint with relevant and credible research that has been done by previous researches in literature review.
We will write a custom Essay on The benefits through physical exercise for people with heart failure conditions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from mastering important aspects in the are of study, such a direction of studying literature reviews can help one to focus on areas that have not been covered by previous researches (as it was done in this particular study). Issues that went well
The above research was fruitful in bringing out important factors (classified as either intrinsic or external) that influence patients with heart failure conditions to involve in physical exercises. In adopting qualitative research, the research was helpful in exploding and detailing the opinions of the participants on the issues that have been described above.
Since the overall idea was to obtain the personal perspectives of participants on physical exercise, it was helpful to focus in detail on a small sample of 22 participants so as to obtain quality results. Although data was collected from a relatively small sample (22 individuals), care was taken to incorporate a diverse group of participants in terms of age and gender (among other important differences for a comprehensive study).
Such a direction of incorporating a diverse group of participants was helpful in producing a general picture of an answer to the research question. As I had stated, all the researchers that were involved in this particular study were well educated professionals in the field of interest-nursing; thus, enabling them (researchers) to implement a more exhaustive study. Issues that did not go well
As it has been mentioned, the above study focused on a relatively small sample of participants (22 patients with heart conditions). Therefore, it was quite difficult to obtain a general picture on the issues explored in this particular study from such a small sample.
Besides, although the intention of qualitative research is to focus on the quality of results rather that on the size of participants, important influential factors were left out while carrying out this particular study. For example, all the participants were Caucasoid.
Besides, all the participants of this particular study were above 50 years in age; thus, leaving out a significant proportion of the population under study containing young people with the heart failure condition. It would for example have been helpful to explore the opinions of minorities so as to develop a more comprehensive conclusion on the study.
Moreover, the study was based in the UK-a developed western nation, the results of the study cannot therefore portray a global perspective on the issues explored. The research question that was chosen by the researchers (to determine how the personal opinions of people with heart failure conditions affect their participation in physical exercise) is one that is difficult to explore.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The benefits through physical exercise for people with heart failure conditions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a conclusion can be made from the fact that people’s opinions on exercise are shaped by a host of other interdependent factors that are related in a complex manner. Therefore, it is not easy to pin down one’s idea on physical exercise to one particular factor.
Required Information to explain the report better So as to understand this particular study better, it would have been helpful to view the semi-structured questionnaire that was used by the researchers while carrying out interviews. On viewing the questionnaire, it would be possible to know how the respondents were guided to give information and whether there was an element of bias while carrying out this particular research.
Moreover, it would also be important to know if this particular research was commissioned by a party that could have been interested on the outcome of the research result. Besides, particular information on the background of the participants would also be important in explaining the research report better.
For example, it would be important to know the type of health insurance schemes that covered each of the participants.
Conclusion As it is true in any other behavior characteristic, the tendency towards physical exercise by patients with heart failure problems is influenced by their beliefs on the benefits of physical exercise in empowering their health.
Although some factors such as concentrating the mentioned study on a specific and unique society in the UK, using a small sample of just 22 individuals among other related factors have put the comprehensibility of this particular research report in doubt, the information that has been obtained from this particular report that I have studied is fruitful in helping medical practitioners to aid people with heart failures improve in practicing physical exercises.
“It is Liberalism, not Realism that offers a more realistic understanding of contemporary international relations” Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Realism in international relations
Liberalism in international relations
Comparison of liberalism and realism
Introduction The study of international relations is a competition between different theoretical perspectives and policymakers and practitioners in international affairs who often dismiss these theories with compelling reason1. One cannot, however, divorce the inescapable connection between the abstract world of theory and the reality they face in the world.
Theories in international relations are necessary in order to understand the enormous amount of information that we receive daily. Policymakers have to rely on their own ideas about how the world works and in order to organize this information and ideas in order to make sound policies, they have to use principles.
The recent example is the ascent of China in the world arena fueled by its influence and ambition that is likely to upset the global balance of power. The question many policymakers are grappling with is how to respond to China.
Many viewpoints have been put forward, with some saying that its behavior will be modified by the spread of democratic principles while others maintain that relations between this country and other nations of the world will be formed on the basis of culture and identity2.
The question that remains in the minds of scholars and practitioners of international relations is whether China will regard itself as an ordinary member of the world community or will see itself as a special member who deserves exceptional treatment and how will the rest of the world treat it.
A realist will look at international affairs as a competition and conflict of nations as actors fight for their own security, pursue national interests and power.
Liberalism, however, promotes several ways of dealing with conflict tendencies, which are democratic peace, cooperation, free commerce and economic interdependence3. In view of this, it is liberalism, not realism that offers more realistic understanding of contemporary international relations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Realism in international relations Realism is based on several approaches, which originated from Thucydides between 460-411 B.C.E, who thought of politics as involving moral questions.
In regard to relations among states which power was critical, Thucydides stated that they can be guided by norms of justice, ‘History of the Peloponnesian War’ and ‘Melian Dialogue’ portrays partial accounts of armed conflict between Athens and Sparta and opposing speeches regarding an issue4.
It is from these works that realism is expressed and which continued to inspire theorists such as Hobbes, and modern day scholars of international relations.
The forty year Cold War period, realism guided most of the international relations, but this changed with the collapse of socialism to pave the way for a new system where international cooperation, international norms and institutions gained a lot of acceptance5.
This was referred to by US President Bush Sr as the “New World Order” where the bi-polar Cold War order was replaced by consensus among major powers that relations between nations be based on international norms, principles of international law and human rights.
This was seen by some critics as a framework in which US as the world superpower will advance its national interests and preserves its power in the international system. However, after the cold War, many non-American voices have become prominent6.
Realists believe that anarchy prevails in the international system, and this is why the world is always in conflicts. This is shown by states wanting to maximize their power and security, and since there is no international organization to enforce order and define its interests, each country has to secure its boarders, which is generally a self help system.
We will write a custom Essay on “It is Liberalism, not Realism that offers a more realistic understanding of contemporary international relations” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This necessitates the building up of military capabilities and if necessary the use of military force to maintain security and power. Realists also think of human nature as defining international relations7. What this means is that, human beings being egoistic and self interested as they are, will let self interest override the morality.
This is demonstrated by Thyucydides’ History where Athens confirms that people will not turn away from chances of enrichment presented by superior strengths.
Further, realists view international politics as lacking in morality which lead them to claiming there is no chance of morality in international relations8.
This assumption leads realists to believe that there exists strain in the demand of morality, and the needs for a thriving political action and thus morality is only used when justifying the actions of a state against another9.
This assumption is based on the Melian Dialogue where the Athenian envoys clearly states that decisions about justice only apply when both parties are under equal obligation in the force of the law, but when one party is stronger than the other it gets as much s it can and the weaker one has no choice but to accept the outcomes10.
This simply means justice is not served in international affairs since the stronger will always dominate the weaker.
Liberalism in international relations Liberalism is derived from a variety of theories that stand to challenge political realism in international affairs. Some liberal schools of thought believe economic interdependence discourages states from applying force to each other since this threatens their prosperity. Another school of thought, whom President Woodrow Wilson falls into states that democracy in the world would bring peace.
This does not mean that democracies do not fight just like authoritarian states, but they rarely if ever, fight among themselves11. Different scholars such as Michael Doyle and Bruce Russel have given explanations in support of this with the common one arguing that democracies hold rules of compromise that do not allow use of force against groups holding the same principles.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “It is Liberalism, not Realism that offers a more realistic understanding of contemporary international relations” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most modern of these believes that international institutions such as International Monetary Fund, Arab League, European Union, World Bank and International Energy Agency will be able to neutralize the selfish behavior of states by encouraging them to sacrifice short term gains to the greater benefits of a lasting cooperation12.
According to13, such institutions to be realized, members must share common values and down the line greater cooperation is achieved. Another thought on the international institution in international relations is that they can be used as tools governments can use to address specific problems. This is through information sharing on their behavior on these issues as agreed commitments.
This, way members are able to pressure non-conformists to act to the agreed goals. One common thought the liberal scholars agree on is that states entrenched in domestic and international civil society which determinedly limit their actions at both fonts.
Comparison of liberalism and realism The focus of Realism in state power, national interests and unitary decision making is thought to dominate western politics since the Renaissance14. This focus is thought by even critics as still being central to the international political thought of the West which together with its endurance, thriftiness and appeal to policy makers are things that put this theory into a privileged position15.
The real scientific reason for this privilege is its well articulated theoretical approach. This, however, does not prevent it from being criticized persistently from all angles.
The most critical of this is from the liberal front are Immanuel Kant, John Stuart among others who hold such thoughts as democracies are more specific that other forms of governments; unequal distribution of power in a state and among states is a motivation for international conflicts; economic interdependence among states is a strong motivation for peace and cooperation, and international law creates a space for international accommodation among others.
All these thoughts, though held as independent critics to realism, have liberal theory associations.
Another assumption of liberalism which gives it more privilege than realism is the behaviors of states which mirrors the nature and configuration of state preferences and, therefore, define the levels of international conflict and cooperation16.
In addition, convergent state preferences result in interstate cooperation while divergent preferences result in conflicts17. This in essence means that, for a liberal state, its purposes are the most important in the world politics as compared to its power and what it gets will determine its actions. Though this is where Realists criticize liberal theory most, Waltz says that states do determine what they can get.
Both realist and liberals agree that states always have purpose and events in world politics are viewed in two stages18. In the first stage, states define their preferences and then they position themselves strategically to engage with others either through negotiation, coercion, or institutional decision making. The difference in both theories lies in the fact that the two groups emphasize different things in the two steps.
For realists, focus is given to the international bargaining which excludes changing state preferences from theoretical analysis and treats them as irrelevant or secondary. Realists, therefore, formulate their strategy and goals in light of external constraints in terms of military might or economic power and in modern days, international institutions, uncertainty, and cost of bargaining among other concerns.
Liberals, on the other hand, stress on variation of pre-strategic purposes of the state in accordance to domestic and international relationships with the civil society as the basic policy guiding behavior and international diplomacy. This simply means that it is an outcome not means that matter.
On this point, liberals are able to determine the outcomes of interstate bargaining and domestic preference formation as systematic outcomes are borne of interaction of state preferences, but not because of the distribution of bargaining resources as it’s the case in realism in which case it is hard to predict outcomes.
In the modern world where globalization has converted the world into a global village, liberal international relations are the most applicable19. Liberalisms emphasizes free trade where the benefits are realized by both sides and entire societies benefit since societies cannot efficiently produce all goods and services they need at home, but can be obtained abroad20.
Another argument is that, it is naïve to imagine that given a choice between war and trade, leaders will prefer benefits of trade than those of war, states are likely to cooperate more in trade than engage in war in the modern world21. This is demonstrated by the example of United States, Europe and Japan after World War II who are now engaged in deep economic ties which rules out any possibility of war among them22.
Trade has also fostered the growth of democracy in the world23. It is argued that economic interdependence in the modern world will force states to adopt common policies, which will open the way for procedures, for countries to open discussions and coordinate actions that traditionally have been thought of as domestic concerns24.
The international relations in the contemporary world should also be looked at from the liberal point of view in that liberals look at foreign policy preference of states as being directly influenced by recognized institutions that connect the state to the society25. These institutions include political parties, electoral systems and bureaucracies.
Though precise representation of social interests in politics has not always been achieved, and even in societies that have highly representative institutions have not been able to entirely avoid biases in governmental decision making. The more this accuracy is achieved the individual preferences are taken into account, the less likely the government will aggravate interstate conflicts26.
One liberalist, William Godwin, states that war only benefits few at the expense of the majority and this small group will make the majority incur the costs; therefore, they may not be undertaken in the modern world which is more democratic than ever than those of other types of regimes.
Liberals also argue that imperfect representation of social interests in the state policy is a catalyst for war27. In order for governments to provoke war, they need a purpose. If there is an “aggressor” with an agenda that does not sit well with this state or does not conform to “status quo”, a war is likely to break. In this situation, this conflict is highly unlikely to benefit the entire society but, an elitist class within this state.
If a wide range of social interests are taken into account, the situation for war is impossible. Care should be taken here because liberals do not suggest that conflict of interests is absent in international relations, but they are unlikely to go the war path because it is costly to all.
This is the reason Kant forecasts that states with representative institutions, checks and balances, individual rights and respect for the rule of law would not provoke war with another28.
Conclusion The study of international relations is a competition of different theoretical perspectives, however, liberalism, not realism that offers more realistic understanding of contemporary international relations.
Realism looks at international affairs as a competition and conflict of nations as actors fight for their own security, pursue national interests and power, while liberalism promotes several ways of dealing with conflict tendencies, which are democratic peace, cooperation, free commerce and economic interdependence.
Realism was introduced by Thucydides several thousand years ago, and, during the forty years of Cold War, it guided most of international relations.
After the collapse, of socialism, leaders and liberal scholars of international relations joined US president Bush Sr in suggesting that a “New World Order” was born where relations between nations will be guided by international norms, principles, international law and human rights.
In this new way, of relating with each other nations suggestions by realists that anarchy prevails in the world and that international politics lacks morality were challenged. Generally liberal views of international relations are optimistic in nature as opposed to realism and; therefore, international relations should be looked at from this viewpoint.
Bibliography Baldwin, D, Neorealism and neoliberalism, Columbia University Press, New York, 1993.
Bluth, C, Norms and international relations: the anachronistic nature of neo realist approaches, University of Leeds, Leeds, 2004.
PESTLE analysis of the China Hotel Industry Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Reflective Thinking
A PESTLE analysis is an in depth assessment of the different factors that directly or indirectly affect the operations of a given industry and are usually external meaning that they are out of the corporations control. Furthermore, these factors are analyzed either as threats or opportunities.
Generally, there are variations of this kind of analysis but touching on the same basic components. A PESTLE analysis examines the political, economic, social, technological, legal and the environmental factors. The discussion below is an in-depth look at the factors affecting the hotel industry in China.
Political factors depend on the government controls and obligations imposed on an industry. The government of China has a policy of non interventionism on all businesses and believes in the operation of a free market system. This is both an opportunity and a threat as the prevailing conditions in the different regions of the massive Chinese frontier are different from place to place.
The government has a disjointed policy in the way that it affects tourism and the hotel industry as a whole since, the Hong Kong sector seems to be autonomous of the rest of mainland china. This has had a negative impact on the general growth of the industry since, while some areas are booming with high average room occupancies, some are experiencing slumps.
The Chinese economy is the second largest in the world and it is the fastest growing in the developed world at over 10% annually. This has been characterized by a high Gross Domestic Product to the benefit of the industry. Consumers therefore have a higher purchasing power but this has somewhat been curtailed by the global economic crisis experienced recently.
The unemployment rate in most of china is low and therefore, the cost of labor is moderate. However, the costs of operation in the hotel industry in china are very high in many areas especially in major cities like Hong Kong and Beijing.
The steady increase in the number of double income families has had an impact on the standards of living by increasing the size of the disposable income. This serves to increase consumer spending and has positively impacted the hotel industry (Cheverton 2004, p. 75).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social context in china is also very stable as the society is very conservative and therefore trends are not likely to change as fast as they do in western societies. China has a very large number of unskilled laborers. This means that skilled labor in the country is expensive.
Technological factors refer to the need for people to upgrade their skills and for business to upgrade to newer platforms occasioned by advancements in technology. The major shift in the hotel industry has been the adoption of information and communication technology in undertakings.
This has been efficient in the processes of reservations and monitoring of guest expenditure within the hotel premises. There has also been the transfer of arrangements between two institutions in different countries and with collaboration with foreign investors all made possible by the presence of technology.
China has transformed its policy on travel and presently, there are very few restrictions for travel to china. Consequently, there have been a high number of visitors to china, most of who are business travelers and only make stopovers in china hence patronizing the hotel facilities available. The travel rules that had been imposed against the travel to and fro mainland china and Hong Kong have also been eased.
Additionally, hotels in china are subject to only 3% government tax. This means that there is more revenue that the hotel industry in the country saves as a result of the taxation structure in comparison to other developed countries worldwide.
The environmental factors that are characteristic to the hotel industry mainly involve the control of pollution in major Chinese cities and also the spread of diseases in the crowded areas of operation. The level of pollution is very high especially in Hong Kong and the government is taking key steps in an attempt to reduce it.
There was also a scare when the SARS outbreak was experience in china and many tourists and travelers to china canceled their trips (Normile and Enserink 2003, p.40). Although the virus has been contained, there is still sceptism on the capability of the government to detect outbreaks early and contain them given the size of the population.
We will write a custom Essay on PESTLE analysis of the China Hotel Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reflective Thinking Reflective thinking is important in the running of any organization. The goal of this practice is to create meaning to different situation, to regulate behavior, to refine and redefine the values for which you stand for, to challenge any assumptions made in the course of action, to learn about who you really are and to assess your intuitions.
The major point to remember here is that the greatest hindrance for individual development lies within the individual himself. The initial step towards positive growth is by reflective thinking and in particular stoppage of ones habitual patterns and course of behavior and stand back to view things from a different perspective and in a different light.
Forrester (2011) states that the best decisions, insights, ideas, and outcomes result when we take sufficient time to think and reflect ”Only by carving out think time and reflection can we actually understand, in an entirely different context, the actions we take.”
Think time should be scattered within the normal activities and densely packed schedules. This should be applied for significant decisions that are still pending and whose initial effects might not be evident for some time.
Assumptions are considered, the effectiveness of past decisions is analyzed and the downside of the decisions yet to be made is factored in. however, an individual should consider think time as a luxury because in the normal working environment, there is no time to sit back and think.
In the heat of things, the leader does not fully see the task ahead and therefore, cannot weigh the impact a decision will have on his personal and organizational development. The purpose of reflection is therefore to equip oneself with the necessary skills that are needed to expand perspectives and in turn to present more valid options in decision making.
This is core to leadership and should entail the ability to visualize what others cannot and make them in turn see it. Although a luxury, leaders should always spare sometime to think and to create hypothetical situations in their minds that may be possibilities for future occurrences. In turn, they must visualize possible solutions to these problems when they occur.
The world we live in is insistent on narrower viewpoints as people become more specialized. This is useful for advancement of useful theories in diverse studies. However, as leaders, individuals should not confine themselves to narrow viewpoints demanded by their specialization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on PESTLE analysis of the China Hotel Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the contrary, they must widen the scope of their views to incorporate different scenarios that will occur in the organizations environment that may require snapshot decisions.
Therefore, leaders should teach themselves the value of being able to step back and analyze a given scenario critically and to conjure up a wide array of different solutions with different consequences and be able to make the best decision for the good of the organization in general.
Many organizations fail in their endeavors because they value immediacy and focus on the short term instead of reflection and seeking long term solutions to chronic problems. As a leader, one must continually to challenge oneself in different fields aided by reflective thinking in order to give viable guidance to those that look up to you for it. Thoughtful insights are not aspects that can be contained within a given time frame.
On the contrary, they may be realized sooner or may take time depending on the considerations to be made. The results of reflective thinking are not hinged on the amount of time that the person spends on his thoughts. Far from it, the real results are gotten by how the thought process is structured and utilized within the amount of time available, usually long moments that are disjointed.
A leader should consider allocating time for all of his staff members to be engulfed in their thoughts in order to be more effective. The popular method of achieving this is by having a no-internal-e-mail-day policy where technology does ceases to serve as a distraction.
Most of the support members in an organization concede that when they are over worked, they usually do not have time to think. A leader, however much he is worked, should never resign to being comfortable with the status quo and embracing it as a proven method of operation.
In summary, it is paramount to be aware that thinking creates reality. Reflection as controlled thinking is as a result of two vectors, namely the individual’s competence and his authenticity (Baldino 2011, pp. 2). This is a conglomeration of skills, specialty and know-how with individual identity, attitude and character which should make you into a better and more effective leader.
Motivation Motivation entails the forces which compel individual to achieve their goals. To influence a person’ s motivation is getting the person to want to do what you as a leader knows must be done (U.S, Army Handbook 1973). Motivation is influenced by how strong a certain need is and the perception that a person has of the on the satisfaction of needs.
Motivational forces are many and range from beliefs to fears, from values to interests and even to worthiness of a cause.
Motivational factors can either be internal or external but neither is stronger than the other in absolute terms. While dealing with people, one must understand that there is no proven formula for motivating them and therefore, the specific nature of the person you are dealing with will determine what he/she responds best to.
To be effective as a leader, one must focus on the needs of the team and that of the organization and make sure that they are in sync. This means that the common motivators of people in every organization like promotions, raises, job security and approval from colleagues should form the basis on which the organization is built.
Furthermore, people working in the same industry, like hospitality, tend to have common internal ethics, morals and values as is demanded by the career choice. Staff members must be encouraged and trained to the specifications of the organization and must realize that their needs are tied to those of the organization.
The leader must ensure that his beliefs and those of the company are in tandem with those of individual team members as ultimately, the kind of values exercised will be the motivators of performance.
A good leader must be able to reward the best behavior within the group. There are different and effective ways of awarding. A simple thank you, a letter of commendation or a certificate may be equally efficient in motivating staff (Pardey 2007). In the hospitality industry, where service is the key source of business, interactions with people are inevitable.
Leaders should cite the best behaviors in dealing with guests and reward the specific behavior rather than a general message of gratitude. This serves as a blueprint for the repetition of the particular action and in turn serves as a perfect motivator.
The best motivator for staff members is the example they get out of their leader. Therefore, as a leader, one must always be the image of demure goodness in order for the same to rub off on the subordinates. An effective leader is always aware of the morale and esprit de corps in the organization.
This means that the environment within which the staff team members operate is conducive and does not cast the image of a place where people desire to get away from. Morale and the team spirit must always be high in order to guarantee the optimum performance of the employees (Achua and Lussier 2010).
This can be achieved by ensuring that there are enough amenities for staff, for example within a hotel setting, where they can relax during breaks and also after work hours and enjoy the same services as do the guests in their private areas at no profit to the organization. This way, they feel that the organization does have their best interests at heart and are motivated to work harder and better.
Good leaders are those that realize the potential within their team members and work to harness that to the benefit of the organization. Thus, they allow the team members to be part of the planning and problem solving process. This allows the members to feel as part of the solution and thus develop an ownership notion to the successful implementation of their decisions.
This investment in the processes is the greatest motivator as these ‘owners’ would not like their ideas to fail and thus work hard at making them come to fruition. After the idea has been successfully implemented and the desired effect is achieved, a leader should make sure that the deserved recognition is awarded. The motivational effect from such a gesture is invaluable.
It is in the nature of human beings to show and want concern therefore, a successful leader should be able to recognize this fact and ensure that his team members are aware that he looks out for them.
The things that a leader may view as insignificant may be of importance in the lives of the team members. It is paramount that the leader be sensitive and empathizes with them. In a nutshell, the leader should be able to feel with the rest of the team members as if he was in their shoes as is insinuated by the German word einfuhling.
Power The main point to consider for a person aiming at advancing in the hospitality industry is that power is the reason why most people fail to succeed.
This is simply because power is not only exercised by those in authority but rather by those who understand how to get it and how to share it with others for the common good of the organization. The most important consideration for prospective leaders is that they need to learn the ways of skill empowerment, competence enhancement and energizing leadership power.
The initial step towards the realizing of the above considerations should be to invest in individual infrastructure. The most important point to consider here is that there must be a lot of investment in time and effort (Gill 2008). In order to be a good leader, one must first identify a person in a leadership position that inspires and is a role model.
Record the way the person carries out his activities and note all the desirable traits you would like to develop in yourself. Be eager to learn more by purchasing materials that appertain to leadership including books and journals and run the traits you read with those that you observe in the role model. By then you should start appreciating yourself and noting the traits you admire and those you aspire to change.
The next step is to make sure that you meet with other people with the same mindset with a view to improving abilities, skills and behaviors. Finally, in order to be a leader, one must be willing to serve and as such one should be involved in communal affairs or teaching that enhances and hones your leadership skills.
As a leader in the hospitality industry, one must create a conducive environment that enhances the transference of optimism, confidence and professionalism from yourself to your employees and eventually to the guests.
In order to have the right kind of power, a leader must learn to use the hope of the subordinates to inspire visionary ways. On the contrary, a leader can use worry and fear to inspire the same but the latter does not create the necessary aura needed for the employees to function independently and to the best of their abilities.
The visions that a leader projects based on the hopes and faith of team members should be positive and vivid. In attempting to do this, one should consider the methods applied by Nobel Peace Laureate, Dr. Martin, Luther King, Jr. who was very famous for inspiring hope in the struggle against supremacists (Bell, Hilb and White 2004).
In order to successfully exercise power, a leader must not only be visionary but must also be strategic. There should be a laid out plan of action with a goal that it is meant to achieve in the end. In doing this, one will need to pool the right resources, constantly reevaluate the strategy, informed by recent occurrences and observations and measuring the effectiveness the execution of the strategy has achieved.
Power is wielded in many ways and the most common tool is by word of mouth. Therefore, a leader must ensure that the words and instructions to team members aim at speaking to their hearts and are encouraging and inspirational. The leader’s sentiments must reflect appreciation for the contributions, commitments and uniqueness of the team members.
Words have the power to inspire or destroy confidence, depending on the choice and the context in which they are used. Leaders must always be aware of the effect their words will have on people and be able to determine whether it is the right one well in advance.
People’s opinions, ideas and dreams are always expressed in words, so are their reservations, biases and any other ill feelings they harbor. As such, the choice of words is aimed at communicating these sentiments and therefore, a leader should always be aware of the sentiments he wishes to convey.
Effective leaders are those that are congruent, cooperative and consistent. The actions of such a leader are in line with his words, his attitudes rhyme with his conversations and his values are linked to his behavior.
Additionally, this type of leader applies the same standards to everyone he is involved with, makes decisions only when he has all the facts available and always follows the same course when faced with a recurrent problem. Finally, this kind of leader realizes that in order to enlist the cooperation of his team members, he must respect, value and work with their desires, decisions and differences.
This involves asking for their opinions, listening to their thoughts and always factor in their inputs so that whenever something happens, “we” takes credit over “I” (Thomas 2004, pp. 5).
Decision making Critical decision making is perhaps the most important factor in the development of a leader (Megginson and Whiaker 2007). This is because the consequence of reflective thinking, motivation and exercise of power is the decision making component. Decision making is a result of a leader’s self-awareness, skills and competence.
The most fundamental principle in making important decisions is self confidence. The confidence one has in his mental capabilities ultimately determines how he envisions the world around him and in turn the analysis of a situation. Self confidence is not only beneficial to the leader but it also rubs off on the other team members that look for guidance from him. This can therefore be the difference between success and failure in an organization.
A leader has to be analytical. The facts that he perceives from a given situation should be what informs him to act in a given manner. An analysis of a situation for a leader should be able to yield multiple courses of action that have different implications.
The leader thus considers all the facts that he can conjure up and makes a decision based on them. In considering this aspect of a leader, there is a glaring need for him to be critical in analysis in order to get on the right track straight from the get go.
Understanding the value of research is key in determining what course of action a leader takes. This is because decision making is dependant of having the right facts concerning a different situation. The leader should thus be a person appreciative of the value that research has in the determination of the components of a given scenario and consequently the determination of the course of action that is preferred (Proctor 1999).
In the hospitality industry, there are many occurrences happening simultaneously. A leader can never purport to be in keeping with all of them. Therefore, anything that happens warranting his attention can only be solved by gathering facts. This is closely related to the need for skills in conflict management.
Managing conflict is a major determinant of how an organization will run. Conflicts can either be between team members or between team members and the work environment including tools and other resources (Deutsch and Coleman 2000). A leader should be very keen on how he manages such a crisis as it will influence the actions of the concerned parties.
An amicable resolution of a conflict leads to motivation of team members involved. However, if a leader does not resolve a conflict in an amicable manner, it will only serve to add frustrations to the affected party and can have a negative impact on the morale and attitude of the aggrieved party.
Leaders do not have to overwhelm themselves by attempting to make all decisions in an organization. Decentralizing the decision making process can aid in relieving a leader of the excess baggage in order to focus on the long-term future of an organization (Novak 1997, 24). This also acts as a motivator of team members charged with the responsibility of making some critical decisions.
It also challenges team members to develop solutions and thus can generate new ideas and concepts that can de fundamental in charting the course for future action. However, this does not insinuate that a leader abdicates his duties. On the contrary, he should be the one that takes responsibility for any decisions made by his support staff and should vet these decisions in order to eradicate conflicts caused by inconsistent actions.
Tichy (1998) compares good leadership to good parenting and asserts that there should be a considerable investment in time for both scenarios. There is also what he refers to as a “teachable point of view” whose main focus is on nurturing the team members so that they also ultimately become good decision makers.
Furthermore, a leader should have the courage to make decisions and in turn take risks that he thinks will pay off in the end often in the face of opposition.
Critical decision making is the difference between a bad situation and a good one. Leaders should be people capable of making positives out of negative occurrences like down-sizing, budget restraints and increase in workloads.
A person who wants to transform into an effective leader should visualize this setbacks as opportunities to learn. One should look towards the negatives in order to gain experience in dealing with them. Ultimately, this strengthens the leader and fosters growth.
References Achua, C.F.
Ethical Dilemmas Essay essay help online: essay help online
What defines Michael J. Sandel as a professor at Harvard? What makes his lecture on justice so stimulating and inspiring? The basic daily life of every instructor in a learning institution involves making appropriate decision in line with the Florida code of conduct for professionals. Every professional will in his everyday life strive to make right decisions that are for the best interest of his primary clients.
The code requires that the instructor acts in the best interest of the students. It further requires that a lecturer at a university who has plenty of time at his disposal would feel better offering his teaching services to students. The question to be answered in this case is whether this decision is wise enough and does it conform, to the stipulated educational guideline?
One of Michael J. Sandel’s famous examples is that torture is ethically justified especially in cases where it involves criminal activity. Are policemen right in torturing suspected criminals in order to get information out of them?
This case results in an ethical dilemma since the policemen on one hand is dealing with a dangerous criminal who may not cooperate unless tortured, but on the other hand is bound by professional codes of conduct requiring him respect the human rights of all suspects.
Since ethics is a set of mutual rights and obligations that ought to govern human relationships, the linkage between educational and ethical issues is hardly surprising. In any set up, like a university or college, disparities in knowledge and power between instructors and the institution managers is likely to create ethical dilemmas.
Any analysis of ethics on the discussion of leadership must eventually wrestle with the question of fairness. Impartiality and equitable treatment are essential to effective discussions; without them, efforts to encourage participation will be futile. These deliberations make us understand the ethical issues more clearly, especially in the medical field. Every decision a doctor has to make is pegged on matters of justice and ethics.
The advancement in technology in genetic testing places physicians in an awkward position. The patients risk being discriminated and consequent loss of healthcare benefits if there genetic influence is disclosed. This information may, however, help patients outline a plan for their future relationships and alignment of their objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A child to a patient with Huntington’s Disease (HD) has a high probability of having inherited the abnormal gene from the parent thus possible development of HD (Terrenoire, p. 46). If patients do not know the outcome of their results, they live in fear and uncertainty. This leaves the doctor in a dilemma as to whether to perform predictive genetic testing for HD, an ultimately fatal disease.
The issue of who should participate in this testing vis avis family issues present ethical issues that physicians must handle with conscience (Terrenoire p. 92). While other predictive genetic tests allow patients to seek life-saving treatment before symptoms develop, no such option is available for patients with HD.
Even with the results of the test in hand, the only recourse patients currently have is to wait for the onset of symptoms. Siblings may differ in their desire to see the results of genetic testing if one parent is diagnosed with HD. Genetic counselors and other clinicians may hesitate to communicate results if not all family members are in agreement.
Autonomy includes an individual’s right to self-rule and individual decision making without undue influence from others. To respect patients’ autonomy, clinicians and health care workers must communicate well with their patients. This includes both active listening and providing sufficient information to facilitate patients’ decision-making.
Clinicians must know what information a patient wants and, perhaps more importantly, what information a patient does not want to know. The clinician must respect the patient’s decision and not deviate from that it. This presents an ethical dilemma to clinicians especially in situations where patients are hesitant to pursue medication for diagnosed conditions.
Clinicians must adequately describe the process of HD genetic testing and the implications of its results. Patients should be encouraged to discuss the process with their family members before the testing, since the results could have significant implications for other relatives.
Once a decision is made, clinicians must respect and abide by that decision. It would not be ethically appropriate for a clinician to convince a patient to undergo testing that is not desired. Nor would it be appropriate for a clinician to disseminate results to individuals who choose not to see them.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethical Dilemmas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clinicians must fully inform couples of child-bearing age of the factors to consider in planning a pregnancy, performing prenatal testing, and available options after results are known (Hadley, w. 406). While the expected or future children of HD patients are not able to exercise their right to autonomy, their parents have to decide for them.
Beneficence involves taking an appropriate action for the good of the patient or “[doing] whatever good one reasonably can for another person” (Hadley, w. 400). Clinicians need to evaluate each case to ensure that treatments or testing is providing a net benefit for the individual.
What is in the best interest for one person may vary considerably for another individual, even if both are diagnosed with the same disease. Clinicians must consider the risks and benefits of each recommendation to provide a net benefit to each patient.
In the case of predictive genetic testing for HD, clinicians and other health care team members must consider the benefit to the patient. However, they are also ethically bound to consider the benefit to family members and potential children of HD patients. Beneficence may decide that clinicians share the results of HD testing with the children of a patient with HD.
Daughters of HD patients may acquire a greater benefit from this information as they consider planning their own families and future life plans (Hadley, w. 400). This concept also relates to the confidentiality of genetic testing information. With this information, daughters of HD patients can assess their plans for conceiving children normally with or without prenatal HD testing or choosing adoption.
At this time, the results of a prenatal screening test for HD will not affect the physician’s ability to prevent, treat, or cure HD. However, the parents of these children may think that it is also beneficial to know as soon as possible in order to consider all life planning options.
The principle of non-maleficence relates closely to the principle of beneficence. In health care, non-maleficence is the principle that states that clinicians must do no harm and work to reduce damage to their patients (Hadley, w. 401). In conjunction with beneficence, there must be a net benefit to the patient. Again, the evaluation of damage and welfare must be individualized to each patient.
Similarly, children of HD patients may feel more pain if they are not told of their parent’s diagnosis than those who are aware of the disease. In order to comply with non-maleficence, clinicians must comply with their patients’ wishes in regard to performing genetic testing and the subsequent dissemination of results.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical Dilemmas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Clinicians and patients must also carefully consider options regarding pregnancy in patients who carry the HD gene. Should they allow a pregnant lady, suffering from the HD to continue carrying the baby? This question leads to ethical dilemma as the clinician is bounded by ethics to do no harm both to the mother and her unborn child as well.
In considering the implications regarding predictive testing for HD, one common requirement is clear, i.e., complete communication between patients with HD, their family members, and clinicians.
An individual who might never have consciously or otherwise contemplated the possibility of direct involvement might have life and hope blighted, and survival without development of the disease might be little compensation for a lifetime of anxiety, dread, and single status.
In order to make the best decision, I chose the solution that, the highest ethical approach to the dilemma of whether predictive genetic testing for HD should be performed. Allowing patients the option to seek out this study provides patients with the freedom to make their own decisions regarding their genetic fate.
All the parties involved must communicate clearly and frequently to ensure that everyone hears and understands the same information. To this end I find Sandel’s Justice What’s The Right Thing To Do? Whatever the action a physician takes in this case is ethically justified if it is in the benefit of the patient and any other involved close relative.
Works Cited Hadley, Jack et al. “Covering the Uninsured in 2008: Current Costs, Sources of Payment, and Incremental Costs.” Health Affairs, 27.5 (2008): W 399-414. Print.
Terrenoire, Gwen. Huntington’s Disease and the Ethics of Genetic Prediction. Journal of Medical Ethics, Philadelphia: Carey, 1992. Print.
The Life and Legacy of John Wesley Research Paper best essay help
Abstract John Wesley is a renowned historical figure. His contribution to the revival of Christian churches in remarkable. Although part of his life was spent doing charitable and pious activities zealously, his zeal was not based on knowledge. He still had an emptiness that needed to be filled by the true joy which comes after putting one’s faith in Jesus Christ.
Wesley’s early life was characterized by fear but this changed after his conversion. He became supernaturally bold such that even violence would not deter him from preaching the word. His legacy as an epitome of a true minister of the gospel lives on.
Introduction Many historical figures are remembered for their contribution in church history. John Wesley is one of the people whose contribution in the formation of evangelical churches is remarkable. His passion for preaching, coupled with his courage enabled him to preach the gospel fearlessly amidst much persecution.
This paper shall explore the life and legacy of John Wesley. The lessons that can be learnt from his life shall also be outlined.
Thesis statement There have been many great leaders in the history of mankind in general and in the Christian history in particular. John Wesley is one of such leaders, who have had a significant impact on the church. Wesley was not like any other minister of the gospel but he was a courageous and spirit-filled minister of the gospel who preached under the anointing of the Holy Spirit, impacting millions of people.
This paper explores the life of john Wesley, from the time he was still unconverted to the time he became a Christian. His journey in Christianity as a minister of the gospel is discussed.
Early Years John Wesley was born in 1703, in Epworth. His parents were Samuel and Susan Wesley. His was a large family of nineteen children and he was the fifteenth child. His father had grown up in a religious family and worked as a priest in their village.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both the grandfather and great grandfather of Wesley were religious men and suffered a lot because of their faith. They were constantly rejected while their fellow brethren faced a lot of persecution. Wesley’s background was therefore one that nurtured him to be a disciplined and God fearing person.
When he was 27 years, Wesley joined up with his brother called Charles to form a group comprised of students. The group was supposed to be a source of encouragement to one another in matters of growth towards holiness.
They were involved in charitable works such as visiting those in prison and helping the poor in the society. To aid in their mission of growth towards holiness, the group met regularly for prayer and reading of the bible. The group was ridiculed by the rest of the students who even gave them the nickname ‘holy club’.
Although Wesley was engaged in such pious activities and which seemed to have a show of spirituality, he remained unconverted4. He continued with his good works, trying to win the approval of God through them but deep inside, he knew that this would not help him.
He was zealous in what he was doing but the zeal was based on ignorance. Deep in his heart, he went through extensive periods of guilt and felt very inadequate in what he was doing. He also suffered a lot because of the fear of death that he had.
Wesley’s Conversion When he was 32 years old, he accompanied his brother on a trip to Georgia, USA. The trip was meant for evangelism, with the Indians being the main target. They traveled by ship. The sail was however not a smooth one because they were hit by a storm along the way. The storm was very fierce such that parts of their ship were destroyed. Wesley was so scared and thought that his life was going to end there.
Compared to the rest of the Moravian missionaries, Wesley was the only one who lacked the peace of God. The rest were calm and he wondered how they could remain so peaceful in the middle of such a storm. Wesley has not been born again like the rest and therefore did not have the supernatural peace that one gets after being converted. He immediately knew that he needed what these missionaries had.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Life and Legacy of John Wesley specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, he did not accept to be converted immediately. He continued with his missionary trips to India for two years, which bore no fruits. This is when Wesley realized that he too needed to be converted just like the Indians he was evangelizing to.
At the age of 35, Wesley attended a meeting in London which impacted on his life greatly. By that time, he had been serving as an Anglican priest. The message that transformed his life was read by Luther, who explained about the resultant change that happens when a person puts their faith in Jesus Christ.
His life was immediately transformed when he realized that Jesus Christ had forgiven him his sins and saved him from the consequences of it.
As he left the meeting, Wesley felt that his life was changed and he was a new man. He discovered that a person who has been in self-justification for long had a greater joy once they were freed from this bondage and experienced the surpassing joy of knowing Jesus as Lord and Savior.
From this time henceforth, Wesley’s sermons were made under the power of the Holy Spirit and his ministry was completely transformed. An example of such a sermon is the Bristol sermon which transformed the path followed by the English history4.
Wesley’s Legacy John Wesley had numerous distinguishing qualities. His passion for preaching is one of them. He believed that this ought to be the priority of any servant of God. An example of how passionate he was about preaching was when he ministered in Bristol in 1739. According to Green, Wesley gave three sermons, the first to a congregation of around 1000 people in one day1.
He preached the second sermon to around 1500 people and the last one to over 5000 people. The same was duplicated two days later when he went to Bath. All the sermons were delivered without microphones but the only tool he used was his voice.
Another thing that is worth noting about Wesley is the presence of God’s power whenever he ministered2. Although he considered himself an average preacher, the move of the Holy Spirit was always evident in his preaching sessions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Life and Legacy of John Wesley by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wesley would say that it was not uncommon for people present in his meeting to weep uncontrollably and even be unable to stand on their feet, as they called upon God. Wesley further says that this phenomenon had nothing to do with him because he had no ability or power to make people react in such a way but he attributed all that to God’s supernatural power.
Wesley is also noted because of his extraordinary courage. He was known not to fear any man. He attributed his courage to God’s anointing upon his life. Despite the numerous persecutions and hardships he faced while trying to reach out to the people using the word of God, Wesley never gave.
He got so used to being jeered, stoned and even to dirt being thrown at him whenever he went to preach, to an extent that it never bothered him anymore. In some places, the attacks were so fierce such that bulls and horsemen rode through the crowds as Wesley preached.
Gangs also organized themselves and used clubs and other assorted weapons to attack Wesley and his people but this never deterred them from moving on3. This kind of courage can be contrasted with his fear he exhibited during the storm before conversion.
Wesley’s courage is something that he acquired immediately after his conversion. This can be explained by an incident that happened when he returned to his home town after conversion but was denied the permission to preach because of his zeal. This did not deter him because he used the grave of his father, which was built next to the church, as a platform to preach to people.
Wesley was a staunch Anglican. He shied away from the idea of starting a new church. This impaired his ministry because the structure of the Anglican Church did not accommodate his anointing. After his death, there was a breaking away of his members to form another church that would accommodate their way of ministry.
Wesley, together with his brother Charles, composed several hymns dealing with the perfection of Christians and the amazing grace of Jesus once one has been saved. Hymn singing in churches was largely advocated for by Wesley and his brother Charles.
Lessons from Wesley’s Life The importance of bringing up children in a godly way can be learnt through Wesley’s upbringing. Nurturing one’s children in a pious way could mean nurturing great leader who is going to impact on the world is a mighty way, like Wesley did.
Another lesson is that God can choose to keep a person in periods of unbelief temporarily in order to reveal to them the greater joy of believing in Jesus Christ once they are converted. After his conversion, Wesley saw that self justification led to misery and only justification through faith in Jesus Christ resulted into lasting joy.
The life of Wesley also teaches Christians about the importance and benefits of preaching the word of God under the power and the anointing of the Holy Spirit3. From Wesley’s ministry, one can learn the fruitfulness of doing this.
His life can also be a lesson that God can still use the unmarried to spread his word. Wesley remained single until he was 47 years, when he married. However, his marriage did not last for long because he was unable to dedicate his life to building up his marriage. This led to a separation.
Conclusion John Wesley can be described as a hero of the Christian faith. Although it took him a long time to be converted, the duration he remained in ministry before his death had a significant impact in England specifically, and in the world as a whole.
Wesley is notable for his enthusiasm in preaching the word of God, preaching under the anointing of the Holy Spirit and also for his unfailing courage. This courage was acquired after his conversion because prior to this, he was a cowardly man. He is a perfect model of a faithful minister of the gospel and his legacy lives on, years after his death.
Reference List Green, Michael. 1970. Evangelism in the Early Church. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Piper, John. 1990. The Supremacy of God in Preaching. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Richard, Hannula. 1999. Trial and Triumph. Nashville: Cannon Press.
Stewart, James. 1946. Preaching. London: English University Press Ltd.
Footnotes Stewart, James. 1946. Preaching. London: English University Press Ltd.
Green, Michael. 1970. Evangelism in the Early Church. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Stewart, James. 1946. Preaching. London: English University Press Ltd.
Piper, John. 1990. The Supremacy of God in Preaching. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
Richard, Hannula. 1999. Trial and Triumph. Nashville: Cannon Press.
Richard, Hannula. 1999. Trial and Triumph. Nashville: Cannon Press.
Explanation of the Benchmarking Key Concept Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Benchmarking and Explanation of the Interest in the Concept
Explanation of the Key Concept: Benchmarking
Major Article Summary
Benchmarking and Explanation of the Interest in the Concept Benchmarking seems an interesting problem for discussion as its methods may be applied to various business processes. The understanding of the methodology and the specific areas which can be considered within the issue may help improve the quality of the company performance. Applying appropriate methods for particular issues is one of the main guarantees of successful prediction of the actions outcome.
The interest in dealing with benchmarking may be also explained by the desire to increase the quality of the product and this method is one of the most effective one.
Reading an article Benchmarking for quality by Shah and Kleiner (2011), it becomes obvious that appropriate benchmarking techniques may be used for improving product quality, selecting the best practices and considering the most effective performance measured for running business. A more profound research of this concept may be useful in practice in the future.
Explanation of the Key Concept: Benchmarking Benchmarking is defined as “a continuous systematic process for evaluating the products, services and work processes of organizations that are recognized as representing best practices for the purpose of organizational improvement” (Shah,
Definition of Political Liberalism Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The world has developed from the old age to the new technological and civilized advancements. Several things have developed in governance and leadership. There is more of liberation, democracy, and freedom both socially and in the political arena (Cartel, 2007). There are still many people in our communities who are still keeping the old methods of dealing with situations and issues.
These are conservatives who are still holding on their traditions, cultures, leadership and religion (Cartel, 2007). Human beings have evolved from various aspects of living both politically and socially. They have freedom to do anything at their will or according to the guidelines they have set which is liberty (Cartel, 2007).
In politics, people have the right to elect whoever they feel like electing without any bias. They do it in their own will and decide on whom to support in his or her candidacy. In some cases, people hold on to their political parties and support the members fully without any external force compelling them to do it (Cartel, 2007).
Some people will vote for a person in order to protect their interests while another group will elect someone in order to fill the vacant position and have no good reason as to why they chose one for the other. In general this is termed as political liberalism where a lot of freedom is noticed in the political arena (Rawls, 2005).
In our sociology and philosophy, we will realize two aspects of liberty; the positive and negative liberty. Positive liberty allows a person to perform whatever he or she feels like doing without being inhibited by any external forces from the society as a result of racism, sexuality, religion background, gender, social class or political grounds (Cartel, 2007).
Every human being has the freedom to carry out his or her activities without any interference from any other person or authority due to his belief or political opinion in relation to positive liberty.
People have the capacity, ability and opportunity to do what they want to do despite the obstacles ahead of them. In negative liberty, a person has the freedom to carry out activities to the extent that no person or authority that interferes with whatever he or she does (Cartel, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The negative concept tries to define what extent is a person or crowd can exercise their freedom without external interference (Cartel, 2007). An example of positive and negative liberty is considering a person who is driving a car and on his way meets a junction where he might either turn right or left, the driver might decide to turn either side without any force compelling him (Cartel, 2007).
In the second case take a driver who gets to the junction and decides to turn right in order to pick a bottle of wine despite the meeting he as on the other left turn he has left. one driver deicide to take a turn out of his free will while the other take a turn because of his urge to have wine and has the freedom to it (Cartel, 2007).
Many scholars have researched on political liberalism and developed various theories in relation to liberty (Cartel, 2007). We have several texts from Modus and Rawl that try to discuss the topic on political liberalism. Rawl’s text is rich in ideas and suggestion on the policies to develop in preparing a good society structure (Rawls, 2005).
There is no big difference between freedom and liberty and in some situations the words may be used interchangeably. (Cartel, 2007)The word freedom refers to a person being free to do whatever he fells or wants to do without any restrictions from the agent, self and other obstructions. This makes the word freedom to have close relationship with liberty (Cartel, 2007).
References Cartel, I. (2007, October 8). Positive and Negative Liberty. Retrieved from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberty-positive-negative/
Rawls, J. (2005). Political Liberation. New York: Columbia University Press.
Quality Assurance Standards and Business Excellence Models Report essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of standards to international trade
Importance of standards to Health, Safety and consumer rights
Quality Assurance Standards
Introduction Standards are the generally agreed ways of doing something which can be repeated over and over again. They are set as rules for guidance on how to produce an item or how a certain activity is to be conducted. Standards help to make life easier and always increase the effectiveness and the reliability of goods and services produced.
Both national and international trade are governed by standards covering environment, labor, products and other commodities; they are applied so as to mitigate against such risks associated with the environment as the health of the population, prevention of deceptive and unethical practices and finally to reduce the transactional costs in business.
The standards always provide a common reference points for quality, authenticity, safety and sustainability.
Standards will always be used as a strategic to enhance competitiveness of organizations and countries. Lack of standards can be a major impediment for trade putting other traders at a very disadvantaged position; harmonized standards promote a fair competition in the market (Australian Business Awards 2011).
Standards facilitate trade through quality and reliability of the products. Human beings engage in trade or the exchange of goods and services and deal with incorrect measures and misrepresentation throughout the history though systems are developed to enforce honesty. The earliest standards in the past were basically to enforce honesty between people.
Importance of standards to international trade Over the years, there has been a major development in trade, especially on the international level, that is why there has been a rising need by the manufacturers to develop a single worldwide accepted standards and conformity tests.
The health, environment concerns and the safety standards differ among the countries, and therefore governments have accommodated all this when developing global standards. Our societies relies heavily on standards, and all the products and services we consume every day have been subjected to some form of standards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More International standardization has grown tremendously and helped in eliminating of ambiguity in business transactions. Standardization has helped in major progress towards trade liberalization across the globe by providing a common reference that is recognized in different countries. Standards have also enhanced the quality of products and their reliability by providing confidence in the products and services.
For instance, we have the mandatory, obligatory, preferential and even business of marketing standards. ISO the International Organization for Standardization is a voluntary standard setting body which membership is recognized by the authorities in their countries (International Organization for Standardization n. d.). It began in 1942 and has undergone many changes; currently, it offers different standard certification all over the world.
Importance of standards to Health, Safety and consumer rights The Australians Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is an independent government statutory body in charge of ensuring national consumer protections law. These laws concern unsafe products and unfair trade and therefore guarantee on quality goods and services for the consumers. This commission ensures consumer’s safety and health across countries.
This is the way of ensuring that unsafe products that do not meet the required standards are not sold to the unsuspecting consumers. Every business operation is required to report to ACCC immediately when they realize that the products they supplied may have caused any harm or illness to the consumers.
These are the standards that have been set by the government to ensure that the safety, health and the rights of consumers are guaranteed. This also meets certain standards for the products that are sold to the consumers.
The consumer rights covered here does not involve problems arising through misuse or the act of carelessness on the part of the consumer. All these standards and measures that have been put in place serve also to guarantee the health and safety of the consumer.
Quality Assurance Standards ISO17025:2005 quality assurance standards which specify the general requirements and the competence to carry out tests and calibrations which include sampling and testing using the standard methods, laboratory developed methods and other non-standards methods (Tawfik,
Suncorp-Metway Limited Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Purpose
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to convey to the Board of Suncorp-Metway Limited approaches that will be used in implementing the corporate social responsibility (CSR). This implies that corporate social responsibility strategies are applied differently across different industries and variably by companies within the industry. It involves complex decisions that include trade-offs by businesses.
Difficult decisions include the moral duty of the company to do the right thing, the company commitment to sustainability as well as the need to maintain the company operations besides safeguarding its reputations.
In the justification of this noble course, Suncorp-Metway Limited will set CSR boundary according to their core value propositions. As part of the ideal strategies, the company will tend to take initiatives that generally strengthen business undertakings while advancing societal goals and environmental conditions.
Background Profit generation or corporate financial responsibility has been the historical obligation of many corporations over centuries. Even today it is still the main reason why businesses are set up.
However, as the public, consumers, governments, civil organizations and even the corporations themselves are increasingly becoming more conscious of the power of large firms, the need of establishing the concept of corporate social responsibility turn out to be more essential.
Many corporations today see CSR as a smart business strategy while some have stagnantly remained in the past when CSR was seen as a mere business idealism.
These companies continuously involve themselves in incidents that find them act outside their legal obligations. That is, they go beyond the legal compliance and involve themselves in major scandals that ushered in the decade of legal mistrust and downright hostility by the stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Basically, that is why it is a good strategy for us as a company to continuously demonstrate that we are ethical and always act according to the legal requirement.
The shared lack of enthusiasm and public mistrust has made the executives of the larger corporations to justly rise above simple legal compliance and display to the public their respective company commitment to moral values, devotion to moral standards and consistent implementation of better CSR practices.
In the remarkable 21st century, CSR and ethical leadership cannot be divorced. Some business administrators still consider corporate social responsibility as an advancement of business ethics. CSR still has its foundation in the fundamentals of company ethics and integrity which must begin from consistent ethical leadership.
The government and the society at large have raised their expectation and standards for companies that are continuously in need of doing business. It is our obligation as a company to comply with the standards set by corporate regulatory bodies such as World Business Council in charge of Sustainable Development (see the appendices).
The implementation of CSR might seem to be costly but it is imperative that we look at it in its entirety. The benefits of CSR go beyond the monitory value. It ensures sustainability, competitiveness and an enormous comparative advantage. CSR is considered as a positive business ideology that addresses basic business ethics. Moreover, CSR provides significant ethical guidelines for businesses and define their social accountability.
It addresses the way businesses should satisfy the requirements or the obligations of governments and societies. CSR further specifies how companies should ethically treat key stakeholders such as the suppliers, employees, customers and the community to win their confidence.
Discussion Corporate social responsibility persists as one of the issues that are currently hitting the headlines in the business world. The symbiotic relationship between business and society leads to the appreciation of CSR by all participants in the economic world. There is more than enough evidence indicating that entrepreneurial activities will only survive when there is support and appreciation from the society.
We will write a custom Essay on Suncorp-Metway Limited Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The success determinants for a business such as stakeholders and corporate strategies have been influenced by the societal desire to have a closer relationship (Warwick, 2008, p.20). Factors influencing the market namely social, environmental and economics reflect the central position of the major stakeholders in the CSR impasse.
According to Porter and Kramer (2006, p.1) CSR refers to the organization constant obligation to act morally and continuously grow economically while at the same time improving the general life of its employees as well as their families and the society at large. McWilliams et al. (2005, p.6) suggests that businesses should take on charitable activities around the communities where they operate.
Other important obligations that corroborate CSR include economic, legal and moral responsibilities. The practical tasks of corporate social responsibility deals completely with environmental issues that correlate to the natural surrounding, economic and social issues that will finally go towards the development of the communities and the government.
The organizations’ case for corporate social responsibility is influenced by several factors such as changing public expectations, company image, business resources and legal regulations.
Warwick (2008, p.20) asserts that CSR is the moral obligation both in social, economic and legal expectation that the society has of any particular organization be it small business or larger corporations. It reflects the organization efforts in managing its functions that will generate overall positive effects on the public. Companies are at present competitively succeeding in international market.
To do extremely well in this competitive market, the company must be morally service orientation towards the stakeholders that include its clients, employees, suppliers, management, the general public and other interested groups.
Regardless of the need to devote more resources in terms of time and capital so as to put into practice the best CSR activities, business have appreciated its consequence in determining their image and differentiating it from competitors.
Warwick (2008, p.37) further stresses that the foundation of CSR in any business or organization arise from the five basic elements. These basic elements are closely linked to value addition, product improvement, the public sense, long-term projections in addition to being sensitive to the policies in place.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Suncorp-Metway Limited Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Product originality connotes steady introduction of new products in the market in order to service consumers as well as increase the company competitive advantage. Being sensitive to society or the public implies the legal responsibility a business has to the community considering reverence, necessities and provisos of services and commodities that are in accordance to social, economic and environmental issues.
Adding value to the product is an element of CSR which is very significant in all businesses activities since it creates trust and merit in marketplace as well as in the judgment of the most vital stakeholders to the business. These include suppliers, investors, customers and employees (McWilliams et al., 2005, p.16). From this point of view, it becomes imperative for business organizations to generate value through their operations.
Indeed corporation that are working more for community services more willingly than profit the reasons enhance their competitive advantage which is essential in determining their endurance (Porter and Kramer, 2006, p.1).
All businesses organizations must operate under corporate control or legal procedures that is aims to guard them against adverse issues such as financial misappropriation. Therefore, all firms are indebted to abide by the guiding principles set by the regulating bodies like the government agencies.
Additionally, businesses are continuing processes that are supposed to be sustained by bearing in mind the needs and expectations of all the stakeholders of interest.
Corporate social responsibility has an important role in promoting company reputation and brand image (Cavett-Goodwin, 2007, p.1). It is preferably supportive in improving sales in addition to customer trustworthiness. It is also an essential tool used in attracting and retaining best employees. Consequently, CSR is a prerequisite of the company increased capability which in turn ensure sustainable development.
CSR is one of the most essential tools that play important role in any business operations despite of its size. To flourish in the current aggressive business environment, business organization needs to reimburse the public in form of corporate social responsibility (Ludescher, 2009, p.1).
Albeit businesses and the general public are inter-dependent as well as inter-linked in one way or the other, their involvement in CSR are a sign of goodwill (Ludescher, 2009, p.1)
Recommendations It is to the best interest of the company to forge ahead and implement the CSR strategies to remain sustainable and competitive. It likely that the Suncorp-Metway Limited will continuously gain from good relationship built with the community and customers because of the embracing CSR best business practices.
As we forge a head it is important to be cognizant of those measures that will give our company a rare competitive edge and sustainable profitability. However, as we will continuously replicate the promotion and development of CSR business programs, the real benefits the company will get from these programs is harder to foresee.
References Cavett-Goodwin, D. 2007, “Making the Case for Corporate Social Responsibility”. Web.
Ludescher, J. 2009, “Corporate Social Responsibility: From Corporate Strategy to Global Justice”. Web.
McWilliams, A., Siegel, D. S.
Language Testing and Assessment Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Language testing and assessment requires a guiding framework and a solid benchmark upon which a student’s performance can be evaluated. According to Bachman and Palmer (1996) model, a language test should not only focus on oral proficiency, but also other important components of a language.
In this regard, Bachman and Palmer (1996) developed the four structures of language testing namely; second language reading performance, state and trait strategy use, strategic competence and structural equation modelling. This paper uses Bachman and Palmer (1996) as a framework to make an evaluative commentary on TOEFL as an international English language test.
The second language reading performance focuses on the development of good reading habits. Good reading habits also reflect on a student’s attitude towards the language being studied. In this case, the language in question is English. Reading in reference to TOEFL is tested in terms of passages which students read and answer the comprehension questions asked. Comprehension questions test students’ analytical reading skills.
The state and trait strategy use thrusts the state and trait metacognition into the limelight. The aspects of this paradigm include planning, self-checking, cognition strategy and awareness (Cohen, 1998). State metacognition is transitory while trait metacognition is relatively stable.
This strategy focuses more on goal achievement. The test should give results as to whether the states goal of offering English either as a first or second language was accomplished. In addition, the results of the test should be able to help students understand whether they managed to achieve their individual goal or not.
There is the strategic competence which refers to the ability to balance incompetency in one area through competency in certain areas. In linguistics, this is done through either coining words or circumlocution. In extreme cases, one may seek refuge in sign language. Other important components discussed under the umbrella of strategic competence are grammatical, sociolinguistic and discourse competencies.
Lastly, this paper will also examine the structural equation modelling in relation to language testing. It mainly deals with statics and its testing and analyzing. Then, regarding the obtained data, it determines the relations between combination of statistics and quality. It allows for both confirmatory and exploratory modelling. It is, therefore, crucial to theory testing and theory development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Evaluative Commentary Every evaluative commentary on language tests cannot overlook Bachman and Palmer framework. Bachman and Palmer (1996) developed the four structures of language testing namely; second language reading performance, state and trait strategy use, strategic competence and structural equation modelling. These structures have already been discussed in detail in the preceding section.
The second language reading performance has been the subject of widespread research. A key feature in the second language reading performance is the centres on the development of good reading habits and a liking for the reading culture.
One thing that has been noted to impact profoundly on reading is the attitude of learners. It is true that people walk into academic institutions inevitably armed with various attitudes towards the subjects to be studied. According to Day and Bamford’s (1998) model, one of the factors influencing second language reading is the attitude towards a learner’s first language.
It has been established that there is always a relationship between first language reading and second language reading. This is because the first language reading ability is usually transferred to the second language reading. This implies that a learner must first develop the necessary proficiency in their first language before undertaking a second language.
Therefore, a language test based on this structure would be useful if it focused on extensive reading. Extensive reading will also enable the learner to develop an affinity to the second language and; hence, will be able to master the use of the language in context (Day
Ethical Challenges During Negotiations Research Paper college application essay help
Abstract When the concept of negotiations is explored from an ethical point of view, it is meant to improve the success of negotiations not only for us to win against someone else’s loss, but also to come up with situations where everyone wins.
This is because the observation of ethical practices in a negotiation yields a fair and just agreement that often leaves everyone happy and contented with whatever they have achieved from the negotiation (Fells, 2009).
The major reason, however, for the adoption of ethical behavior during negotiations is to ensure that both parties adopt negotiations in future if they are faced with any disagreement, instead of having to drag each other through court battles that often leave the parties more divided and scorned (Lewicki Barry
Shortcomings that arise from a market strategy that aims at pleasing too many different types of customers Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction It is evident that many organizations are working towards becoming customer-centric. Companies are aiming at satisfying as many customers as possible by producing products that are expected to fit different demographic parameters of the society. In this regard, this paper aims at evaluating whether this marketing initiative is flawed or it can be a success if pursued.
In order for the paper to clearly demystify the underlying facts in this paper, relationship theory of marketing will be used to investigate whether this marketing strategy is flawed or it can be successful. From its foundations, the paper will justify whether the study is worth investigating and why it is important to the marketing department.
Flaws in Wanting To Please So Many Customers Many organizations that have set on pleasing as many customers as possible have resulted in having many files for inactive customers stashed in their cabinet walls. This is because many organizations have a tendency to serve clients and later open a file for them on the assumption that these customers will stay and become loyal customers. In most incidences, this optimistic marketing strategy fails.
This is because the organization’s marketing department did not take its time to develop a good relationship with the customer prior to opening a file on them. Therefore, after a year or so, when the company decides to evaluate the number of customers in its portfolio, it establishes that they have many docile customers (Ferrell and Hartline, 2010).
According to Zimmerman (2001), the reasons why customers leave a certain organization can partially be attributed to the fact that they feel that the organization does not care about them. This scenario is likely to arise where the organization aims at pleasing too many customers simultaneously.
Many companies spend more than 80% of their marketing budget in pursuit of new customers instead of maintaining and nurturing a relationship with the existing ones (Ferrell and Hartline, 2010). This marketing strategy cost organizations more than six times selling the same product to a prospecting customer than it would have cost selling the same to an already established customer.
Therefore, it is the duty of the marketing department to develop good relationship with the customers so that they can often purchase the organization’s products (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2008). This relationship can be built by treating customers as strategic partners in the company as this will prove to them that the company cares about their concerns.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This objective is only attainable if the organization satisfies its customers by selling the right products that are supported by the right promotion paraphernalia that ascertains that the products are available for the market at the right time and in the right place for the customers (The University of Michigan, 2002).
For the organization to achieve this objective, it should dedicate its best staff to do this job. This is because customers are easily won by competitors, more so when they detect indifference or insincerity in the organization’s marketing strategy (Fragasso, 2008). Therefore, it is the duty of the organization’s marketing department to create long-term customer relationships.
It is evident that this cannot be attained if the organization constantly wants to satisfy the needs of so many different customers at the same time. This enormous challenge can only be achieved if marketing department makes it its duty to maintain its customers rather than to focus on amassing new ones.
It should project its budgetary allocation towards nurturing good relationship with its customers as this guarantees the organization continued business with its established customer base (Boone and Kurt, 2010). As noted by Aslib (2009), this initiative is expected to increase the organization’s sales by a 50% margin without increasing its marketing department’s budgetary allocation.
Another pitfall that arises from this marketing approach where organizations pursue to please many different types of customers is that most organisations end up failing in the core objective of customer satisfaction.
This is because customer satisfaction in any product sold by an organization arises if the product delivered is able to meet the customer’s needs holistically. This marketing scenario enables the organization employees to intervene where necessary to ensure that the customer experience is superb (Kotler et al, 2009).
However, this is not possible if the organization is constantly looking for new and different customers to satisfy. When an organisation has a big pool of new customers to satisfy, its service or product delivery becomes inconsistent which often leads to a conflict in the services or products delivered. For instance, General Motors is a prime example for this scenario.
We will write a custom Essay on Shortcomings that arise from a market strategy that aims at pleasing too many different types of customers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is because at one point in the company’s history, its products were tailored to fulfil certain demographics of the society. For example, the company had cars meant to meet the needs of various sections of the society. It had small family minivans for families, sports cars for the sporty people and trucks for working class as well as vehicles for goods transport among many other brands of vehicles (McKee, 2011).
This diversification strategy to please different customers resulted in a conflict of interest in the General Motor brands. For example, the company produced Pontiac, a popular car in the 60’s and 70’s as it signified power and style. However, Pontiac introduced other brands under its umbrella such as the Trans Sport which was a minivan, the Sunfire, a compact car among others brands.
Pontiac’s marketing strategy to satisfy customers makes one to question which facet of the society was the original Pontiac made for. This is because along the way, the company had lost track of its initial objective to manufacture a car for a certain section of the society as they mixed up its production in an attempt to fulfil the desires of as many customers as possible at the same time (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel, 2011).
The ability of any organization to fully satisfy its customers is entrenched in its unwritten rules and its trademark products that build its legacy. This is not possible for an organization whose culture is deeply rooted on the belief that it should satisfy as many customers as possible.
This wide range of production denies the organization the chance to have a product that can be accurately identified as its leading product. This pitfall can only be eradicated if the organization specializes and dedicates its resources on fulfilling the needs of a particular section in the market (Dempsey, 2004).
The organization’s aim to satisfy various customers will result in poor advertising programs. For instance, due to the magnitude of the products that the organization will be selling to its customers the best advertisement methods that can be implemented would only be the use of flyers that only show the name of the business, a few basics features of the product being sold and lastly, the address of the organization.
This marketing strategy results in little or no response from prospective customers (Aaker, 2008). Businesses that adopt this model are doomed to fail as they do not take into consideration the psychological sequence of the buyers. This is because the marketers lack time to accurately strategize on the best marketing criteria for each business product that is on sale from the organization.
Therefore, there is a need for organizations to brand their products that target a particular section of the society rather than the whole community. This branding will also give the organization the chance to formulate award winning advertisements that are expected to promote their products to prospective customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Shortcomings that arise from a market strategy that aims at pleasing too many different types of customers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such advertisements are precise as they leave no room for irrelevant complaints from factions of the society that are not in the organization’s target audience (Kotler and Lee, 2006).
Reason Why Companies Embark On Selling To Too Many Different Types of Buyers According to Egan and Harker (2005), organizations spend too much time asking prospective customers from all walks of life their opinions on various products they offer. This approach in the marketing strategy forms a weak link in the organization’s market research.
This is because in asking all types of groups questions that are expected to provide the marketing department with the data expected to pilot how the organization will sell its products will result in biased or untrue information.
As noted by Doyle (2001), it is evident that majority of those respondents answer the questioners based on two beliefs. First, they might respond to the questions by giving answers that they know the questioner wants to hear. Secondly, they may give answers that are expected to attest their intelligence or that are expected to make them sound smarter.
This problem in collecting marketing data worsens when the group to be questioned is gathered together to form a focus group. Such group’s main agenda is to please their cohorts. Therefore, they give biased responses so as to achieve their objectives.
This makes the focus groups inherently flawed in their marketing objectives as they mislead organizations into believing that their products will be bought if they sell them to different types of customers.
According to Kapferer (2007), these focus groups conceive an artificial marketing environment for organizations based on intellectual information that they collect and forget that most buyers’ decision to buy is mostly influenced by their emotions rather than their knowledge.
Therefore, it is prudent to say that focus groups have misled organizations into believing that selling goods to numerous types of groups would increase the organizations market share or profits (Dibb and Simkin, 2008). This belief has led to the failure of many products such as the McDonald’s Mclean sandwich that was greatly hyped by its marketing focus group (McDonald, 2002).
The Relationship Theory of Marketing The relationship theory of marketing will play a crucial role in depicting the importance of having good customer relations for organizations. According to Buttle, (2006), the relationship marketing theory is concerned with attracting customers, development of good relationship with customers and lastly, their retention.
This theory has put more emphasis on customer satisfaction and retention as opposed to stressing on the importance of increasing the sales transaction of the organization. The theory has differed from other theories proposed in marketing. This is because it articulates that having long-term customer relations is the most important element in any successful marketing department.
Relationship marketing theory holds that customer retention supersedes any advertisement message that can be formulated by the marketing department in the organization (Kleinaltenkamp and Ehret, 2006).
Relationship marketing involves finding new customers that are within the organization’s target group, formulation of strategies that are expected to attract them to the organization, nurturing the relationship that the organization has with those customers, retaining its already existing customers, enticing back former customers who might have been lost to its competitors and lastly, reduction of the costs of marketing that come with serving organization clients.
This theory proves the aim of pleasing too many different types of customers is flawed. This is because such strategy simply advocates for a purchase-exchange process between the customer and the seller thus negating the fundamental ideologies of this theory, which is having an organization transaction that is expected to create some ties between the seller and the buyer.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident that this paper has exhaustively discussed the shortcomings that arise from a market strategy that aims at pleasing too many different types of customers. The paper has managed to show that this strategy is flowed.
The paper has also effectively identified the flaws that have resulted in this marketing strategy. It is also evident that the relationship marketing theory negates the strategy of seeking to please too many customers. Therefore, it is prudent to conclude that the aim of selling the goods to customers is flawed and any organization planning to do so is doomed to fail.
Reference List Aaker, D., 2008. Strategic Market Management. New York: John Wiley.
Aslib, B. 2009. Aslib information. New York: Aslib.
Boone, L., E. and Kurt, D., L., 2010. Contemporary Business. New York: John Wiley
Comparing and contrasting the curriculum approaches in England and Scotland Essay essay help online
Introduction Education and care among children has proved to be a big challenge for curriculum developers. From one perspective, there is a need to guide the personnel in early childhood centers, especially if they have low qualification or insufficient training.
A curriculum aids in ascertaining that staffs cover crucial learning areas, espouse a pedagogical approach, and accomplish a certain measure of quality in various groups across a country or region.
A curriculum is, too, a center for further training. On another perspective, it is broadly accepted that the aims of early childhood education and care curriculum ought to be diverse, as well as contribute to the child’s overall development and later success in school (Mac Naughton, 2003 p. 12).
These aims include health and physical development; emotional welfare and social capability; constructive paradigms to learning; communication skills; cognition and general knowledge. In addition, owing to learning patterns of young children, social-emotional and cognitive progress is learnt at the child’s own speed.
They take place through play and active methods, controlled by the child’s self-determination. All these considerations point out that caution should be taken while coming up with a comprehensive cognitive curriculum, which staff should deliver to acquiescent young children (Whitebread, 2006 p. 23).
Given the significance of this growth stage in children (pre-birth to five); many countries around the world have opted to issuing of brief guidelines on early childhood programming instead of offering a comprehensive curriculum. These guidelines are directed towards parents, educators and local administrators.
Fundamentally, these guidelines or curricular frameworks set up the value base and program principles on which this education is to be grounded. The goal is to encourage a collective sense of purpose between parents and early childhood centers; to endorse social and cultural values vital for society; to ascertain a considerable amount of unity of standards; and to inform and ease communication between staff, parents and children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although, many countries are still lagging behind in implementing early childhood education and care curriculums, some have already taken the big step and endorsed detailed programs. Such nations include England and Scotland. This essay compares and contrasts the curriculum approaches in both countries with close attention to children aged 0-5 years (Saracho, 2006 p. 42).
Comparing and contrasting curriculum approaches in England and Scotland The United Kingdom comprises of four different countries, each with a command over education: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The fact that the four countries were part of the Britain does not imply that they share a common curriculum in their schools although English remains the dominantly spoken language in amongst these nations.
England has its own curriculum known as National Curriculum while Scotland’s is referred to as National Guidance (Pinar, 2003 p. 27). The first part of this essay offers an overview of the two curriculums before describing their similarities and differences.
The national Curriculum in England: Key Stages The National Curriculum offers an entitlement to a number of areas for all children in maintained schools, in spite of their background and ability. Although there is not an exact match between ages and Key Stages, children may complete Key Stages at an earlier or later age based on their progress. In addition, private schools do not a need to adhere to the National Curriculum or deliver Key Stage tests.
The National Curriculum has four Key Stages with eight levels (Cox, 2004 p. 8). The first stage is meant for children between 5 and 7 years. The National Curriculum identifies learning across a number of subjects such as history, art and information technology, though the three core subjects are English, mathematics and science.
Children are tested in reading, writing and mathematics, but these are used only to inform overall teacher assessments. The test results are not reported or collected centrally (Anning, 2001 p. 21).
The next Key Stage of the National Curriculum is meant for children aged 7-11. This is usually the end of primary education after which pupils in maintained schools proceed to secondary schools. Pupils study ten subjects assessed by teachers. They take tests in English, mathematics and science.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparing and contrasting the curriculum approaches in England and Scotland specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key Stage 3 covers the first three years of secondary schooling. Students take twelve subjects, with teacher assessments and tests in English, mathematics and science. The fourth and last Key Stage of the National Curriculum prepares pupils towards various academic and vocational qualifications (DCSF, 2008 p. 23).
These are partly assessed through coursework. Every young person has to study English, mathematics, science, ICT, citizenship and Physical Education. Pupils must also study religious education, careers education, sex education and work-related learning. They also have access to four entitlement areas covering the arts, design and technology, languages and humanities.
The above four Key Stages point out that the Early Years Foundation Stage is deliberately not part of the National Curriculum. It, however, creates a distinct, coherent phase for all children aged 0-5.
It places an expectation on practitioners to support children’s learning and development through creative development, as well as physical development. Practitioners are expected to assess children’s progress through observation. The EYFS Profile is a tool to summarize children’s achievements at the completion of the Foundation Stage (Geva
Rollerblade Micro-Environment analysis Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Rollerblade Micro-Environment analysis Businesses are affected by both internal and external factors; to remain competitive leaders should keep making timely, quality, responsive business decisions.
The United States apparels industry is highly competitive with international and domestic players; in2010, US footwear industry recorded a decrease in sales by 2%, the industry was worth US$42,045 with 2 billion pairs sold. This paper discusses micro-environment of Rollerblade Corporation (Rollerblade Official website, 2011).
Sport market in the United States Despite global financial crisis of 2007, the United States sports market recorded an increased sale in the years 2010, during the year, the market increased with 3%; this was a total value of US$27,371. Shoes recorded a marginal decrease in these sales with women sportswear shoes recording the highest decline in 2010.
In relation to unit prices for the products, the prices increased marginally in 210 to record an increase of 1% on average; the products that experienced the highest increase were children sports footwear which recorded an increase by 3%.
With the growth in globalization, there have been growth in online selling where the target are international markets; in 2009, Amazon was able to complete sales worth US$930 through its online sellers like Zappos.com. In 2010, Jones Apparels announced that it had increased its sales with 2%; the move had been attributed to growth in clothing sectors mostly children clothing’s.
Competitors There are a number of players in the sportswear industry; the players are both national and international. The main competitors that Rollerblade has to deal with include Fila and Nike; they are companies that specify on sporting apparels.
Competition in the United States sportswear industry is high, however Nike has been able to share the largest market where it shares about quarter of the market at 23%, and payless shoesources Inc. follows a distance second at 5% of the market share. The company has a strong brand name thus Rollerblade has to devise mechanisms to compete with the multinational; it also enjoys economies of scale (Nike Official Website, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fila
Fila Company is another competitor that Rollerblade has to consider when making marketing and product development strategies. Fila Company is an Italian multinational that operates in more than none countries United States included.
The company had strong marketing team that advises the management on the right approach to marketing. The company has invested in investment in skating footwear and other apparels, in 2009, the company introduced the Fila carving skates, with active steering technology which are skating shoes with high levels of comfort.
With the market aggressiveness, Rollerblade has to enact effective selling and marketing policies to sell their products effectively. Although Rollerblade has been favoured by the growth of skiing sport, its competitors have developed products, shoes that are preferred by sportsmen than the products made by the company.
The fast developments of the company’s products have make Rollerblade face high competition from the company. Fila are highly supported by its strong brand names; the company is able to venture into new business arenas because of the strength of its name (Fila Official Website, 2011).
New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc
Another competitor that Rollerblade has to consider when making its products is New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc. The company accounted for 0.2 % of Unites States sales of apparels in 2010; the amounts realized are US$774 million in US sales. The level sales had reached that record high because of its business diversification to footwear sporting items.
To remain competitive the company has embraced technology and engaged in business partnership with wholesalers and retailers like J Crew. It was ranked the seventh in foot ware sales in 2010; Rollerblade has the task of coming up with project that address such strong competitors (New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc, 2011).
Customer Rollerblade choose its customers from a wide range of potential customers, the main area that the company has concentrated in are sports people, both men and women where it sponsors some sports as marketing tools. Other than the established players, the company has programs that reach to future markets; they include policies and marketing strategies that address children, college students, and high school students.
We will write a custom Essay on Rollerblade Micro-Environment analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The method of marketing is aimed at creating close marketing link with the youthful population in preparation of future markets (Neal and Quester, 2006).
Rollerblade marketing team is conscious of the method of selling that its competitors are using; the method is superior as it assists the company know the right approach to the market and the kind of commodities that markets are looking for.
When developing products, the company undertakes wide research on the right developments they should adopt in their strategies. The aim of the company is always to offer high quality products and create and maintain its customer’s loyalty (Metters, Kathryn, Madeleine and Steve, 2006).
References Fila Official Website. 2011. Fila. Web.
Metters, R., Kathryn, K., Madeleine, P., and Steve, W.,2006. Successful Service Operations Management. Thomson South-Western: Mason.
National Museum of Roller skating Website, 2011. National Museum of Roller skating. Web.
Neal, C. and Quester, P.,2006. Consumer behaviour: implications for marketing strategy.NewJersey: McGraw-Hill.
New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc., 2011. New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rollerblade Micro-Environment analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nike Official Website., 2011. Nike. Web.
Rollerblade Official website.,2011. Rollerblade. Web.
Kirby Report Recommendations Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Recommendation Category one
The context at the time
Support and opposition of the recommendation
The current hospital status in Canada
In 2002, the Canadian senate sought to investigate the state of health in the country and make necessary recommendations. The Standing Committee mandated on matters of social affairs, science and technology took up the matter and set out to investigate as well as come up with a document that would offer detailed information on the state of national health and make recommendations.
The committee was chaired by Senator Michael Kirby, and specifically, it sought to come up with ways that would reduce problems related to maldistribution, jurisdictional competition and undersupply. The committee, on completion of its investigative work and writing of reports, came up with various recommendations that were categorized into six parts.
The overall recommendation was that the federal government was supposed to work with relevant parties in creating a national coordinating body for health care system and which was supposed to be composed of key stakeholders. This paper explores one of the recommendations that were proposed by the committee.
Recommendation Category one Recommendations on restructuring the current hospital and doctor system to make them more efficient as well as effective in providing timely and quality patient care (Taylor, 2009, p.7).
This is the first of the categories of recommendations that were made by Kirby’s committee as a way of improving conditions of health care system in the country. According to Day, Paul and Williams (2009), Kirby’s report on the status of Canadian health care system noted that there were some grave issues that need to be addressed on matters concerning hospital management.
For this reason therefore, the committee made it clear that there was a need to restructure the hospital managements. This recommendation was prompted by a number of factors. The discussion below looks at the state of Canadian health system and hospital management that prompted such a recommendation.
The context at the time Before the commissioning of the report and subsequent recommendations were made, the hospital situation in Canada was in bad state. Apart from a few ones, the hospitals in the country were not for profits and their ownership was community based. Some of them were owned by religious bodies while others were either owned by universities or the municipal governments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In actual sense, the territorial or provincial governments did not own hospitals, and this is despite the fact that the provincial administration was doing a lot of funding for the management of the hospitals in the country. The concept of restructuring was therefore meant to devolve the management of the hospitals plus the doctor system.
The major concept here is care-spending from the provincial administration or governments or what could be termed as the ministries of health in the national government. Once money is released from the national headquarter, the regional health authorities abbreviated as RHAs would take up the matter and design the best way to distribute the money or resources.
In Canada, there existed the municipal doctor system but was superseded by what came to be known as the province-wide medical care program (Taylor, 2009). This program had its own merits but it later degenerated to inefficiency and low productivity among the hospital units that were affected.
This led to an increased need to change the system so that there could be a more accommodative approach that could enhance efficiency in the hospitals. In changing this system, the committee sought to address a number of fundamentals that were realized.
For example, it became apparent that there was need to address the issue of growing waiting times in accessing health services and ensuring that the patients can receive the services in their jurisdictions. It was also critical for the county to start meeting patient service standards that can be regarded as reasonable to all. The overall goal was to ensure that the health provision in the country was up to standards.
Action taken The government of Canada has adopted various measures in an effort to restructure management and smooth working of hospitals. In a study carried out on 140 Canadian hospitals after a lot of restructuring of these healthcare units, it was found out that the kind of restructuring that was done was changing of the nursing staff mix (Hall, Jan 2005).
There was employment of full time nurses and the government enhanced support roles that utilized issues such as professional practice leaders, clinical specialists in nursing, case managers, nurse educators and nurse practitioners. The government has also done a lot of merging and downsizing as an overall measure of restructuring and there are government sponsored medicines.
We will write a custom Essay on Kirby Report Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, these measures have not been effective and some of the hospitals have been forced to close. For example, reducing of critical medical services has only resulted to loss of extensive jobs for the hospital workers and mostly the nurses.
Hospital restructuring has also resulted to stress and job insecurity. It can therefore be argued that government response in terms of restructuring has not yielded the fruits that were foreseen by the committee. As such, there is dire need to relook at the issue and put necessary measures.
The government has also come up with what can be termed as a market based restructuring and funding structure for the hospitals. As was proposed by Kirby led committee, there was a need for a neutral funder especially when it comes to ownerships of the institutions. It also detailed on giving the institutions some greater independence from the government.
The government reduced its control on the institution but it then led to the reduction on the number of employees in the institutions. The government also adopted the structure that was proposed by Kirby’s committee; especially on devolution of the responsibilities of the government administration like the territorial governments (Baranek, Deber
Transforming the Economy to Address Climate Change and Global Resource Competition Proposal college admission essay help
America’s challenge is the reduction of greenhouse emissions without increasing spending. The recommendation by the National Academy of Science is to focus national policies towards increasing energy efficiency and conservation efforts to eventually meet an effective social cost (Parker, Blodgett and Yacobucci 2).
America is trying to develop economic and environmental policies to reduce carbon emission through economic packages like green house incentives to trade exposed industries.
These industries are of concern for they represent over 80% of the country’s energy consumption. Additionally, these companies have unlimited access to global resources like raw materials, talent and capital. There is therefore, need to reshape the manner in which industries race for resources as it affects global business trends.
This shift in change will require the pulling of political and financial resources to change business trends that have been linked directly to resource depletion. The problem facing this change strategy is the refusal of western companies to increase energy costs to renewable and nuclear sources. The growing financial disparity is the world has created tension between economic and political systems that shape policy changes.
The test to such policies on climate change and global resource competition is the integration of set goals with American economic strategies and traditional energy policies. Primarily the country is driven by an economic principle founded on industrialization which is the main source of greenhouse gases and high energy consumption (Jeanne and Parker 5).
These pose a challenge to America as it finds alternative energy sources, energy saving measures, cost efficient production methods and reduction of greenhouse gases. The other challenge America is facing is the creation of effective industrial practices that will set a good example to emerging markets like China and India. Current industrial practices have created a competitive environment where nations are racing to secure energy sources.
To achieve a cost effective climate change plan that will still make American economy competitive it proposed that community mobilization is utilized. Community mobilization entails the change of American thought, practices and behaviors that will lead to cost efficient approaches (Parker, Blodgett and Yacobucci 3). An organization that is striving to achieve this goal is 350.org founded by Bill McKibben.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organization is an online based center that builds grassroot movements to solve America’s climate problems. This organization provides a cost effective approach to dealing with climate change and global resource issues through a bottoms up method (Peterson 1). The organization makes use of readily available communication methods like the internet and social mediums to reach a vast number of people.
This is cost effective compared to other communication modes since it taps into a wide network comprising of over 10 million users a day. To change the country’s energy consumption practices, the company focuses on transforming the thought patterns of the youth that make up a majority of online users and who are tomorrow’s leaders.
Through community mobilization and public action, 350.org aims at reducing emission of greenhouse gases to 350 parts from 392ppm (350.org 1). Community mobilization entails education and imparting of information to increase awareness of the effects and causes of poor climate. As 350.org shows, this education is effective for it trains and organizes the public on best approaches to be used for climate action.
Through rallies, seminars and a website the organization teaches on the science behind the 350 principle. The organization also mobilizes the public to gain local and federal recognition of current issues affecting climate change.
Current campaign efforts are addressing issues like the stopping of tar sands and a drive against the chamber of congress’ push to have the Supreme Court prevent regulation of carbon emissions (350.org 1). This proves the need for local support for climate change since government and policy makers are not committed to follow the Kyoto protocol or environmental policies (WNA 1).
Community mobilization is a cost effective climate change policy approach since it directly addresses the larger public. This approach easily educates the public on simple measures that can be taken to reduce emission of carbon and domestic energy saving techniques like the use of solar power.
People are also informed on ways they can sustainably manage waste like reusing recyclable materials. Public action should drive the need for policies that encourage industries to use diversified energy mixes, use efficient technology and locally available energy sources to reduce production cost and attain climate change.
We will write a custom Proposal on Transforming the Economy to Address Climate Change and Global Resource Competition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The country needs to realize that greater energy efficiency combined with the use of new technologies will reduce greenhouse gases and solve the challenge of competition for global resource. Energy efficiency methods include using energy saving bulbs and reduce domestic energy consumption through solar and wind sources.
Individuals can be encouraged to reduce dependence of fossil fuels through taking walks and riding bicycles for short distances, and using bio-fuel engines for their vehicles. Domestic waste can be reduced through the reuse and recycling of solid waste like glass and plastic bottles. Hence Americans can effect changes needed at the grass-root level.
Works Cited Jeanne, Grimmett and Parker Larry. “Climate Change: EU and Proposed U.S. Approaches to Carbon Leakage and WTO Implications.” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, CRS Report R40914, 2010.
Parker, Larry, Blodgett John and Yacobucci Brentt. “U.S. Global Climate Change Policy: Evolving views on cost, Competitiveness, and Comprehensiveness.” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, RL30024,1-15, 2011.
Peterson, Perspectives. “Climate Change: International Competition and US policy Responses.” Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2008.
U.S. Department of State. “U.S. Climate Action Report 2006.” Washington, DC: Report by U.S department of State, 2007, 381.
WNA. “Policy Responses to Climate Change.” World Nuclear Association, 2011. 350.org. “350 science.” 350.org. April, 2011. https://350.org/science/ 26 Oct 2011.
Major Types of Relations in Organizations Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The concept of employee relation is both a philosophy and practice that has been embraced for long. It is a philosophy in the sense that it motivates employees to perform better in organizations. As a practice, it has been used by organizational managers to initiate processes that tend to boost productivity (Armstrong, 2008, p.195).
The practice and philosophy of employee relation is best put under the philosophy of Human Resource Management. Hence, the model in Human Resource Management that constitutes the concept of employee relations include self drive for strong commitment that focuses on winning the hearts and minds of employees (Armstrong, 2008, p. 195).
As a matter of fact, employee relations explore the nature of relationships that exist in organizations. There are three major types of relations in organizations that are closely related to employees. These are employer-employee relations, employee-employee relations and employee-work place/organizational relations.
Components of Employee Relations There are myriad of essential components that constitute employee relations. These include performance management that is aligned with the goals and objectives of an organization, significances attached to employees in organizations, tactics of administering the performance of employees, the link between performance of employees and rewards in addition to job design.
Finally, discipline of employees and employee counseling are also vital components in employee relation. According to Gennard and Judge (2005, p. 14), anything that pertains employee relations must consider management aspect of solving problems that are identified among employees.
This management must be designed in a way that it captures the tacit knowledge of the employees and how this can be transited to the organizational performance. However, the overall interests of the organization, which to some extent are the interests of the employer, must be looked into (Gennard
What is “Two-step Flow”? What Implications Does It Have for Our Understanding of Mass Communication? Essay college essay help
Introduction The two-step flow theory of communication revolves around a study that was conducted on the social influence of the media. It should be known that it was introduced in 1994 by Paul Lazarsfeld (Berger 1995, p. 14). In this case, it tries to explain that the effects of the mass media are indirectly portrayed through the impact of different opinion leaders.
This is done through their influence that cannot be underestimated because they are looked upon by the public (Casmir 1994, p. 34). As much as different people might get information through the media, it should be known they might trust what opinion leaders say. This means that most people are entirely influenced by the media second hand as time goes by.
As a matter of fact, this influence is attributable to these people who are respectable in the society. Opinion leaders influence the media and that is why they are looked upon. We can describe opinion leaders as people who are privy of information or content that will be relayed by the media.
Later on, they are able to interpret this content based on the own opinions. As time goes by, they will be able to give out this information to the public through infiltration thereby influencing them.
In the long run, the public that has been infiltrated by different opinions becomes opinion followers. The influence that these opinion leaders might have comes from the elite media that is not accessible to the general public (Hoynes 1007, p. 19). Therefore, the elite media creates some social influence that can later on be adjusted by different opinions and ideals.
There might be opposing ideals and opinions but proper combination leads to a popular mass media that can appeal to everyone. All this aspects can be described as social persuasion because there are different people who might form a decision and opinion based on this (DeFleur 1989, p. 26).
In conclusion, it can be said that information gets to the masses through influential figures and leaders. This can explain why some media campaigns and initiatives do not achieve their goals and objectives because leaders might diffuse the content in a manner that was not desired.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion Overview
The two steps flow has had different implications on our general understanding of mass communication in various ways. This means that such implications can be understood from different perspectives. As far as the two-step flow of communication is concerned, it stressed the human agency that therefore brings a different understanding on what we knew initially (Tankard 1979, p. 43).
We have been forced to look upon the human agency because of the role that it plays in trying to ensure that information reaches to the masses. In fact, it has tried to give us a better understanding that information flows from the mass media to opinion leaders who later on relay it to us.
For example, there are other people who have always relied on what their leader says based on the trust and respect that they might be having for him (DeFleur 1983, p. 29). This has therefore made us to understand why there might be different versions of information as a result of various interpretations which is guided by what a given opinion leader believes in.
We should understand that the two-step flow of communication has made us to understand the influence that the mass media has had on decision making. In this case, it has improved our understanding because it is quite obvious that decisions are made from information that we get (Underwood 1994, p. 78).
As much as this information might be from opinion leaders, it plays a big role in the final and ultimate decision that we might settle on. There are various theories behind decision making in our society and this is what two-step flow theory has tried to make us understand as time goes by.
All in all, this has tried to explain why certain decisions are made in different occasions and circumstances (Baran 2011, p. 58). There is a certain process that is followed as far as decision making is concerned and this is what the theory has tried to elaborate.
It should be known that there has been an implication of our understanding of mass communication as a result of this theory based on the fact that it has redefined our predictions on the influence of the media on different behaviors. This can be explained with practical examples where we might find different people changing their behavior to be in tandem with what they have been seeing from the media (Staubhaar 2009, p. 56).
We will write a custom Essay on What is “Two-step Flow”? What Implications Does It Have for Our Understanding of Mass Communication? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, some culture and form of dressing has been borrowed and copied as a result of the media. This has therefore changed our understanding of mass media because some media messages can ultimately change our behavior. In this case, it is mostly the audience that has been targeted by the media through opinion leaders who can access elite media before the masses.
As a matter of fact, the two-step flow of communication has enabled us to understand why some media initiatives and campaigns have not been able to alter the behavior of different audiences (Mehrabian 1971, p. 61).
This aspect implies that we should always understand when some media campaigns and initiatives fail to change different behaviors because the message might not be relayed or received as it was intended. In most occasions, this is because opinion leaders are the ones who transmit and give the masses information based on their own opinions and ideas (Bruce 2008, p. 36).
It should therefore be understood that some opinion leaders might want information to conform to their beliefs and opinions which might not achieve its initial and intended purpose. This is based on the diffusion of innovation theory that has come about as a result of this aspect of information flowing from the elite media to opinion leaders who access it to the mainstream media that is relied on by the masses.
In a broad perspective, this implies that opinions that different people might be holding will always differ in a broad way because opinion leaders cannot read from the same script in any way (Berlo 1960, p. 56).
Another implication should revolve around misunderstandings that will be witnessed amongst different individuals who happen to be the masses as a result of their affiliation to a given opinion leader. This implies that contrary to our expectations and understanding, there is bound to be misrepresentation of ideas and information by the masses who are supposed to be reached by the mainstream media (Schramm 1987, p. 38).
Our understanding of mass media has been built on the hypodermic needle theory that revolves around a stimulus response. In this case, people believe that once information has been given out by the media, all the masses are supposed to get it once and relay it to others (Weaver 1975, p. 59).
This is different from the two-step flow of communication that emphasizes that information, ideas and opinions are given out by opinion leaders. Such an issue therefore implies that as far as our understanding on information is concerned, we should seek to evaluate what we get before forming an opinion or decision on different aspects.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What is “Two-step Flow”? What Implications Does It Have for Our Understanding of Mass Communication? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Filtering of messages has had a very big implication on our general understanding of mass communication. This has had a different impact from our knowledge on the functions of mass communication. A perfect example that can be used in this case is political leaders. Political leaders have different ideals and beliefs that they stand for meaning that they are never ready to lose out on anything (Barnlund 2008, p. 92).
In the process, they end up filtering the messages that they will give to the masses because of their ability to access the elite media that is later on received by mainstream media. Most of these aspects happen during political campaigns so that politicians can be able to influence voting preferences (Berko 2010, p. 55).
All in all, these developments have made it difficult for people to understand the workings of the mass media as time goes by. This is because there is a big difference between theoretical issues and the way they are practiced as far as the two-step flow of information is concerned.
The implication of how the mass media mediates between our social relationships has also been an issue because this can ultimately be confusing. In this case, the understanding that people had about social relationships in relation to the messages that they receive has had to be re-evaluated because this is not the way things ought to be (Chandler 1998, p. 71).
Social relationships cannot be said to be uniform and well guarded yet there is screening of messages by different opinion leaders before it is released to the masses with different intentions. Such an issue has helped to reinforce the belief that the media is owned by certain individuals who can do whatever they like without any problem.
This gives mixed reactions in different perspectives because it should occur that there are people who will not rely on what they are being relayed for because opinion leaders have screened he messages (Heyman 1994, p. 83).
Conclusion The impact of personal influence on mass communication has now been understood as a result of this theory. This therefore implies that people will always try to understand messages because it is generated by a network of interconnected individuals (Potter 2008, p. 44). On either side of opinion leaders, there is always a network of connected individuals who share in specific ideals that they would wish to put forward.
This can therefore seek to explain why we have different views based on the information and messages that we have received as a result of mass communication. A wide variety of effects can be seen in our society based on what the two-step theory is trying to explain.
Interpersonal communication at community levels has been reevaluated in different ways through mass communication that is influenced by opinion leaders which is set to continue as people advance their interests in the society (Burke 2010, p. 93).
Our media has occasionally been relied on for messages and information for a long time but this varies in different societies based on what leaders want. This is a fact that we are supposed to live with because it is a reality. Notwithstanding, we should know that the messages that we receive might be intended for various purposes which calls for vigilance and proper interpretation.
Reference list Baran, S., 2011. Theories of Mass Communication: Introduction to Mass Communication. New York: McGraw Hill.
Berger, A., 1995. Essentials of Mass Communication Theory. London: SAGE Publications.
Barnlund, D., 2008. A transactional model of communication: Communication theory. New Jersey: Transaction.
Berlo, D., 1960. The process of communication. New York: Holt, Rinehart,
Adventurous Based Counseling Research Paper essay help free
Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of adventure based counseling and its effectiveness in counseling adolescents with problems of self-esteem. The discussion starts with a general overview of counseling then goes on to look at the adventure based counseling and its effectiveness in counseling adolescents with problems of self-esteem.
In the discussion, it is argued that the method of adventure based counseling, which takes place in a group context is very effective in helping clients (adolescents) to increase the levels of awareness of themselves thus becoming more responsible and fully in charge of their lives through the integration of their experiences with those of the other group members.
Discussion General Overview of Counseling
According to Carl Rogers, counseling is a series of direct contact between clients and counselors with an aim of assisting the clients to change their attitudes and behaviors which cause distress to them as well as helping them gain an understanding of themselves so as to take the appropriate positive steps in light of a new orientation.
According to Carl Rogers therefore, effective counseling should occur in an environment where the counselor and the client are able to interact without any barriers (Rogers, 1951).
Counseling is considered by psychologists as a helping profession. Just like other professions, counseling is guided by professional ethics and codes of conduct (Freeman, 2000). These are established to guard the public from unethical practices by quarks, who may pose as counselors. Counselors therefore undergo through intensive training where they acquire skills, techniques and competencies to use in their practice (Egan, 2007).
The techniques and skills which counselors acquire are unique and are aimed at helping different clients, who have different problems. Some of the techniques which they use in counseling include attending, effective listening and responding. The skills they use include reflecting, questioning, confronting, informing, teaching and interpreting among others (Burnard, 2005).
The goals of counseling include enhancement of self-understanding, communication, learning and behavior change, self-actualization and support by the counselor and or family members to the client (Geldard,
Gender parity in higher education Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Rights and Choices for Women in Education
Gender Parity in Leadership
Gender Parity in Employment
Introduction This paper reflects on the issue of gender parity in higher education. The paper outlines three major hindrances to achieving gender equity in access to higher education. The three factors mentioned in the paper include; the rights and choices for women education, gender parity in leadership and employment in senior positions. The paper looks at the three factors based on the four motivational frameworks; inclusion, attitude, meaning and competence.
The Rights and Choices for Women in Education The curriculum content as well as the teaching and evaluation methods should not appear to be gender biased. Curriculum designers need to bear in mind the issue of gender inclusivity by examining the language used in the curriculum, as well as the proposed teaching aids and methods Cooke (2011). The implementation part should also embrace gender inclusion. Female students can for example feel excluded reading a text that constantly refers to the “he” pronoun without mentioning “she”.
Attitude plays an important role too in achieving gender equity in higher education. Certain curricular choices for example are dominantly a male’s preserve since the old days by attitude. This attitude has been passed on from old generations to the current generations and continues to affect enrollment of female students in engineering courses Collard and Reynolds (2005).
Curriculum designers and implementers need to break away from this norm by encouraging equal gender enrollment in the various career choices. The curriculum should also be focused on developing the learners’ competency in handling real life situations.
Its content should be practical and applicable in everyday life situation of the learner. It is easier for one to comprehend what they can apply directly in their daily life than theoretical facts. The curriculum should provide learners an opportunity to actively participate in the learning process through questions, assignments, practical sessions and excursions.
Gender Parity in Leadership There is a widespread gender parity leadership in various institutions, including the education sector. Women are largely disadvantaged in the process of ascending to competitive leadership positions Cooke (2011). This is mainly because of poor democratic institutions and the nature of campaigns that mostly favor male candidates. There is need to strengthen democratic institutions and emphasize more on affirmative action to enable more female candidates ascend to leadership positions.
Curriculum should put more emphasis on practical leadership skills in order to empower and enhance learners’ leadership skills Collard and Reynolds (2005). Curriculum designers and implementers should base the curriculum content on well researched facts that include current and emerging life issues.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to enhance competency in leadership, the curriculum needs to be designed in a manner that it will provide several opportunities to the learner to practice leadership. This can be implemented through group work and presentations. Women should be encouraged to fight for leadership positions in the democratic space and embrace positive attitude towards it Tembon and Fort (2009).
Gender Parity in Employment Gender parity in employment is a question that continues to raise eyebrows both in developed and developing nations. Low female enrollment in schools and failure to successfully complete the education program is the bottom line of the problem Tembon and Fort (2009). There is, as a result few females employed in senior leadership positions both in government and private sector. There is need to develop employment laws that emphasize gender inclusion, or even create quotas to have more women employed in senior positions.
Certain jobs have for long been dominated by men, they include presidency, and parliamentary positions. It is against the norms for a woman to declare her presidential candidature in some countries even in this era of great civilization and enlighten. Such societies should be enlightened and made to understand that women are as competent as men to hold these positions.
Reference List Cooke, P. L. (2011). Gender – Class Equality in Political Economies. New York: Routledge.
Collard, J. and Reynolds, C. (2005). Leadership, Gender and Culture in Education: Male
Economic Environment: Privatisation Essay cheap essay help
This is the process of selling public assets to private business owners under the set rules and regulations. Privatisation of state enterprises has drawbacks and merits to the business workers, entrepreneurs, the state and the consumers in the market. During the process of privatisation, there are regulations that govern the act.
Advantages of privatising state enterprises Lower prices and greater supply
Private sectors have enough incentives to help them reduce the cost of production compared to the public sectors. The reason to engage in business in order to realise better profit margins as in the case of private sectors forces them to reduce the production costs, which results to lower prices in the market. This has therefore made consumers access a variety of products at low prices (Kodrzycki 1994).
Source of revenue to the government
Through privatisation, the government receives funds for developing public projects such as the construction of roads and hospitals. The government is therefore able to obtain enough capital by selling the property rather than operating the business, which could not be making profit (Kodrzycki 1994).
In private sectors, there is competition, which leads to production of high quality goods and services. Private sectors are able to employ many people at the same cost compared to public organizations and this improves the work done and reduces the production cost. Competition has also enabled consumers to access a variety of products in the market since each company would want to attract customers, which is not the case in monopoly markets (Kodrzycki 1994).
Due to privatisation, the government is free from the risks of management since it hands it over to the private company. The company therefore takes the responsibility of handling customers’ complaints concerning the products and services.
Due to privatisation, many employees lose their jobs or end up being paid lowly. This is because private sectors will always want to cut down the production cost to make profit and this affects the employees. At times, the government may hand over the organization to the company without clear performance specifications of the employees as well as methods of evaluating them and this may affect the employees (Kodrzycki 1994).
Loss of public revenue
Due to privatisation, a state can easily lose its revenue by selling their properties at a loss. Before selling the property, the states should carry out enough research to determine the future trend of the property in question in the market (Kodrzycki 1994).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Privatisation has led to inadequate provision of products and services to the public. This happens when the private company realises that it makes no profit out of the business and this leads to the closing down of the entire business or part of the business, which is not generating good profit margins. At times the quality of products, which was expected to increase, remains the same and prices shoot up if there is no competition in the market since the company aims at making profits and not serving the public (Kodrzycki 1994).
Before liberalisation, the public services regulated all the process in the production of products as well as the delivery of services but after privatisation, the form of regulation shifted from controlling the whole issue into controlling the chain of supply. After privatisation, the governmental authorities regulate the operation of the company through issuing of licences to private companies and signing of contracts to ensure that the company is managed fairly to serve the public.
Due to privatisation, states have formed corporate governance, which informs organisations about the ethics of running their businesses and how to work with their stakeholders as well as the government in achieving their goals. Corporate governance has therefore become an issue of concern due to the following reasons.
The worldwide privatisation wave
Privatisation has become common in most states such as Europe, U.K, and Asia and in many other states across the world. Privatisation programmes have therefore contributed to the growth of the economy in the various states and this has raised awareness on how the privatised companies should be owned and managed. Privatisation came as result of creating democracy in the field of business by sharing the shares.
The government therefore holds bigger shares in the companies to be able to control the practices of the company for the public to benefit. Through such practices, the interests of the small shareholders are protected and the role of stock market is realised (Minow
United State’s War on Terror Policy Paper Proposal college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Executive Summary
Background of the current situation (current policy)
Option 1: current policy of War on Terror
The second option
The third Option
Which policy option do you recommend?
Executive Summary Combating terrorism is an operation that demands strategic attention and direct accountability in order to enhance national and global security. It is notable that terrorism has become a global issue that has been perceived as a threat to international security and relations. In this case, the United States as a world super power has risen to wage war on terror groups in order to enhance both national and global security.
Currently, the US administration has adopted a policy of military installations all over the world in order to foster its national security as well as safeguard is territorial integrity. Nevertheless, this policy has proved to very costly and to some extent; measures taken have increased the vulnerability of acts of terror than ever before. In order to bring about positive change in the management of international peace and security, it is recommended that better polices should be applied by its Administrators to fight terrorism.
These policies include use of military forces, detaining as well as prosecution of terror suspects. Needless to say, the three polices have vivid pros and cons as they will be addressed in this policy report. However, it is crucial to mention that each of the policies identified is successful in its own way.
In line with this, one of the merits that is common in the policies that have been adopted so far is the centralized legal authority that has endeavored to make the new rules and regulations more effective. Nevertheless, it is imperative to note that war on terror needs a multidisciplinary approach in order to be successful.
In this case, the policies must be applied concomitantly, a factor that will largely assist in covering up the impending weaknesses. Besides this, all the above three polices of arresting and prosecuting terror suspects have been highly recommended. This is due to the fact that the policies have been proven to be very effective in destabilizing, disrupting and demoralizing terror groups that are both emerging and also existed for long.
Introduction It is imperative to note that the topic on war against terror is important since it enhances global understanding, appreciation as well as insurgency against such acts (Romaniuk 2012, p. 151). For instance, the United States of America is one of the global powers that has a been major commentator of strategies and policies meant to suppress terrorism and all acts or intentions related to the vice.
It is apparent that the US is the only world super power whose foreign policy needs to be changed in order to make its military power less vulnerable to terrorism. As a matter of fact, the US administration has adopted myriads of strategic policies and responsibilities in order to enhance national and global security.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research has revealed that terror acts have posed threat not just to the US security but also at the global level. Needless to say, Murray (2011, p. 84) asserts that the previous administration under President George Bush was largely counterproductive in fighting terror acts both nationally and globally. Some political analysts argue that the use of open force ideology the Republican government under President George Bush was not fruitful at all in yielding the much expected results in the fight against acts of terror.
Nevertheless, it is worth to note that terrorism is very dynamic and there is need to take a leap of imagination in order to come up with policies that will help to end terrorism (Murray 2011, p. 84). It is against this backdrop that this policy paper intends to address current and viable polices that can be employed by the US government in the war on terror.
Background of the current situation (current policy) From a careful review of literature, it is imperative to note that the contemporary policies used to fight terror have been perceived as counterproductive (Swain 2012, p 237). In this case, instead of suppressing terror acts, these policies tend to aggregate the situation at hand.
Therefore, it is essential to note that there are three essential polices that can be used by the US government in the war against terrorism. In a nutshell, disaggregation approach is a crucial framework that can be used as a legal strategy in US to fight terrorism. In any case, this is one of the grand strategies that the US authority has employed for some decades now to break ties between local and global players who are associated with terrorism.
Orr (2012, p.93) reiterates that this strategy is meant to separate terror groups and make them turn against each other; a factor that makes it easy to monitor as well as curb their operations. From this strategy, one can derive three important policies that can be used by the US administrators in the war against terror.
To begin with, one of the most effective polices entails the approach whereby the US government can seek methods of detaining terror suspects once they have pleaded guilty (Homolar 2011, p. 705). Moreover, another policy that has been perceived to be effective is the prosecution of terror criminals in state departments.
Additionally, the policy on the use of military force is effective in suppressing various terror groups that are spread across the globe. In order to understand the rationale and effectiveness of these polices in curbing terrorism, it is important to discuss each one of them in details.
We will write a custom Proposal on United State’s War on Terror Policy Paper specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Option 1: current policy of War on Terror Detaining terror suspects in the countries where they are captured is an effective policy since it will help in dispersing and curtailing any form of cooperation by various terror groups. Notably, geographical distance makes it quite cumbersome for terror gangs to spearhead local insurgency (Romaniuk 2012, p. 152).
Needless to say, there should be strict domestic and global rules that can be followed to ensure that this policy does not result into political unrest at some point. For instance, certain countries may counteract on realizing that their citizens who have been held as suspects have been detained in foreign countries. In this case, this will ensure that the attitude of the public and perception is not affected by the policy.
Nevertheless, this policy has some shortcomings since it becomes quite difficult to detain suspects in countries that are unstable such as Afghanistan, Somalia and Yemen (Morris
The Best Ideas Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction It is evident that the greatest ideas usually come up when one takes keen look at the most common things. Some of the most recognizable and valuable discoveries that are in use today were as a result of an extra attention to a specific common phenomenon that could be used to produce something great.
In most cases, those things that are considered commonplace occur at a daily basis but no one is keen enough to inquire about the phenomenon behind it. It only takes the passionate interest of an individual or group of individuals to make a discovery out of a commonplace thing.
These discoveries basically came about as a result of curiosity. They asked themselves questions and tried to find answers. Did they ask themselves questions such as ‘what if?’ or ‘I wonder why?’ and ‘how come?’ Some examples include the discovery of the concept of gravity by Newton and the invention of the aeroplane and telephone.
Big ideas that arose from commonplace ideas One of the most commonly known stories behind great discoveries is the story of how Newton discovered the concept of gravity. It is said that Newton was sitting under an apple tree when an apple fell down. This was the beginning of the discovery of the concept behind gravitational pull.
The simple idea of a falling apple seems very commonplace and typical. Where else would things go if they were left hanging in the air? Where else would objects that are thrown up go to? The obvious answer is down. There is no debate about this because even the most stupid person is wired to understand that nothing that goes up remains in an upward motion.
However, the difference is, no one was curious and daring enough to wonder why things do not fall upwards instead. No one dares to explain the downward force that pulls one down as one tries to jump. Clearly, it just seems that everything wants to stay on the ground but I just do not know why.
This would have been a typical brain at work but not Newton’s. This is how Newton got the idea that there was something that makes things fall and this thing was a kind of pulling force that tended to pull things into the middle of the earth. This is how the theory of gravitation was born. Thanks to the courage of one gentleman who thought out of the box. Newton’s passionate interest in the commonplace thing led to the discovery of the theory of gravitation, which is universal.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The discovery of the theory of gravitation has had various applications such as its use in the theoretical and mathematical basis for Keplar’s observations of the movement of the planets. That simple idea made Newton to come up with the three laws of Newton, which are in use today. This idea also explained why there are low and high ocean tides (gravitational pull from the moon).
Another great discovery that was born out of a person’s interest in commonplace things is the invention of the first powered and controlled aeroplane. This invention was made by the Wright brothers. However, the idea behind the invention did not come from out-of-the-world things.
Actually, it came about after playing about with a kite. The kite was discovered in China after the Chinese got the idea that they could make an object fly in the air like a bird. This was a simple discovery by it paved the way for greater discoveries in the future that included the invention of the hot air balloons, gliders and the aeroplane. After that discovery, humans attempted to fly. They imitated the bird. This led people to experiment with built wings made out of wood or feathers.
They were attached carefully to their arms so that they could act like actual wings. However, the results were always disastrous. The men fell down with a thud since they could simply not keep up with the strenuous activity. Unfortunately, the human’s muscles are not designed for such an activity and the body weight would not allow for that. Therefore, the Wright brothers decided to employ the idea of the simple kite to build on the idea.
They used the kite to try to understand some important concepts of control. One of the most important concepts that came up was ‘wing-warping’. This concept would enable the airplane to make left or right turns. Finally, they came up with the first ‘flying machine’. This discovery was facilitated by ideas from a simple kite.
However, this discovery plays an important role in the current society. Air transport is the fastest mode of transportation and it is courtesy of the Wright brothers. This has enabled exports and imports of commodities to be done in the fastest way and the aeroplane has enabled man to explore areas of the earth that were previously inaccessible due to poor terrain or other constraints.
Another great discovery that was inspired by commonplace things was the discovery of the telephone by Graham Bell. It is believed that life’s lessons inspired Bell to make his discovery and this was mainly due to his mother’s hearing problem (deafness). When his mother started to lose her hearing ability, he became affected and he learned a manual finger language.
We will write a custom Essay on The Best Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This enabled him to translate the conversations into taps on the mother’s side. Later on, he developed a method of speaking clearly into the mother’s forehead and this facilitated communication. Graham was so preoccupied with his mother’s deafness that he decided to study acoustics. With these ideas in mind and with the expert knowledge he acquired in school, Bell discovered the telephone, which made communication easier. This discovery has helped shape today’s world.
Conclusion It can be said with certainty that the best ideas are born from the extra attention given to the common things around us. Many of the world’s greatest discoveries were made by people who were passionate about the common things. These include the discovery of the theory of gravitation, the aeroplane and the telephone.
The Merger of Comcast and NBCU Essay a level english language essay help
Background Information Comcast and NBCU
Comcast Corporation is a leading company in the entertainment, information and communication industry. The company is located at One Comcast Center in Philadelphia. Since 1963, its major business has been management and operations of cable systems.
This covers cable connections namely provision of video, voice and internet services to domestic customers and business establishments in Columbia and 39 countries (Bake 2). Other services are Cable complex, broadcast television, Screen entertainment, funfairs as well as Comcast Spectator.
Ideally, Comcast Spectator subsidiary companies are Ovations Food Services, a food service establishment for sports and concerts. Philadelphia Flyers, Wells Fargo Centre a versatile arena in Philadelphia, and Global Spectrum that deals in facilities administration.
Some of Comcast’s achievements in 2011 include; a rise in merged earnings to $55.8 billion, consolidated working returns of 34.3% rose to $10.7 billion. A closure of NBCU Universal deal saw Comcast Corporations reap revenue of $14.5 billion and operating income of $1.4 billion. Its clientele vary from cable subscribers, internet clients to digital voice clients.
Conversely, NBC Universal, a global leading media and leisure company is involved in the growth, creation and promotion of entertainment, reports and information universally. NBC Universal is the holder and controller of various television networks, a company involved in motion picture.
It is also involved in television productions and controls media stations along with a universally known theme park. It was initiated in May 2004 after General Electric merged with Vivendi Universal Entertainment. NBC Universal is based in Rockefeller Plaza in New York. Its predecessor is Music Corporation of America. NBCU’S hosts such shows as The Tonight Show, Saturday Night Live and Sunday Night Football (Saari 7).
In January 2011, Comcast merged with NBC Universal and attained 51 percent of General Electric’s NBC Universal. Upon merger, the two formed NBC Universal LLC dealing in such assets as wire channels, theme parks and a movie studio. The transaction was not really a merger but an acquisition as General Electric would remain a minority in the shareholding.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that Comcast controlled the venture and would buy General Electric’s interests in the next eight years. Upon merger, the new body will have a board of five members, three from Comcast and two from General Electricals. The merger set out to start a new airing method known as TV Everywhere. This means that the customers would gain access to the media via internet by substantiating their traditional cable subscription (Bake 2).
Benefits of the merger
Since it was a vertical merger, it would harm competition either by exclusionary or collusion. Exclusionary would involve the foreclosure of an unallied downstream rival from accessing the joint venture’s upstream product and foreclosure of an unallied upstream rival from accessing the joint venture’s upstream product. Here the term foreclosure referring to strategies to raise prices and total exclusion.
Comcast would harm its rivals by blocking its rivals from accessing its video programming, withholding the access temporarily and increasing programming price in order to raise the competitors’ costs. The merger claimed to enhance innovation prospects by reducing the cost of synchronizing content development with the development of new media distribution forms.
From any market merger and acquisition that is viable, like that formed between Comcast and NBCU, it is perceived that it lowers the operations outlays or save costs emerging from the exclusion of double relegation of cost of programming. Increase in economies of scale also led to a reduction in costs.
The type of merger formed between Comcast and NBCU
Based on the market definition, it is apparent that the NBC Universal and Comcast merger combined the transactions of these two business entities. In the merger, the programming assets of Comcast namely its cable network interests such as versus, the Golf Channel and the regional sport networks were combined with those that NBCU held. The NBCU market assets included cable networks like the USA Network, Bravo, CNBC and MSNBC besides the universal film library studios and the NBC broadcast network.
The joint business venture that was formed between these two entities was under the control of Comcast (Bake 2). Thus, it made the merger transaction between NBCU and Comcast to be termed as vertical integration. This is because the major content provider was NBCU whereas the operation of Comcast happened mainly downstream in that content distribution.
Within the United States geographical milieu, Comcast is perceived as a global leader in the MVPD that is Multichannel Video Programming Distributor.
We will write a custom Essay on The Merger of Comcast and NBCU specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fact, nationwide, nearly a quarter of the total MVPD subscribers in addition to over forty percent of the subscribers originating from seven out of the ten biggest metropolitan regions are Comcast clients. Comcast is equally the leading provider of broadband internet access in the United States areas (Bake 4). This clearly justifies why the transaction between NBCU and Comcast is considered as vertical merger.
Merger motives as stated by companies
Companies usually merge to gain several benefits. Amongst them are to gain access to a wider base of clients, reduce market competitions, increase their market shares, diversify their services and products , reduce overhead costs as well as to accelerate long-term business plans. These ideally included the motives that were stated by NBCU and Comcast.
Critical analysis of the stated merger motives
Often, firms would merge to craft a more efficient corporation and reduce the business operation costs. However, the merger between Comcast and NBCU does not necessarily reveal real cost synergies allied to this kind of joint venture. For instance, Comcast quoted that 99.9% employees who work for NBCU undertake business which hardly overlap with the businesses that Comcast pursue.
This implies that, since NBCU controlled a larger segment of the video content distribution, Comcast saw that it could derive some value from merging with NBCU (Saari 12). Conversely, NBCU was motivated by the fact that the largest broadband network and the largest paid television network in the US are owned by Comcast. This merger may enable these corporations to gain a wider video content distribution market share in the United States.
In reality, Comcast is the US king of internet business and TV business contents. The company also controls most its privately owned contents like few cable TV channels and local sports channels. Hence, the motive that solely drives Comcast to merge with NBCU is to control a lot more of the video contents and other cable channels distributions. In turn, the Comcast will be able to increase its profits and add on to its on-demand contents.
From the market valuations of firms, it is true that based on merger motive number one, firms with low market values are actually undervalued. The answer is yes because the market value of any firm at a given period basically reflects on its market worth as depicted by the amount of assets such a firm possesses. If the balance sheet assets are valued low, then the firm is undervalued and vice versa.
On the other hand, it emanates that from the stipulated merger motives, the company management usually derive some mutual benefits from the merger.
In fact, company’s management usually sees that mergers generate several benefits. Amongst them are to gain access to a wider base of clients, reduce market competitions, increase the company’s market shares, diversify their services and products , reduce overhead costs as well as to accelerate long-term business plans. These included the motives that were stated by the management of NBCU and Comcast.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Merger of Comcast and NBCU by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Market impact
Despite the derived benefits, the merger was anticipated to generate some negative market impacts. Basically, a merger between NBCU and Comcast received numerous antagonisms related to exclusionary and collusive. First, it was alleged that in case two rival firms such as NBCU and Comcast merge to collectively act be it through express or tacit collusion, chances are that they might raise products prices by reducing outputs.
Secondly, the merger between these two business entities may harm the level of market competitions on the non-priced dimensions such innovation and quality. The vertical merger may encourage the exclusionary conduct which may harm rivalry via the creation of coerced or involuntary monopoly or cartel (Bake 5).
Given that vertical mergers can facilitate collusion or exclusion that in turn harms competition, chances are that unaffiliated upstream rivals could face foreclosure from the access to the incorporated downstream firms businesses.
Through this merger, the market rivals to Comcast video distribution are bound to be foreclosed from accessing the joint venture video programming. It is also apparent that the level of video programming competitions would be harmed since the rival programming networks would be denied access to the customers affiliated to Comcast video distribution.
Works Cited Bake, Jonathan 2011, Comcast/NBCU: The FCC Provides a Roadmap for Vertical Merger Analysis. PDF file. 30 May 2012. .
Saari, Riikka, 2007, Management Motives for Companies Mergers and Acquisitions: A Research Proposal to be presented at Accounting Tutorial Turku School of Economics. PDF file. 30 May 2012. Web.
One Week Macro-Economic Analysis of China Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Most important goods and services produced in China
The GDP per capita in china
Population of China
Introduction China is bordered by i4 countries among them include; Mongolia, North Korea, Vietnam and India. The country has a prosperous economy, and that has been diversity in the economy of the country. The research assignment below provides a one-week micro-economic analysis of China. The report focuses on the most important goods and services produced in China, GDP per capita, population size, and the type of government applied in China.
Most important goods and services produced in China Based on one-week research, I found that, China produces almost everything one can think. More importantly, China is one of the top largest producers of tea in the world. Both white and green tee is produced in large amount, while black tea is produced in small amount. Other goods and services that are exported by China include: Wheat, rice, silk, salt, and Agricultural Apparel Automobiles among others.
China is also among the world’s largest producers of natural resources such as hydro power, coal, iron, petroleum, natural gas, aluminium, zinc, vanadium and other rare earth elements (Holober, pp.66-69). The country provides services on motorcycle business services, software, construction, chemical computer hardware services, real estate services, consumer electronic, and electrical equipment services among other many services.
The GDP per capita in china The GDP per capital in China has been increasing over the recent times. This has been attributed to the restructuring of its economy, which has involved gradual liberalisation of commodity prices, rapid growth of the banking sector, and creation of independence for state owned enterprises.
The GDP in 2011 slowed down, to almost 9% from 10.5% in 2010 while in 2009, China registered a GDP of 9.2% as compared to the world statistic (Hobler, p. 35). These statistics indicate that, the country had been experiencing fluctuations in GDP because there are major reforms that have been taking place in the Chinese economy.
Population of China The population of China has been increasing since the Second World War. The persistent increase in population can be attributed to the cultural believe that, people should have children to replace the soldiers lost in the war (Holober, p. 59).
This belief has made China to be among the world most populated countries in the world. The Chinese government encourages its people to adopt family planning techniques so as to manage the population increase. China Labour force stand at 706 million people, almost twice that of Europe (Hobler, p. 58).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More China Government China is a communist state with several administrative divisions within the government. The divisions of administration include the provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, such as Inner Mongoria and Tibet among others. On 1st October 1949, People’s Republic of China was established following an earlier replacement of Qing Dynasty on 1st January 1912. In China, for a political candidate to be elected, one must be a member of a political party, called Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
The CCP contains other eight small parties that it controls. The government has a constitution that was promulgated on 4th December 1982. In addition, the government has the arms of government which are: Legislature, executive and Judiciary. The country has a red flag with a large yellow five pointed star. The red colour represents revolution and the stars represent four social classes; the Working class, Peasantry, the urban Petty bourgeoisie, and the National bourgeoisie (Holober, p2).
Conclusion The research has critically discussed the macro-economics setting of China. It is evident that China is rich in natural resources. In addition, the country has developed effective government structures to facilitate the production process. However, the population of the country has been growing at an alarming rate. Therefore, there is need for the government to reduce the rate of birth rate.
Work Cited Holober, Frank. Raiders of China coast: Cia Cover Operation during the Korean war.Annapolis.Naval institute Press.1999.Print.
Difference between Solow and Marx’s Theories in Relation to Technological Process Change Essay (Article) essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Research shows that technology and economic changes are related to each other. However, it is not clear on their causes and effects. Nevertheless, the results of such changes are not predicted that easily. A variety of authors have come up with different views relative to the process of technological change and they seem to be in contrast with each other.
Due to these contrasts, the formations of economic theories do not have to be directly linked with technological issues and their “impact” was not such accredited (Bimber 1990). The Karl Marx theory’s mission was to promote change that would improve the society.
Marx talked in depth about the capitalist system, in a “dynamic” view. To come up with a conclusion he studied the development patterns in society through the “materialistic dialectic approach” (Blinder 2008). In the writer’s opinion he believes that capitalism is a stage in history that is full of different “contradictions” that tend to explain the phenomena.
However, in Solow’s view an economic system can be represented by a production function that has the same returns. Nevertheless, Solow cited production and labor as the two production factors and that technology can be seen as a factor that may change the look of the production process. In this paper I look into the views of the two writers to point out the differences between them in relations in the process of technological change.
Difference Solow believed that capital and labor are not the only causes of economic change just like Marx stated. Solow demonstrated that the increase in the economy cannot only be accounted for by changes in capital and labor only and that technology is a driving force in these economic changes.
Marx analyses on the issue of technology relative to economic and social changes seem not to be clear. Marx believes that changes in technology affect the relationship between the “forces” of production that is capital and labor and finally affecting the social structure.
However, Solow accounted in his theory that there is a portion of the economic growth that is often not accounted for, and this can be attributed to the changes in technology. Marx’s theory divides the economy into two stages of the pre-capitalist economy that is not affected by technological changes because there is no capital and labor forces since the initial “appropriation” is not available and capital are free in the economy (Bimber 1990).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, in the second phase technology causes the substitution between the capital and labor factors in the process of production and in the end affecting the economic and social factors. However, the changes in technology here are only functions of the economic and social systems.
Solow refutes the notion of the effect of capital and labor by technology changes suggesting that only technology can explain the economic changes but not capital and labor factors that affect economic growth.
Implications Clearly, the two theories illustrate that to change the growth of output per head one has to change the rate of technological “progress” (Blinder 2008). This implies that factors that affect both economies and distribution are related and that the distribution of income and wealth will be unequal due to technological changes. Some people may have more wealth than others because they might be ahead in terms of technology.
My View I believe that the growth of the economy determined by factors such as capital, labor and technological changes. Clearly, the rate of change of technology is an “exogenous” variable that can be explained by the gap in the economic growth.
References Bimber, B. (1990). Karl Marx and the Three Faces of Technological Determinism. Social Studies of Science 20 (2), 333-351.
Blinder, A. (2008). Solow, Robert (born 1924): In the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Online Journal, 5 (8), 56-87.
Data Mining Concepts and Methods Research Paper college application essay help
Data mining can be defined as the process through which crucial data patterns can be identified from a large quantity of data. Data mining finds its applications in different industries due to a number of benefits that can be derived from its use. Various methods of data mining include predictive analysis, web mining, and clustering and association discovery (Han, Kamber and Pei, 2011).
Each of these has a number of benefits to a business. In predictive analysis, analytical models are used to deliver solutions. Using this model, a business can uncover hidden data which can be utilized for the purposes of identifying trends and therefore, predicting the future.
This method requires a business to define the problem before data can be explored. There is also development of predictive models that must be tested. Finally, these models are applied in the population identification and in the prediction of behavior. The process followed helps a business to identify its current position in relations to the industry (Simsion and Witt, 2004).
From this, businesses can plan on how best they can improve their positions in relation to other companies in the industry. The trends obtained from analysis of the acquired data can be used for the purpose of planning which might further give a company an edge over its competitors.
In association discovery, the main aim is to discover correlation among different items that make up a shopping basket. The knowledge of these correlations is important in the development of effective marketing strategies. This is possible due to the insight gained on products that customers purchase together.
This method of data analysis can also help retailers in the design layout of their stores. In this layout, the retailer can conveniently place items that customer purchase together in order to make the shopping experience interesting to customers as well as increasing chances of high sales (Kantardzic, 2011). The method can also be used by a business to determine the products they should place on sale in order to promote the sale of items that go together with the first one.
Web mining is the process through which data present in the World Wide Web or data that has a relationship with a given website activity is made available for various business purposes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This data can either be the contents of web pages found in various websites, profiles of website users, and information about the number of visitors in a given website among others. Web mining can be used by a business to personalize its products or services in order to meet specific needs of the customers. This is possible through tracking the movement of a given target customer on various web pages.
The method can also help a business improve on its marketing strategies through effective advertising. This can be achieved when used together with business intelligence. It also helps a business to identify the relevance of information present in its web sites and how it can improve this information with the view of increasing its visibility in the market.
Clustering involves grouping of data into specific classes based on specific characteristics (Han, Kamber and Pei, 2011). The process helps in the discovery of specific groups that the business should focus on. The method also helps a business to provide specific information that can be used to win over a given class of customers.
Data mining follows a sequence that ensures the data mined meets the requirements set down by the person mining it. Different algorithms handle the process of data mining differently based on the content of the data to be mined. Therefore, the reliability of the data obtained depends highly on the method used and the nature of data. Speed of data mining process is important as it has a role to play in the relevance of the data mined.
Therefore, a given algorithm should support speedy mining of data. The accuracy of data is also another factor that can be used to measure reliability of the mined data. For this reason an algorithm should be able to use specifications issued in the process of data mining. The two requirements for reliability are met by most algorithms which make them to be reliable for the purposes of data mining.
Various concerns arise over data mining and include invasion of privacy, ethics and legality. The issue of privacy arises when private information is obtained without the consent of its owners. Application of such information for business purposes can have detrimental effects to the business. Ethical issues arise when information mined is used by a business to take advantage of the owner of such information (Kantardzic, 2011).
There is also the question of legality of data mining without the consent of the person owning such information. To address the issues above, some businesses request permission from people before they can use information on them for various purposes which must be disclosed to the person.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Data Mining Concepts and Methods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Predictive analysis is used by businesses in market segmentation, analysis of the shopping basket and the planning of demand. Market segmentation enables a business to serve a given market better than if it had to serve a diverse market. In shopping basket analysis, a business can easily identify the products that are needed at specific times. The business can also determine demand and effectively plan how to meet it.
References Han, J., Kamber, M. and Pei, J. (2011). Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Kantardzic, M. (2011). Data Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithms. New York: John Wiley
The Importance of Leadership in Shaping the Direction an Organization Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Ethical Leadership
Qualities of Ethical Leaders
Developing Ethical Leadership
Countering bad Leadership with Ethical Leadership
Introduction The importance of leadership in shaping the direction an organization takes cannot be gainsaid. This is because the leadership of an organization is charged with the responsibility of influencing followers and rallying them together for purposes of performing an action, completing a task, or behaving in a specific manner (Bass
A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas Research Paper essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A “visit to Grandpa’s” is a story by Dylan Thomas, featured in the “Harrap book of modern short stories,” published in 1956. It portrays the artist as a child, and the close relation he develops with the country side of Wales, at an English village, characteristic with the twentieth century literature.
The book also presents the way the artist felt about the experiences he associated to the place. The story is greatly connected to the artist’s life, and the experiences he would develop after growing up. With reference to the artist’s life, a comparison is built, relating their experiences with those of the memory of the reader, about their childhood experiences.
The story offers immense attention on the characters and the atmosphere, towards developing the narration, which are linked to the appearing situations and atmosphere.1 The artist also uses the experiences of dreams, which are used towards the development of the meaning of the story.
The story, generally, centers on explicating how an adult reader still comprehends the problems and the feelings presented through child memories, as presented through the child story. This paper is an explicative account of the concept expressed through the story, including comparisons, references to the English village, and what the feelings of the Grandpa and how the end of the story are developed.2
Discussion The concept of the author lies behind the blending of atmosphere, characterization and narration, towards the development of a captivating life story. These three areas of reality and abstraction are blended together, to present the memories of the artist as a child, depicting their childhood memories and the experiences of their early years. The concept of Dylan, further, lies in creatively presenting his home place, Wales, in a way that will make the reader see and feel the truth that the author experienced.
The artist’s creativity is not only represented in the way he portrays his home place, but also the way that he presents the characters of his masterpiece. The artist’s creative secret of the characters of the story lies in his ability to use them without introducing them, like the norm is for many stories. The author, simply, goes ahead to introduce them, without considerably, taking the pain to develop them, which is not expected from any story, but a style that works so well for his work.
Throughout his creative story, the only character which is considerably developed, which can be comprehended in a clear manner, is that of Dylan himself.3 Further, the character Dylan is the narrator, which shows that the writing style used is quite liberal. It can also be argued that the work revolves around liberal creativity, where the character Dylan, who is narrating the story, presents what they are able to remember and what they observed.4
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under characterization, the artist partially introduces the character of Dylan, through a statement put as, “I woke up from a dream full of whips and lariats as long as serpents.” That is the point in the story, where the artist develops the character of the narrator, who is among the characters of the story, and more than that of the artist writing the story, thus depicted in the usage of the first person voice, I.
The other character that is incorporated into the work without any attempts of developing the character, is that of the grandpa, through the line, “the old man in the next room crying, Gee-up! And Whoa! and trotting his tongue on the roof of his mouth.” From that point on, the character of the grandfather is introduced into the story, although he refers to him as the old man.
Another character incorporated into the artwork is that of the narrator’s mother, as expressed through the line, “for my mother had said that he lit his pipe under the blankets.” Another character incorporated into the story is the man that they came across, while taking a walk around Johnstown village, who is introduced as, “a man with a whippet said,” “there is a nice morning, Mr. Thomas.” This character is apparently compared to the experiences of the author at night, where he had dreamt seeing some men riding on horses, using cloth whips to direct them. Other characters, though passively incorporated, are those introduced as, “all the men who leant on the gates congratulated grandpa on the fine morning.”5
The artist relies on comparisons to develop his story, where he talks of whips as long as serpents, where he intends to create a mental picture of the length of the symbolic whips, as a reader would imagine a serpent to be lengthy. The second case of comparison is that of the floor boards squeaking like mice, as the writer climbs onto the bed, through which he tries to create the mental picture of the squeaking sounds of mice, which he argues as coming from the floor boards of the grandfather’s house.
This is also, clearly a case of symbolism, as it may mean to present how old the house was. The author uses this comparison, to create a picture of how noisy the mice and the wooden floor were, which, according to him, produced comparable noise. The author talks of roaring and riding in a book, after he talks of pulling the sheets over his head, which shows that he is comparing the sleeping position with the shape of a book, which he uses towards the development of the story.
Another comparison is that introduced as, “the overfilled bow of his pipe smoldered along his whiskers like a little burning hayrick on a stick.” Here, the author is trying to create a mental picture of the look of his pipe placed in his mouth, which seemed like a burning hayrick placed on a stick.6
The artist relies on similes, as they may be viewed as a major model through which he develops his characters, atmosphere, surrounding, comparisons and meanings, towards presenting a clearer image of what they are talking about to the reader.
We will write a custom Research Paper on A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Examples of the similes incorporated into the work include, the floors squeaked like mice, which he uses to create an abstract image of the kind and the intensity of the noise produced by the wooden floor. “The mice between the walls creaked like wood,” is another simile incorporated into the work, where the author is evidently creating a mental picture of the kind of noise produced by the mice, which he almost mistook as that of the floor, when a person was walking over it.7
The artist also uses reference to Wales, towards developing his story, which he presents as one that is representative of the then time, the twentieth century possibly, as a way of trying to show how the atmosphere looked like and what it meant or how it affected the shaping of his childhood experiences.
At the start of the story, the author talks of a dream full of whips, which he continues to present throughout the story, where he presents characters like “a man with a whippet,” which indirectly implies that the Wales region was characteristic with the usage of whips and the riding of horses, which use the whips he talks about throughout the story. The author also talks of mountains, windy gallops across cactus fields, which he presents through the story.
This environment, clearly, presents the look of the Wales environment of that time, which is characteristic with the vegetation he talks about and refers to.8 The author talks of a mild summer night, where he presents the feelings that one would experience during a time of summer at the Wales region.9
The author relies on the figure of sounds, towards creating a clear image of what his child hood experiences were like. These sounds are used as models of creating the shape and the look of the surrounding, the atmosphere of the region and the different characters used. Examples from the story include windy gallop sounds over cactus fields, which give the reader the idea that the story may present surroundings associated to the usage of horses, which produce the gallop sounds.
The sound of the old man, Gee-up and Whoa! Gives the reader, the idea that, the old man may have been smoking, which would have made him produce such sounds, which is proved right through the story. The author talks of the squeaking sounds of mice, towards the creation of a comparison between that sound to that of the wooden floor. The author, here, is trying to offer insights on the type of noise, the intensity of the noise and the nature of the wood floor.
The same case applies with the sounds produced by the mice, which the author compares to those produced by wood, which offers an idea into how sleeping in such a noisy place was like for the artist, during his childhood.
The author talks of the flapping of the curtains and the beating sounds produced by the branches of trees hitting against the window, which he uses to portray a climate and atmosphere, which was characteristically windy and noisy. The author talks of a wet dog-whistle, which offers a clear picture of the sounds produced by the grandfather as he smoked.10
Not sure if you can write a paper on A visit to Grandpas Dylan Thomas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The narrator of the story is one of the characters presented through the story, and one who is a first-hand witness or bearer to the events and the experiences presented through the story. The narrator of the story is also the major character throughout the story, as well as the author of the artwork.
This is clear from the voice used right from the beginning of the work, where he says, “I woke from a dream full of whips.” This voice shows that the main character is the major character of the story, which is further supported by the knowledge that the author/ narrator is presenting his own childhood experiences. Based on these insights, the narrator of the story is Dylan Thomas, who is the renowned author of the story.11
The grandpa feels that the author is showing behaviors of hallucination and being affected by his dreams and nightmares, as he talks of a case where the grandfather commands the author not to ask any more questions. This is evident from the quote, “ask no more questions,” after which he asks him whether they experience nightmares. After that night, the grandfather talks of the extreme windy conditions that he had experienced the previous night, which justifies and offers information on what the source of the noises, might have been.12
The grandfather also feels knowledgeable, as he takes the grandson around, offering him information on different issues, including the comparable nature of birds flying through trees to that of horse ridding, as he felt in the night. Towards the end of the story, the grandfather is presented as one who feels hopeless, and maybe delusional. This is the case, as he is presented as one who believes himself as dead, which may show him as one who is mentally challenged in a way, if not confused.13
Conclusion The end of the story may be associated to the confusion that develops in the mind of the author, who was then still a child, as he offers an account of having looked for him for some time, consulting the grandfather’s neighbors, including the carpenter, Dan Thomas, Mr. Griff and the butcher among others.
The confusion of the author escalates further, after they found the grandpa around a bridge. The escalation of the author’s confusion, may have led to the end of the story, as the experience of dealing with the grandfather who argued and believed that they were dead. The efforts to convince the grandfather that he was not dead are also not successful, which may have led to the authors failure to continue tracking the story and enjoying the childhood experiences, which he recollects through the story.14
Bibliography Benson, S, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, pp. 1-22.
Bullocke, J, The Harrap Book of Modern Short Stories, Nelson Publishers, Tennessee, 1985, pp. 23-25.
Ketu, K, “The Aesthetics of Dislocation,” The Women’s Review of Books, vol. 5, 2002, 5-6.
Lahiri, J, Interpreter of maladies: stories, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1999, p. 20.
Moeller, A, Dylan Thomas, A Visit to Grandpa’s – an Analysis, GRIN Verlag, New York, 2009, p. 23.
Noelle, B, “Reading Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies as a Short Story Cycle,” MELUS, Vol. 29, 2004, p. 123.
Footnotes 1 J Bullocke, The Harrap Book of Modern Short Stories, Nelson Publishers, Tennessee, 1985, p. 76.
2 A Moeller, Dylan Thomas, A Visit to Grandpa’s – an Analysis, GRIN Verlag, New York, 2009, p. 12.
3 B Noelle, “Reading Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies as a Short Story Cycle,” MELUS, Vol. 29, 2004, p. 123.
4 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 1.
5 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 1.
6 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 14
7 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 15.
8 J Lahiri, Interpreter of maladies: stories, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1999, p. 37.
9 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 17.
10 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 18.
11 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 19.
12 K Ketu, “The Aesthetics of Dislocation,” The Women’s Review of Books, vol. 5, 2002, pp. 5-6.
13 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 20.
14 S Benson, “Books LIVE,” SA Partridge, vol. 4, no. 1, 2008, p. 21.
Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Abstract
Roman Catholicism Doctrines
Abstract Contemporary Roman Catholicism embraces a lot of biblical beliefs like most churches in the world do. Contemporary Roman Catholic Church has gone through several political, social and religious tumults all over the world. However, their understanding of God through the Bible has grown very strong across the period1.
Any religion in the world has its Bible, which governs and helps followers and believers in their everyday lives; the Roman Catholic Church has extraordinarily strong ties to their Bible, too. The Bible marks the foundation of Catholicism and Christianity grown on the pillars of the books contents, its translation and importantly its interpretation among the believers.
The Bible as an inspired sacred writing has a divergent and varied understanding beyond scientific analysis. Roman Catholic Church has gone through difficult times like many Christians regarding Judaism faith and other sacred literature. Roman Catholicism uses the Bible as a divine book that God communicates with from old prophetic times to the times of Jesus reign2. The Bible is a book under God’s own co-authorization.
The writers were inspired and directed by the Holy Spirit according to God’s plan. The book was written by God’s directions. The Contemporary Roman Catholic Church has remained united by their teachings and understanding of the Bible throughout difficult political times. The biblical teaching and interpretation have remained the main tool that guides Christians and strengthens their faith in God3.
Introduction The paper focuses on Contemporary Roman Catholic Church in the Bible through their teachings, interpretations and religious movements. To underscore its aim, the paper uses scripture guidelines and puts them side by side with Catholicism. This is very vital since Protestantism has influenced many Western countries in the modern society.
Consequently, Catholics’ identification of God has come mainly through the Bible. They have come to realize that God’s communications are set in the Bible. Additionally, the church believes that the Bible is uniquely written to meet every individual satisfaction without reliance on interpretation from any other party in the magisterium of the church.
However, Roman Catholics faces difficulty in selecting materials to believe since the churches are flooded with scriptures of almost similar content. In creating catholic understanding of the Bible, the paper brings out some biblical aspects that guide and help catholic believers in their everyday lives. It also highlights reasons why Catholics have fought strong wars and political tensions in defence of the Bible.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Catholics strongly believe that only the word of God can unite the world as shown in the Holy Writ. Catholics take the Bible to be a revelation that God presents Himself through. The Bible hence makes people develop friendship between themselves and God. Without the Bible, there would be no freedom between man and God as strangers can never agree on similar terms. Revelation among Roman Catholics can be seen in different forms.
Catholicism Revelation Natural revelation is seen from the creations of God and the development of the human mind. The Old Testament in the Bible are devoted to expressing natural revelation of God to man through the creation stories. Catholics believers acknowledge the power of God through the creation process. Consequently, the power of mind is revealed in the book of Wisdom. The book criticises those who do not apply their rationality in almost its nine chapters.
The book emphasises the openness of Gods revelation to man; those who do not believe hold no excuse. “They strive to comprehend them and fall victims to appearance, seeing so much beauty” Wisdom (13: 1-9)4. The verse continues, “Even so, they are not to be excused; if they are capable of acquiring enough knowledge to be able to investigate the world, how have they been so slow to find their Master?”
Wisdom (13: 1-9)5. St. Paul also denounces those who do not believe in God as His actions are enough massage to enable each and every one to believe in Him (Rom 1: 18-236). Catholics believe in the Bible as their revelation to the Master as per the teaching of the verses7.
Catholics understand the supernatural revelation of God to man through the Bible. Supernatural revelation is shown in the Old Testament when God directly or indirectly talked to ancestors through prophets as shown in Hebrews. In the recent days, God spoke to man through his son Jesus, the son who is the glory of God and His copy (Hebrews 1: 1-2)8.
From supernatural revelation, Catholics have come to believe in the Holy Trinity. God is presented as the Father, the Holy Spirit and the Son. This is a unique sign and practice within the Roman Catholic Church9.
Roman Catholic Churches have their traditions, which are controlled by God’s past revelations as in the Bible. There are sacred traditions and ecclesiastical traditions that hold the Church together. Church traditions known as magisterium has been the tool that Roman Catholic Church fights with.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Church sends instructions about God through apostles such as Roman Pontiff, who is seen as the successor to St. Peter. Also, The Pope is the Christ Vicar and the head of Catholic Church. Despite changes in doctrines, from Old Testament times there has been no significant change over divine revelation and accretion. The bible hence can be seen as a tool that has maintained Catholic Church10.
The Roman Catholic Church believes and teaches God’s inspiration. According to prophet Hosea, the authorship of Pentateuch is ascribed to God himself (Hosea 8: 12). David’s Psalm are ascribed to His authorship as well, “Lord, you are He who by the Holy Spirit, by the mouth of our father David …have said” (Acts: 24-25)11.
God as the author of the Old Testament is also shown in the New Testament with St. Peters. Peter says, “No prophecy of Scripture is made private by interpretation. For the prophecy comes not by the will of man at any time, but the holy men of God spoke inspired by the Holy Spirit (1 Peter 1:2)12. Peter and Paul warned the Church against false prophets as the old prophets did. The Roman Church as well warns against false prophet from the biblical lessons.
Pope Clement 1 was the first pope to pronounce the sacred books to Corinthians as true words of the Holy Spirit (Letter to the Corinthians, 45)13. These words were later repeated by pope Eugenius IV who combined the Old and New Testament in the understanding of the Church of Rome as inspiration of Holy Spirit. Catholics believe in the Bible is the sacred book inspired by God14.
However, the church as well has been facing a crisis of the Bible in regards to several issues. Believers have developed the so called mind violence based on inerrancy. This comes out because of errors in the modern Bible made by scholars. it in its turn has made some of the Catholic believers take the Bible with less respect than they perceived before.
The Bible is expected to hold no contradictions that any form of such errors raises doubts on its inspirational nature. In such stances, people tend to believe that the book was never inspirational rather it was a human authored. The challenges of many texts also raise many doubts as people get confused over the original text. This is difficult for some people as they fall in the confusion.
Roman Catholicism Doctrines The Roman Catholicism is also identified by its biblical Canon. As a Holy and inspired book, the Bible canonical writing is used in the church as the only rule and standard in the Church for teaching and liturgy. The Bible, on the other hand, is a norm of practices and faith among the believers’ virtue. Contemporary Catholicism has canonized the Bible in their beliefs. The canons are found both in the Old and the New Testament as the foundation of sacred agreements between God and the man.
The Catholic canons, hence, owe their origin from the biblical during the Old Testament. Examples of the canons are the Alexandria and Palestinian canon and the Jews Mosaic law found in the Testaments. The New Testament canons contain all the books that were released by Saint Damascus. These form the binding agreements between the catholic believers and their Church15.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Contemporary Roman Catholicism: Biblical Theology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Contemporary Roman Church owes its doctrines’ development to the Bible. The church doctrines are the beginning of God’s revelation and understanding. The dogmatic nature of the doctrines allows the church to grow not only by additional faith mysteries and accretions but also conferred insights by the Holy Spirit. The dogmas are authentically approved by Catholic Church to aid the believers in walking in the right path.
The church doctrines are traced back to God. They are opened by his creation stories and command to man. Consequently, they became more open in the Old Testament in Gods Revelation to the Jews through the prophets and other different means. These enable the Jews to remain united and develop stronger faith. Doctrines chronologically grew and got passed from generation to generation of the Church16.
In the New Testament, the revelation of the doctrines developed immensely. This can be seen in the last Supper when Jesus tells the disciples, “I shall not call you servants anymore, because a servant does not know His masters business. I call you friends because I have made known to you everything I have learned from my Father” (John 15: 15)17.
The trinity is one of the most mysterious doctrines that was revealed and is practiced in the contemporary Catholicism. The church believes that Yahweh revealed himself through prophets in the Old Testament and through His only son in the New Testament. The fact that Jesus dwelt among men is a son of God’s revelation and redemption18.
Catholic Epistles, which include letters of Apostle Peter, John, James and Jude have been studied by Roman Catholic Church since their inception from Lusebius from Caesarea. The books mark unique distinction of the church from other religions and the protestant groups. The contemporary church has continued with this practice by ensuring that the believers are provided by with the best Bibles for their study19.
The Conception of the three fold anointment practiced by the Catholic Church is biblically traceable. The Messiah was expected to be a priest, a teacher and a King, who were anointed by God. These Old Testament versions symbolises the triad of code and the creed found in the Roman Catholic Church.
The Church has hierarchical system that bore its roots to the Testaments as well. The priests are ordained people who once served as Catholic deacons and teachers. They are highly respected people and serve as God’s messengers who bring the word of God to the Church20.
Church Annunciation The Catholic Church annunciation is one of most practices carried out by the contemporary church. Mary Magdalene is referred to as Hail Mary in the Catholic Bible. This translates to a person full of grace. According to Catholicism, Mary is blessed by God to be the mother of Jesus. God uses Mary for redemption of the world. This makes Mary a revered symbol in the contemporary Catholic Church.
Through Holy Mary, God was able to communicate to the world. Christmas celebration among the Roman Catholic Church includes teachings and praises over Mary. Catholics are strengthened to believe in God like Mary who had no doubt in angel’s message. The church’s teaching over the spiritual conception of Christ is of considerable importance. The believers are made to accept that God is not an ordinary person despite the fact that He lived among men21.
Catholics carry prayers in reflection of Mary. The prayer is a long discourse in Mary’s heart. Mary’s prayer is the best show of humility, which is full of inspirations. Consequently, it is a humble adoration among the believers. The Roman Catholic Church carries out magnificat as a liturgy from the early Church. It is also referred to as the prayer of consecration. Mary’s magnificat is in four parts. The first part gratitude is offered to God.
In the second part, God is praised for his holiness, power and mercy. In the third part, the way God deals with the humble and the proud is compared. The fourth part refers to the fulfilment of prophesies. Catholic believers are taught the importance of each and every part of the magnificat in the Bible.
By faith, they are able to adore God in the prayer through praise. Praise is the way the believers appreciate God’s interventions and acknowledging themselves. Catholic believers are able to understand how God works with the proud and the humble. The magnificat guides the believers when they pray as well as in their daily actions22.
Biblical Temptations Catholicism teaches about temptations and prepared the believers accordingly. Temptations are drawn in the Bible from the early lives of Abrahams and later in Christ Himself. In the New Testament, Jesus temptations were the last message to the believers. Temptations are aimed at testing and strengthening hearts among Christians.
From the Bible, Catholics are prepared to meet tough moments while walking in the path of God. From the temptations of Jesus, Christians learn that temptations come from the world, devil and the flesh. Jesus was a revelation to believers on what is encountered while seeking eternal life23.
Just like Moses and Elijah, Jesus was tempted for forty days and nights in the wilderness. The Roman Catholic Church practices Lent from the biblical understanding of preparation for temptations. The first temptation to Jesus came after His thirsty and hungry moments.
The devil’s aim was to make Jesus lose God’s confidence in providence. Catholics learn from this temptation that despite the level of mortification, God’s providence should never be doubted. Additionally, God’s powers should not be utilized by one’s personal gains. These temptations show the devil as a deceiver to Christians24.
Roman Catholic Church teaching over the temptations consists in the fact that the Bible can be used as a weapon against the devil. Jesus was able to counter the devil from biblical quotes.
The second temptation was a test whether God does miracles for no cause. Jesus teaches the Christians not to test their God and rely on biblical guidance in case of temptations. Catholics are taught to pray constantly since God, through his providence, can put the church in mysterious positions. Some of the tests might be too hard to cope with, but prayers always win God’s will.25
The virtue of adoration is tested in the last temptation where Jesus is asked by the devil to worship it in exchange of the earthly possessions. Roman Catholic Church teaches the believers to fully adore their only God and recognize Him as the creator of the heaven and earth.
God should be adored by will and mind among the believers. Contemporary Catholic Church as well insists on service to church and God as a sign of adoration. Jesus sets the best example by stating that there is only one God. This acts as the best guidance to Christians during their temptations26.
Unlike the early Church, contemporary Roman Catholic Church offers believers opportunity to make their own choices in matters relating to their faith. The believers are at free will to make their own biblical understanding and interpretation, despite, the lessons the Church teaches.
As a result, issues such as marriages have become contentious in the contemporary Church. The influence of growing technology offers some confusion in biblical interpretation since so many varied materials reach the believers. Nevertheless, the Bible has remained the main fighting tool in developing Catholicism across the world27.
Conclusion Despite many traditional beliefs in contemporary Catholic Church, the church holds several biblical truths. Most of the contemporary church practices are traditions carried down from the Old Testaments as well as faith initiated from Jesus ministries. The Church’s development is founded on its strong inclination to the Bible through its interpretation, teaching and usage.
Roman Catholic Church acknowledges the inspired and mystical nature of the Bible as God’s communication to man. As a result, following biblical teaching becomes an essential in acceptance of God. Churches mould their believers to fit the eyes of God through doctrines adopted in both Old and New Testaments.
These include the teachings of the commandments as brought from Mosaic laws to Christ times. Roman Catholic Church rebukes poor practices in the church as directed in the Bible to enable Catholic followers to follow the clear path. Believers are guided from the lessons of the early prophets, Holy Mary and Christ Himself as written in the scripture.
Bibliography Coxon, H. B. Roman Catholicism: An Explanation of Catholic Belief Taken from Official Sources. South Carolina: BiblioBazaar, 2010.
Fergus, Kerr. Twentieth-Century Catholic Theologians. New York: Wiley, 2007.
Francis, Schüssler and John Galvin.Theology and the Sciences. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.
Geisler, Norman and Ralph MacKenzie.Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: Agreements and Differences. Michigan: Baker Academic,1995.
Gerard, Mannion. Church and Religious ‘Other’ Volume 4 of Ecclesiological Investigations. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2008.
Gillis, Chester. Catholic Faith in America. New York. Infobase Publishing, 2002.
Kelly, Kapic and Bruce McCormack. Mapping Modern Theology: A Thematic and Historical Introduction. Michigan: Baker Books, 2012.
King James Version Bible
Michael, Horton. The Christian Faith: A Systematic Theology for Pilgrims on the Way: Roman Catholic Perspectives. London: Zondervan, 2010.
Noll, Mark and Carolyn Nystrom. Is the Reformation Over?: An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005.
Noll, Mark and Carolyn Nystrom. Is the Reformation Over?: An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2008.
Scott, Hahn. Covenant and Communion: The Biblical Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. Michigan: Brazos Press, 2009.
Surhone, Lambert M., Mariam T. Tennoe, and Susan F. Henssonow. Roman Catholic Diocese of Ogdensburg. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller AG
Participation in Stakeholder-Based Evaluation: A Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents The introduction
The introduction To improve conditions in local communities certain programs were created. The most well-known types of programs include surveillance systems, training programs, direct service interventions, social marketing campaigns, administrative systems, etc. The stated purpose of the case study is to clarify what types of evaluation seem to be more appropriate for a common understanding of program evaluation.
Program evaluation Health and development program represents the most effective type of evaluation, as it provides the stakeholders with an opportunity to clarify program plans, improve program effectiveness and communication among partners.
One is to keep in mind that while choosing the type of evaluation, it is necessary to determine what should be evaluated and what evaluation criteria must be used. To make a sound evaluation, it is important to engage stakeholders, gather credible evidence, describe the program, focus the evaluation design and justify conclusions.
The most common purposes of the evaluation are to gain insight, to determine the effects of the program and to affect the participants (Berkowitz
Learning Process and Incorporating Technology Research Paper essay help site:edu
Ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle (322BC); Plato (347BC) as well as Socrates (399BC) contributed the basis for theorizing the learning process (Hammond et al. 2001, p.2). Descartes (1596-1650) reintroduced the Platonic concept of innate knowledge (Hammond et al. 2001, p.3).
Descartes scholarly works provided leverage for the behavioral psychologists seeking to understand the genesis of behavior as well as laid the bases for furtherance by the cognitive scientists who had an interest in understanding the thinking process (Hammond et al. 2001, p.4). Along these lines Locke (1632-1704) worked on child’s thinking maturity process as influenced by individual experiences. Rousseau (1712-1778) was among the first philosopher to argue that education should be tailored to suit the child (Hammond et al. 2001, p.4).
Kant (1724-1804) enhanced further the works of Plato on the rationalist theory by arguing that prior knowledge exists before the current experience. Kant was among the initial philosophers to recognize the processes of the mind and that the mind was integral of the thinking process and has the capacity to add value to the development of thoughts (Hammond et al. 2001, p.5).
Modern psychologists have relied on the works by the likes of Descartes, Kant and Charles Darwin to study how people learn and discover better approaches for use in teaching (Hammond et al. 2001, p.5).
Piaget (1896-1980) is credited with recognizing that learning is a developmental cognitive process where the learners construct knowledge instead of receiving from the teachers (Hammond et al. 2001, p.6). A Russian scholar Vygotsky (1896-1934) further developed Piaget works by giving it a cultural dimension (Hammond et al. 2001, p.7).
Twitter is an internet based multimedia technology tool that allows interactive engagement by its users. This technology tool is a social networking site with audio and visual capabilities (Hussain et al., 2012, p.189). Twitter allows learners and teachers to create and propagate their own virtual communities where they can interact freely (Richardson and Swan, 2003, p.69). This virtual environment created forms the bases for the learning experience (Kreijns et al. 2003, p.336).
Paradigm shifts in learning experience brought by the social and multimedia tools:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From: Traditional teaching and Media
To: Collaborative and Virtual learning (Social networking)
Modified: Dawley ( 2009, p.122)
In order to integrate Twitter’s multimedia perspective into the cognitive learning, assumptions will be made on mind processing. These assumptions should be in-line with the cognitive learning theories by psychologists like Locke, Kant, Piaget and Vygotsky. The minds information processing system interfaces are the audio and visual channels, that is for sound and pictures.
The dual channel has bases on the works of Paivolo’s (1986) on the dual coding theory and Baddeley’s (1998) theory of working memory (Mayer and Moreno, 2003, p.44). Twitter pages have images and wording that can provoke mind processing. The second assumption that each channel has limits during the human information processing (Cobb, 1997, p.21). This is at the center of the Cognitive Load theory fronted by Chandler and Sweller (1991).
The third assumption is based on generative-learning theory and selecting-organizing-integrating theory of active learning fronted by Wittrock (1989) and Mayer (1999), respectively (Mayer and Moreno, 2003, p.44). The integration of Twitter into learning has the influence as illustrated below.
Modified: Mayer and Moreno (2003, p.44)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Learning Process and Incorporating Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effect of behaviorist learning theory on education has led to advancement in structure and the sequence of curricula as well as the use of instructional programs and workbooks (Hammond et al. 2001, p.6). The advancement has made it easy for learners to gain certain skills, particularly those offered through rote through reinforcement and practice. Skinner (1904 –1990) is credited for the modern behaviorism (Hammond et al. 2001, p.7).
The elementary principle that needs to be observed in using multimedia is to ensure that it is constructive in generating the desired stimulus. This means prior to introducing Twitter to the learning environment the stimulus should have already been predicted and deemed reliable. Twitter supports back channeling that is an active real-time online conversation behind or in conjunction with live spoken remarks or presentation. Take for instance the learning session in the figure below.
Source: Western University (2011)
Two assumptions can be made learners are active and respond to environmental stimuli as well as learning is a behavioral change due to experience and depends on the association developed by the moment the behavior occurs and the behavior itself.
Twitter allows active learning participation and students can add their perspective through commenting. Students and teachers can add elaborations and links in order to enhance learning towards the desired goal. Moreover, even those who are not physically present can participate. Twitter provokes interest and keeps learners alert.
Based on the works of Albert Bandura on social learning theory that learning can be experienced through observing another person’s actual behavior (live model), verbal exchange as well as use of symbolism where real or fictional characters demonstrate the behavior (Grusec, 1992, p.778).
Live models can be likened to the Twitter page followers as illustrated in the figure below.
Source: Western University (2011)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Learning Process and Incorporating Technology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Verbal exchange can be likened to the Twitter interactive exchange as illustrated in the figure below.
@larryzapeyeRe: those picsof TO and Zenyattathat have been tweeted… what are the red blotches/spots on her front wraps? 6:16 PM Oct 17th, 2010 via Twitter for iPhone in reply to larryzapeye
Source: Western University (2011)
Use of symbolism can be likened to the Twitter page for followers as illustrated in the figure below.
Source: Western University (2011)
References Cobb, T. (1997). Cognitive Efficiency: Toward a Revised Theory of Media. ETR
The Impact of the Megatrends in Business Essay best essay help: best essay help
The modern business world develops according to the progress of the megatrends in such spheres as Information Technologies (IT), Human Resources (HR), and Management. These trends influence many aspects of the business and the company’s development also including the range of duties and responsibilities of the Purchasing and Supply Management professionals (P/SM).
Some years ago, the main accents in the work of P/SM professionals were made on the effective interactions with suppliers and customers with basing on the successful problem-solving and decision-making process. Today, the duties and responsibilities of P/SM professionals are affected by such tendencies as globalization, e-commerce, professional development, cross-functional teaming and project management.
Thus, to follow these tendencies, P/SM professionals are expected to orient in their responsibilities to global purchasing, and as a result, widening the relations with customers and suppliers. Moreover, the development of e-commerce makes P/SM professionals focus on the opportunities provided by the Internet.
Today, the online market is discussed as more economically advantageous in comparison with the traditional market because of saving the costs on advertising, retailing, and delivery (Wisner, 2011). Furthermore, modern P/SM professionals also actively use the possibility of auctioning online.
Such megatrends in HR and management as the necessity of the intensive professional development, the concentration on cross-functional teaming and project management result in the increase of the improvement of P/SM professionals’ skills, in the growth of the competitiveness within the industry, in the orientation to the balance between the role of the individual and team in the decision-making process toward achieving the definite goal.
Nowadays, there are few aspects which can limit the deepening and expansion of the relations between customers and producers, and the P/SM professional’s duty is to use all the opportunities effectively and reduce all the challenges.
It is also possible to speak about the impact of these trends on the organizational and operational aspects of the Purchasing and Supply Management Department.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, the main focus is on the effective supplier selection and strategic relationships with suppliers, on the development of the strategic perspective and the vision of a wide picture of the situation with references to the results of the project management and concentrating on the global diversity and integration. The major aspects of the process are flexibility in overcoming the industry’s challenges and risks with the help of effective planning and making decisions (Wisner, 2011).
In this situation, to face all the business, IT, HR, and management challenges of the 21st century, it is necessary for P/SM professionals to develop their specific skills which are based on the improvement of the communication and presentation skills in the work with suppliers and customers, of the ethical knowledge, of flexibility and a quick reaction to the situation, and of the problem-solving skills.
The development of these skills is significant in the context of the manager’s purpose to work out and follow the effective strategy in relation to reducing the costs, increasing quality and service (Wisner, 2011).
From this point, P/SM professionals should be able to provide the broad vision of the situation in the industry with references to the developed e-commerce and globalization trends. Moreover, the abilities to review, analyze, and evaluate the tendencies of the development with choosing the best strategies to follow are as important as the skills to manage the work of the employees, to organize the relationships with customers and suppliers effectively.
Reference Wisner, J. D. (2011). Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach. USA: Cengage Learning.
Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East Coursework writing essay help
Introduction This treatise aims at discussing at length on state and its effects on foreign and security policy, paradox of US being the most economically and military powerful nation, effects of globalization and economic interdependence to stability and security and finally the effects of water shortage in the Middle East.
Discussion The paper will give limelight to the issue of national security by following various relevant aspects which will be discussed at length.
The nation state as a primary unit of action
Whether state remains the primary unit of action in world affairs will indeed matter as far as issues related to U.S foreign and security policy is concerned1. The state remains the primary political unit in all areas of political life2. It is obvious that the state will continue being powerful but that does not mean that the conflicts of global politics and foreign policies will end.
The nation cannot at all profess to remaining pertinent in a world that is full of insecurity. As it continuously remains to be the main geo political influence in the global affairs, there will always be challenges that do result from ethnic, tribal, socioeconomic and religious issues3.
The state still remains as the main form of political organization locus of authority as well as point of reference as far as world affairs are concerned. With that, It is clear that as an influential component, it is quite important as far as foreign and security policy is concerned as it is the main authority over the foreign affairs and the national security4.
The future of nation as a primary unit of action as far as world affairs is concerned can entirely be said to be insecure. This is because of the heightened global interconnection. Also, the whole idea of globalization has intensified the connection internationally which leads to a nation that is interconnected to various institutions of politics, economics and society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The challenges that have been posed to the nation by the aspect of globalization are numerous. First, there is reduction of the aptitude of the nation to influence the economy as all the economic transactions are usually done in the global stage.
Moreover, it heightens the transnational bodies which could be economic or political. Also, it allows emergence of sub national and super power centers and finally it increases non governmental organizations as well as world migrations importance.
The insecurity of the states has adverse effect on US security and foreign policies. Through introduction of globalization systems the US policies are undermined and hence a negative impact on its main role as far as security issues is concerned. Moreover, the United States will end up losing its control as far as international economy is concerned which will ultimately lead to other countries undermining the policies. The decline will widen the security scope as well as stability hence affecting the US security policies.
Finally, the state will not be in a position to control the security requirements for instance controlling the technological assets as well as information which ultimately threatens the security policies as well as the US foreign policy.
Paradox of US being the most military and economically powerful nation There has been a paradox of the US being the most economically and military powerful nation globally. The American citizens have always taken pride due to the fact that other nations do recognize it as the most influential nation as far as economic and military issues are concerned.
However, the main question still remains why despite its predominance, it has always been engulfed with security issues. It is also the aim of this paper to discuss on the reason why America is considered to be the most powerful nation and how it can handle the alleged paradox and maintain its power.
The reason behind America being the most powerful nation as far as military and economic aspects are concerned is for instance in their use of soft and hard power. For example, soft power played a major role in unifying Europe despite the fact that most military conquests in the region had failed earlier. Another reason why America has been a powerful economically is due to the fact that it has been given the mandate to print gold, hence making it quite influential as compared to other nations.
We will write a custom Coursework on Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In “the US foreign policy: the paradox of world power”5,Hook explains on the sources as well as the conditions of American power giving the readers a prescription on how they can maintain as well as extend the country’s power and might. The author asserts that so as to handle this paradox, the nation must be able to combat criminal activities such as sale of illicit drugs and deal effectively with international terrorism.
They should endeavor to maintain and enhance democratic values as well as political stability. The U.S in handling this power paradox should shape the foreign policy so as to combat issues of international security such as terrorism. Additionally, The US should engage other powers in policymaking so as to heighten positive outcomes. It should do away with unilateralism and engage coalitions so as to come up with solutions to their main threats.
America ought to use its power in enhancing long term interests and set rational goals and priorities which will not in any way affect its resources’6.
In addition to that, U.S should enhance their power as it is important for the country’s security and foreign policy. Hook avows that the U.S can handle their power paradox by effectively using and maintaining their soft power attributes as far as foreign policy is concerned so as to protect the people, promote values and enhance superiority7.
Also they should eliminate parochialism, unilateralism and arrogance so as to handle the power paradox. This is because, such factors can undercut on the effectualness of the American power especially the influence as well as the attractiveness of its leadership and soft power8. It is hence clear that America is the most powerful nation and if the US can handle the paradox effectively, it will continue being a powerful nation economically as well as military.
Globalization and economic inter dependence in relation to security and stability Economic interdependence and globalization is closely related to international stability and security. The immense sense of security issues that terrorism has inspired unto the American government and economy which are the main forces behind globalization, has led to reassertion of sovereignty by the America as well as other nations.
The fear that liberal standards which are as a result of globalization are facilitating terrorism has been causing the US to control the transborder transactions. It is hence clear that globalization and economic interdependence facilitates security and stability.
The effects of economic interdependence and globalization are wide ranging. The political, economic as well as security environment is vastly shaped by interdependence and globalization. The affirmative effects of globalization are obvious as it leads to rapid rising of standards of living. However, globalization has exhibited negative effects in matters of national security.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign and Security Policy of US and Middle East by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Globalization has profound effects on economy as well as security, though this does not mean that globalization on its own is capable of creating such immense changes in the areas of security in US.
It is clear that security and foreign policies has a major role to play in the area of national security. Globalization is one aspect that tends to influence local and foreign policies such as policies that govern the borders. Globalization influences foreign policies that are related to communication technology, expansion of the global borders and factories, emergence of markets among other policies9.
The relationship between security and economics is quite a complex one depending on the features which tend to be powerful in the eyes of the decision makers. Often, concerns of sovereignty and nationalism can be so powerful that a country like the US can end up entering into an inter-state conflict despite the economic interdependence hence leading to economic loss.
Heightened interdependence in itself might not prevent conflict and insecurity. Nevertheless, while the likely threats can end up leading to conflicts with an increase of arms expenses, it is clear that the greater the country’s dependence on another, then the heightened cost of insecurity and conflict10.
If two countries are interdependent economically, then it is most likely that there will be conflict. Economic interdependence in US enhances security. It can hence be argued that globalization and economic interdependence in US contributes a lot to economic growth as well as economic dynamism in the entire region. As the well being of the American citizens heightens, the nation becomes increasingly stable hence enhances nation’s security.
Progressing globalization and economic interdependence has caused significant effects on the national security. The 21st century has brought with it a world in which the U.S economy as well as those of other nations has become more interdependent. Hence, the U.S National interests will not just expand but will also vary in its intensity.
Though globalization to a large extent enhances security, we cannot forget that it also leads to insecurity with the increasing demand of resources across the globe. The technology of globalization for instance links the world together with no any respect to cultures or borders. It is hence clear that as globalizations envelops more nations, it is quite inevitable that there will be both losers as well as winners as market competition heightens.
In such environment, there will be vast potential for the policies and interests of various policies. If this is indeed true, the scale of conflict that results from irreconcilable policies and interests on a global level might lead to war. Therefore, the cumulative effects of globalization and economic interdependence for most parts will be on the outcomes of the conflicting foreign policies among the actors involved.
This means that the U.S policy on future decisions to use military in order to protect the national interest will be affected. It is clear that globalization and interdependence has exposed us to new challenges changing the way in which the old challenges do touch our values as well as interests at the same time enhancing the capacity to respond.
Shortage of water in the Middle East and conflicts Recently, various pressures such as water shortages and demand, population increase among others are increasing the need for water in most poor countries. One of the regions that have been most affected is the Middle East where lack of water has affected the region’s politics11.
This is a region where water related disputes go hand in hand with other known tensions such as ideological, political and religious conflicts. Even in those places that have immense water resources for example Tigris, Nile and Euphrates have been under pressure. Competition for fresh water is not new in Middle East, as people have been fighting over water issues for many years.
This trend hence plays down religion and ideology as the only source of conflicts and tensions pointing to the fact that other survival motivations such as competition for water can lead to conflict.
Water disputes have become a major issue in the Middle East to an extent the government has called for peace talks. Among some of the issues that ought to be solved in order to curb this problem once and for all is the allocation as well as control of water rights to rivers such as Jordan.
In the past, conflicts have emanated between regions such as Jordan and Syria as a result of ineffective operation and constructions of dams in River Yarmuk12. Other examples of disputes have emanated from the joint management of Euphrates River between Syria, Turkey and Iraq and ways to protect water quality for those who are dependent on such resources.
Conflicts among diverse nations are usually caused by various factors including ideological disputes, religious differences, economic competition, and arguments over borders among others. Though it is quite difficult to separate the various entangled causes of competition and conflict over natural resources as well as disputes, it is clear that environmental factors are also playing a major role in the international relations.
Such conflicts take various forms such as use of resources or even environment as major instruments of war or even motivations and goals as far as military conquest is concerned. Research shows clearly that water has offered a justification for engaging into war as it has been a major object of political and economic strength, military conquest as well as a tool of conflict. Shortages of water are understood that it constrains the nation’s political as well as economic options.
Water just like other known and common factors can cause rivalry due to its scarcity, extent of supply from one state or region to another, basin states’ relative powers as well as ease of access to other alternative freshwater sources among others. As the water delivery systems as well as the water supplies continue to be increasingly valuable in those regions that have scarce water, so does conflicts heighten.
Conclusion It is clear that security issues are a major concern among Nations. This paper has at length discussed the nation state and its effects on U.S foreign and security policies, the paradox of U.S being the most economically and military powerful nation, effects of globalization and economic interdependence on security and stability as well as other factors that lead to insecurity and conflicts such as water scarcity in the Middle East.
Bibliography Hook, Steven. 2010.U.S foreign policy: the paradox of world power. New York: CQ press
Morgan, Patrick. 2006. International security, problems and solutions. New York: CQpress
Nye, Joseph. 2002. The paradox of American power: why the word’s only superpower can’t go it alone. CA: Oxford university press
Rosenau, James. 1961. International politics and foreign policy: a reader in research and theory. New York: Free press of Glencoe
Scheumann, Waltina. 1998. Water in the middle East potential for conflicts and prospects for cooperation. New York: Springer
Zwass, Adam. 2002. Globalization of unequal national economies: players and controversies. New York: Illustrated
Footnotes 1 (Morgan 2006, 26)
2 Ibid, 1
3 (Rosenau 1961, 31-89)
4 Ibid, 1
5 (Hook 2010, 338)
6 (Nye 2002, 116-127)
7 Ibid, 5
8 Ibid, 5
9 Ibid, 5
10 (Zwass 2002, 56-119)
11 (Scheumann 1998, 22-76)
12 Ibid, 11
Disparities in health outcomes in homeless people Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Factors leading to health disparities among the homeless
Policy actions that will reduce disparities in health
Introduction Throughout history, homelessness has been an aggravating factor of health disparities in the world (Smedley, Syme, 2000). Recent studies show considerable difference health outcomes between homeless populations and people with homes (Davis, Cook
Solipsism and Solitude Essay essay help free: essay help free
Solipsism and solitude are two ideas that are closely related. The ideas are a part of an extensive topic brought up by early western philosophers, and is still widely studied by today’s philosophers. Solipsism is a complex philosophy that explores the individuality of the mind. It is the belief that the mind exists while nothing else is certain.
In this case, the mind of a person must exist since it is able to perceive. However, whatever the mind perceives could be pure deception or a corrupted representation of the reality. This is the basic concept of solipsism. Philosophers have complicated the concept of solipsism such that it has gained meaning that makes it seem to represent the most radical ideas about existence. The philosophy of solipsism depicts a universe, which exist as a creation of the mind.
This means that the surrounding environment may not be distortion of the real existence, but may be the mind itself. Moreover, the concept, which embraces metaphysical thinking, dictates that the environment around the perceiver represents the mind. Thus, an individual’s universe is made up of his or her mind alone. Today’s criticism of solipsism is that the concept advocates for ignorance of the importance of other people’s opinions. It is regarded as a kind of escapism.
On the other hand, solitude is a state of separation from other living beings. In this case, living beings are those, which can be perceived by the human eye. Solitude can be viewed as the moment which one’s mind is not distracted by the surrounding environment. This concept is separate and distinct from the idea of loneliness. Whereas solitude could be utilized for constructive thinking, loneliness can only serve to develop a depressing feeling.
However, there is a close relationship between the two concepts. While solipsism focuses on the power of the mind, solitude defines the state of the surrounding, which the mind is allowed to perceive and discern. It is during moments of solitude, that an individual can form constructive thoughts. Rene Descartes first explored the two concepts deeply, and later several other thinkers, including David Thoreau and Kurt Hoelting analyzed the concepts keenly.
In the book, “Walden”, David Thoreau focuses keenly on the subject of solitude. He says that he is more comfortable when he is alone than when he has company. He presents a paradox when he says that he has never found another companion as good as being alone. This means that his best companion is solitude. He defines the degree of solitude as the distance between an individual and his human companions.
He then continues to give an example of a student in a university. A student who is hard working in his or her studies often goes into isolation. This is because the isolation is a good environment for learning. Thoreau relates the concept of solitude to solipsism. Although he does not put an emphasis on metaphysics, he asserts that solitude results to a clearer thinking (Thoreau 127).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This kind of thinking is sometimes not good for the psychological wellbeing of an individual. Constant thoughts are likely to result in uncomfortable feeling. He describes the experience as the tormenting of an individual by thoughts. In turn, the thoughts that engulf the mind and separate it from the physical world in times of solitude fit the description of solipsism.
Thoreau describes an incident where a person is in distress in the woods. The man is hungry and cannot move about due to his physical weakness. While the person lies down, many thoughts occupy his mind such that he is not alone. This incident seeks to separate the physical existence from the mind. Consequently, such situation where the mind is separated from the body is a case of solipsism. Thoreau attests to a personal occasional situation when he is alone in the morning (Thoreau 120).
At this time, no one is talking to him and no one calls. He finds that he is not alone despite the fact that no one is talking. Solitude is a perfect companion at this time. Thoreau seeks to assert that the mind is most constructive during time of solitude. At this time, the mind is not forced to think. It wanders freely and forms constructive and positive thoughts.
According to Thoreau, it is during the time of solitude that one is able to observe the aspects of nature. During this time, a person observes the usual daily surroundings such as the sun, the wind and the vegetation. He compares these to the psychology of man, which keeps on changing depending on the current experiences.
He acknowledges their eternal happiness. These natural occurrences such as the daylight never lose their glamour. They seem to be satisfied with their condition at all times. Such observations are a result of solipsism (Thoreau 105). There is positivity of the thoughts, and the constructiveness in the thought is an aspect of solipsism. These thoughts are conjured up by the mind, and are not elicited by the experiences of the individual.
In the book, “Meditations on the First Philosophy”, René Descartes says that all along in his youth he has lived in deception of what he sees. He says that he must dismantle his present perceptions and build new philosophy of existence. This means that Descartes does not believe in what he sees in his environment. In his exploration of the concept of solipsism, Descartes says that senses deceive a person, but may not always present falsehood.
According to him, there is some truth in the perceptions of the mind. He analyses the usual perception of the human and concludes that according to the usual perception, there is no ground for denying the existence of everything else apart from the brain (Descartes
FedEx Essay college admission essay help
Introduction All corporations aim at success. Some achieve it. Others fail. For those that achieve it, they may experience the challenge of sustainability and ultimately fade. Still, there are organisations that have been able to achieve success and maintain it over decades. Such organisations have achieved and sustained superior performance that meet or surpass both their internal and external relations’ expectations.
This essay shall analyse how FedEx has created and maintained superior performance using five forces, value creation, and culture school at a micro-level focusing on Human Resources (HR) practices.
FedEx aim has been able to create superior financial returns for its shareholders using its value-added services, business strategy, HR practices, supply chain management, and focused operation systems (FedEx, 2011). FedEx strive to meet all the needs of its diverse customers both in the national and international markets.
In order to achieve and sustain superior performance, the company strives to establish mutually beneficial relationships with its shareholders, employees, business partners, and suppliers (Business Services Industry, 2002). The company observes safety of its employees and aims at conducting business to the highest professional levels. Concentration on human resources has made policies and functions of HR in FedEx important part of creating and sustaining superior performance.
The company FedEx is a logistic company serving global markets. Fredrick Smith founded the company out of the need to serve a service-oriented economy of the US in the year 1973 that needed quick and reliable delivery services (San Jose Consulting Group, 2003).
The company had suffered some losses during its entry into the international market. This was due to expensive expansion strategies. In addition, the company also used the US strategy in an international market like China. There were also cases of cultural differences, acquisition, organisational adjustments, structural policies, and adaptation of human resource issues so as to reflect and enhance FedEx culture.
The company did not experience success in its attempts to conquer the Chinese market due policies that did not favour foreign operations. The company had challenges in embracing the regional culture. On the other hand, FedEx competitors such as UPS and DHL understood Chinese market and grew their strategies gradually.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More FedEx National Operation The logistic industry complements operation of other organisations and individuals. FedEx has competition too from other local firms that offer similar services. However, operation at the national level affects services that FedEx Ground offers. The main competitor in this area is UPS. The global strategy mainly relies on FedEx Express that also faces threats from other international logistic companies. Thus, FedEx Express should complement operation of FedEx Ground (San Jose Consulting Group, 2003).
FedEx relies on several factors of production in order to realise superior performance. These are mainly managerial strategies, the company resources, and logistic technical know-how. The company has been able to develop reliable logistic systems that ensure successful operation of its complex systems. At the same time, the company has been able to exploit its resources and physical infrastructure such as ports and roads in order to deliver superior performance.
The domestic demands and competition in the US make FedEx constantly keep pace with such needs through upgrading its service. Customers need fast and cost-effective delivery; thus, logistic firms must see the need of upgrading their services to satisfy customers’ demands. As many companies come up to offer such services at reduced costs, FedEx must improve its customers’ responsiveness and introduce innovative products and use of technology so as to avert challenges that may result from consumers’ activities and competition.
Intensity of competition in the logistic industry is responsible for driving growth and sustainable performance. Thus, FedEx and its main competitors must continuously strive to enhance qualities of their products and services through innovation and technology. At the same time, such companies may also focus on lowering costs. However, cost reduction may affect business performance of logistic companies due to high costs of maintaining resources. Therefore, the only way is to improve services, create superior performance and sustain it.
Analysis of the company’s superior performance Competitive analysis
Threats of new entrants
Logistic business relies on economies of scale. Thus, most firms aim at expanding their local operations and acquire small firms. Success and superior performance in the freight industry requires extensive networks and distribution centres (Porter, 1998). This implies that FedEx must possess highly reliable delivery facilities like vans, planes, trucks, and other means of delivering large cargo like trains and ships.
FedEx has created superior performance in overnight delivery business. On the other hand, its competitor like UPS has conquered the ground delivery business. Rivalry in the field has created conditions that ensure that main players like FedEx, UPS, and DHL diversify their services in order to provide value for customers and create superior performance. Such companies strive to create a one-stop shop for their customers.
FedEx and other players have reduced chances of new entrants. Any new entrant shall not pose serious threats as to FedEx as the company already has established competitive positions in all segments of the transportation business. FedEx has created a strong brand in the last few decades characterised by performance and achievements. Thus, any new entrant must struggle to build a brand name and have a share of the market.
We will write a custom Essay on FedEx specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More FedEx took time to educate its customers about overnight delivery services and benefits of package deliveries. FedEx has established long-term business relationship with international companies such as McDonald’s, and Home Depot among others. FedEx also gets contracts from the government. The US government agencies have established confidence in FedEx to hand highly sensitive and hazardous deliveries. This can present challenges to new entrants who may have challenges establishing such high level of confidence.
FedEx also uses its brand name to enhance both domestic and regional business. It has take advantages of trade agreements and favourable trade regulations so as to position itself as regional solution for packages delivery. This means any new entrant will face strong opposition from established giants. For instance, when DHL acquired Airborne in order to challenge express delivery companies of the US, it met strong oppositions from UPS and FedEx.
Rivalry among competitors tightens as a result of reducing demands of products, increasing numbers of competitors, decline of the industry growth, fixed cost, as well as increasing costs of exiting the industry. FedEx rivals, in the delivery industry, include DHL, UPS, and TNT.
FedEx penetrated the market in the US and ruled the parcel delivery consequently leading in the international market. In 1984, FedEx extended its operations to Asia-Pacific after a successful acquisition of Gelco Express International. Afterwards, FedEx utilised the strategy of taking opportunities of the existing international transportation companies to outstretch its international business as in the case of 1989 when it acquired Flying Tigers.
This came with challenges as FedEx had to integrate local companies and strive to come with excellent international routes. In addition, FedEx had to develop trucking solutions in Europe and embrace changes of the international environment. In the quest of achieving profitable sale, FedEx applied the strategy of subsidizing its international business. As a result, its entry to international business resulted to massive losses in the early 1990s.
DHL thrives in the international transportation business and supply chain management, a fact that makes it the key rival of FedEx. The time when FedEx concentrated on seizing domestic market, DHL took this opportunity to dominate the international market. Therefore, by 1980 it had the largest share of customer internationally. In 1983, DHL penetrated the Chinese market. Consequently, it became the first express transportation company in China.
This prompted it to liaise with airlines and freight companies. It invested on air fleet and by 2003 acquired Airborne Express. The successful investments on different forms of transportation, and penetrating the international market, make rivalry between FedEx and DHL intense.
UPS is another competitor of FedEx in the domestic market in the US. It is fast overtaking FedEx because of its aggressiveness in bracing itself for the challenges in the industry. In 1985, it successfully launched its air service operating between US and six European countries.
Not sure if you can write a paper on FedEx by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The peak was in 1990 when the UPS managed deliveries of packages and documents to over 175 countries. TNT is also a possible competitor of FedEx. TNT offers similar services to those of FedEx, but the only hindrance is that the rivalry is not on a global scale as TNT operations are no longer in the US market (Charles and Gareth, 2004).
Irrespective of this rivalry, FedEx has managed to achieve economies of scale before its competitors due to its pioneering strategies as e-transactions, logistics related solutions, and supply chain even though they do not match new developments, inexpensive and powerful technologies that their competitors utilise to match FedEx standards.
Pressure from substitute products
Substitutes penetrate the market with the sole intention of making the customer switch from the product that dominates the market. Major substitute threats for FedEx include the Internet. Internet providers enlighten people on the benefits associated with the use of emails, document digitization and online forms.
Firms also embrace the idea of online digital signatures for the sake of time and money saving and institutions like banks check accounts online. These technological advancements prompt people to substitute their paperwork with digital advancements.
Massive usages of email and facsimile resulted to a drastic reduction of the industry volume. However, the only issue that may favour these companies is security as not all information especially the sensitive type can be sent through email. However, threats reduce due to factors like slow speed, insecurity, and unreliability.
In order to overcome challenges of substitutes, FedEx has embraced latest technology, for instance utilising the Internet in provisions of some services. FedEx has aggressively improved aircraft and shipping facilities to international standards, a factor that makes it impossible for any threatening substitute to match FedEx’s standards (MacKerron, Cowe and Milliken, 2009).
Bargaining power of buyers
Buyers get power from their high levels of concentration, or when they are few or in cases where product differentiation among organisations is not clear (Gonrig, 2008). The three firms are in stiff competition in the transportation industry for provisions of excellent delivery services that call for attention from prominent companies, especially after business expansion into international markets. In addition, the e-commerce has thrived.
Therefore, these logistic firms must show their potential in the delivery of products around the globe. At this stage, FedEx comes in handy in solving customers’ issues. FedEx’s competitors provide similar products at almost the same prices. Therefore, it has adopted a strategy by creating value-added services for the sake of differentiating its services from those of the competitors.
Potential customers worldwide have preference for their delivery providers. They do not rely on a single service provider and have the advantage of going for cheap providers. Therefore, FedEx considers this and puts efforts to achieve economic sales via penetrating the global market as well as decreasing the cost of operation so as to offer considerable prices. Therefore, FedEx has embraced medium bargaining power.
Bargaining power of suppliers
When there is an absence of substitutes in the market, or when there is a low concentration of suppliers, suppliers take advantages of increasing the prices of goods and services. In addition, suppliers have the ultimate say in their prices.
FedEx relies heavily on different suppliers, ranging from companies supplying fuel, shipping materials producers, airport, airplane and vehicle manufacturers. Less concentration of the fuel companies in the market and inadequate substitute for fuel give the fuel suppliers advantage of strong bargaining power. In addition, the FedEx’s profitability at times is unpredictable due to fluctuating fuel prices.
However, suppliers of packaging materials such as plastics and boxes, have less bargaining power. This result from the availability of substitute products and shifting cost reflected is negligible to FedEx’s total expenses. In the vehicle industry, FedEx gets the advantage of strong bargaining power as vehicle manufacturers are many and it does not depend on one manufacturer. In the aircraft and train industries, oligopoly gives the suppliers strong bargaining power as there exists limited manufacturers (Porter, 1998).
For FedEx to add value to its services and goods, its activities ought to operate at the optimum level for the company to achieve real competitive benefits. FedEx value chain begins with pickups of packages. The employers collect the packages at designated points such as residences and businesses.
They create value through ensuring package pickups take place anytime and anywhere. These create value through assurance of timely delivery. After package collection, FedEx secures them in a hub. Here, sorting of packages according to their destination takes place. The packages pass through a chain of hand to their final destination. From the hub, the packages head to their destination through trucks or plane.
FedEx ensures that deliveries of packages are at professional levels and in turn wins customers trusts and create great value. For achievements of perceived values, FedEx drivers carry out their duties efficiently. They strive to ensure that packages get to their destinations on time regardless of experienced hitches. This increases positive value for the company (Sand, 2010).
The final activity of delivery is customer service. This service entails after sales support. FedEx role in this is to provide support to their customers in tracing their packages while still in route. Such support enables customers monitor the status of their packages in transit. Such activities of FedEx exhibit extreme value for their customers (Barney, 1997).
Success in achievement of these values emanates from support activities of the company‘s infrastructure e.g. storage buildings, trucks, planes among others. Another support system that adds value to the services is the Internet services that FedEx offers to aid customer track their packages on transit online. Human resource and material management team as well support all the primary activities to function smoothly.
FedEx has managed to conquer the industry because of utilisation of information system and its competitive infrastructure that many competitors lack. FedEx has technological capabilities to track its customers’ packages during transit. The service saves the company time and money. Its competitors offer numbers that customers use to track their packages. This is an engagement that presents a challenge to customers.
FedEx’s fleets of vehicles, aeroplanes and human resources contribute to its massive infrastructures. These infrastructures facilitate success in FedEx delivery of services. They also consider the importance of time in deliveries of packages.
FedEx’s Business Level Strategy The company’s strengths, in terms of technical know-how in logistics, technology, and innovation, put it in a position to pursue differentiation strategy at the business level. Customers and competitors know FedEx for provisions of high levels of services that are almost impossible to imitate and match.
Industry analysts know FedEx as an innovative company with a strong orientation towards high levels of service provisions. Consequently, such high levels of services translate to high charges. FedEx prices are usually higher than most of its competitors. Most customers consider such charges premium and believe that they will get the same value of services worth their payments. The company has been able to differentiate its standard of quality services from its competitors (Grant, 2005).
The company aims at establishing strong customers’ base through differentiation and provisions of superior services than its competitors. We must recognise that all logistic firms have the capacity to deliver packages. However, FedEx has differentiated itself as customer-friendly. Thus, the company has extensive support system, home deliveries, and money back guarantee approaches. These are what distinguish FedEx from its rivals.
Differentiation in the transport industry is not simple. Customers of today tend to be cost sensitive and would like to get value for less pay. Different in costs means customers may not have brand loyalty. Most customers do not know technical know-how of FedEx or how their technology is superior for managing the chain.
A typical customer will only consider costs and safe deliver of his or her packages. This implies that typical consumers may not opt for quality services, but rather consider affordability of services. Therefore, FedEx must find ways of differentiating itself from its main rivals and offer superior services. This enhances superior performance of the company. Sustaining superior performance will enable many customers pay for premium services of FedEx.
FedEx business level strategy for superior performance also targets customers’ needs. FedEx has understood the needs of its customers. Consequently, the company has established different branches of business, namely FedEx Ground, FedEx Trade Networks, FedEx Express, FedEx Custom Critical, FedEx Supply Chain Services, and FedEx Freight.
The company has created such segments in order to target certain customers depending on their diverse needs. This differentiation strategy enables FedEx to cater for all the needs of most customers. Targeting different customers with different services enables FedEx to offer superior services and create superior performance.
FedEx has segmented its market according to its customers’ needs. Segmentation strategy aims at creating superior services, products, and advanced provisions of services to customers. FedEx different segments operate independently but represent the company in terms of its values and efforts of creating superior services. Segmentation in different units provides each unit with a chance to concentrate on its own target market and offer superior services. This makes FedEx a specialised company.
FedEx Express is the busiest as it offers speedy delivery of packages based on the money back guarantee strategy. This enables customers to have confidence in the company. On the other hand, FedEx Ground mainly concentrates on small packages delivered to small business.
This segment derives its strength from satisfying the needs of customers who need quick deliver within a short distance. It almost works like FedEx Home Delivery services. FedEx Freight covers mainly heavy packages of over 150 pounds. The company restricts such services to regional deliveries within the US continent. This segment also delivers packages that have flexible delivery schedules. FedEx Custom caters for a small market segment due to the nature of packages it handles.
These are mainly products and packages that require special care and attention during transportation. FedEx has specially equipped transportation resources to cater for such customers. FedEx Trade Networks offers services to international destinations. The company last segment is FedEx Supply Chain services that track movement of parcel so as to enhance safe delivery and ensure customers satisfaction.
We can posit that FedEx uses the needs of its customers to segment its markets, and in turn, it offers superior services and products. FedEx Express and FedEx Ground are responsible for most operation of the company and its profits.
The two segments generate nearly $ 14 billion annually in terms of revenues. It is FedEx Express that has been responsible for creating superior services and customers’ satisfaction. Customers view superior level of performance in terms of express delivery and money back guarantee. This means that FedEx Express must deliver such packages.
FedEx has also adopted differentiation in quality in order to create a superior level of performance for its stakeholders. The company has invested enormous amounts of resources in order to keep its promise to its customers. This has enhanced its international operation among its rivals. The company has extensive organisation of units using its advanced logistic technology and know-how. This ensures that there is a smooth flow and delivery of packages.
This enables the company to deliver high quality services that satisfy its customers. FedEx has been able to create such a level of superior performance based on its customers’ responsiveness and innovation in terms of services and products.
The company has package tracking systems, efficient support functions, special package handling systems, hub coordination, and logistic supports. Provisions of these services have enabled FedEx offer superior services relative to those of their competitors and in turn achieve a high level of superior performance.
FedEx has competence in the transportation industry. Competence enables the company to offer competitive products and services to challenge those of its main rivals. The company derives its competence from its human resources and cutting edge technology. In addition, FedEx has facilities like fleets of aircraft that guarantee safe and timely delivery of cargos. The company’s commitment to customers is outstanding.
FedEx aims at creating superior customer services using its innovation and technology. The company has been collaborating with the local universities so as to improve its technological capabilities. FedEx competence and technological position are the driving force behind claims of international market shares.
Technological superiority for superior performance Most customers know that FedEx is a leader in using technology in logistic business. In fact, FedEx was the first company to use technology in the logistic market (Powership system). Poweship was not effective. It could only store addresses and airways bills, and track packages.
The system relied on telephone lines for connectivity. However, this changed with the new era of technology. The company adopted many automated solutions to for its shipping business. The company combined such technology with its intranet and business solutions (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2008).
FedEx has been able to adapt its systems to serve the global market. The company has created superior performance through relying on the power of online opportunities (Gerstein and Reisman, 1982). In order to serve the international market well, the company website has multiple languages option to choose. FedEx customers can register online, estimate their shipping costs, prepare airways bills, and avail the necessary document needed. This system has capabilities of handling the entire supply chain of FedEx (Porter, 1998).
The company uses the latest technology so as to enhance sorting and labelling of packages, label readers, and automated conveyor belt systems. Adoption of technology has enabled FedEx improve efficiency, lessen human errors, and enhance sorting of packages. Consequently, the company has been able to provide superior services and maintain superior performance in the industry (Charnovich, 2009).
School Strategy FedEx Culture and HR Practices
We look at culture and HR practices of FedEx at the micro level. This gives an insight into how the company has created superior performance using its human resources and cultivated organisational culture to support its operation (Bettinger, 1989).
FedEx strives to create a high performance culture so as to offer superior customer services and values. The company has created a workplace condition based on loyalty of its employees. The company believes in value and diversity of its workforce. This enables employees to contribute and grow their careers.
This is a significant step towards employees’ inclusion into organisational culture of FedEx (Olson, 2011). Consequently, FedEx workforce derives a sense of pride working for the organisation. In turn, they deliver superior services to their customers.
FedEx is a service company that depends on its human resources for delivering values to its customers. The company hires the right people, trains and leads them with required skills for the job. These practices aim at creating a workforce that is capable of responding to customers’ needs. FedEx believes that only a well trained workforce can deliver superior performance to customers. The company hopes for repeat businesses from its satisfied customers (MacMillan, 2012).
FedEx has reward programmes for its employees. The company recognise unique contribution of its employees and reward them accordingly. It has a reward system known as Bravo Zulu Voucher Program. In fact, nearly 50 percent of the company’s spending caters for workforce pay and benefits. FedEx has created a culture system that recognises individuals’ efforts, generation of fresh ideas, enhanced excellence performance, and teamwork. The reward and compensation system at FedEx recognises such factors (FedEx, 2012).
FedEx also aims at creating a favourable environment for its employees’ individual growth and progress. The company has developed a human resource system (PRISM) that caters for all applicants and recruits. Thus, maintaining personal data of every staff is a central point for superior performance on FedEx. This is because the system has capabilities of posting, testing, and monitoring growth of every employee (Haid and Sims, 2009).
FedEx has Survey Feedback Action (SFA). This is mainly for internal operation of the company that helps the management decide on promotion, evaluation of performance, and workforce’s attitude towards new policies.
The company aims at enhancing communications between its management team and other employees. Employees have opportunities of expressing their opinions freely regarding the company’s policies. FedEx also has an open door policy that ensures that the company handles employees’ issues to acceptable standards (Thomas, Harburg and Dutra, 2007).
FedEx also uses employment retention to enhance the company performance. Employee retention has become a core part of HR policies in FedEx. The company believes that it is less expensive to retain its existing staff than finding new workforce. FedEx employees’ turnover rate is relatively low at six percent compared to the industry rate of 20 percent.
FedEx offers benefits under different programmes such as education, performance, healthcare, and insurance among others as ways of keeping employees satisfied and retain them (Gonrig, 2008). This promotes performance and reputation of the company (Harter, Schmidt and Hayes, 2002).
Conclusion Since its inception, FedEx has transformed the industry of express delivery services. This has been possible due to sustained superior performance over the years. The company has relied on its human resources and policies so as to change and set the pace for other companies.
FedEx has recognised its employees through its various ways of HR practices and employees benefits. Consequently, employees have been able to deliver superior services to customers. Thus, the company has recognised that creating, delivering, and sustaining superior performance starts with employees’ satisfaction.
FedEx has also used its resources to create a strong brand in the US market. Customers know the company for overnight deliveries, efficiency, and excellence customer responsiveness. Transportation industry is dynamic, and there also always five forces and technological innovations that threaten the existence of any company. This implies that FedEx must carry out extensive investments in order to enhance its services and sustain superior performance.
Creating and maintain superior performance is not an easy task. Legendary company like FedEx has managed to do so. The company relies on its technical know-how, and technological innovations to create superior products and offer superior services to customers. FedEx systems track packages handling and in turn provide the needed value to customers. Technology has enabled the company offer additional value enhancing services.
Market segmentation and differentiation are also factors that have enabled the company offer superior services. For instance, FedEx has created different units in order to offer superior products to different market segments depending on the urgency, location, and type of package. The company has specialised in different areas for excellence performance and satisfaction of its customers. This approach does not only ensure superior services delivery, but also ensure increased revenue for the company.
Most customers consider FedEx services as premium due to high costs than its competitors. However, the company believes that it delivers value and superior customers services to match such costs.
Reference List Barney, J 1997 Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage, University of Michigan Press, Michigan.
Bettinger, C 1989, ‘Use Corporate Culture to Trigger High Performance’, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 38-42.
Business Services Industry 2002, ‘Shippers Honor FedEx for Superior Performance’, Business Services Industry, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 1-2.
Charles, H and Gareth, J 2004, Strategic Management Theory, 6th edn, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
Charnovich, J 2009, ‘How to Maximize Technology ROI and Create and Lead Superior IT Performance’, TecExecs , pp. 1-2.
FedEx 2012, Compensation and Rewards. Web.
FedEx 2011, FedEx Annual Report 2011, FedEx, Memphis, TN.
Gerstein, M and Reisman, H 1982, ‘Creating competitive advantage with computer technology’, The Journal of business strategy, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 53-60.
Gonrig, M 2008, ‘Customer loyalty and Employee Engagement: An Alignment For Value’, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 29, pp. 29-40.
Grant, RM 2005, Contemporary Strategy Analysis, Blackwell Pub, Hoboken, New Jersey.
Haid, M and Sims, J 2009, Employee Engagement: Maximizing Organizational Performance’, Leaders Insight, vol. 6100, no. 5, pp. 1-25.
Harter, J, Schmidt, F and Hayes, T 2002, ‘Business-Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, pp. 268-279.
Hitt, M, Ireland, D and Hoskisson, R 2008, Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts
Language Acquisition in School Going Children Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Stages in language acquisition
Introduction Language is described as a code that is socially shared or a conventional structure of communication that is governed by rules. Language is an in borne tendency as individuals are born with tendencies to develop sounds through cognitive and mental ability. Language acquisition occurs in early developmental stages of a person.
Instead of learning language rules and syntaxes, children obtain language behavior. They learn how to use language to define, operate or explore the world around them. Their main reason for learning language is to express their intentions, describe items and make others perform actions especially in their favor (IPEK, 2009).
This is acquired through exposure to the environment that provides language expressions and non-verbal inputs like waving and signaling. Hence, language acquisition is characterized by interaction of children with the larger community, learning with no tuition being offered as well as exhibiting traits of the community’s language.
Stages in language acquisition There are five language acquisition stages. First is the pre-linguistic period. This is the period in which the child acquires the first language. It occurs between six to nine months of age and lasts till the tenth to thirteenth month. During this stage, the child responds to the environment but cannot express himself. It is characterized by production of certain sounds, an action referred to as cooing.
The infant uses the phonemes of not only what will be their first language but all phonemes in general (IPEK, 2009). Phonemes are the smallest significant sound components that can be distinguished in a language. For example, an infant whose first language is English would be heard making such sounds as “aaaa”, “mmmm” or “tttt”.
The second language development stage is bubbling. This stage is characterized by production of vowels and syllables which are strung together. Usually the infant does this with no communication intentions. This stage occurs around nine months of age. During this stage, the child begins to use phonemes from his native language. For example, an infant may begin producing such sounds as “TI”, “YU” or “NO”
The third language acquisition stage is holophrastic stage. Holophrastic is derived from the term holo-phrase which is the use of one word to represent an entire thought or meaningful sentence. During this stage, an infant learns to use one word to pass a message (Lightbown
All papers will follow similar directions. Don’t plagiarize. If you’d like even more details for how to write a philosophy paper, here’s a very helpful link: http://www.sfu.ca/philosophy/resources/wr a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Don’t plagiarize. If you’d like even more details for how to write a philosophy paper, here’s a very helpful link:http://www.sfu.ca/philosophy/resources/writing.htmlHere are your directions:The final draft will be 4 full pages.Write an intro with three sentences or less. One sentence must be your thesis. A thesis is “a specific point that you are trying to establish – something that you are trying to convince the reader to accept”. The thesis is also your conclusion, and your job will be to defend the thesis. The entire point of the intro paragraph in a philosophical paper is simply to present your thesis. For this paper, you have two options, Innate Ideas are true or they’re not. Your thesis statement also needs to state the fundamental reason(s) that make(s) you correct. A good thesis statement awards 20 points.After stating your thesis, you will need to immediately define your terms. This is absolutely the most fundamental problem in most arguments: no one knows what people are really talking about. You will describe Descartes/Socrates’ philosophy as they describe it, then explain it in your own words. Include examples. Good description awards 40 points.Now that your topic has been well described, you can argue. You will be evaluating the claims of Socrates and Descartes, and supporting whatever reasons you’ve given for your claim. Support can be all sorts of things, but in general, the supports should be more obviously true to help walk the reader to the truth of your thesis. Do not use a shotgun approach to argument, where you take a thousand little reasons and hope they are strongest. The simple argument is the strongest, and you should build up to your conclusion from a strong foundation. Good argumentative form awards 20 points.The next step is done for both integrity and logic. You’ll need to respond to objections and offer concessions. This means you have to anticipate a point of disagreement and address it immediately. This strengthens your reasons for your position. In a full book, you would address any and all possible objections, but I really only need you to pick one or two that you think are most common. Good objection anticipation awards 20 points.If you would like, you may have a concluding paragraph to summarize everything, but honestly, philosophical papers don’t always need these. Do whatever makes you feel comfortable.Don’t plagiarize. Don’t even get close. Put quotes on anything that needs quotes. Use the feedback.
After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be essay help free
After, reading all three articles for Week Five, please point to one aspect of EACH article that you found be of interest and explain why. Be sure to fully elaborate and discuss how this particular aspect of the article furthers our understanding of terrorism and political violence. It must be evident that you have carefully read and reflected upon all three articles. Next, as you know, even the best articles that are published in peer-reviewed journals are never perfect and lend themselves to constructive criticism. Please identify one weakness, shortcoming, or possible area that could have been elaborated or expanded upon in EACH of the three articles. It must be evident that you have given considerable thought to each aspect of the above discussion assignment. You must also pose a critical thinking question to your classmates.
For this assignment: 1.) Create a PowerPoint presentation on the causes and risk factors of Osteoporosis. 2.) Make this presentation essay help free: essay help free
For this assignment: 1.) Create a PowerPoint presentation on the causes and risk factors of Osteoporosis. 2.) Make this presentation for an audience of 4th – 6th graders. 3.) Requirements: Title slide, introduction, the body of information, conclusions. 4.) Main requirement: It must be created in a way to interest the 4th – 6th graders and keep their attention. 5.) On the very last slide answer the following question: Why have I asked you to create a presentation for 4th – 6th graders? Note from your instructor: 4th-6th graders likely appreciate presentations that place emphasis on graphics and will likely tune out presentations that are mostly words. Please keep this in mind when creating your presentation. Please include a works cited slide (or slides) at the end of your presentation OR cite your sources in APA format at the bottom of the slides in which the information appears (make the references small, but readable).
Use my quantitative design with my research questions to develop a qualitative design now. My quantitative design is attached and Essay scholarship essay help
Use my quantitative design with my research questions to develop a qualitative design now. My quantitative design is attached and the directions are listed here. Let me know if you have any questions! Assignment 9 details with developing a qualitative research design for your area of inters. Copy and paste your research purpose statement and research question(s) at the beginning of this assignment. Make sure all the elements are aligned. You need to include the following sections in your assignment. Some of the elements are similar to what was done with the quantitative design. 1. A description of the context and participants What is the setting for the research? What should we know about this setting? Describe the characteristics of the research setting. What is the population? How many participants will you need/expect to have? What criteria will you use to select your participants (i.e., the sampling strategy)? Provide basic demographic information (e.g., gender and ethnicity group) to describe the proposed sample. Or state you will obtain relevant information later. Resources to consider: I highly encourage you to take a look at dissertations! These will provide some of the best descriptions of these sections. Check our sample proposals. You can look for dissertations online that focus on qualitative methodology (https://guides.library.sc.edu/c.php?g=410160
will create a poster 22×28 inches or a tri-fold 36×48 inches. See all the instructions when you look at the assignment in this folder. You can also create a poster throught Powerpoint. I will upload a blank one where you can fill in the boxes but it may take you a little while so do not wait until the due date if you decide on this option. essay help
You will create a poster 22×28 inches or a tri-fold 36×48 inches. On your posterboard you will display a variety of different media platforms. If those platforms have a known icon you can use those icons on your board. You should give a discription of the platform and how it is used. You will need an introduction paragraph to media and how mass media effects society (see chapter 6). You will need to discuss one or more sociological perspectives in your poster and what it says about media. You will also need a conclusion paragraph. You should have your Title at the top, Name/class/date at the bottom and a section listing your references. I will include a drawn picture of what your poster should look like. **There is another option to create your poster. This may work better for online students. I will upload a blank Poster from PowerPoint. It has your boxes and basic instructions within each box. It has been formatted already so you will only need to insert your information and you can choose your font and font size to accommadate your information. I will also include a video on how to make a PowerPoint poster. Just realize most of it is already done for you. You do not have to do everything in the video as you are not presenting your work at a conference.** Ideas of things to discuss: (You do not have to use all of these and you are welcome to discuss any other ideas related to media. These are some suggestions that you can use within your poster) Media’s global reach The right to privacy Cultural lag digital divide Cultural convergence Hyperconsumerism Social capital Gatekeeping Questions to consider: (You do not have to answer all or any of these. They are just food for thought to help you think out the assignment) What are the implications of the pervasiveness of media? How does the functionalist perspective consider the role of media in society? How is media an enforcer of social norms? What are the problems that feminists believe arise from media portrayal of women? Discuss the main concerns surrounding online media growth and the right to privacy
to will an interdisciplinary paper in which I identify, research, and analyze a problem or, issue related to the theme of social media, technology, and digital lives and tackle it from the perspectives of 2 disciplines. The paper will synthesize your findings and offer insight into possible solutions. writing essay help: writing essay help
-10-12 pages -You need 6 sources total to support your arguments. (2 scholarly sources from 1 discipline, 2 scholarly sources from another discipline, and 2 other credible sources) (see guidelines for the research summary for further details on the sources: ) -MLA format: 1” margins; double-spaced; Times New Roman 12 pt; no cover page; first page has your name, my name, the course number, and the date in the left-hand corner -Microsoft Word or RTF format only (I cannot open .pages) -Proper grammar, spelling, and syntax are a must -Works Cited page in MLA format with proper citation throughout the paper. I use Turnitin and other tools to check for plagiarism.
Business planning assessment 2 college essay help
See attachments. Please note, I have also attached the previous order of this assessment by your colleague, which was marked as failed.
Q7 not a good answers that not how you support employee to give more work. Answers includes Provide appropriate training • Identify how the employee can be motivated • Sharing ideas with the employee to overcome • Create performance goal Q.7 Method of consultation should be meeting, Open forum, workshop, exchange letter
Q4. Wrong calculation. Not sure where you found those data. You need to do it from the given table in q. 4. Q4b,c and d answer will be based on the calculation from Q4a Q5. You did not follow the email writing structure and in the email content should the the sales and variance report from
Q4a,b,c,d Q5 Q6
Strengths and Weaknesses of Observational Study Designs college application essay help: college application essay help
Begin your one- to two-page entry by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the following various types of observational study designs: ecologic, cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort. Next, think about how these strengths and weaknesses will play into studies about your Final Paper’s topic. Tell your instructor about which studies or combinations of studies you anticipate relying upon.
You can pick any topic. Please try to use Friis, R. H.
Greece Economic Crisis Effect on the Rest of the World Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The economic crisis in Greece has not only affected the country but the whole European Union region and the world. Greece is one of the smallest countries in the European, but this has not made its effect on the European Union any less. The cause of the economic crisis is due to the continuous extensive spending by the government resulting to rise of the nation’s debt.
This has left it greatly exposed to a financial crisis as a result of reckless borrowing and great expenditure levels. In 2008, Greece’s percentage debt to its Gross Domestic Product was 110.7% and this increased to 142.8% by the year 2010. The nation’s economy is thus in danger compared to the normal 85.3% debt in the other Euro zones.
It is evident that the country’s financial issue is not only of interest to government heads but also private individuals and corporations in other nations. Every nation in the EU region is now affected by the financial crisis in Greece because they have to spend on bailing it out.
As a result, the financial crisis has transpired into the world’s economy. Research has shown that the effect the financial crises has had varies in different nations. This paper will discuss how the economic crisis in Greece is affecting the rest of the world.
Discussion Greece struggle with a substantial debt load persists to affect the rest of the world. As the financial crisis in this country persists, it is experiencing a 16.3% rise in joblessness and a dramatic decrease in revenues (Madslien). Other effects of this financial crisis to the Greeks include the lack of pay increments, higher taxes, increased fuel prices, and increased retirement age.
The financial crisis in Greece has made many investors apprehensive about buying the government bonds being issued. As a result, interest charges are increasing as governments are forced to pay a larger risk premium. For instance, it is anticipated that due to this financial crisis, the Central bank in Europe will increase its interest rates up to 1.5% (Madslien).
European citizens are facing the problem of increased age retirement because of the financial crisis. Tax costs in the European region have been increased in an attempt to cover the financial cost of the crisis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a EU country Greece expects the rest of the EU members to bail it out and this has resulted in an increase in cost of living in these countries. The countries have been forced to increase their taxes and this has weighed on badly on their citizens.
Another effect the economic crisis in Greece to the rest of the world has been wealth reduction. In this regard, the net income of many people has greatly reduced as they are forced to pay large amounts in taxes. The fact that retirement age has increased has led to low salaries due to shrinking pensions.
Pension funds invest the pensioner’s money in stock markets, and since this has been affected by the crisis, the wealth of the pensioner is greatly reduced. Pension funds in the private sector are also having difficulties in making up for deficits in their income plans due to the diminishing asset values. The issue of wealth reduction has been heavily realized in nations such as Ireland, Portugal and Spain.
This crisis has also led to a slow economic recovery among many nations. This is due to lack of anticipations of any marked return in business ventures. For instance, due to the crisis, the economic development in the Euro zone has slowed by 0.3% to 0.4%. This has prolonged the suffering of the jobless since job creation has become slower compared to the times when this crisis was absent.
By now, the Euro zone redundancy rate is about 10% with Spain having 20% unemployment rate. The people who are employed find it difficult to negotiate for pay increases because they are scared of losing their current jobs and being jobless. Financial experts have predicted that salaries will remain the same and some will be reduced in the coming years if the financial crisis escalates.
The crisis has led to increased unemployment levels. Because of this, demand for goods produced by companies has fallen as people are having less money to spend. With a dwindling market, corporations have decreased their capital ventures in preparation for riding out the economic burden.
It is, therefore, clear that in an environment of reasonable demand and low competence in use rates, then there is no prospect of any remarkable proceeds in investment (Madslien).
We will write a custom Essay on Greece Economic Crisis Effect on the Rest of the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another effect of the crisis is seen in the currency moves. The virtual fall down of Greece’s economy has affected the European Union. This is because all the nations in Europe use the same currency hence deteriorating the Euro dramatically. owing to Euro deterioration, the dollar has sequentially strengthened. The weakening of the Euro currency has led to larger interest rates and loan costs in the continent.
This has affected the capacity of other European nations to move away from their own financial downturns. For instance, Italy and Belgium have above 100% debt levels and this shows how the Greece’s problem has potentially extended to other nations.
Finally, the fact that the crisis has made the Euro to fall alongside other currencies is advantageous to exporters in the euro zone since it makes the goods they sell overseas cheaper, leading to high demand. As a result, exporters have started recruiting more persons and investing more in buying production machines.
This has had a direct effect on the U.S since the cost of exports has increased hence restricting exportation. Since exports are vital for stimulating economic development as well as assisting nations to pull out of their own recessions, then this has offered a major impediment to any economic recovery.
Conclusion As the Greek financial burden now approaches its fourth year, the world is watching how the country deals with its economic crisis. Since this country’s financial problem is international, then there is need for involvement by the outside world. Today, the world is struggling to come up with a solution to this financial burden.
Several packages and answers to this dilemma have been formulated but the world has to wait and see how the packages help in solving the crisis. Some people trust that a default is unavoidable and would have a domino effect on the financial organizations and nations in the world.
As a result, people outside Europe should be concerned about the economic crisis in Greece, as it will affect most if not all the countries in the world. In addition, they too are suffering from slower wage augmentation, increasing taxes and increasing retirement ages.
Works Cited Madslien, Jorn. Why Greece’s problems matter. BBC News, Thursday, 11 February 2010. Web. .
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E-Recruiting Report college admission essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Factors that prompted the advent of e-recruitment
Strengths associated with e-recruitment
Weaknesses that come with e-recruitment
Abstract Human resource has turned out to be one of the key assets for any organization or institution. With a lot of emphasis being human resource, it has become necessary for each and every organization to find ways that can afford them quality and effective recruitment solutions at an affordable rate.
This is where e-recruitment comes in since the internet is no longer a fad; it has now become very potent and effective tool that every organization can use to gain a competitive edge over its competitors.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that prompted the advent of e-recruitment. Conventional methods of recruitment consumed a lot of time and were paper intensive. A better mode of recruitment, one that took less time, lightened the workload, effective yet affordable had to be invented hence the emergence of e-recruitment.
This paper will also analyze the strengths and weaknesses associated with e-recruitment. E-recruitment is at nascent and with time it will become the mainstay for almost every organization. Ways of improving the process of e-recruitment are explored in this paper.
Introduction Modes of recruiting have changed significantly over the past years. Various challenges that firms had to contend with while conducting the recruitment process are largely responsible for the dramatic changes being witnessed in the recruitment landscape. Various firms are finding it hard to get qualified applicants for positions that are usually hard to fill.
This is compounded by the fact that attracting a specialized group of applicants has also proved to be a daunting task. Thus these predicaments prompted the development of e-recruitment whereby technological advances aided in the expedition of the development of e-recruitment (Bondarouk
Formal Curriculum Essay essay help: essay help
Formal education can be described as what students should learn that has been laid down by the syllabus (Urevbu, 1985). As a result, it can be referred to as the publicly chosen body of knowledge that the government, via the Ministry of Education, by subject matter institutes, or regional education authorities, or whichever body is concerned with offering education, would like students to learn.
The formal curriculum, also called official curriculum, is the curriculum that is not only written, but also published such as course documentation (McKimm, 2003).
According to the University of Zimbabwe Distance Education (1995), a formal curriculum refers to the entire work that is planned and used by teachers in conjunction with students.
The formal curriculum is intended to fulfill specified objectives of education of recognized groups of students or learners in their changeable settings. In other words, formal curriculum can be said to be chosen written courses or programs that students experience.
Informal Curriculum According to Urevbu (1985), informal curriculum refers to the curriculum in use. In view of the fact that instructors or teachers may not be able to stick on to the offered formal curriculum, they can include additional features of knowledge that are usually derived from supplementary sources.
As a result, these extra materials are known as ‘informal curriculum’. According to UNESCO (1997), informal (non-formal) curriculum refers to structured and nonstop educational actions that do not characterize formal education, and may take place both inside and outside educational institutions.
A number of examples of the formal curriculum include things like lecturers’ handouts, course guides and the prospectus. On the other hand, activities such as rugby and other games events and clubs, Fresher’s week, treating Asian or female students in a different way, the different ‘ethnic groups and territories’ established in different areas of expertise, are examples of informal curriculum.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A case in point of informal curriculum is a case where a mother teaches her child basic aspects of language and grammar at home, before the child goes into a formal education institution (Eaton, 2011).
Contrasting formal and informal curricula
Formal Curriculum Informal Curriculum 1 Mostly deals with young children and adolescents Deals with people of all ages 2 Confers certification to the learning achieved May or may not award certification to the learning achieved 3 Takes place within educational institutions Can take place inside or outside educational institutions 4 In general, classrooms have the same teachers and the same students every day. Generally, the programs are usually drop-in. as a result attendance and leadership are not consistent. 5 In most cases, classroom activities go on for a number of days. In most cases the programs are required to bring to an end each day’s activity since a different group of participants could be in attendance the following day. 6 It can be assumed teachers or instructors have undergone a specified level of training in classroom management, educational philosophy, effective teaching strategies, and content. In contrast, informal curriculum providers have varied levels of experience and knowledge of teaching methods, group management, and expertise in content. 7 Teachers and instructors are required to meet certain educational standards. In addition, they must follow a particular curriculum. As a result, it is difficult for them to slot in nontraditional content. On the contrary, informal programs are more flexible as regards their content. 8 It is predictable and can be controlled One cannot predict or preemptively have power over this kind of curriculum. It is very idiosyncratic and unpredictable. Source: Enhancing education, 2002.
References Eaton, S.E. (2011). Family Literacy and the New Canadian: Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of Literacy, Essential Skills and Language Learning in Canada, National Metropolis Conference, Vancouver, B.C.
Enhancing education. (2002). Formal vs. Informal Education. Web.
Marshall, K. (2004). Let’s clarify the way we use the word “curriculum.” Education Week, 24(1), 43.
McKimm, J. (2003). Curriculum design and development. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Formal Curriculum specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNESCO. (1997). International standard classification of education ISCED 1997. Paris: UNESCO.
University of Zimbabwe. (1995). Curriculum Implementation,Change and Innovation. Harare: Centre for Distance Education, University of Zimbabwe.
Urevbu, A.O. (1985). Curriculum Studies. Ikeja: Longman.
Collaborating with Families and Community Members Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Importance of Family-School-Community collaborations
Importance of School-linked Programs
The Specific Stakeholders in School-Community Collaborations
Parents and Stakeholder Partnerships
Evaluating the Contributions of Parents and Stakeholders
Introduction School partnerships involving community and other stakeholders are an essential approach of addressing the diverse needs of the school community. Effective school administrators and principals collaborate with community members, families, and the business community to mobilize community resources in order to meet the diverse community needs and interests.
School principals should aim at establishing relationships or networks within and outside the school. Often, family conditions influence student learning in school settings. Thus, the principal should identify the resources; that is, families, community members, and business, which can support learning in the school.
An optimal approach of promoting school-community collaboration involves blending the school resources with the local community and family resources.
The collaborations encompass various community agencies and organizations including community-based organizations, civic and religious groups, libraries and local parks, businesses, individuals and post-secondary institutions within the community (Adelman,