A Strategy For Maximizing The Use Of Human Resources Case Study Custom Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Benefits of Performance Appraisal Systems within an Organization

Evaluation of Teams within an Organization

Concept of Succession Planning with an Organization

Conclusion

References

Introduction Employees’ surveys indicate that they have not received regular performance evaluations. As a result, they have complained about lack of regular performance appraisal system. Therefore, the management have pointed out that there should be a clear process of assessing work teams which are important components for the organizational success. For that matter, this is a report that is prepared to address the last board meeting of directors concern on how to implement a succession planning on employee appraisal.

Consequently, this report covers five major areas that address employees’ appraisal. These areas include benefits of performance appraisal systems within an organization. Secondly, the report discusses evaluation teams within an organization. Thirdly, the concept of succession planning is extensively covered. Lastly the report provides a summary in which key points are reiterated

Benefits of Performance Appraisal Systems within an Organization Employees’ appraisal in the organization has several benefits accrued from the process. Whenever a successful performance appraisal of employees is contacted in the organization, there are usually numerous optimal results that are accrued from the process. One of the optimal results is that it offers a golden opportunity for both the subordinate and the supervisor to address important work related issues that might be affecting employees at the work place.

This is so since appraisal process provides a golden opportunity for the stakeholders to focus on the set goals in order to identify the achievements obtained. Also, it makes it possible to address the available problems on in the organizational to facilitate its improvement. Moreover, Stephen (2005) noted that employees’ appraisal provides recognition to these employees for their work efforts. This recognition acts as an incentive for social power since employees feel appreciated thus acting as a motivational factor.

Additionally, employee performance offers the best opportunity for training and development of the workforce. Depending on the results of the appraisal, the management is able to determine training and development needs of its workforce. Therefore, the organization is able to plan for training and development of its employees thus contributing positively to performance effectiveness.

Moreover, performance appraisal of employees also results to an optimal result of employee evaluation which is usually one of the core objectives of carrying out this exercise. The optimal result of the process is to evaluate performance of employees so as to get ways of developing them to ensure that there is continuous improvement in the organization processes that relate to employees’ performance.

On the other hand, the benefits of performance appraisal of employees can also be viewed in various forms. These include organizational perspectives and employees’ perspectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In respect to organizational perspective, an optimal result of performance appraisal is an indicator of improved performance in the organization as a result of increased sense of loyalty and cohesiveness. On the other hand, Stephen (2005) noted that on the part of the employee in this case, he or she is given a platform to discuss their aspirations in order to achieve their personal targets.

However, there are pre-appraisal activities that ensure that there are performance appraisal processes that are beneficial to both the employee and the organization at large. For that matter, these activities are usually future oriented where they aim to gain optimal results in future organization’s employee performance.

One of the most important activities of this process is the management by objective. In this approach, both the employee and the employer usually collaborate to set goals to be achieved in the short term and long term durations. For that reason, management by objectives is a goal oriented approach with the sole aim of ensuring continuous improvement in the organization’s processes. Therefore, this mechanism provides parameters which provides basis for employees appraisal.

In addition, it is acknowledged by Luis and others (2011) that past oriented activities are also pre-appraisal activities that are instituted by an organization to ensure that its appraisal exercise achieves optimal results. For example, evaluation based on characteristics checklist forms the basis for an appraisal exercise that can lead to optimal results. Checklists such as attitude, attendance and dependability are some of the issues that are checked to ensure that performance appraisal results to continuous improvement.

Moreover, past appraisal review is also one activity that is done to ensure that the program yields optimal results. This past review provides past performance in the exercise and establishes the goals and objectives that were set in the past exercise that needs to achieved in the forthcoming exercise. Therefore, by doing so, it ensures that optimal results are obtained.

However, there exists several post appraisal mechanisms that are applied to ensure that the appraisal system achieves the desired results. For instance, communicating performance after an appraisal process aid in delivering performance of employees in respect to their appraisal. This is an important activity since it enables employees to reflect on their performance. This helps them to improve on their performance hence resulting to management effectiveness in the organization.

Conversely, when providing feedback of this performance appraisal, there is some likelihood that things might go the wrong way in the organization. For instance, it is believed by Luis and others (2011) that the receptive of the result is likely to be unfriendly if the result of the performance appraisal have some negative elements.

We will write a custom Case Study on A Strategy for Maximizing the Use of Human Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees are likely to be critical of the results as long as their performance is below the expected mark. Therefore, the performance appraisal process is likely to be criticized and be framed as a poorly done process just to discredit it.

Nonetheless, to curb these problems, a manager is expected to take some precautions while delivering a performance appraisal for optimal value. Importantly, the manager is expected to prepare his or her employees to understand the fact that the results of the appraisal is only meant to help them and the organization to attain continuous improvement.

Secondly, the manager should also make it clear that the result of the appraisal process will never be used as a yardstick for victimization rather than as an avenue for their improvement in the workplace. These steps are vital in ensuring that there is no employee sabotage that comes as a result of delivering performance appraisal.

Ideally, Stephen (2005) postulated that performance appraisal in the organization is intended to benefit the organization and employees altogether. Therefore, there are some benefits to the company of working with employees to further their career goals.

One of the paramount benefits of this collaboration is that it becomes possible to align employees’ goals and the overall company goals. This makes these two entities to be in harmony in their operation environment hence providing a cordial working environment that is healthy for continuous improvement of the organization.

Evaluation of Teams within an Organization Evaluation of teams within an organization is just like individual evaluation process that is intended to meet continuous improvement in organizational processes. Therefore, the standards that guide evaluation of teams must focus on customer satisfaction and results. For that matter, teams must be rated based on customer satisfaction and the ambitious goals of the organization.

For instance, to be an outstanding team, customers must continuously provide positive customer feedback. Moreover, these teams must consistently be working towards improvement of processes in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness of their operations. Therefore, Susan and others (2000) postulated that in order to attain an outstanding performance, the team must significantly boost effectiveness and efficiency that are paramount to clients’ satisfaction.

Therefore, in evaluating teams in the organization, there is need to develop an appraisal scheme that entails organization’s standards of excellence. These standards include skills and knowledge of the job, interpersonal relationships and teamwork, reliability and dependability, flexibility and adaptability in the working environment and most importantly, work performance.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Strategy for Maximizing the Use of Human Resources by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For that matter, assessing team performance should therefore keep in mind these key standards. In addition, processes that are critical to the team must be evaluated to establish their performance.

Moreover, Susan and others (2000) opined that when assessing team performance, it is relatively important to check for the role fit in the team. Ideally, every member in the team has a role. For that matter, every role of the team member must be evaluated to gauge whether their role in the team fits their skills and knowledge and whether they are capable for performing these roles.

In addition, performance reviews of the team must be regularly conducted to ensure that organizational goals and objectives are being met in the team. Moreover, in the team assessment, every member must be must be given an opportunity to contribute about teamwork issues. This is an important aspect of group evaluation since it gives a sense of belonging of group members which is a critical ingredient in promoting continuous improvement in the organization.

Therefore, it should be a strategy for the company to regularly perform team evaluation exercise. However, this process should encompass a multifaceted programme that is appropriate for effectiveness and efficiency appraisal program for the organization. For that matter, the appraiser should enable the team members to personally identify the outcomes of their own work and not rely on the second or third party for providing results of their work.

Secondly, the evaluation programme must be based on performance measures of the team members. This should put into consideration what has happened, what has changed, what has advanced and what has improved in a team for a specific period of time. This approach is intended to make sure that there is a continued improvement in the team in respect to the changing needs of the organization.

Thirdly, it is also important that the appraiser identifies what every individual member contributes in the team. The success of teamwork is usually dependant on the contributions of each individual member thus their individual efforts are relatively important. However, when assessing individual efforts in the group, the outcomes of all members must be accumulated to come up with teamwork results.

Fourthly, regular reviews of teamwork must be undertaken after a specific period of time. These reviews must be undertaken regularly to ensure that the team’s performance remains on course. The review must focus on the results of the teamwork in order to identify problems and successes. This provides a benchmark for grading performance of the team.

However, according to Susan and others (2000), there are differences that exist between evaluating team performance and individual performance. To begin with, these two processes are different in terms of parameters that are used in evaluation. For individual evaluation, job description becomes the basis of assessment. This is contrary to team evaluation since it is the goals that were set to be attained by the team that becomes the basis for assessment.

Secondly, another difference in evaluation relates to the outcomes. The outcome of the team is determined by all members of the team. For instance, a competent individual in the team might be affected by non-functional team. This is common in instances where a tam is comprised b incompetent members.

However, an incompetent team member may be evaluated as a good performer as a result of functional and competent team members (Tansley

[supanova_question]

Roles of Property Tax Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Roles assigned to property taxes

Features of economic system to be implemented

Conclusion

References

Introduction Property tax, an annual tax on the real property, has been in existence for more than three millennia. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. Its base may be the land and buildings or just the land only. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate (Hoff, 1991).

This paper therefore seek to explain how the rate of savings in a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It will also highlight the roles that can be attributed to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Additionally, the paper will recommend other features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.

Roles assigned to property taxes As an economic advisor, I would recommend a property tax that is administratively and technically easy to maintain and implement in all the circumstances. The property tax should be able to aim a cost yield ratio of 2% or even less making it cheap to administer. The property tax implemented should be secure in that it’s almost impossible to evade, the collection success rates should be at a minimum of 95% which is easily attainable. The transparency of the tax system should be evident in the property tax to ensure its affectivity (Hoff, 1991).

The property tax should be in such away that the public understands it since understanding the market value concept is easy whether it is a rental value or capital value making its basis of assessment more appreciated. The property tax should ensure that there is a better correlation between the ability to pay and the assessed value.

The tax should also be marginally progressive and therefore need to be designed correctly. The property taxes should be well suited like a source to the revenue of the local governments generated locally; nevertheless it should be buoyant and predictable (Bahl, 1992).

Economically, I’ll assign some other major roles to the property taxes. These include: acting as a major source of local revenues; the property taxes should be employed as the main source of revenues generated locally since it is geographically defined.

It may be possible to use local sales taxes and local income taxes in generating the revenue for the local government but the two have administrative difficulties. Other sources may be rents from the properties owned by the government. However, property taxes still remain the major source of revenue in such areas since it is easier for the government to modify than it is to adjust the rates of income taxes (Hyman, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a primary source of revenue; property tax should be able to play a vital role in the autonomy and decentralization of the local government.

Where there is full local government decentralization, the power to independently raise revenue is incorporated which allows the government to use such funds as they deem fit: as a support for other functions; the property tax should be able to be used by other bodies and agencies in assessing the value lists attached to properties. Some bodies that may find it relevant include drainage boards, water bodies and electricity which assess the charges imposed on such commodities (Bahl, 1992).

Features of economic system to be implemented A developing nation willing to increase the savings of its citizens and the investments by the foreign investors ought to implement favorable economic systems that suit its objectives. In this case, some of the features of the economic system that I as an economic advisor would recommend for implementation include:

An economic system that facilitates decentralization and gives a basis for local autonomy

A system that ensures an economic use of the available land

An economic system that provides the base of revenue for a particular function authorities

A system that reduces property and land prices hence facilitating land access by the public

An economic system that can be applied to industrial, commercial and residential properties as well as buildings and agricultural land located in the rural areas (Hoff, 1991).

Conclusion In summary, Property tax is an annual tax on the real property. It is found most commonly on the market value concept. The land and buildings or just the land only are its major bases. The strengths and weaknesses of this type of tax are well known since it’s common globally and is a subject of a political debate. This paper has highlighted major roles of property tax as; the major source of local revenue, primary source, contributing to functions of other bodies and as a valuation list.

The paper has therefore described how the rate of saving of a less developed nation can be increased using the property tax. It has also highlighted the roles assigned to the property tax in encouraging the foreign investors to invest in the nation. Eventually, the paper has recommended the features of an economic system that may be implemented by this nation in order to achieve its economic objectives.

References Bahl, R. (1992). Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hoff, K. (1991). Introduction: Agricultural Taxation and Land Rights Systems. The World Bank Economic Review, 5(1): 85-91.

We will write a custom Essay on Roles of Property Tax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hyman, D. N. (2008). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (9th ed.). Mason OH: South-Western Publishing, Cengage

[supanova_question]

Review of Revenue Estimates in Federal, State, Agency and Local Budgets Essay custom essay help

Introduction Public budgeting can be defined as “the critical exercise of allocating revenues and borrowed funds so as to attain the economic and social goals of a given country” such as the United States (Chantrill, 2011). It also includes the management of public expenditures in a way that the most effective economic impact will be realized from the production and delivery of goods and services (Huddleston, 2005).

The budgeting process is vital in the sense that it allows governments, states and agencies to implement proper planning and management of financial resources. The prevailing economic condition often acts as a guide to help governments to prioritize and implement programs and policies that will work best for them.

The budgeting process entails four different stages or phases: budget preparation, budget authorization, budget execution and accountability. The United States and many other countries have an annual budgeting process.

Revenue estimation is an important component of the budgeting process for every government, state, local governments and agencies. This is important for ensuring that strategic planning is done to correctly pinpoint how much money should allocated to different programs. It’s also important in determining whether taxes are to be increased or decreased.

This paper seeks to review the revenue estimates in Federal, State and local Budgets. The review will include: Basic description of each budget- federal, state and local budgets; Identification of the differences and similarities between the budgets; identification of the areas that account for the most of the revenue in the different categories; determination of how the budget fits with the mission of each domain; and finally, recommendation of how the budget can be improved and revenue estimation be accurately accessed at each level.

Description of the different budget estimates Local government budget estimates

There are many local governments across the United States. These governments usually fall under the category of general purpose governments that offer several different public goods and services or special purpose governments that provide a specific good or service (Huddleston, 2005).

There are governments for cities, others for rural areas and some representing both cities and rural areas. In some states, municipal governments provide public education while in others pubic education is catered for by special purpose governments (Huddleston, 2005).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This diversity in local governments is also reflected in the public budgets as well. However, the underlying factor in all these budgets is raising and spending of public money (Chantrill, 2011).

Budgets of general purpose local governments are usually composed of three distinct parts that operate together: annual operating budget; capital budget; and the enterprise or utilities budget (The PEW Center of the States, 2011).

The annual operating budget outlines the anticipated spending that will be carried out by all agencies under the municipality in the coming year. For instance, this may include expenditure for public safety, planning and development, and social services among others (Huddleston, 2005). The annual operating budget also includes the revenues that the local government expects to receive in the course of the year, particularly the estimated amount of property tax revenue that will be levied in the course of the upcoming financial year.

The capital budget includes the forecasted expenditure on the required infrastructure projects that will be useful for a long time to come (Huddleston, 2005). Capital budgets are formulated following extensive planning process that indicates the precise spending that will be accrued on capital items in the coming year.

General purpose local governments usually identify public services whose beneficiaries can be established. Different local government enterprises finance themselves in the sense that annual revenues cover for the annual costs accrued (Huddleston, 2005).

State budgets estimates

Different states in the United States budget differently. The different budgeting systems reflect differences in the preferences and traditions that have been developed for more than 200 years (Chantrill, 2011).

There are differences in the authority wielded by the governor and the legislature, states relations to local governments, traditions of borrowing and many other aspects of the budgeting process (McNichol, Oliff,

[supanova_question]

Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Research Design In undertaking this research work, a descriptive research design will be implemented to provide explanation to the criminal trend observed among the young people. In this case, the research will aspire to provide answers to the questions arising from the observed trend in which young people are getting involved in criminal activities. In this regard, the research will try to give reasons to why young people engage in criminal activities.

To realize the intended objectives, the research design will employ various data collection methods which will enable the collection of reliable information for analysis. The descriptive research design will rely on interviews, questionnaire administration and surveys in getting information that is useful for the study (De Vaus, 2001).

Interviews will be conducted in the crime prone areas which will be identified after an analysis of data from criminal agencies in the United States. This will ensure that relevant information is easily gathered from the people who are most affected by the incidences of crime from the young members of the society.

Apart from the interviews, questionnaires will be distributed to a sample population to enable the gathering of more information related to crime committed by the young people. In addition, surveys will be conducted to shed more light on the aspect of crime among the young people. Therefore, this research will have to employ various tools of data collection including interviews, questionnaire and survey (De Vaus, 2001).

Data Analysis Procedures This study will rely on qualitative data analysis in synthesizing the findings of the study. It is worth noting that qualitative data analysis is critical when aspiring to answer the how and why questions (Nolan, 1994). This analysis does not involve statistics which is the case in quantitative analysis.

It has been established that qualitative research is used to study individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, value systems and aspirations among other social aspects (Lewis-Beck, 1995; Nolan, 1994). Since the focus of this study is to elaborate on the aspect of juvenile criminality, qualitative analysis can be identified as the most appropriate method to analyze the collected data in this study.

After data has been collected from the interviews, questionnaires and surveys, analysis of the data will begin. First of all, the data that will have been collected will be sorted out before being made available for analysis. The sorting will ensure that irrelevant data that may have been collected is eliminated in the course of analysis. This also enables the research to achieve its intended objectives (Hardy and Bryman, 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results Descriptive Results

After a critical analysis of the data that was collected, it was found out that criminal behavior among the young people was affected by various aspects. First of all, it was revealed that high school dropout rate was closely related to criminal behavior among young people. In this case, most of the young people who did not complete high school education often engage in criminal activities to fend for themselves.

These individuals are not capable of securing decent employment as they do not have the necessary skills required for them to secure good employment. Given that these young people are locked out of the lucrative job market, they easily join the criminal gangs to make their ends meet. Such young people easily fall victims to peer pressure whereby they are attracted to the short-term benefits that accrue from criminal behavior (Rouček, 1970).

Peer pressure has been identified as one of the elements that lures the youths into committing crime. It has been established that delinquent behavior is prone to happen in a social setting. In such social settings social norms that enhance responsible behavior are usually broken.

In this case, most of the rules and regulations preventing individuals from engaging in criminal behavior lose significance. Members of the gangs often engage in criminal activities as a response to the traumatizing and destructive changes that are taking place in the society (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).

Poverty has also emerged as one of the main causes of criminal behavior among the youths. The gap between the haves and have-nots has continued to widen leading to what has been referred to as ‘the unwanted others.’

There has been the emergence of welfare systems to cater for the poor in the society, but this has not addressed the problem related to humble socio-economic status in the society and the ever-rising dependence of the low income earners on social security arrangements. This has led to the emergence of a ‘new poor’ class (Rouček, 1970).

It has reported that in neighborhoods which are home to moderate and low income earners, they are highly associated with criminal behavior. Here, the young people engage in criminal activity due to poor conditions in which they live.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It can be argued that the main reason for taking part in criminal activities is to enable the young criminals to have something to eat since their economic condition is regarded to be pathetic. Engaging in criminal activities is seen as the easy way out for these young offenders in making ends meet (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011). As much as this can be despicable, it is the explanation that can be given to the findings of this undertaking.

Another aspect that was revealed is that child neglect and abuse can have an impact on the criminality of young people. From the statistics that were gathered from the criminal justice departments, it was revealed that most of the youths who engaged in criminal activities had a troubled past.

They were subjected to neglect and abuse by their families and care givers, and this pushed them into criminal activities. It is true that when children are growing, they need to be taken care of and nurtured to embrace the established societal norms (Burfeind and Bartusch, 2011).

Conclusion From the data and analysis provided, it can be established that juvenile delinquency and engagement in criminal activities is determined by various factors. The factors identified as key to the engagement of young people in criminal activities include high school dropout rate; poverty; and child abuse and neglect.

These aspects contribute to increased incidences of violent crimes among young people. Therefore, it can be asserted that addressing elements which have been associated with criminal activities among young people will play a vital role in curbing juvenile delinquency.

It is important to curb the rate of high school dropout to enable the young people gain necessary skills needed in the job market. Also, it is important to ensure that the issue of poverty should be addressed so as to accord the young people at least an average lifestyle. Lastly, the families and caregivers need to be taught about the importance of providing the young people with an appropriate environment for their growth. Child neglect and abuse should be avoided to enable the young people grow in a righteous manner.

References Burfeind, J. W. and Bartusch, D. J, 2011, Juvenile delinquency: an integrated approach, Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

De Vaus, D A, 2001, Research design in social research, London [u.a.]: SAGE.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Juvenile Arrest Rate for Violent Crimes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hardy, M A and Bryman, A, 2009, Handbook of data analysis, London: SAGE.

Lewis-Beck, M S, 1995, Data analysis: an introduction. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Nolan, B, 1994, Data analysis: an introduction, Cambridge; Oxford; Cambridge (MA): Polity Press.

Rouček, J. S, 1970, Juvenile delinquency, Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press.

[supanova_question]

Border Security of the United States Annotated Bibliography essay help site:edu

Definition The paper is about border security of the United States. The major concern is whether to have a secure border or to allow free movement of people, goods or services across the border of the United States. This border had been known as the longest undefended border in the world, but after the events of September 11, 2001, things changed.

The U.S government had to review its border laws and restrictions, which led to strict rules on its border. There has been increased time for security checks of shipment, thus increasing shipment costs for Canadian exporters. In addition to this, the US deadline for secure identity cards has affected trade and tourism.

The research shall be based on information from already documented information on U.S security. This includes books, journal articles, primary sources and online sources found in the World Wide Web.

This will provide information that other people have been able to gather about border security, which includes the actual figures of cost implications of border restrictions. The predetermined data of people movement across the border before and after border restrictions together with figures of economic implications shall be very important information for making conclusions.

Objective

The main objective is to determine whether the United States should allow a secure or free border to exist with the outside world for movement of goods, people and services, based on the events that took place in September 11, 2001 that killed many people.

Hypothesis

Free border may lead to increased economic and social relationship between the United States, Canada and the rest of the hemisphere through unrestricted movement of goods, people and services across its boundaries. This will ultimately improve trade between United States and the rest of the world.

Outline

In 1990s, the Canadian- U.S border was known to be the longest secure border that existed until the terrorist attacks in September 11, 2001, due to good policies that existed between the two nations. After the terrorism attacks, the US customs and migration agencies increased security on trade and migration of people across their border.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The costs that come along with these restrictions have been known to have a great impact on both the US and the Canadian economy. This is in the form of taxes that amount to hundreds of millions of dollars that the citizens pay to put adequate security in the borders. US border scrutiny has discouraged potential investors and exports to the US due to time wastage that amounts to a loss of millions of dollars.

Another problem is the increase in shipment costs associated with the security provided during scrutiny. This is due to longer times that are taken during the process and security has to be provided. In 2004, 6.9 million trucks cross the US border from Canada with reported time delays of 32 minutes per shipment costing Canadian exporters an estimated $290 million. To avoid time wastage at borders, exporters have to be accredited in the US risk management programs which is expensive.

The other problem of the introduction of border scrutiny is imposition of passports or some other type of safe travel document. This is with the intent of identification of potential terrorists, but it has negative impacts. This passport is hard to obtain and also expensive, thus, hindering the movement of the people and trade between the US and other parts of the world.

Bibliography Books

Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.

Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.

The book talks about a wide range of problems facing U.S border security that arose after the September, 11 attacks. According to Warner, the large area that needs to be protected comprises “19,841 miles of land and water boundaries and 95,000 miles of shoreline and air of U.S” – Mexico border.

The number of migrants wanting to reach the U.S, a land of big opportunities, has been increasing with time and has resulted in large number of deaths. Between the years 1995-2008, the number of migrants reported to have died are 5,000 and an estimated number of 9,635 in 2009. Many Mexicans were killed in drug related violence.

We will write a custom Annotated Bibliography on Border Security of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This book also focuses on border security before and after September 11, attacks. The security is said to have been intensified along the U.S. border after then to date. Warner also looks at “illegal migrations, counterterrorism, drug and weapon trafficking, human smuggling, the impact of border security on movement of people and goods and the effect of war on people and goods, and the effect of war on terrorism on civil and human rights”.

Show More

Journal articles Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.

Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.

Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.

This article by Boswell argues that political debate and practices in Europe have remained unaffected by the threat of terrorism, which was particularly high after the events of 9/11. The argument is raised to contradict the belief that the events of 9/11 led to increased security of migration control via the implementation of harsh migration policies.

The article expounds on the contents of the migration policies, indicating the various methods of keeping irregular immigrants via restrictions, deportation, detention and border control. The author also compares the security of the US border to that in Europe, and the tactics used to prevent terrorism.

Primary sources GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Border Security of the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.

GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.

Works Cited Bigo, D. “Security and Immigration: Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease.” Alternatives (2002): 27, 63–92. Print.

Boswell, Christina. “Migration Control in Europe After 9/11: Explaining the Absence of Securitization.” Journal of Common Market Studies (2007): 45(3), 589–610. Print.

Crawley, Phillip. Legacy of 9/11: the world’s longest undefended border is now defended. 11 September 2011. Web.

GAO. “Border Security: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination Is Needed for the Northern Border.” Highlights of GAO-11-97, a report to congressional requesters. 2010.

GAO. Border Security: Security Vulnerabilities at Unmanned and Unmonitored U.S. Border Locations. Washington, D.C.: GAO-07-884T, 2007.

GAO. Managing for Results: Barriers to Interagency Coordination. Washington, D.C.: GAO/GGD-00-106, 2000.

Huysmans, J. “Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.” European Journal of International Relations (1998): 4(2), 226–255. Print.

Jo Cureton, Emily. A mission on the border ten years after 9/11. 8 September 2011. Web.

Kephart, Janice. Border Watchlisting a Decade After 9/11. 1 September 2011. Web. .

Tancredo, Tom. In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America’s Border and Security. Los Angeles: WND Books, 2006. Print.

Warner, Judith Ann. U.S. Border Security: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.

[supanova_question]

The Design and Limits of Company Website Report college essay help

Introduction Background of the study

Often, emerging businesses demands information flow and dimensional communication systems modeled in websites. Websites are an essential tool for marketing, purchase, recruitment, customer services, and communication.

Across the globe, small, median and large business organizations have embraced the essence of owning a website from which all its activities are centralized. From a website, depending on its design, it is possible for a potential customer, employee, and the general public to have a quick access of services offered by a company and even trade or purchase goods online without necessarily having to appear physically.

Purpose of the study

The design and limits of accompany website depend mainly on the cost of maintenance and design, relevance, and sustainability (Chaffey, 2009). In relation to this, analysis of websites will include tools laid down for support, governance, and paradigm shift as communication technology experience metamorphosis.

Website use depends on the magnitude of information processing, decision faculty, and collocation efficiency, especially in marketing, identity, recruitment, and departmental control (Chaffey, 2009). In retrospect, it is necessary to address interacting facets of information marketing management and efficiency in communication via use of a customized website.

This research treatise examines the various uses and design of company websites for orders, information, storefront, communication, job recruitment, and marketing. Besides, quantifiable website progress and interpretation for successful, efficient, and modern communication system management are addressed as constituents of organization management framework. In addition, the treatise aims at reviewing an efficient, successful, cost-effective and secure website system to ensure competitive service provision.

Problem statement

Overtime, companies are faced with the need to develop an all-round and comprehensive websites which are secure, reliable and relevant to their line of operation. In the process, there is need to align management goals vertically on the operating processors affordable in the value market chain.

Unfortunately, sometimes this is not the case, especially when vertical arrangement is erased by coalitions of competence and structural operations. To achieve the desired outcomes such as comprehensive information efficiency, security, and optimal information presentation, there is an immediate need to establish the most reliable website design for appropriate system administration and functionality within optimal Pareto efficiency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Hypothesis

Often connected to a network system, examples of websites include simple and complex models depending on the quantity of information available in it. Thus, the hypothesis if this research study is to review design and appropriate use of business websites as a form of information sharing within business environment in the twenty-first century.

Literature Review Theoretical frameworks

According to Swart and Kinnie (2003), websites are essential in processing, retrieving, storing and distribution information about a company’s products, services, human resource, management systems and marketing for competitive existence and relevance (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). The main components of a business website include the company profile, announcements, online trade, blackboard, and information update buttons.

These buttons are designed in a way that can monitor and detect alterations. From a software control system, websites have security systems, operation programs, utility support, and management systems (Swart and Kinnie, 2003). Websites can be customized to perform information processing requirements within a security monitoring range. Website system facilitates information sharing and marketing.

Methodology Data Collection

Business managers often have sole responsibility of managing information systems and marketing. Every year, the management set goals and flexible development plans aimed at facilitating growth in formation sharing and advertising products offered in the company website. For efficient information sharing, it must be viable and fall within the brackets of Pareto efficiency bundles.

Website design is the focal point of its operation and inclusivity. By employing open-ended questionnaires in direct interviews, the research targets information managers of medium business companies. Due to the small sample size, this method suits the goal of this research.

The questions to ask revolves around information, communication, recruitment, advertisement, and storefront management as part of information available in a website. In addition, issues on reliability, efficiency, and security of this form of information sharing system are also asked.

After data collection, simple swot analysis inclusive of quantitative correlation analysis of responses given is included on the inference. The findings revealed that company websites are essential in sharing information, management, and advertisement as a mean for maintaining a competitive edge and relevancy in service provision.

We will write a custom Report on The Design and Limits of Company Website specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion and Analysis Explanations on relevance and use of company websites in information sharing clearly indicate a complete paradigm shift in marketing and information management. Websites have enabled customers to do their shopping online from order, request for delivery, to making payments. In the websites, recruitment has been made easier as potential employees can apply for vacant positions online. Moreover, customers are given an opportunity to air their compliment and complaints for services offered to them.

Besides, dissatisfied customer may type suggestions for future improvement in service provision. As companies make alterations t factor in the comments provided, differentiation and brand growth is likely to improve as communication enhances. As an advertising tool, websites offer opportunity to customers to purchase goods from the comfort of their homes and make the company have a competitive edge above other players

Conclusion and Recommendation As the social media grows, companies have embraced online marketing methodology in the form of social media websites where they can interact with clients and potential customers. Social medias are marketing tools that when well used can give a company a competitive advantage over its competitors.

References Chaffey, A. (2009) “Business Information Management”. Web.

Swart, J.

[supanova_question]

Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Abstract The core objective of this research paper is to examine water scarcity and its effects to the environment. This research paper will lean towards a descriptive approach. Several causes of water scarcity will be reviewed in this research and subsequently suggest solutions to the problems will be discussed.

In conclusion, this research paper will make a number of recommendations to ensure significant strides are achieved in curbing water scarcity. Besides, after reviewing the recommendations applied, this paper will determine ways in which the research results can be dispersed. Introduction

Introduction This report will assess the increased demand for water resources as a result of its unavailability. Besides, the paper will also consider the solutions and recommendations for supplying water to all. Water is a valuable resource to humans and the world as a whole.

If water resources continue to diminish, the environment will continue to experience the struggle of surviving since the environment, and forests particularly depend on water resources. Huge industrial demand for water, increased populations and agricultural demands for water increase the scarcity of water. Australia, for instance, is estimated to maintain its domestic water needs rise to 70 percent in the near future. Water Scarcity

Water scarcity is a problem that is experienced all over the world. It is estimated that over a billion people are annually hit by water scarcity. The U.S. department of state puts a figure of 1.1 billion people who lack safe drinking water while 2.4 billion cannot access basic sanitation. Interestingly, “water scarcity also occurs in regions that contain freshwater and sufficient amounts rainfall” (Postel 85).

This is because sufficiency of water supply depends on water conservation methods, distribution channels available in the community and the quality of water as stated by Postel (192). Besides, meeting the demand for household water use, farms, industry and the environment requires substantial conservation methods and timely distribution methods. It is estimated that one out of every three people on each continent of the globe is affected by water scarcity.

As the world population grows the need for more water also increases. Besides, more urban cities are coming up, and urbanization increases the household and industrial consumption. 1.2 billion people across the globe live in areas where water is not present or is physically not available. This is a fifth of the world’s population.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fig. 1.1 (Tag Archive for ‘Water Scarcity’)

Fig. 1.2 (BBC NEWS)

As shown by the above figure, water scarcity is fast becoming a major challenge in developing countries where a quarter of the world population lives. This is due to “lack of proper technique of supplying water from sources such as rivers and aquifers to where it is needed most” (Berk 190). In places where water shortage is experienced, communities are forced to use unsafe drinking water for drinking and washing their clothes.

Unsafe drinking water increases the chances of water borne diseases such as dysentery, cholera and typhoid fever being transmitted to humans. Furthermore, “water scarcity can lead to other diseases including trachoma, which is an eye infection that leads to blindness, plague and typhus” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). When people are faced with water scarcity, they institute measures to store water in their home. These measures can include using water tanks or sinking wells.

This method leads to a breeding ground for mosquitoes – which are known carriers of malaria and dengue fever among others. In the face of all this problems associated with water scarcity, there arises a need to address the issue of water scarcity before it gets out of hand. Better water management policies ensure safety of the communities relying on the water as breeding grounds for insects are eliminated, hence a reduction in water borne diseases like the schistosomiasis which is a devastating illness.

According to Sherbinin (26) the shortage of water and agricultural production in poor urban settings utilizes waste water. More than 10% of the world’s population consumes foods that have been grown using waste water.

These irrigated foods can contain harmful chemicals or disease-causing organisms. It may almost seem ironical to note that the world has enough water for everyone. However, the problem that leads to water shortage is poor distribution. “Water scarcity is a natural occurrence in some areas. However, in others areas it is a man-made phenomenon” (Sherbinin 26).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the world is endowed with sufficient water resource to cater for approximately 6 billion people. According to Pereira and Lacovidae 302) scarcity has contributed to uneven distribution channels, wastage. This is because of poor harvest and utilization strategies. Poor methods of handling the water resource have led to water Pollution. Hence, this has created a big challenge that threatening the ecosystem and human population.

Types of Water Scarcity Physical Scarcity

Physical scarcity of water is prevalent across the world. As the name suggests, access to water sources is physically limited. This happens when the demand for water surpasses the land’s capacity to provide the much-needed water. This form of deficiency is primarily associated with the dry parts of the world, including arid regions of the globe as clearly illustrated by the figure below.

The northern part of Africa and some parts in Asia and Australia are the worst hit by this physical scarcity. However, we have some regions in the world which do not fall in the dry land category but have man-made physical scarcity. For instance, the Colorado River basin has been “over used causing physical water scarcity downstream” (Pereira and Lacovides 299). Thus, scarcity can also be attributed to over management of the river resources.

Below is Figure 1.3 showing water scarcity distribution around the globe (BBC NEWS)

Economic Scarcity

The most problematic type of water scarcity is economic water scarcity. This happens when no concrete measures are taken to ensure water availability. This situation persists largely due to lack of good governance, and lack of good will to change the situation. Therefore, economic scarcity is demonstrating the lack of resources in terms of funds or monetary benefit to utilize available sources of water.

The sub-Saharan Africa falls under this model of economic water scarcity. Unequal water resource distribution is generally experienced in the Sub-Saharan due to several reasons. These reasons are tied to political and ethnic conflicts, which are a common occurrence in this part of the world.

As shown in Fig 1.2 much of sub-Saharan Africa falls under economic water scarcity. However, Odgaard explains that in the presence of good governance mechanisms, this situation is manageable (140). In most cases, access to clean and safe water can be as simple as constructing small dams for communities to harvest rain water. Besides, the principal objective should be to provide relief for the already suffering communities.

To ensure clean water is available to world population, water harvesting techniques should be developed. These need not be complicated as it may mean rain water collection from roof tops and construction of water storage tanks. Without question, this situation can be tackled with the construction effort from the local community, availability of funds and engineering.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Water Scarcity and its Effects on the Environment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Water Scarcity in the U.S

As highlighted earlier in this research paper, water shortage is a global concern that is affecting communities and the environment and threatens to affect many others if substantial measures are not taken to tackle the scarcity.

However, it is difficult to compare the struggle of an African woman walking long distances in search of fresh water with water scarcity as experienced in the United States. The Colorado River is beginning to run dry in some places; this sounds almost impossible considering the size of the river. Huge water bodies like Lake Mead found in Arizona may become obsolete.

These are some of the dramatic changes that are facing the United States with regard to water scarcity. With this realization, more and more people are starting to connect with situations in dry regions of the globe. More so, the effects of water mismanagement are starting to be felt. Research indicates that Lake Mead may run dry by the year 2012. This is a serious issue considering the lake currently supplies up to 22 million people with water.

Figure 1.4 shows Lake Mead’s receding water levels (KTAR).

This is proof enough that water scarcity is not just a problem of people who never had water but rather a problem for all. Demand for more water and problems associated with pollution is contributing factor to water shortages. The daily demand for water means that the availability of the same will be affected in the future. Many people may thirst in the future if the current trend of wasteful toilet flushes and showerheads are not minimized.

Key Causes of Water Scarcity

Water scarcity has been caused by increased demand. These demands can be categorized into five major contributors to water shortage. Firstly, industrial water consumption enhances their production has created a strain on water resources. Most industries require having sufficient water supplies in order to perform optimally and produce goods or services.

Besides, most mining and oil industries use water in their operations. Thus, water scarcity makes these industries to be more susceptible to water shortages. Secondly, agricultural water needs for farms where there is unreliable rainfall create a huge demand for water, thus exerting more pressure on the already strained water resources.

Fig. 1.5 (Links between population and fresh water)

As the world population grows, more demand for water is experienced as illustrated by fig 1.4. The world population recently hit 7 billion, and the figure could only mean that pressure to supply water for all is expected to rise. Consumer demand is closely linked to population growth as more and more households require water to maintain their households.

Economic growth is a positive step towards improving the lives of people in a given community, but calls for the need to supply resources to fuel it. One of it is water; hence as more economic growth is experienced more demand for water is created.

Suggested Solutions to Water Scarcity

Environmentalists maintain that immediate solutions have to be devised. Low cost solutions come in handy. In China for instance, farmers are already making use of these inexpensive water conservation methods with great results (FFTC). However, “low cost solutions, for example, creating still water conservation may harm the population downstream” (Berk 190). Therefore, it is important for the conservation efforts to involve everyone to provide an amicable solution for all.

Fig. 1.6 showing the global water usage (Umwelt Bundes Amt)

Conclusion In order to ensure water scarcity is effectively tackled, total commitment to set targets and solutions is required. Figure 1.5 clearly indicates that the demand for water is rising, and as a matter of urgency, conservation efforts will bear fruit if every one of us realizes that they have a role to play.

Constant assessment of the strategies governing water bodies and their utilization will ensure that positive progress is achieved. Though much effort has been focused on water conservation, its use and proper management should be emphasized as it will ensure clean water service delivery for us and generations to come. Moreover, focus on climate changes and environmental degradation should also be improved, and a positive environmental culture encouraged.

Works Cited BBC NEWS. Map Details, Global Water Stress. 2006. Web.

Berk, Richard. Water Shortage: Lessons in Conservation from the Great California Drought. Halifax: Abt Books, 1981. Print.

FFTC. Irrigation Management in Rice-Based Cropping Systems: Issues and Challenges in Southeast Asia.” 1998. Web.

KTAR. As Lake Meads Drops, Water Concerns Rise. 2010. Web.

Links between Population and Fresh Water. Population Growth and Water. 1996. Web.

Odgaard, Rie. Conflicts over land

[supanova_question]

Super Stamps and Products Inc. Case Study custom essay help

Cause and effect In the assessment of quality, there are various aspects that stand out. The management of quality has become a fundamental part of management. Through the assessment made on quality, mangers and leaders are able to deal effectively plan and strategize on the way forward. Some of the important names in the study of cause and effect and the assessment of quality include Dr. Walter Shewart and Dr. Edwards Deming.

These two names feature in the history of management and the early ways of conducting analysis. In regards to studying cause and effect, these names feature in a lot of references. Dr. Walter Shewart inspired Dr. Edwards in the analysis of quality and other aspects of business, and the two came up with some of the concepts that are applied to management today.

One of the aspects that stand out in the analysis of cause and effect is teamwork. It is one of the important elements in business that define the success. In the analysis, team work is assessed in regards to how the several parts of an organization function. Teamwork is concerned with the ways through which different people in an organization work together to ensure that the processes involved in production are conducted in an effective manner.

Another important aspect that is analyzed is the customer approval of the different manufacturing procedures. For instance, customer approval can be assessed through looking at the processes in production and the resultant outcome in regards to customer preference. The way through which the different departments come together to work on satisfying a customers request is one of the ways through which cause and effect is analyzed.

The supply chain management is important heading in regards to the analysis of cause and effect. Quality control management also posses as one of the important areas through which the cause and effect concept in business is analyzed.

In the analysis of quality control management and the supply chain, it is important to look employ cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, histograms, Pareto diagrams, scatter diagrams, run charts, and control charts. Cause and effect diagrams are important as they enable a tam to focus on the content of a problem as opposed to its history. Through this, team members are also able to evaluate their person interests from those of the team as a unit.

Through cause and effect diagrams, a team is able to use the collective knowledge for the betterment of the team and in achieving a common goal. A team applies this will always focus on the causes as opposed to the symptoms. A check sheet is important in understanding data. Through a check sheet, it becomes east to understand the data being presented in specific contexts. Different events and conditions that are of interest are made to come into agreement with the goals of a team or institution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the analysis of data, a check sheet helps in the formation of patterns through which assessment can be conducted. Histograms are important as they help in the interpretation of data that would have otherwise been hard to understand in tabular form. They also bring in variations, shapes and central data points during the course of analysis. This information is important in business as it is employed in the prediction of future events.

[supanova_question]

US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Human Rights

State Sovereignty

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction In the modern world, the US has the capability of utilizing electromagnetic (EMF) devices to harass, terrorize and execute human life. There is an ongoing government funded research to strength the use of such weapons, which raises concerns of human rights and freedom. The project was set up in 1950s by the CIA to influence human cognition, feeling and conduct.

By applying psychological understanding of individuals as social animal, the government of US has been funding studies aiming at controlling human behavior in the best ways possible. Human behavior can be maneuvered through segregation, drugs and hypnosis. The government has been funding researches such as application of wireless controlled electromagnetic energy. Such strategies are termed as information fighting and Non-lethal armaments.

The new technology aims at manipulating human feelings, interrupting thought and presenting agonizing twinge using magnetic fields. The government therefore has at its disposal some of the dangerous weapons that have already been used in suppressing human life. The weapons are usually used in quelling violence that could cause mass destruction, as well as lose life and property.

The issue of human rights is an all-inclusive concept that every person in society must be granted. The use of such weapons violates the rights of some individuals because other means of solving conflicts in society exist. By signing the Military Commission Act of 2006, the US government through the congress aimed at denying people their rights and freedoms.

The 2006 Act elucidates that the state has the authority and power to utilize electromagnetic weapons in torturing an individual perceived by the president to be a terrorist or associated with terrorism. The provision actually violates the constitutional right of an individual provided in the independence constitution. This paper analyses the effectiveness of the policy by looking at its strengths and weaknesses. The paper finally evaluates the rationale behind the use of the new technology in the US.

Human Rights Individual rights are usually incompatible with state sovereignty but the constitution at independence identified that some rights are innate in an individual and that they could not be separated from an individual. Such rights include the right to liberty, life and the right to pursue pleasure.

The state should therefore strive to offer these rights without compromise. In 1948, the United Nations declared the universal rights contained in chapter ten and five. The US government endorsed the rights and further incorporated them into the national laws. The charter provides that human beings have inherent rights that should always be given without concession. Such rights include various fundamental freedoms, justice and worldwide tranquility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws have been in operation for over six decades meaning that the US should respect them or consider them whenever designing national laws. Article ten of the UN constitution on human rights asserts that each individual is entitled to full egalitarianism and reasonable public trial by a sovereign and unbiased court in the deliberation of his/her rights and duties (Ignatieff 34).

Furthermore, article five proscribes torment or unkind, brutal or humiliating treatment or castigation. The 2006 Military Commissions Act goes against all these provisions. The US government allowed the passage of the bill meaning that individual liberty and freedoms are no longer recognized in the state.

On the other hand, the Universal Declaration of Human rights continue to assert that each individual has the right to freedom of thinking and freedom of expression, as well as attitude. This implies that each person has the right of giving his or her views voluntarily that is, without intimidation or being forced.

The introduction and application of EMF weapons endangers this fundamental right. Freedom of thinking or cognitive independence is the natural right of each individual. This implies that an individual should perceive the world in his/her best understanding that is, without external interruption or influence. Each person has his/her own way of reasoning. We all have different orientations and perceptions to the world. The use of EMF weapons is a threat to human life and freedoms according to human rights groups.

Use of EMF in extracting information from an individual is egregious human rights felony. Forceful extraction of information is illegal and in most cases inaccurate. An individual may be forced to give false information just because he/she is in pain. Such information is not useful at all because it does not have any theoretical grounding. Voluntary data is usually accurate and more applicable because it is usually ordered in a logical way.

Human rights activists argue that EMF weapons are not used to fulfill the interests of Americans. Military elites set out to dominate the world after the Second World War without considering the interests and wishes of the majority in the state. The new technology is used to safeguard the interests of the ruling elites in many ways.

Demonstrating workers and other aggrieved parties in the labor market are usually subjected to unnecessary torture only to satisfy the bourgeoisie (Landman 89). Those suspected to have engaged in property crime are also taken through pain in order to make them agree with the rules and regulations set by the ruling class. Furthermore, the activists continue to observe that victims of torture are people from particular races and social classes.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bill serves to deny some people their right to equality. Individuals from the Middle East have no peace in the US because their movements are trailed always. They are usually suspected to be having hidden agendas, which exposes them to torture and unfair treatment. The state must come up with a different way or technique of identifying criminals instead of relying on cultural background of individuals.

State Sovereignty As noted earlier, state sovereignty is incompatible with individual sovereignty. The interests of the state are superior to the desires and wishes of an individual because the state aims at fulfilling the public good. In this way, use of EMF weapons is justified and allowed because of state security and the nature of the international system.

Terrorism and the rise of fundamentalism call for extra ordinary measures in case the state is to maintain its sovereignty (Paleri 115). The existence of the law frustrates the activities of extremist groups because relevant information is easily obtained through torture. All through history, there are times that the only language a man understands is violence. The use of brutal techniques in solving conflicts is valid due to the intrinsic nature of a human being. Man is inherently brutal, anarchic and self-centered.

The existence of the central authority serves to control the individual self-interests. Such interests are always controversial and may pose a threat to life. As noted by early scholars, the society was on fire implying that life was short lived and indecent before the invention of the state. This forced individuals to sign a contract that would guarantee peace and harmony. The contract gave powers to one central authority, referred to as the state.

The central authority or Leviathan as Hobbes could document, would have powers to exercise authority over individuals. Individuals on their part surrendered power to the Leviathan mainly to achieve greatness (Haftendorn 519). The state has a prime role of protecting the interests of the society because it is the custodian of the public welfare.

Therefore, the state is authorized to use techniques such as trickery, negotiation, murder and any other available method, whether good or bad to maintain peace. It is not surprising for the state to use EMF weapons to execute its duties. In other words, it means that the Leviathan cannot share its powers with any other entity in society. Furthermore, it has powers granted to it by the majority to control life and property

Conclusion The use of EMF weapons is justifiable and the state should come up with ways of strengthening its application. The existing international system is anarchic and tension full implying that the state must explore all possibilities and arrive at the best solution.

This would require neglecting individual sovereignty because it is incompatible with state sovereignty in real practice. It is also established that man is intrinsically brutal and full of conflicts hence application of one technique in extracting important information from him would not function.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US Use of EMF Weapons Devices on humans by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The state would lose its hegemonic powers in the international system in case human rights considerations are taken seriously. Treating criminals or suspects softly would comprise state security meaning that force is the only viable technique. Strategists in the military borrow from psychology the idea that pain forces the brain to expose everything in it. Overall, much needs to be done to improve the use of EMF weapons in maintaining state security.

Works Cited Haftendorn, Helga. “The Security Puzzle: Theory-Building and Discipline-Building in International Security”. International Studies Quarterly, 35.1, 1991.

Ignatieff, Michael. Human rights as politics and idolatry. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Landman, Todd. Studying Human Rights. London: Routledge, 2006.

Paleri, Prabhakaran. National Security: Imperatives and Challenges. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.

[supanova_question]

The Importance of Human Skills Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The examples illustrating the significance of human skills

Theoretical aspects of human skills

Conclusion

Reference List

Footnotes

Introduction Human or interpersonal skills are believed to be essential for every effective manager or leader. This component has been discussed by many scholars and researchers. This paper will illustrate the importance of human skills by discussing the examples of successful leaders and managers such as Charlie Bell. In part, this discussion will be based on the ideas of Robert Katz (1955) who identified and examined the attributes of good administrator and executives.

It is also necessary to compare his views with more modern theories of leadership and management. This analysis will enable us to better see the role of human skills in everyday management. Moreover, this discussion will also identify some of important and unresolved questions related to the development of interpersonal competencies of those people who want to make a managerial career.

The examples illustrating the significance of human skills There are several cases which can demonstrate the significance of interpersonal skills. One of such examples is Charlie Bell, the former CEO of McDonald’s Corporation. He began to work in this company at the age of 15 as a regular employee.

In later years, he made a brilliant career in this organization ultimately becoming the chief executive officer of this international corporation. In part, his successes can be explained by the fact that he always worked on his managerial skills. For example, his attentiveness toward employees and excellent memory for faces earned him support of many people in McDonald’s (Robbins et al 2009, p. 16).

It should be borne in mind that in the course of his career Charlie Bell worked in a variety of different teams and he always managed to cooperate effectively with every member of the staff (Boje 2008, p. 136). These qualities enabled him to revitalize this corporation and increase its market share. On the whole, Charlie Bell’s successes can attributed to perseverance, willingness to work in a team, and ability to pass his enthusiasm on other people. His example substantiates many theories of leadership and management.

For instance, one remember Katz’s model[1] of managerial qualities, and particularly his idea that human skills are vital for business administrators.

The case of Charlie Bell is worth attention because it shows that human skills are important for people who work at different levels of managerial hierarchy. He began to work in McDonalds as a crew member and he occupied virtually every position that exists in this corporation (Boje 2008, p. 136). During every stage of his career he was known as a reliable team player, excellent communicator, and motivator.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is possible to cite other cases which prove that excellent human skills are among the attributes of a highly effective manager. Once can certainly mention Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric. Despite the fact that he has often been criticized for his brutality and extremely high performance standards standards, Jack Welch is more famous for his openness to the employees, ability to motivate every member of the staff, and attentiveness to the opinions of his colleagues (Rowe

[supanova_question]

Nigeria’s Economic Crisis Research Paper argumentative essay help

Introduction Nigeria has a dual economy and, its population relies on earnings from the energy sector followed by the agricultural sector. In 1960, agriculture became the country’s main source of revenue accounting for nearly half of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

The emergence of oil and other petroleum products has increased the country’s foreign exchange earnings hence the increased revenues. Nigeria is endowed with large quantities of natural resources, both renewable and non-renewable. For instance, it is endowed with oil and natural gas reserves with crude oil being estimated at around 35 billion barrels. The country, however, cannot meet the needs of its large population and this is an extraordinary macro-economic phenomenon.

The country’s economic growth is unpredictable and it now depends on imported food though it was once a net exporter. This is quite surprising keeping in mind that Nigeria is rich in natural resources especially energy and is the sixth largest producer of crude oil internationally (Ekpo, 2008). This paper will discuss the causes of Nigeria’s economic crisis, its effects and finally, how the phenomenon can be changed.

Discussion Causes of Nigeria’s Economic Crisis

Consumers, producers, and efficiency of the market

The decline in Nigeria’s economic growth can be attributed to market shortages of its petroleum products especially Kerosene and diesel. The weak political demands exerted by the poor kerosene and diesel customers and the limitations on public financing of imports is what has led to the market shortages. The country has five government owned oil refineries, which are capable of producing about 500 barrels of oil every day. The high oil production capacity with no adequate markets has made the country’s government to get involved in importing large volumes of food to remedy the shortages involved.

Supply and Demand

Nigeria’s economic crisis can be attributed to the interaction of demand and supply in the market. The citizens are over reliant on self-generated electrical energy despite the fact that the nation is rich in energy resources. The country’s electricity market, which on the supply side is controlled by National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), is incapable of providing acceptable electricity standards, which are both reliable and accessible. The poor record in electricity supply has led to high losses hence the nation’s economic crisis.

Price fluctuations in the global oil industry and poor macro- economic organization especially the country’s failure to expand its economy are other key contributors to its economic problems.

The diversity of economic and non-economic goals without proper recognition of tradeoffs has also resulted to the crisis. This is seen in its pricing strategies in the global market. Institutional and administrative failures, which have led to production inefficiencies and increased operating costs, have led to the extraordinary macroeconomic phenomena in Nigeria (Oluyemisi, 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Effects of Nigeria’s Economic Crisis

The constant disequilibrium in the country’s market for petroleum products has negatively affected the living standards of the citizens. Poverty levels have increased with majority of people in the country living on not more than $2 in a day.

Nigeria’s economic crisis has greatly deteriorated its industrialization process and this has significantly decreased its effort to achieve a stabilized economy. Competitiveness of the countries local industries in both regional and international markets has been reduced and many citizens are now unemployed (Iyoha

[supanova_question]

Statistical Finding on Movie Theater ads Effectiveness Report essay help free: essay help free

Being the owner of a small business, it is important to make a wise and an informed decision on the way to advertise your business. A decision has to be made regarding promoting the business through Movie Theater. To arrive at a rational decision, research has to be conducted on how effective ads using Movie Theater are, in reaching the potential customers.

Research shows that cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 3D technology has created awareness on movie going audiences from the young to the old, owing to its flexibility. Many have been overwhelmed by the technology and get information on new products through advertisements in the movies. 3D commercials have also promoted advertising. Avatar and Monsters vs. Aliens have really transformed the advertising company.

They have been known to promote Samsung’s 3D television sets. “The young man is shown taking a 3D experience home by cutting a cube of action through a screen thus, replicating the experience of her family’s home television” (Knight 1). This has promoted Samsung televisions on many people are purchasing it.

Cinema advertising recorded a growth of 5.8% in 2007, from $539.9 million to $571.4 million. “In 2008 a lot of money, over 90% was spent on on-screen advertising than anywhere else in the theater” (Knight 1). This escalation was attained due to improved technology, which allowed the advertisers to effortlessly update creativity digitally. This made digital advertising very suitable for marketing national brands.

Consumers, who are definitely the buyers of advertised products, like movies and go to cinemas in large numbers because going to cinema is a popular trend. This is a perfect moment to introduce various brands of goods in the market to consumers. The study based on about 2600 consumers showed that moviegoers remembered 60% or more of the cinema ads after leaving, with increased desire to buy; as much as 20% or more (Knight 1).

The young like movie ads compared to television ads. This is supported by the fact that the number one leisure activity for the youths is movies. 62% of those in the age bracket of 18 to 24 years, 58% of those in 25-34 years and 39% of those in 45-54 years preferred cinema ads (Knight 1). Many like movie theater ads compared to internet ads. Sixty-six percent of those interviewed preferred cinema ads compared to 49 percent who were okay with online ads were acceptable.

In media, movies have higher emotional rating (41.5%) than watching other major television programs such as the “Super Bowl (39.7%), Summer Olympics (26.3%), World Series (22.8%) and Oscars (16.1%)” (Fuchs 1). Surveys show that consumers who are emotionally fond of specific brands had similar feelings regarding the experience they get from watching movies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “About 45% of the customers who buy health and beauty products and 44% of those who buy packaged goods are emotionally attached to movies as compared with 30% and 29% for television, 21.1% and 21.1% for radio, and 21.2% and 18.9% for magazines” (Fuchs 1).

This shows the strength and impact of Movie Theater advertising Cinema advertising has also gained public interest owing to its improved quality. The public have been captured by the movie theaters because of good quality of movies, as well as their wide range. When a great creative product is being launched, it is done in cinema. About 70% of ads today are new creative that are used far from us.

Multiplexes increase people turn out in the movie theaters. Bars and restaurants in places where multiplexes are have made movies a place to get entertained in the evening. People therefore, get movie ads that have been considered more memorable than television advertisements. People get to remember the movie ads the same way they remember certain scenes of the movie (Fuchs 1).

Works Cited Fuchs, Andreas. Stronger attachments: Cinema advertising impacts emotions and revenues. 12 May 2010. Web.

Knight, Kristina. Big-Screen ads engage consumer emotions. 22 April 2010. Web. .

[supanova_question]

Classic Studies in Psychology Case Study college essay help online

Introduction Stanley Milgram has developed a historic psychological study method to analyze human behavior under authority in a systematic and sequential manner. This piece of work has followed a scientific analysis to develop an acceptable and useful classical work. He has adopted well-devised data collection methods, analytical methods and presentation modes. The technique has enabled his work to remain memorable since its application continues in various fields of human life.

Key Terms Destructive Obedience

This is the process of ordering a naive to administer an increasingly more severe punishment to a victim in the context of learning experiment (Milgram 373). Milgram uses “a shock generator, thirty graded switches ranging from slight shock to a more dangerous one” (Milgram 373). Behavioral study of obedience is one that experiments a person’s yield to power beyond his/her capacity, especially, on the authority.

Personnel and Locale

The experiment was conducted at Yale University in an elegant interaction laboratory (Milgram 375). This study was carried out at this location. On this study, the situation was in the Yale university elegant laboratory. It is vital for researchers to give details of their experiments, such as places and time of the experiment. This is important for the analysis and evaluation of the experiment results (Milgram 375).

Dependent Measures

The primary dependent measure for any subject is the maximum shock one administers before he/she refuses to go any further (Milgram 375). In principle, “this may vary from zero to thirty, that is, for a subject who refuses to administer any shock and, for a subject who administers the highest shock in generator” (Milgram 375).

Dependent measures are the extremes, which are achieved from any subject of the experiment. This varies from one individual to another since some can tolerate the minimum quantity while others take the highest quantities.

Experimental Feedback

At various points of the experiment, the subject may turn to the experimenter for advice on whether he/she should continue to administer the shocks, or he/she may indicate that he/she might not whish to continue (Milgram 372). Notably, feed back is the position or view on the subject and the administration of the experiment.

Signs of Extreme Tension 97

Often, the subjects show “some signs of nervousness during the experiments, especially when administering very powerful shocks” (Milgram 377). In any form of experiment, the subjects might be in situations beyond their control. For the experimenter to note this, there are some specific signs, which they observe before responding appropriately.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the experimenter must be able to identify these signs using the physical changes which take place on the subject. They need to carry out a quick response to manage the situation. The signs might include drowsiness, unconsciousness and withdrawal signs. These are referred to as the signs of extreme tensions in the experiment.

Overview

Milgram’s experiment shows the influence of social factors on an individual and generally the people in the society. From his experiment, the influence of social links and pressures on one’s behavior can be clearly drawn. Factors such revelation of true characters, frankness and openness of an individual are some of the most affected by these links. Milgram’s work tries to explain the impact of rule and power in any given society. In addition, this can applied in governance (Milgram 377).

He uses procedural scientific methods of collecting data, tabulating, synthesis and evaluation to come up with the results. The mode applied by Milgram gives classical analysis and ability to create understanding among people. The method taken by Milgram is easy to understand and integrate in learning process (Milgram 374).

The article is a procedural mode of carrying out destructive obedience by Stanley Milgram in a laboratory. Milgram took S naïve as the administrator of this experiment. He carried out his experiment with a shock generator for the study purpose.

The generator was structured with thirty controllable switches, ranging from the lowest with zero voltage to the highest at thirty voltages. He chose the experimental victim, referred to as E confidante. Milgram came up with both the dependent and independent variables for the quantitative analysis of his work (Milgram 372).

He applied observation as well as feed back methods to check on the response of the subject, at varying degree of voltage. He noted the subject’s behaviour from the time of strapping to the time of release. The aim was to see the effect of power on an individual’s psychology.

This happened because subject was helpless, after he got strapped. Milgram intended to bring out vulnerability state, when one is overpowered. He wanted to bring out the effect of conformity as well as obedient in civilization. The relationship between them could then be seen to vary at a close range (Milgram 376).

We will write a custom Case Study on Classic Studies in Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Relevancy of the Article

Milgram’s article relates to the class studies since it employs several psychological concepts to come up with the findings. Milgram develops a social cognitive by studying his subject’s behaviour in different situations. He applies a research that analyses every aspect of the behavior.

Precisely, he developed quantitative measurement criteria after collecting his data. He came up with a score table for each measurement taken. This is to reduce the chances of observation biasness. Finally, Milgram notes all the possible assumptions in his methodologies and the corrective measures (Milgram 378).

Milgram’s Merits

The work of milligram has historically drawn attention in various fields of government. It also captures personal identity under social pressures. This study can be used to evaluate why people in a society behave in a given manner towards the authorities. In addition, Milgram’s work psychologically brings out the concepts of civilization and democracy in a society. This work has been applied by various researchers in studying human behaviours in different settings to the authority (Milgram 375).

It is through this experiment that many researchers have drawn conclusion on the psychology of inmates as well as students and strict rules. The study and its evaluation measures have become vital in some governments, especially, to draw expected outcomes in political environments. Explanations on riots and civil wars have been drawn from Milgram’s experiment. His work has also been used to show the impact of freedom to people in various social life situations.

Education, scientific and innovation fields have benefited a lot from this study since it is used in creating an enabling environment for these aspects to develop fully. In fact, many managers and business proprietors owe a lot of their success to Milgram’s work. However, Milgram’s work is not free from critics since some researchers claim that people react differently according to several underlying factors. Thus, varied results are expected from different people (Milgram 378).

Conclusion Psychology has contributed greatly to the development of many societies. The success in various fields is mainly attributed to great researchers who conduct most of their studies to improve human lifestyle. Among the contributors is Stanley Milgram who has devised a cognitive behaviour study of people under the influence of power. The researcher uses critical analytical aspects to draw his conclusions that has found wide acceptance despite some critics.

Work Cited Milgram, Stanley. “Behavioral Study of Obedience.” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 67.4 (1963): 371-378. Print.

[supanova_question]

Similarities and Differences between Democracy and Dictatorship Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Description of democracy and dictatorship

Similarities between democracy and dictatorship

Differences between democracy and dictatorship

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The world is home to diverse systems of governance. Different countries are governed differently due to a variety of reasons, mostly depending on their geographical location, political affiliations, and religious background to a lesser extent. Democracy is the most favored system of governance while dictatorship is loathed by many. This paper seeks to compare and contrast democracy and dictatorship as systems of governance.

Description of democracy and dictatorship Democracy is often described as a form of “governance in which all the adult citizens of a given country have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives” (Diamond and Marc 168). This implies that the citizens have a way of participating in the formation of the rules and laws by which they are governed.

Democratic principles may encompass cultural, economic and other social practices that encourage free and fair competition, particularly in the political arena (Diamond and Marc 168). On the other hand, dictatorship can be defined as a form of government that is controlled by an individual or a small collection of individuals. Power is concentrated around the individual or the small group of people and is often obtained through force or inheritance (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 15).

Similarities between democracy and dictatorship There are very few similarities between democracy and dictatorship. Both can be identified as forms of governance. Democratic and dictatorial regimes both vest their authority in one person or a few individuals. Both types of government can be effective or infective depending on several factors that may involve the particular individual holding the executive authority. A dictatorship is generally a poor form or governance.

However, democracy can also be weak if it’s often locked in disagreements. It’s usually believed that there are no true democracies as most of them typically carry some aspects of dictatorship. Both systems are designed to effectively control the people only that in democracies people think that the ruling elite has their consent to rule (Diamond and Marc 168).

Differences between democracy and dictatorship Democracy and dictatorship differ in many ways. The differences mainly pertain to the concept of governance and the methodology applied (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 132). A dictator exercises absolute power and often formulates laws that are meant to suppress competition. On the other hand, the choice to create the rules of governance and other regulations is usually made by the people.

In democracies, people are given a chance to choose what works best for them. Decisions are arrived at through a consultative process where everyone is allowed to provide his/her views. In a dictatorship, an individual or a small group of influential persons make choices on behalf of the people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The laws that govern the rights of people and the economy are framed for the people in a dictatorship (Bueno, Alastair and Morrow 57). On the hand, democracies give people the power to make laws.

The freedoms and rights of citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are often curtailed in dictatorial systems of governance. People are often not allowed to say what they think is right for them. In democracies, citizens, media, civil society, and other organizations are usually free to initiate any meaningful change.

Conclusion This paper sought to identify the similarities and differences between democracy and dictatorship. Both have been identified as systems of governance which have very few similarities unless the principles of democracy are compromised to bring in some elements of dictatorship. However, the two are different in several ways that mainly relate to the rights and freedoms of citizens and the concentration of power.

Works Cited Bueno, Mesquita, Smith Alastair and James Morrow. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.

Diamond, Larry and Plattner Marc. Electoral Systems and Democracy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006.

[supanova_question]

Rootlessness in the American Society Essay online essay help: online essay help

Several factors explain the movement of the American society away from the quintessential nature. Such factors as industrialization, changing views of the family and technology have influenced the changes (Kilborn 1). Thus, the American culture, as reflected in the middle class is taking a negative direction.

The spread of global industry has played a significant role in altering the family set-up. Industry has different aspects. Traffic, an industry aspect, contributes to the inability of people to move around. Ms. Link who claims that choking in traffic does not ease things regarding movement reflects this in the assertion.

Job requirements have forced people to adjust their lives. The rookie “relo” asserts that she moved to Alpharetta in order to help her husband get his career on track. Jobs force people to move from one place to another. Consequently, buying permanent homes is unnecessary.

This contributes to rootlessness as people do not find the need to establish close ties with their neighbors. Moving around leaves one vulnerable in regards to the lifestyle. This view holds since one needs to adjust his/her lifestyle in order to fit in the place he/she moves to when transferring from one workstation to another. As the article establishes, people from the upper middle class are trooping across the country away from the working class. Ms. Link and her husband, Jim, belong to this category (Kilborn 1-7).

The “relos” enjoy economic freedom, as their midcareer salaries are reasonably high. As such, most of these people find the jobs rewarding although they complain about anomie and stress.

This emerges based on the idea that they trade homes for jobs anywhere. In addition, “relo” families face various anxieties such as unknown future movements as they cannot establish any meaningful ties with their neighbors. This is contrasting to traditional societies where family relations were held highly. In this case, the place of roots seems to be at cross roads.

The worst thing that relates to work, as the family of Jim reflects, lies in the absence of family members from home. The young ones go to school while parents go to work. Running such a difficult itinerary implies that there is inadequate time to socialize and establish close family ties (Kilborn 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industry has also led to the segregation of the society. This is achieved through the grouping of workers based on salaries earned. The high-income and low-income earners belong to different classes. The fact that only the upper class lives the normal American life leads to a disturbing realization that the American dream is dead.

The view held by Mr. Martineau reflects how industry forces the society to discard societal values. Mr. Martineau seems content that he owns property and a luxurious car. Apparently, the car and other property are status symbols. Classes have two main elements, inclusiveness and exclusiveness.

While the latter is a positive attribute, it is evident that exclusivity is undesirable as it alienates some people. Finally, the idea of demolishing village cobblestone streets and erecting sterile superblocks shows how the American society denies the poor people the opportunity to lead normal family lives (Powell 1).

Based on this essay, it is clear that the American society is drifting away from the elements of a quintessential society. Although various factors account for this occurrence, it is discernable that the American society is headed in the wrong direction. This view is held in regards to the statement that the emerging nature of society does not allow for family closeness.

Works Cited Kilborn, Peter T. ”The Five Bedroom, Six Figure Rootless Life”. The New York Times, 13 Sept. 2005. Web.

Powell, Michael. ”A Contrarian’s Lament in a Blitz of Gentrification”. The New York Times, 20 May 2010. Web.

[supanova_question]

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo Term Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men

Role of Women in the Igbo society

Works Cited

Introduction In Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo is a wrestling champion who also acts as a leader in Umuofia, a village occupied by the Igbo ethnic entity. He is portrayed as a servant of the tribal dictates who is ready to do everything, even to kill, for the sake of his tribe, its laws, customs and traditions. The book focuses on how Okonkwo treats his children and three wives and how the Christian missionaries impact on the Igbo ethnic community in the late 19th century.

Okonkwo is not a reckless man who cannot show any weakness or reveal his true feelings. He is revered in the entire village for his courage and power. This prompts the village elders to put Ikemefuna, a boy taken as a prisoner for purposes of peace settlement, into his custody. Ikemefuna’s father, who hails from another village, has killed an Umuofian, that is why Ikemefuna is to be given away to the people of Umuofia to make peace between the two tribes.

Ikemefuna grows in Okonkwo’s household, and Okonkwo becomes very fond of him (Achebe, pp. 28). However, when the oracle instructs that Ikemefuna is to be killed, Okonkwo severs his head with a machete even despite the fact that he is warned by the elder that he did not need to deal with this case, the murder of the boy, because it could be hard for him as he should consider Ikemefuna as his son.

Okonkwo does not pay attention to this permission because he thinks that it could make him feminine and weak. Things begin to ‘fall apart’ for Okonkwo after the murder of Ikemefuna when he is exiled for seven years for accidental killing of a man when his gun explodes.

While Okonkwo is in exile, European colonizers come to Umuofia and try to convert the villagers to Christianity. Soon, a new government is introduced. Achebe’s literary work espouses many cultural issues about Igbo’s way of life that are raised in the late 19th century. This essay seeks to highlight the cultural peculiarities that Achebe exhibits carefully in the book.

A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men Many pundits consider the Igbo a patriarchal society because men literally dominate every aspect of the tribal life. Achebe particularly wrote Things Fall Apart to counter Joyce Carry’s Mister Johnson that tried to portray the Africans as people without motives, forethought, and knowledge on other issues apart from environments where they live.

The colonialists have a perception that the African population are uncontrollable, chaotic, unattainable, and evil. Achebe wants to prove the incorrectness of such an image by portraying the Igbo as an ethnic group with definitive and intricate social systems, values, and traditions (Carry, pp. 1). Achebe depicts the Igbo, or better to say, the Umuofians, as an ancient civilization when he reveals some forms of governance and law that exist in that society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Okonkwo is shown as a traditional hero who would do anything to achieve his goals. He contributes to his own downfall, thus the white men cannot be blamed. While he is in exile, the Whites’ religion and rule are introduced.

This literary piece is written in English, the language of the white men who came to colonize Umuofia. However, this does not deter Achebe’s work from being authentically African. Achebe expresses his African experience in English while still preserving African authenticity. The actions of the characters in the book represent a culture that undergoes a slow transition.

Cultural practices that can be only perceived to be awful to the foreigners are ordinarily accepted within. This is exemplified when members of the Igbo community, especially women, seek for refuge in a Christian church for being accused in having multiple births and giving birth to albinos. In the Igbo cultural setting, those females are to be punished. Fearing for harsh consequences, they hide within the Christian church premises (Obiechina, pp. 57).

Role of Women in the Igbo society Ekwefi, Okonkwo’s second wife, is a character used by Achebe to portray the role of women in the society where this novel is set. Through her, it is shown that women should be only child bearers and helpmates for their husbands. Women are to produce many male children.

In fact, Ekwefi is considered to be cursed because out of the ten births she gave, only one daughter managed to survive. Ekwefi is a very bitter woman because of the loss many children. As a result, she has hard feelings that oppress her because being Okonkwo’s first wife, she cannot bear a male child.

This implies that Ekwefi cannot be a part of the Okonkwo family lineage because she has not given birth to male children. Menfolk are the reference point of this culture while the womenfolk’s role is reduced to ensuring the survival of tradition. Because Okonkwo is afraid of the survival of his family tree when Ekwefi loses her second child, he takes it upon himself to go and consult Dibia, Dibia is believed to have powers to tell the source about Ekwefi’s misfortunes.

When Ekwefi loses her third child, Okonkwo decides to consult another Dibia because of the frustrations arising from the fact that there will be no one to be the head of the family after his demise (Palmer, pp. 40). He blames Ekwefi for this because it is the women who are supposed to provide their husbands with male progenies too carry on the family name, and specifically the father’s name.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ekwefi has to endure the pain of losing her child as well as watch helplessly as the Dibia mutilates her child, drags him through the streets by his ankles, and finally buries him in the evil forest where obanje children and other outcasts are laid to rest (Palmer, pp. 41). No one bothers to console Ekwefi after all this traumatizing ordeals. Because of cultural intuition, Okonkwo believes that Dibias have the solutions to all the problems that he has.

The Igbo have a tradition of wife beating exemplified by the suffering of Ekwefi who has to endure Okonkwo’s manhandling. When a banana tree is killed, Okonkwo beats his wife, and she makes no complaints regarding this treatment. Later, the attention of the reader is drawn to an instance when Okonkwo threatens his wife with a gun after hearing her murmur under her breath.

Everybody else is quiet about this heinous act (Culler, pp. 45). This is a culture where women are supposed to be submissive and do not show any sign of rebellion. Indeed, Ekwefi has an undying love for Okonkwo because she even left her former husband to be with him. However, the reward she receives for her loyalty to her husband is regular beatings.

The fact that Okonkwo believes that wives are to be beaten is not limited to Ekwefi. This also applies to his youngest wife, Ojiugo, whom he constantly flogs. There is a public outcry not because of what Okonkwo does to her, but because he breaches the dictates of The Week for Peace, which is considered a great evil according to the Igbo.

The Igbo men are portrayed to be only concerned with preserving the patriarchy as opposed to protecting the physical safety of the women. Elders are not particularly concerned about Ojiugo’s woes and are assertive that this is her own fault. The other wives cannot condemn Okonkwo for the flogging that Ojiugo goes through. Ekwefi is beaten one week after the Week of Peace, and this does not raise any concern because to them, this is normal.

The women, especially Ekwefi, is disturbed about the fate that belies the woman who decides that the winner of the next wrestling duel will be her man (Palmer, pp. 42). Okonkwo’s inhuman treatment of his wives, especially Ojiugo, does not even bother the gods of the tribe who only reprimand him to pay a compensation for breaching the requirements of the Week of Peace by battering his wife Ojiugo.

Okonkwo loves his daughter Enzinma, but he is saddened by the fact that she is just a girl. Okonkwo reckons that he would be happier if Enzinma were a boy. This treatment points out a low position held by females extending to the rest of the womenfolk in Umuofia.

Okonkwo’s treatment of his wives and male children are a representation of how the Umuofians treat their female children. However, all this must be stressed that such a treatment of females forms a part of the culture of the Igbo since everyone, including the females themselves, rarely complains for the current way of life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor, 1994. Print.

Carry, Joyce. Mister Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989. Print.

Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Print.

Obiechina, Emmanuel N. Language and Theme: Essays on African Literature. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 1990. Print.

Palmer, Eustace. African Literature Today. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983. Print.

[supanova_question]

The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Overview

HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda

HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda

Works Cited

Overview Uganda has made tremendous improvements in terms of declining the number of people living with HIV/AIDS. This trend is traceable to the early 1990s when the government launched an initiative campaign aimed at eradicating the scourge. According to the survey conducted by UNICEF, the number of children up to the age of 15 years living with HIV/AIDs dropped to a record 1.1 million.

The report by the Ugandan Ministry of Health, to mother-child infection accounted for about 90% of children living with HIV/AIDS. The increase in the HIV/AIDS infection has been challenging in respect of the inability to track their demographics (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

HIV/AIDS among educated children in Uganda A survey conducted in Uganda suggests that sex education in Ugandan schools and through the media has prevailed in encouraging teenagers to engage in protected sex or have delayed the age at which they participate in premarital sex. Since the campaign initiative of the early 1990s, a USAID-sponsored scheme to encourage the use of condoms through community and school education has improved condom use from about 7% to a whopping 50% in the Ugandan rural areas while the urban areas have managed over 85%.

Increased use of condoms among teenagers aged between 13-19 years saw a reduced the rate of infection by about 60%. Additionally, sex education among children organized to salvage the children have recorded an increased number of children who have never engaged in early sex from 20% to about 65% between 1989 and 2005 (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 128).

Although it is arguable that the HIV/AIDS prevalence among children is heavily due to mother-child transmission, studies reveal that the prevalence among them has also been due to unprotected early sex. Generally, the reduced rate of children living with IADS has been mainly because of reduced prevalence among women aged between the ages of 15-24 years. Research suggests that there is a strict correlation between child education and HIV/AIDS prevalence (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

In a study conducted in Uganda in the early 1990s, results indicated that young men and women who completed secondary education were seven times less likely to contract the disease than those with little or no education (UNFPA, 2011). Women studies confirm that post-primary education among the girl-child provides the greatest pay-off for their empowerment. Additionally, higher education offers more specific knowledge and life skills required to make informed decisions during their later age.

HIV/AIDS among non-educated children in Uganda Researches conducted by numerous scholars have suggested that there exist a positive relationship between education and HIV prevalence among children. Studies show that in the absence of awareness about HIV/AIDS, individuals tend to have several sex partners, hence increasing their risk of infection. According to Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008), an increased sex education through prevention messages remains a protective element against the infection of HIV/AIDS.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Increasingly, research demonstrates that increased educational campaign among children has been used as a tool in fighting against the pandemic. Reduced education enrollment among children in rural areas has increased the rate of HIV/AIDS infection among children in Uganda (Kalipeni 174). Studies suggest that people with low understanding of the effects of HIV/AIDS are risky compared to children with higher levels of education.

According to a study conducted by Jukes, Simmons, Fawzi and Bundy (2008) on Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS (JLICA) found that HIV/IADS specific education a positive contribution toward reduced prevalence among children in the Sub-Saharan Africa.

Although the educational efforts to reduce the HIV/AIDS infection has had a far-reaching impact on the reduced levels of prevalence among Ugandan children, declined campaigns in the rural Uganda accounts for the low improvements in HIV/AIDS prevalence among rural children. These results suggest that children who underwent through education stood a better chance of avoiding unprotected and early sex compared to those who had little or no education (Dube, Shoko and Hayes 98).

Gender studies conducted demonstrate that girls with less than 7 years of study exhibited a higher likelihood of getting married before the age of18, and early marriages have a statistical link to high risks of infection (UNFPA, 2011). Schools provide a mechanism of sourcing for information about the prevention of HIV. Recent studies and analysis by Global campaign for Education (GCE) indicate that if children attained a complete primary education, it can reduce the impact of HIV by about 700, 000 cases among young adults.

Works Cited Dube, Lilian, Tabona Shoko, and Stephen Hayes. African Initiatives in Healing Ministry. University of South Africa: UNISA Press.

Jukes, Matthew, Stephanie Simmons, Mary Fawzi and Donald Bundy. “Educational access and HIV prevention: Making the case for education as a health priority in sub-Saharan Africa.” Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS. (2008): 1-33.

Kalipeni, Ezekiel. HIV and AIDS in Africa: beyond epidemiology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The HIV and AIDS problem between educated and non-educated children in Uganda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More UNFPA. Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis. Web.

[supanova_question]

Southwest Airlines Company Organizational Culture Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions that describes the common interests, beliefs and attitude of an organization that guides it through defining appropriate behavior and values. Defining of organizational culture involves three levels, which include behavior pattern, shared values, and the basic beliefs and assumptions of members. The idea behind organizational culture always revolves around the realization by the employees about the collective responsibility toward the larger good of the company.

Consequently, it is an expectation from the employees that behavior is in a common way hence each employee knows the work output required from him or her. The advantage of organizational culture is that it helps in establishing the required guidelines, output capacity of the organization and organization rules that will help catapult the company toward achieving its goals (Jex

[supanova_question]

Do we Have Meaning? Essay scholarship essay help

Most people never acquire meaning from the daily tasks of their lives resulting to disappointment, despair as well as aggressiveness at the instance of the slightest adversity. Others are coerced to bear enormous problems that make existence seem agonizing. Yet in the nastiest situations, identifying meaning and significance in one’s affliction gives an individual the might to persevere and track a fulfilling status of existence. That is to say, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life.

Frankl supposed that existing with meaning is vital for physical and psychological health (Break Through Writer n. p.). Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps, and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas, and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences. As a result of his insistence, we are endowed with a chance to gain knowledge from his victory and appreciate that there’s at all times meaning and significance to the existence in spite of how awful it might appear.

The possibility of existing in a Nazi was 3percent. Individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide.

The inmates were famished, misused, whipped, left out to freezing environment for extended durations devoid of appropriate attires, compelled to live in overcrowded houses that were grimy with excretions, and experienced the menace of death daily. Regardless of all of this, the inmates were required to be active and proficient in their work, lest they would be chosen for the gas chamber.

In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments (Break Through Writer n. p.). Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, as well as awful living surroundings.

Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everybody to conquer troubles of the everyday life.

Frankl describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people (Break Through Writer n. p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Addiction, hostility and depression are all likely to follow. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.

The course of fighting and endeavoring for a meaningful goal makes us to long for life and offers us achievement after the goal is realized. This realization makes valuable memories an earlier phase that can in no way be stolen or withdrawn, and consecutively, these reminiscences, get rid of lament and cultivate the audacity to lack an extreme and detrimental fright of death.

According to Frankl, three elements are responsible for the true meaning. First is the behavior and inventive actions, for instance, coming up with a product, working out a problem or creating an invention. Second is to have something or somebody stimulating, for instance, the affection for a partner or relative, attractiveness of the natural world, or, the significance of a friend. Third is to appreciate the meaning in an inevitable distress.

Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space amid what we anticipate attaining and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.

In order to understand the pleasure that comes from achievement, distress must be evaded when feasible (Break Through Writer n. p.). Nevertheless, when the distress is inevitable, it is essential to understand that it is at all times doable to discover advantage and significance in it and exist with meaning. Frankl accomplished this through valuing his encounters in the camps as a chance to subsist by his viewpoints regarding the meaning and realization instead of merely writing with reference to them.

In conformity with the viewpoints of Frankl, an investigation prepared by Yale University demonstrated that lots of inmates of warfare from the Vietnam combat deemed the torturous states they underwent to be a valuable incident that motivated individual development. Given that inmates of Vietman war and Nazi camps established value in the countenance of torment, hunger, illness and bereavement, then everybody can derive meaning from his/her worst situations.

Most individuals think of the meaning of existence as if it were identical for each one. Such a case would imply that we have slight power over fate and eccentricity, and in logic, would contrast the function of existing with significance. Acquiring achievement from existing for a similar predestined reason as everybody else would be rather hard.

We will write a custom Essay on Do we Have Meaning? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.

Compound meanings in being are easy to recognize, although, these they can vary in due course. Frankl explains that a great deal of meaning that motivates us to subsist is founded on the determination and efforts implicated with realizing an end. After the end is realized, a fresh one is required to maintain the course. Although a number of people will recognize a novel end that is merely an expansion of the preceding one, others may possibly swing ways totally.

Therefore, it can at times be counterproductive to look for significance that will identify the existence as one piece and endure until demise. Although it might not be broadly established, there exists lots of scientific proof demonstrating that sentiments have a significant effect on physical wellbeing. Similarly, positive sentiments are as well linked to the flow of physical materials inside the body and are alleged to uphold superior physical condition.

Existing while short of meaning encourages boredom and hopelessness, as Frankl puts forward. These sentiments can directly or indirectly impact an individual’s wellbeing harmfully, through control ling the existence choices that he/she creates. An individual who is bored or dejected is not expected to formulate the exertion to lead a healthy way of life.

Although incarcerated, Frankl and his colleague inmates constantly observed that the moment an inmate renounced hope and felt like they lacked a motive to exist, they rapidly grew ill and passed on soon after. Conversely, those who adhered powerfully to their intention for existing survived grave sickness. Frankl endured a stern case of typhus, which was a leading source of bereavement in the camp.

In conclusion, human beings can overcome the “existential vacuum” by finding meaning in life. Each one has the liberty to revolutionize and too the autonomy to prefer his/her reaction to any circumstance. This liberty can on no account be removed, although its advantage is reliant on an individual’s duty to utilize it prudently.

Regardless of how pathetic existence might appear, Frankl assures to us that there is, at all times significance, to be derived from it, plus there is at all times the likelihood that the prospect will be better than ever anticipated. Being a remnant of four diverse Nazi camps and the Holocaust, Frankl obtained an intense chance to assess his ideas and was capable of persisting through a number of nasty experiences.

The possibility of existing in a Nazi was only 3percent, since individuals who escaped death from the gas compartments habitually passed on due to hunger and disease or out of suicide. In Frankl’s view, only the inmates who identified a meaning in their being and pursued to realize it were able to carry on the cruelty, dejection and detrimental surroundings of the encampments. Such individuals had a motive to live, and a cause to conquer the cruel abuse, and awful living surroundings.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Do we Have Meaning? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Frankl also describes life devoid of meaning as an existential vacuum, whereby being grows to be uninteresting and is habitually ordered by the wishes or needs of other people. Individuals who are fixed in this vacuum are apt to seal the emptiness by looking for supremacy, wealth or happiness, and will finally get to the certain termination that these momentary shapes of superficial contentment cannot offer the profound achievement that comes from leading a life with a meaning.

Most people fight with the activities of discovering meaning or gratifying the meaning, which we have already recognized. The space between what we desire to be and who we are, as well as the space between what we expect to achieve and what we have realized makes a valuable form of anxiety. While this anxiety is a strain that can be harmful when in surfeit, it as well keeps us motivated.

Hence, one deep and motivating feature of existence is the verity that each one can select inimitable ideals and standards to pursue in life. Since accomplishment normally comes from these standards and ideals, each person construes the meaning of life in a distinct manner.

Only a few individuals have ever gone through the height of hardship and trouble that was experienced in the Nazi camps. The inmates were able to endure such terrible surroundings since they had a function to accomplish that kept them emotionally strong. In the same way, it is possible for everyone to conquer troubles of the everyday life.

Works Cited Break Through Writer. Man’s Search for Meaning Lessons .1. Nov. 2011.Web.13.Nov.2011

[supanova_question]

Critique of Crucibles of Leadership Case Study best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Biography

Critique and summary

Application

References

Biography Warren Bennis is a renowned author and reputable professor of business administration at the University of South California, Los Angeles. He is the founder and chairman of the Leadership Institute at the same university. His counterpart, Robert J. Thomas is also an author and a senior fellow at the Accenture Institute of Strategic Change. The two have co-authored several books and articles and are working on a book, Crucibles for Leaders to be published soon (Bennis

[supanova_question]

Coretta Scott King Research Paper argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Early Age and Education

Family Life

Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality

Death

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Coretta Scott was born on April 1927 in Perry County, Alabama. Her parents were Obadiah Scott and Bernice McMurry Scott. The family owned a small farm from where they earned their livelihood. Unfortunately, the family was not among the wealthiest families in the region (Academy of Achievement par 1). However, Coretta managed to acquire education up to the university level.

Throughout her life, Coretta had a great thirst for education and music. The development of these interests can be attributed to her mother who played a significant role in her life.

For instance, she learned to play musical instruments at a very young age. She learned how to play music instruments like the trumpet while she was still at school where she sang as a soloist. Coretta’s sister was the first black student to study in Antioch College, Ohio. Coretta met her husband Martin Luther King Jr at Boston University after which they married after sixteen months.

During her lifetime, Coretta spent most of her time fighting and advocating for equality and promotion of un-discriminatory policies across the world. During the Civil Movements of the 1950s and 1960s, Coretta Scott King was among the people who played a pivotal role. During this period, she made a great contribution by encouraging Martin to realize his goals.

She played an important role in consoling and giving advice on the best course of actions. Her encouragement forced Martin to remain focused on his goals. The major contributions made by King’s wife can be clearly seen after the assassination of her husband. This was the time when she took a tough stand in fighting for racial equality and actively being involved in Women’s Movement (Academy of Achievement par 3).

In 1955, Coretta Scott King played a very important role in Montgomery Bus Boycott (McPherson 100). In connection to this, Coretta actively advocated for the civil rights legislation.

In 1962, Coretta made a very important contribution in disbarment efforts when she served as women strike for the peace delegates to the seventeen nations Disbarment Conference held in Geneva. Soon after her husband’s death, Coretta rose to perpetuate the pending work he had already started. She fully devoted her life to King’s work where she continued to help many people until her her death in 2006.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early Age and Education Coretta was born in a family of four siblings where she was a third born. She was born together with her two elder sisters Edith and Eunice and a younger brother Obadiah who was born in 1930 (McPherson 69). As already noted, her family had a small farm but they were not among the wealthy people in the community. During her childhood, Coretta Scott King assisted her parents to pick cotton from their small farm.

Although her parents did not go to school, they were totally determined to ensure that their children received the required level of education. In connection to this, they took Coretta to an elementary school that was located far a way from their home. Later, she joined Lincoln Normal school. The school was located very far from their residence. However, Coretta did not have any alternative because it was the only black school in the region.

Coretta was exposed to the social injustices when she was a very young girl where she was forced to face the wrath of a segregated society, that is, the society where the native and the African Americans were treated as two different entities. The society was characterized by a lot of discrimination ranging from education to economic opportunities.

For instance, she was to walk for a long distance to reach the nearest black school while her fellow white students were riding in buses to schools nearby (Gelfand 87). This was one of the factors that triggered Coretta’s urge to fight for the civil rights later in her life. She was determined to dissolve the existing arrangements.

While in college, Coretta studied music; the field in which she was very interested. She was assisted by Walter Anderson, who was the first African to head a department in the institution.

While at school, Coretta was angered by the racial discrimination that was practiced by the school management. Consequently, she was actively involved in civic rights movements. For instance, she was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People as well as the Race Relations and Civil liberties Committees (Academy of Achievement par 5).

As it was required by the curriculum, students were usually supposed to perform their second year teaching practice as a partial fulfillment for the award of a certificate. However, Coretta was denied a chance to teach in Yellow Springs Public schools (McPherson 12). Coretta attempted to convince the college administration but in vain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Coretta Scott King specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some years later, Coretta was forced to move out of Antioch after winning a scholarship award at New England Conservatory Music that was located in Boston. This presented a very good opportunity for her to exploit her talent in singing and playing musical instruments.

Meanwhile, she met Martin Luther King, Jr who was later to become her husband. Martin Luther King Jr was a theology student in the college. During the time, Coretta had become famous in singing because she was already actively involved in civil rights movements. She took advantage of her talent and integrated her singing with civil rights activities. She used it as a tool to meet her goals to fight for equality for both black and white Americans.

Family Life After meeting with Martin Luther King, Jr, their relationship strengthened and they supported each other in their activities. They shared one interest since they were both interested in civil rights. Both were determined to fight for equality and for the rights of all citizens despite of their color.

In June 1953, Coretta and Martin were married. Their marriage ceremony was led by Martin’s father and it took place at Coretta’s family compound (Academy of Achievement par 4). However, Coretta called for elimination of the vow that required her to promise that she will obey husband. This was a courageous step that was not common by then.

By 1954, Corretta was through with her degree after which together with her husband moved to Alabama (Montgomery). This was where Martin Luther King was going to become a pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Academy of Achievement par 8). Soon after landing there, Coretta and her husband joined the Montgomery bus boycott. Meanwhile, Martin was elected as a leader of the movement. This was a major step in their struggle for the civil rights.

Their activity in the modern civil right movements came soon after the event where one of the passengers in a city bus refused to give a seat to a white passenger. According to the city orders, all the white people were to be given priority in the public conveyances. Therefore, this event led to Rosa’s arrest for going against the city orders. Soon after the arrest, the black Americans led by Martin Luther, Jr rose in defense of the lady.

This led to boycotting of the city buses in the regions. This was one of the major steps that Martin and Coretta took in fighting against the social injustices. This particular event attracted the attention of many people across the world on the issue of racial discrimination that was taking place in United States of America. The pressure from the movement led by Martin forced the court to scrap off all the local orders that drew boundaries between the white and the blacks in the public transport.

Coretta was particularly determined to fight for the civil rights. She was ready to commit her whole life for the society. She was determined to fight for the liberty of the oppressed and the marginalized section of the society. This movement had world wide implications and was not only interested in meeting liberation for the local community. It had significant global implication.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coretta Scott King by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After their marriage, Coretta and Martin had four children. These include Martin Luther III, Albertine, Scott, and Denise. However, both Coretta and Martin were engaged in a continued conflict because Martin wanted Coretta to refrain from public involvement with the movement whereas Coretta was more determined to take a public leadership role. This was contrary to Martin’s view who wanted Coretta to spend more time taking care of their four children.

However, they both managed the situation and Coretta continued to pursue her goals to realize equality among the people. Coretta was forced to withdraw from music in order to take care of their children. However, she managed to use poetry and perform in freedom concerts where she used her talent to pass the message and the call for equality. She also used music to tell about the Civil Rights Movements. She performed in many concerts that helped in raising funds for the movement which her husband was leading.

Later in April 1968, Martin King Luther, Jr. was assassinated. This was a major strike for the Human Rights Movements since he was like the pillar. However, Coretta was determined to perpetuate the work that her husband had already started. In connection to this, she built The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in memory of her husband and his work.

It represented his dream and life in the struggle for the human rights. After her husbands’ death, Coretta was not intimidated to continue with her struggle through the Human Rights Movements. In fact, she was directly involved in the causes that her husband had started.

Contribution in the Civil Rights Movements and Equality From 1960 to 1950s, Coretta made a very significant contribution in the civil rights movements of the time. In fact, Martin Luther King admitted that were it not for the support of her wife, he would not have managed to fulfill his goals in fighting for the liberty of the oppressed fraction of the society.

Corretta was involved in non violent matches and led marches to the city together with her husband. By then, her husband had already become famous in civil rights movement and, therefore, was called to lead marches in different cities (Lohr par 4). In these marches, Coretta played a pivotal role in encouraging both the white and the black to reject the orders that encouraged segregation.

This was not, however, welcomed by the proponents of racism in America. They faced stiff opposition from the leaders who were encouraging racism in the country. As a result, their home was bombed by the white supremacists in 1956 (Academy of Achievement par 9). Coretta and her child narrowly managed to escape from the attack.

Later, Coretta’s fame spread all over the world as the leader of international struggle to break the chains of racial discrimination and other social injustices that takes place in the society. Her contribution had a significant implication throughout the world as a call for human liberation from all forms of oppression including colonialism.

For instance, they travelled to Ghana in 1957 to celebrate the country’s independence (Stanley and Henderson 56). The couple also went to India in honor of Mahatma Gandhi who is widely known for his philosophy of peace. This implies that their interest was not in the national level but across the world. Martin Luther King Jr was later awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace where he was accompanied by his wife Coretta to receive it. In other words, Coretta played a pivotal role in supporting her husband.

With time, Coretta’s demand as a public speaker increased significantly. She became the first woman to deliver the Class day add tress at Hazard (Academy of Achievement par 10). She was also the first woman to preach at St. Paul’s Cathedral in London. She also played a pivotal role in promoting economic equity in America. She was determined in fighting for economic justice in the society. For instance, she formed the Full Employment Action Council whose main agenda was to push for equal economic opportunities.

This council was composed of religious, businesses, labor women and civil rights movements that were committed in promoting equal opportunities and full employment. By then, the white were given privilege in employment opportunities. Some positions were reserved only for the white. For instance, the blacks were not allowed to access top positions even if they had qualified. Coretta used this movement to fight against such discrimination in the society.

During her mission to serve the global human rights, she travelled across different countries including Africa and Latin America. In 1983, she led one of the greatest marches in Washington that included more than 800 human rights organizations (Academy of Achievement par 9). This was the largest demonstration that took place in the city during the time.

Coretta was also actively involved in the campaigns which demanded the establishment of Kings’ birthday as a national holiday. Her campaigns yielded positive results when the January 15 was made a public holiday through the Act of Congress (Academy of Achievement par 6). Since 1986, King’s birthday has been marked as an annual celebration in more than 100 countries.

In 1995, Coretta handed over the leadership of The King Center to her son. However, she remained devoted in the causes of economic and racial justice. She also devoted some effort in AIDS education and preaching against the gun violence.

Coretta also made some significant contribution in promoting LGBT equality. She emphasized that homophobia is like racism and other antisocial forms of discrimination. Her support for gay people was received with a lot of opposition from most of the African-American pastors who were opposed to homosexuality. She argued that such people were not informed and that it was the will of Martin Luther King to promote a world of inclusion and equality.

Coretta’s battle against apartheid intensified in 1980s when she led a series of protests in Washington DC. These efforts were directed against South African racial policies, which were oppressive to the black.

Death At the age of 77, Coretta began to experience health complications. This led her to being hospitalized in 2005 after deterioration in her condition. Medical results revealed that she had a heart condition. She later suffered frequent strokes and minor heart attack. Consequently, Coretta was forced to cancel a number of her travels. She continued undergoing physiotherapy from home.

Coretta Scott died in January, 2006 from cervical cancer and stroke in Oasis Hospital. She died while undergoing a therapy for his ovarian cancer that was already in its advanced stage by then. Soon after her death, the clinic was shut after being discovered that it was not allowed to perform most of the procedures they were taking by then. Her death is attributed to the respiratory failure that came as a result of cancer.

More than 14, 000 people attended her funeral to pay their last tribute to Coretta. Her funeral ceremony took place at New Birth Missionary Baptist Church. This is where her daughter Bernice is a minister. Many former U.S. presidents attended the function including the then President George Bush.

After her death, Coretta was honored as a champion of human rights for dedicating her life to peace and justice (Lohr par 9). Her contribution was recognized since she had opened the way for many. By then, Coretta had managed to dissolve racial discrimination to a greater extent in the United States. Even after her death, Coretta has remained inspirational to many people from all parts of the world.

Conclusion From this discussion, it is clear that Coretta was among the people who played a major role in fighting for equality across the world. She was exposed to a humiliating form of racial discrimination at a very young age where she suffered from racial segregation. Throughout her life, Coretta was actively involved in Civil Rights’ Movements.

Since her undergraduate studies, Coretta demonstrated concern with the existing arrangements where there was much racial discrimination and other forms of oppression in the society. She was actively involved in marches where she convinced both white and black to defy against all the laws that encouraged segregation in the society. She used her music career in concerts where she narrated about the story of Civil Human Rights Movement.

She also used poetry to pass her message about the need for equality. Before her death in 2006, Coretta had managed to successfully push for significant changes in the United States where the difference between the whites and blacks has significantly decreased. For instance, both the white and the black students can now attend the same schools. People are more differentiated in terms of income rather than their races.

Works Cited Academy of Achievement. “Coretta Scott King Biography. “achievement.org, 2010. Web.

Gelfand, Dale. Coretta Scott King: Civil Rights Activist. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2006. Print

Lohr, Kathy. “Coretta Scott King Honored As Civil Rights Champion.” Npr, 2006. Web.

McPherson, Stephanie. Coretta Scott King. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2007. Print

Stanley, George, and Henderson Meryl. Coretta Scott King: First Lady of Civil Rights. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008. Print

[supanova_question]