A Project On Establishment Of Jousing Flats Voluntary Counselling And Testing Centers In Njoro Area Essay Help

Background Knowledge According to UNAIDS (2008), “The HIV/AIDS epidemic’s spread through the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is highly varied.

Although it is not correct to speak of a single African epidemic, Africa is without doubt the most affected by the virus. Inhabited by just over 12% of the world’s population, Africa is estimated to have more than 60% of the AIDS-infected population. Much of the deadliness of the epidemic in Sub Saharan Africa has to do with a fatal synergy between HIV and tuberculosis, though this synergy is by no means limited to Africa…” (UNAIDS, 2008).

To reduce the HIV/AIDS prevalence, the government of Kenya has established Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers in all the provinces. This is although not sufficient for the rising number of new infections. The British government has agreed to finance and support this program.

The VCT centers are approved by National Aids Control Council and the Ministry of Health. The Njoro area which is within the Rift Valley province has three VCT centers that are: Njoro health center, P.C.E.A Njoro local church VCT center and Egerton university center (MOH, 2008).

These centers may not be enough to serve the rising population especially after the post election violence whereby many families moved to the area to seek refuge majority being 45years and below. It has also been noted that 64.1% of the population in this area have never been tested for HIV and 78% are ready to have Voluntary Counseling and Testing (BHA, 2009).

Some of the victims have been neglected by their families and have ended up living by the road sides. Others have been displaced after the 2007 country’s general election. Therefore the proposed project is aimed at establishing housing to victims and more VCT centers within Njoro area so that the services can be available to a high percentage of the population within the area and thus reduce the rate of HIV prevalence which is one of the Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015.

Target population The targeted population is the youth in Njoro area aged between 15 and 40 years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statement of Problem

According to research findings it has been noted that 60% of Kenyans do not know their HIV status. It has also been noted that the living conditions of the victims is poor thus access to health related services is limited .This has led to an increase in the rate of new infections and a high rate of spread of HIV (UNAIDS, 2007).

The above problem has been cited as a hindrance to the war against HIV/AIDS mainly because those who have not been tested tend to be potential victims of infection and re-infection thus delaying the application of the appropriate measures to HIV/AIDS intervention through nutrition support.

The proposed project is aimed at increasing delivery of VCT services by establishing housing for severely affected AIDS patients and three more VCTs in the Njoro area which will be operating for 24 hours. This will enhance counseling and testing of those youths who are still stigmatized but would like to know their status; services will be provided even at night.

Nutritional support will be given to those clients with signs of malnutrition i.e. those with BMI of less than 18.5. Community members will also be educated on the importance of counseling and testing through churches and demonstrations during barazas.


The Njoro area has a large number of youth who settled in the area after a recent post election violence. Their living condition is poor and most of them usually engage in casual labour to earn a living. Those who fail to get a chance in the available labour market tend to engage in commercial sex work especially women and girls and women. These prevailing conditions usually put the youth at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.

According to research, 64.1% of the population in this area has never been tested but is readily willing to be tested. With HIV/AIDS continuing to be a major public health concern in Kenya and the world, the issues surrounding acceptance and use of VCT need to be addressed. Enhancing community awareness of the benefits of early HIV diagnosis, providing couple-based VCT as an integral part of VCT and increasing access to VCT testing sites may enhance utilization of VCT services.

HOUSING PROJECT will embark on serious mobilization and then on counseling and testing of the people in the Njoro area. This will be done through collaborations with other community based groups, churches and youth groups within the area. Using this approach the project will make sure that maximum numbers of people are reached before counseling and testing activities start.

We will write a custom Report on A Project on Establishment of Jousing Flats Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centers in Njoro Area to Reduce Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and Provide Nutritional Support Among the Youths Aged Between 16-35 Years specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Goal

To reduce HIV prevalence among youths aged between 15-40 years in Njoro area by 15% by the year 2015.


Provide residence to HIV victims and other individuals living in poor conditions.

Provide cleanliness and sanitation measures within the residential flats.

Increase awareness of the importance of counseling and testing services through community mobilization.

Increase uptake of counseling and testing services among the community members and other referral services such as medication and support in the next one year.

To reduce stigma and discrimination through psychosocial support among the community members.

To provide nutrition counseling and assessment to the infected clients.

Expected Results/Outcomes

HOUSING PROJECT is planned to run for three years after which some changes are expected to occur among the primary stakeholders. They include;

At least 80 % of the HIV victims will be provided with a residence.

Access to VCT services will be effective.

Monitoring of the rate of spread of HIV will be easily done.

More than 75% of community members particularly the youth will be aware of their HIV/AIDS status.

De-stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS and increased support by their family members and friends.

Reduced spread and effect of HIV/AIDS within the community as majority will be aware of their status and hence positive living behaviors among the youth.

Reduced rates of Mother to Child Transmission among the pregnant mothers within the community as they will receive specialized care and medication to protect the unborn baby.

Improved quality of life of those people living with HIV/AIDS through provision of nutritional support and access to ARVs

Project Implementation Plan

HOUSING project strives to achieve its objectives through the following strategies;

Construction of 6 residential flats at specific points in the area

Construction of 3 VCT centers in Njoro area. Each VCT center will have one nutritionist, one VCT counselor and two social workers.

Activities to be carried out include;

Provision of organized cleanliness and sanitary services within the residence.

Provision of voluntary counseling and testing services to the community members.

Allocation of rooms to the needy and sick.

Referring the HIV infected clients to the PGH-Nakuru and Molo District Hospital for medication.

Providing fortified blended flour to underweight clients.

Provide nutrition assessment and counseling to the clients.

Use of puppetry and drama in community mobilization and enhanced information dissemination.

Carrying out of road shows to encourage the community members to visit the VCTs.

Promoting use of condoms and safe sex.

Psychosocial counseling and support to the clients.

Activity Schedule

The activity schedule is attached in a separate MSproject format named residence project.

Table 1: Stakeholder’s Analysis

HOUSING PROJECTS’ success will depend on various factors, one of them being the level of stakeholder contribution to the project. They will be classified as primary, secondary and key stakeholders depending on their impact on the outcome of the project.

STAKEHOLDER TYPE OF STAKEHOLDER CONTRIBUTION TO PROJECT HOW TO BE INCLUDED Youths Primary They are the targeted group whose behavior is expected to change Will be involved in every stage of the project Churches Secondary Dissemination of information to the youth in the church To be included in the implementation stage BAF Key Donor of the project To be included in every stage World vision Secondary Providing education


Gun Control in Society Essay essay help online

Since times immemorial, people have used weapons for protection, attack, and entertainment. Gradually, the issue of legal ownership of weapons came to the fore, and governments introduced laws restricting or even forbidding possession of weapons by average citizens. At present, there continues a heated debate on the appropriateness of firearms possession by mass population. Despite the multiple arguments for gun control, it appears reasonable to allow more freedom in gun possession to average citizens.

One reason for raising the ban on firearms possession is the necessity for change in psychological attitudes to guns. A standard stereotype of weapons in modern society is that of forbidden fruit: every ‘real guy’ dreams of having a gun as a sign of his masculinity and power.

But at the same time, perception of guns as connected with illegal criminal world keeps people from purchasing guns. Supposedly, a more relaxed and normative attitude to guns would only worsen the situation as weapons would be in unskillful hands.

Admittedly, that might cause a chaotic atmosphere around weapons, but the key to success in this case is educating people about weapons. Making society more aware of weapons capacities would prove much more efficient than putting a veil of secrecy around guns.

Another argument for allowing public access to weapons is that once in possession of a gun, individuals would feel more protected against the possible attacks on their life and property. It is often the case that people live in remote areas, or districts with high crime rate, or the police simply fail to arrive in time to protect the citizens from violent assaults. Being in possession of a gun would allow the individual to employ own capacities for self-protection.

Arguably, increase in the amount of guns carried by average population would still raise criminal activities. For a moment, it does seem possible: the more guns, the more murders; but upon logical consideration it appears that guns do not shoot by themselves, it is always people who fire those guns. Thus, if criminals are aware that citizens can protect themselves with own guns, they would not dare attack so often.

Finally, possession of weapons should be legalized in modern society since thus the desired equality in rights would be ensured. Historically, carrying firearms has been the privilege of the rich and influential, and slaves were not entitled to possess any guns. Nowadays, when humanity is concerned with observing human rights, it becomes a primary task to ensure those rights are honoured with respect to the right to self-protection as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Surely, guns should be in wise and skillful hands. However, this does not mean average people should be deprived of the right to self-protection. On the contrary, more awareness of weapons should be introduced to ensure a higher self-confidence and security among the citizens.

After all, gun control appears powerless for achieving a safe living environment. Making guns legal and lifting the veil of forbidenness over them secures a self-confident society where human rights are honoured at every level.


Problem of USA Exposed by the Great Depression Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help: best essay help

USA experienced a horrible economic meltdown that impacted on various aspects of economy such as farming and industrial sector; this was from from1929 to 1942[1]. The recession was triggered by various fiscal features such as the vast margin between the poor and the wealthy, government debts and surplus production of commodities only to mention a few.

Business failure, depreciated stock prices, high unemployment rates are some of the negative impacts created by the depression[2]. The depression exposed various societal and economic problems faced by USA that they hardly knew.

Since the depression was partially caused by the imbalanced allotment of resources, it revealed that the US economy suffered a colossal wealth imbalance. It indicated the huge margin that existed between the wealthy and the poor.

Additionally, it meant that a significant proportion of national wealth was controlled by few tycoons who never even felt the impact during the depression. The depression also revealed how the US administration, commerce and financial entities were incapable of coping with the economic meltdown. This was evident when businesses were unable to sustain the depression leading to closure.

Consequently, people lost their jobs leading to reduced purchasing power within the constraints of the economy[3]. In addition, many financial institutions such as banks reduced their operations due to a decrease in customer savings. This was indication that businesses had no mechanisms that would mitigate such a situation.

The depression also revealed an incapacitated government that was unable to handle an economic crisis before it worsens[4]. It never had effective immediate strategies such as stimulus packages that would curb the situation but instead it relied on market forces, an approach that was unrealistic.

The depression revealed a society with ineffective mechanisms that were incapable of handling an economic crunch. Instead of coming up with creative approaches of curbing the situation, the society (the poor) languished in poverty without any concrete efforts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The depression also revealed how prosperous person never cared much about the poor since to them it was an opportunity to gain more wealth at the expense of the poor. Due to doubts of their investment security, Americans lacked confidence on their economy. It was so long before they regained assurance of their financial system, a setback that accelerated the crisis[5].

This clearly pointed out how people in US had lost faith with their economy. Racism was at its peak to an extent that it was applicable even for the fewer jobs available. This exposed how immoral the US society was at the expense of certain innocent races, especially at this crucial moment.

Sometimes one may not understand problems that a country faces until an event that reveals them comes to pass. American’s suffered because they didn’t have effective instruments capable of preventing or minimizing the dreadful period. If only recognized their societal and economic weaknesses in time they could have come up with different approaches to limit the situation.

Even though the economy of US was worst hit by the depression, some few individual emerged courageous and successfully regained back their economy, thank to President Franklin Roosevelt’s new ideas. This should act as an example to many states that have no mechanism to combat with recession. The lessons drawn from the recession are numerous and should serve as examples to different nations.

Bibliography Constantinides, George. Harris, Milton.


Is Studying in American Colleges and Universities Worthwhile? Research Paper essay help free

Introduction Education is a serious business that usually requires people’s time, efforts, and money. If people make an attempt to invest into the process of education, they underline the necessity to take care of their safe future and success. It is not enough to think about the process of education for some period of time. It is more important to find efforts and develop skills constantly to achieve better results and recognition in the chosen field.

Among other education systems, the United States are defined as the country with the largest and most flexible system in the whole world. The main point is that different stakeholders want to know how this type of education and the presence of international students in the U.S. may influence the economical side of the country: costs spent on international students’ living being or the benefits of the studying process.

This is why the main purpose of this paper is to investigate the variety of benefits and costs which are connected to the idea of international students from Asia and their education in American colleges and universities. Although international Asian students have a lot of difficulties and costs, the benefits of studying in the United States outweigh the costs.

International students face many disadvantages during the process of education in American colleges and universities Institute of International Education (IIE) published numerous Open Doors reports that helps to evaluate the situation in American colleges and universities. The representatives of the Institute of International Education admit that the number of international students in America is about 671,616 in the 2009-2010 academic year that is now more than 10% of total students in American colleges and universities (1).

Open Door data also show that of all international students, 54% students came from Asia countries such as China (14%), South Korea (11%), Japan (4%), Taiwan (4%), Vietnam (3%), and so on.

International students have financial difficulties in the U.S such as financial pressure, language proficiency, and cultural difference. The number of Asian international students has increased significantly in the past 50 years. International students increasing enrolment make us think about what are benefits from studying in the U.S.

The economist Kickert states that whenever someone is in a position of picking out one decision from many, then he or she must have determined the costs and benefits involved in each of them (154). For international students, rational enough the final choice would of course bear less or actually minimum expenditure and maximum possible gain.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although international Asian students make many sacrifices, the benefits of studying in the United States outweigh costs. Financial pressure is a great difficulty among Asian international students, and the investigations of one social writer, Liu, turn out to be rather effective for the chosen field. “In fact, when asked to rank the problems they face, international students usually put finances at the top of the list, followed by lack of friends, lack of English proficiency, cultural difference” (Liu 9).

Asian international students have many financial disadvantages while studying in American colleges and universities. First financial disadvantage is that international students have to pay higher tuition than their American counterparts do in their school fees.

Tuition for international students is much higher than for American students. Students need to pay additional tuition fees that differ considerably from those which are paid by Native American students. The economist Thomas A. Stapleford cites a research by Institution of International education: the tuition cost in American colleges and universities varied from $5000 to $30000 per year.

Average domestic tuition is around $9000 and international tuition is around $20000 in 1999-2000 academic year (Stapleford 89). International students pay more than double of domestic tuition in the U.S. In addition, tuition gap between International students and domestic students has been rising steadily over decades.

Another significant point is the necessity to pay some part of tuition before the education actually begins. Though international students are required to announce about their financial situation and abilities before the process of admission (Stapleford 79), they have to pass a variety of difficulties and challenges.

First, the idea of appropriate financial background seems to be crucial for Asian undergraduate students. They have to be sure about the necessity to be financially supported in case some unpredictable costs are required. However, in order to find a good sponsor, international students have to spend much time and efforts.

And second, the necessity to spend money on food, drinks, and clothes is also integral for many international students because it may easily sort them out under certain conditions. However, the financial side of education is not the only problem for international Asian students.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Is Studying in American Colleges and Universities Worthwhile? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since they cannot work part-time job legally except in the school while studying, they cannot maintain their living expenses by themselves. It is illegal for the international students to get jobs in the US while they are studying. Of course, they can get permission to work in the U.S under certain conditions. In accordance with the Association of International Educators region, all international students are able to get a job offer in the area that is related to the academic field of their study.

Optional Practical Training (OPT) and Curricular Practical Training, which are permissions authorized by Citizenship and Immigration (CIS), allow them to work in the U.S legally. However, in order to meet these conditions, international students have to complete all requirements for the degree.

In other words, it is almost impossible for them to work part-time job while they are studying in school. If it were possible, international students would have had their financial difficulties reduced. The only place where international students can work part-time job legally is their school where they are studying.

However, it raises small amount of money within limited hours that cannot sustain their living status in the U.S. Thus, it is hard to support their living expenses by themselves in the U.S as many American students do during in enrolment.

There are a lot of limitations of financial loan for undergraduate international students. The point is that with the help of undergraduate student loans, it is possible to pay for different education fees and decrease the level of expenses.

In comparison to American citizens, who have to pass a variety of assignments to apply for financial aid, international students still do not have any access to the loans which are usually provided by public or private organizations for students. Statistics shows that international students suffer from constant rise of education fees: from $ 15, 000 to $ 40,000. This point usually depends on the education level required by a student and the type of the institution chosen.

The investigations of Happer and Quaye in the sphere of education proves that 2002-2003 academic year made international students worried a lot because about 80% of undergraduate students have to be their full tuition without any support or financial aid. Unfortunately, only 24% of undergraduates were able to pay this tuition (Liu 4).

Even if the internal assistance from the university is available, not every student may qualify for it. Breen analyzed that in a case when students used all they had to sponsor themselves to study in the U.S and could get some good jobs while studying but still they could never get jobs; this is why they were forced to cut their studies short or drop it out in order to cater for the needy family back home (178).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Studying in American Colleges and Universities Worthwhile? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This situation even gets trickier in case international students violate the labour laws because some students may be sentenced for long periods or even be deported back to their native countries.

Cultural differences makes international students spend a lot of money and time to adjust. This issue is usually encountered by many international students as a type of limitation to their progress academically and on the social life and considered to be an important aspect of culture shock.

Allan E. Goodman, the president of the Institute of International Education, explains that since the culture in Asia is different from that in the United States, Asian international students may be forced to change their mode of dressing, the food they eat, the ways of how they pray, etc (46).

However, the most significant challenge almost any international student has to face is the use of language. International students who have English as a second language often require extra time to read their textbooks and other tasks.

Further, they are often unable to articulate their knowledge on essay or research paper due to their poor vocabulary Lin and Yi 3). A study conducted by economists Teresa Bevis and Christopher Lucas found that all American colleges and universities (63%) offered English as a Second Language programs (ESL) (181).

They have to spend time and money on improving English skill taking ESL classes. ESL program helps international student with poor English to meet the requirements to enroll their major courses in many colleges and universities.

The sociologist Ferrero admits that most lectures are strictly given in English, books written in English, assignments and examination written in English, and students are expected to use English throughout during the process of communication specially when an associated cost of learning a new language is incurred (95).

Different education system in the U.S decreases academic performance of international students. The fact that the U.S education system is different from the system which Asian international students have been used to in their home country (Lin and Yi 4) limits student progress due to the necessity of adaptation to the system that is used in the U.S. This change brings out matters which have to be learned and to catch up with the American counterparts.

In most Asian countries, the interaction between instructors and students are not active, whereas there is a lot of discussion between students and instructors, as well as students and students in American classroom.

Difficulty to adjust to new educational system is depressing as well as discouraging for Asian international students especially when they compare themselves with their friends who study there. Student abilities may be decreased as a result of such change as well as their performance that declines due to the necessity to start with the concepts which are inherent to the US education system. Lin and Yi point out that the system of the US requires students to be more creative to get ready for the craft and skills required (4).

International Students Can Have Lots of Benefits of Studying in American Colleges and Universities Though international students suffer from financial and cultural difficulties for studying in American colleges and universities, there are more benefits that they can obtain from the process of education that is possible in the U.S.

Cultural difficulties can be their advantages and assets if they overcome. This advantage lies into the fact that international students get a wonderful chance to communicate with people from different countries with different traditions and cultural backgrounds. If an Asian student in Harvard will get a chance to interact with an African, an Indian, a Japanese, or an American student during his or her stay in the university.

It will be a kind of asset that helps to make cultural identity conspicuous. The vast majority of American students will always like to interact, communicate, and learn with international students because the later introduce new ideas, vision, and approaches to current issues.

Bray and Jeptha, famous researchers in the field of education, indicate that, an Asian student will have learnt both the American culture and other cultures before his/her graduation process that can make him/her a kind of global citizen (47).

The level of exposure will greatly influence interpersonal relations they will have within and outside the college or university. They get to experience cultural difference in the U.S that gives them an ability to understand cultural diversity on a first-hand basis.

In Asia countries, the importance of English is getting increasing. Students need to be ready to develop better understanding of English as a language. English is the official language used in most universities and colleges.

Students are usually taught and expected to talk and to write all examinations in English. Therefore, it is a kind of imperative for new international students from non-English speaking countries including Asia to learn the English language for the first time. It is another benefit to study in the U.S.

Experience cultural difference in the U.S gives them ability to understand cultural diversity which can be great asset in today’s world. Furthermore, foreign researchers admit that in Asian countries, there is an increasing adoption of English as a global language (Lin and Yi 5).

The sphere of business is now developing numerous English websites to attract as many people as possible. Therefore, for an Asian student who has learned and use English, this is a good advantage to get an asset in today’s world (McAlister 169). These investigations by sociologist McAlister help to comprehend the essence of cultural difference and the possibility to earn money.

They can get better knowledge and skills in American colleges and universities. Given the fact that the American educational system is the best in the world, many international students would relish a chance to be educated in the United States. The curriculum is properly developed, and important skills are practically acquired.

It means that the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge is not huge, and Asian international students greatly benefit from studying in the U.S compared to studying in their native countries. Several examples from different spheres of life may help to clear up everything.

In technological fields like software engineering, the U.S colleges and universities are among the best in the world. Exposure to such high quality knowledge fields in the U.S learning institutions will positively influence the lives of international students. The knowledge they will acquire will not only improve their lives but will positively contribute to their native economies once they get back. In such fields, the knowledge development in the U.S is highly advanced in relation to other places in the world.

In the linguistic field, the idea to study a foreign language is another powerful means which may improve students’ understanding of the subject and the importance of deep knowledge. Attention to the details of one language promotes the evaluation of another language, this is why this academic field is developed considerably in American colleges and universities.

International students can get financial advantages when they get a job after completing studying. International students are in highest demand in American job markets in comparison to American students and in the markets of their own countries.

After these students graduate, they get more chances to be recognized in their own countries even in comparison to foreign that are eager to come there and offer their services. It is one of the advantages in order to pursue education in the U.S. The U.S academic system is considered to be of high quality, and many skills are acquired by international students.

The companies that employ international students consider them as properly education people with a solid language background and practice that helps to improve theoretical skills. In general, it is necessary to admit that international students from Asia are more prioritized than other students who attended the schools in the Asian region.

After graduating from American colleges and universities, students can have opportunities to get a job in the U.S that offers higher income than in their own their countries. Many international students on graduating from the universities and colleges in the U.S get more job opportunities in the U.S.

When these jobs are compared to those offered in their own countries, they appear to be better so that an individual is able to earn good money. Professor Altbach notes that “The U.S. is a major attractor of international students who with the aim of staying in the host country to work and make a career because of it large and diverse economy” (4).

U.S colleges and universities are valued for education. Social scientists Ashbee, Balslev, and Pedersen indicate that American colleges and universities are valued for the quality of education that is available to all students regardless of their nationalities (198).

This education is even more valued outside the United States because it is new, different, advanced, and very practical in comparison to other opportunities. For example, in the field of Information Technology disciplines, American colleges and universities offer quite innovative developments which aim at improving the technological world and developers’ deserved recognition.

Reputation of U.S schools in the world. Another important factor that has to be mentioned is a good reputation of U.S colleges and universities. Philip G. Altbach, the director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College, notes that “the U.S. is generally seen as the world’s best academic system.

International students feel that the prestige of a degree from foreign universities, especially an American degree, is greater than that of one from local institution” (164).

In Asian countries, most people have a perception that American colleges and universities are greater than schools in their own countries. Once Asian international students are back to their native countries, they are respected, considered for promotion during the formative years in their work places, and able to have an advantage over their local counterparts in job market and.

A survey conducted by Daniel Obst and Joanne Foster who are the international consultants in Institute of International Education shows that 80% of Asian international students agreed with that the U.S has a good reputation around world, while only 32% of Europeans agreed.

In addition, the sociologist Damp indicates that in Asian countries, most people have a perception that American colleges and universities are greater than schools in their own countries (171-172). This perception not only gives a lot of intangible benefits to Asian international students in their home countries, but also meets their parents’ high expectation of studying in American colleges and universities.

Conclusion The vast majority of people from different countries like Asia truly believe that the chance to get advanced education in the United States of America may considerably improve their lives. Many undergraduate international students from different American colleges and universities admit that their desire to get their degrees and diplomas or to take some short courses influences their present and future.

Students usually required to improve their level of knowledge and be recognized in the job market both. International undergraduate students need to be ready for numerous challenges which are connected to the financial aspect, cultural differences, and personal satisfaction.

Asian international students are those who are going to bring many changes in the environment they live in hence there is a considerable increase in the outputs that make economic indicators of the country more experienced. And this is what really beneficial for students as well as to their countries.

Works Cited Altbach, Philip G. Comparative Higher Education: Knowledge, the University, and Development. New York: Ablex, 1998. Print.

Ashbee, Edward, Helene Balslev and Clausen Pedersen. The Politics, Economics, and Culture of Mexican-U.S. Migration: Both Sides of the Border. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.

Bevis, Teresa and Lucas, Christopher. International Students in American Colleges and Universities: A History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.

Bray, Ilona and Jeptha Evans. U.S. Immigration Made Easy. 14th ed. New York: Nolo, 2009. Print.

Breen, William. Labor Market Politics and the Great War: The Department of Labor, the States. Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2008. Print.

Damp, Dennis. The Book of U.S. Government Jobs. 10th ed. McKees Rocks: Bookhaven Press LLC, 2008. Print.

Ferrero, Godfrey. Ancient Rome and Modern America a Comparative Study of Morals and Manners. New Jersey: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Harper, Shaun R, and Stephen John Quaye. Student Engagement in Higher Education: Theoretical Perspectives and Practical Approaches For Diverse Population . New York: Taylor


Gender and global political economy Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Politics in a state play a role in determining the economic perspectives of many countries in the globe. National policies and domestic cultures have a significant influence on how the economy behaves. The rise of market capitalism worldwide has resulted in the creation of numerous employment opportunities for both men and women. Global capitalism has therefore resulted from these leaps in technology and the decrease in socialism.

However, there are some practices by transnational corporations have led to the decline of capitalism by promoting gender inequality and racial discrimination. In as much as the 21st century has experienced great leaps in globalization and gender equity, there are still some pre-set images and ideologies of gender evident which have had an impact on global capitalism.

There are several divisions fashioned around the differences between men and women by humanity. The beliefs and expectations that the society has created between the two sexes have created pressure on their roles in globalization. Responsibility has been conventionally assigned to men.

Some occupations like housework and informal trades are usually sidelined as ‘women’s work’ despite the fact that they develop the economy. This global conception is extremely misguiding because it includes women in other societies who do not experience such challenges.

There are some negative perceptions displayed in the media which have led to the stereotyping of women in other states. Women have historically not been given opportunities in politics and economic power due to their sexual orientation mainly in third-world countries.

However, there exists ‘third-worlds’ in many first world countries, where ethnic isolation is practiced. Such people still face economic disadvantages and do not command necessary political influence to influence development. There images of ideology are therefore the same as those who practically live in third-world countries.

The contributions from females in politics and economy continue to be sidelined in spite of findings of research that signify their importance. Authority, power and economic issues create sex differentiations in the society. Globally, there is a silent war between the two genders, where women are considered as the losers. Political and economic change in the globe can be best effected through having meaningful ideologies on gender.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world has been divided into producers and consumers, profoundly affecting women, mainly in third-world countries, where disempowered groups have been subjected to less pay. Racial and ethnic segregation is evident as many corporations prefer to work with people from their race even thought they may not be qualified.

The interactions of the genders in global politics and the economy are perceived differently in different cultures. Cultures in African and Afghanistan societies reveal a lot of disparities which happen based on one’s gender orientation. The practice of female genital mutilation in Africa has brought about submissiveness, reducing the zeal in participating in political activities. A third-world woman being denied access to school, employment and healthcare puts men on the forefront of politics and economy.

Through colonialism, which is still being practiced, African women were seen as beasts of burden. Cultural practices of paying gifts and polygamy display oppression of women. This ideology has been used by corporations to justify women as desirable workers in the service sectors with low pay.

The stereotypic view of women is magnified when the sophisticated side of the cultures is not shown. Hence, an image is conjured that all the women in such areas are facing such challenges. The men in such societies are therefore perceived as being oppressors who are terribly strange and accustomed to a hard life.

It is a popular belief that men are the sole bread winners of families, therefore requiring more pay. This has been used as an excuse by different companies for the low wages that women receive. The belief is that women will be supported by men and do no require much pay. In a sharp contrast, women from the westernized states know about such challenges in the media. The economic output of such women is generally high, and they are well positioned to participate in political activities in their country.

The ideology of the colonialist about the oppression that citizens of third word countries face seems to justify the behavior of employers to women and international races. The transnational companies are consumed by the belief that they are improving the lives of the poor people by offering them better standards of living. Intervention by the western culture is made to be seen as modern change, and the original cultures of third-world countries are seen as traditional and oppressive.

Conclusion Racial and gender prejudice have been a stumbling block in the quest of experiencing domineering universal capitalism. If the flaws in global political economy are not addressed, there is bound to be a continuous decline in global capitalism.

We will write a custom Essay on Gender and global political economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Direct response by feminists to the challenges they are subdued to by transnational corporations is bearing fruits as the justification of women as workers in low-paid service jobs vanishes. Globalization and gender are inextricably linked, and the development of either influences the other. A perfect balance between the two is necessary to ensure that globalization brings along equality of the sexes and races.


Competencies Development for Efficient Work of Teams Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Understanding the factors involved in leading a team to achieve agreed objectives Principles necessary for leading individuals or teams to achieve their objectives

The first basic principle necessary for a team to achieve the common objective is the principle of cooperation. Since employees are grouped in one team, they should be aware of the fact that joint action is necessary for accomplishment of their objective.

Cooperation among the team members fosters mutual understanding and fosters the achievement of the goal. The second principle vital for the success of the enterprise is both the individual’s and the team’s flexibility. In the modern world that is developing at enormous rates, people and organizations have to demonstrate unprecedented levels of pliancy in order to survive and thrive.

Throughout a project, the goals may shift and therefore new approaches should be adopted easily. The success of the individual and team activities in an ever-changing competitive environment is defined by the change capacity and resilience. In addition, the principle of high performance culture plays a decisive role for achieving the goals defined. Culture appears to be a most significant driver of behavior and action.

Higher levels of employees’ loyalty, involvement, and positive attitude are stimulated by a well-established performance culture of the organization. Therefore, high performance culture should be the key principle of functioning for the individual, team, and company.

Links between individual, team, and organizational objectives

Ideally, the objectives set by the organization should correlate to the individual accomplishments of the employees. In addition to that, the satisfaction received by each individual member of the group and the satisfaction enjoyed by the team on the whole is the higher once not only the individual or team goals but also the organizational objectives are achieved.

As well as the whole organization, the team must be clearly aware of the objective before them, and each individual within that team should have a stimulus not only for achieving the organizational or team objective but also to demonstrating individual professional growth.

And once those motivated individuals are united into an inspired team, their common efforts should be directed at the greater good of the whole organization. An important motivator to success on all levels can be found in demonstrating the historical connection between the organizational performances and the corresponding activities of the working teams and individuals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once a group of individuals combine their unique skills, knowledge, experiences, and expectations for productive teamwork, the objectives of the whole organization are easier to realize provided that adequate management and leadership skills are applied (Harris, 2003, p. 110).

Methods of communicating objectives to the team or individual

Communicating the work objectives is one of the basic preconditions to get the work done. The method chosen for communicating objectives depends on the time and resource availability, as well as on the scale of the objectives set before the employees.

There exists a wide range of methods of communicating objectives, and among them intranet and e-mail messages occupy one of the leading places now that technology achievements have boosted communication opportunities. The advantage of using intranet or e-mail messages is that it is quite time and effort saving, since there is no need to organize a big meeting and to face a possible debate.

However, for the purposes of greater cooperation and understanding when a complex and multifaceted goal is faced, it is advisable to utilize another method of communicating objectives, such as a team briefing or meeting. The latter methods provide much more opportunity for both visual and verbal elaboration of objectives set before the individuals or teams.

In addition, an invaluable opportunity for dialogue and direct discussion emerges once employees gather for a team briefing. By facilitating a two-way feedback, managers ensure that the objective is perceived, comprehended, and understood by the employees. Thus, the interactivity of a team briefing is well worth spending additional time and effort on such a meeting.

Understanding the current competencies of individuals and teams Methods of conducting individual and team competency reviews

For measuring team competency, a Dyers Team Competencies Scale is applicable. On a scale ranging from 1 to 5, the following factors are considered:

“ability to set clear, measurable goals; developing commitment within team members to achieve team goals; making assignments that are clearly understood by all team members;

We will write a custom Report on Competencies Development for Efficient Work of Teams specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More knowledge of how to develop the skills in team members to accomplish their assignments;

knowledge of how to effectively make decisions;

appropriate participation in, acceptance, and implementation of decisions with commitment;

encouragement of high-performance standards and holding team members accountable; running effective meetings;

building trust among team members; appropriate team leader’s management style; fostering open and free communications; managing conflict effectively;

giving and receiving feedback without becoming defensive or combative; collaborating with others;

supportiveness and helpfulness of the team leaders and members toward one another; willingness to take a risk and try out new actions to make the team better; stopping and critiquing how well the team members are working together; necessary team-building skills to identify the team problems and take corrective action” (Dyer, 2007, pp. 65–71).

In this scale, the twelve team competencies are measured and gaps in any of them becomes obvious once each team member has accessed the performance according to the scale.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Competencies Development for Efficient Work of Teams by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A method of assessing individual competency can be found in a Competency Ontology that correlates the employee with such factors as competencies, other employees, jobs, learning objects etc.

Fig. 1. Competency Ontology. Source: Draganidis, Fotis et al. (2006) An ontology based tool for competency management and learning paths. P.4.

Links between current competencies, the team, and organizational objectives

At first sight, the relations between the current competencies of the team and their performance in respect to the organizational objectives should be direct. But in fact, it turns out that this relation is much more complicated and indirect than it might seem.

Logically, since the employees of the company increase their professional skills, the level of their performance should also be expected to grow. Thus, organizations employing professionals with high level of skills are expected to demonstrate outstanding achievements on the organizational level. However, the situation may be quite different from this logical reckoning.

Despite all the deep knowledge, excellent skills, and vide range of abilities possessed by an individual employee, his/her performance may be much lower than expected. The reason for this may be found in a whole range of personal and professional factors, such as personal discomfort, lack of concentration, dissatisfaction with the job or the processes occurring at the organization, disagreement with the objectives of the organization, etc.

These misbalancing factors may result in poorer performance of the individual, and subsequently of the whole team. Therefore, it is not always the case that high competencies of individuals and teams directly advantage organizational objectives.

Activities that support competency development now, and future competency development to achieve organizational objectives

In order to secure productive work among the team members and thus ensure achievement of organizational objectives in the future, it is crucial to develop collaboration within the team. For this purpose, it is vital to establish trustful relations with the employees, asking for their suggestions and opinions and listen to fully understand.

Additionally, discussions of how team meetings and actions relate to the team and organizational objective should be carried out. Interaction with colleagues and sharing the available resources should facilitate the joint work on achieving the objectives.

For realizing the principle of flexibility, it is vital to prepare the individual employees and the team to the possible changes. For this purpose, it is necessary to identify the aspects about the working responsibilities and procedures that are likely to change within the nearest future and decide the ways the working process can be modified to painlessly include the coming changes.

When the change situation comes, an initiative response should be made, and efforts should be undertaken to help the other team members accept and manage the change. In order to be better ready for the coming change, it is advisable to analyze the working environment and single out the issues that demand updating or improving. By starting to make small changes now, it is possible to ensure that the future change is met more efficiently.

Knowing how to develop the competencies of individuals and teams Development opportunities for individuals and teams

In the modern competitive environment, both individuals and teams should seek every opportunity for development of their competencies in order to be able to withstand the stress of their work and to achieve the objectives of their organizations. One of the perfect opportunities for developing individual and team competencies is taking up special assignments or responsibilities that presuppose active implementation of one or another competence.

For example, assignments should be chosen so that they provide an individual employee or a team of employees with a challenging opportunity to grow. In choosing such assignments, decisions should be based on a careful assessment of the employee’s readiness to efficiently undertake new responsibilities or changes. The latter should be appropriate to the employee’s level of development and neither put too much overload on him/her, nor appear too easy for any efficient growth.

Another opportunity for developing individual and team competencies is referring employees to workshops and trainings that presuppose cooperation within cross-function teams. The latter type of cooperation is one of the most difficult to manage and yet one of the most required nowadays. Therefore, it would be the more instructive for the employees to gain the experience of managing cooperation within such a cross-function team.

Methods used to agree on development opportunities

The methods of agreeing on the development opportunities to be undertaken by the team may vary depending on the situation. The simplest way is to simply notify the team of the upcoming developmental event. However, this method would hardly prove successful and bring forward much enthusiasm since it would not demonstrate any personal interest in the success of the undertaking.

A much more efficient way of coming to agreement on the development opportunity is calling a meeting where the presenter should not mention the opportunity directly but should formulate the upcoming event as rather an exciting opportunity for the employees to reveal their skills and talents which have not been utilized before. Such approach would attract the employees much more and would stimulate them to do their best during the development opportunity, thus resulting in achievement of the development aim.

Processes for measuring and reviewing the success of the individual and team development objectives

One of the most efficient processes for measuring and reviewing the success of the development objectives is the analysis of developmental event in form of a round-table discussion.

During this discussion it is significant that constructive feedback from all the participants is provided in an appropriate way, specifically and constructively. Care should be taken that not the people but the ideas are criticized, if necessary. It is highly advisable that positive feedback is given openly and publicly, and improvement feedback is given in private.

Among the criteria that should be measured when reviewing the development objectives are the individual input and contribution during cross-function team projects; supportive behavior provided to others to achieve their individual activities that would benefit the team objective during the project; activities for developing and sharing the knowledge necessary for successful completion of the project.

Reflective statement Undertaking this assignment has triggered ideas about developing the competencies necessary for efficient work of individuals within teams. A deeper understanding of the processes and actions involved in teamwork has been gained, and a conclusion has been made on the necessity to work on team improvement.

References Draganidis, Fotis et al. (2006) An ontology based tool for competency management and learning paths. In: 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management I-KNOW 06, Special track on Integrating Working and Learning, 6th September 2006, Graz. Web.

Dyer, William G. et al. (eds) (2007) Team building: proven strategies for improving team performance. San Francisco, John Wiley


China Climate Change Essay essay help

The ever-changing global climatic condition is one of the primary concerns of all global communities, because of the prevalent effects of such changes in most global societies. Over the recent past many calamities for example, food shortages, earthquakes, floods, and extended drought spans have befall many countries whereby, the most affected are developing countries, because most of them lack the required technologies and expertise to deal with calamities.

That is to say, great environmental polluters are developed countries, which have ventured into heavy industrialization and production processes with little consideration of the nature of effects their industrial ventures have on the environment.

Majority of developed and developing countries for example, the U.S. and China have failed to heed to the call of the need to save Mother Nature through implementation of pollution mitigating measures, for example, the Kyoto protocol (National Development and Reform Commission, pp. 1-7).

Globally, China is the second biggest environmental polluter, a fact that research findings attribute to its extensive industrial ventures, as the country has struggled since time memorial to avoid instances of energy deficits and economic crunches occurring.

To meet its energy demands, it utilises coal as the primary source of electrical energy, which it uses to run most of its production and manufacturing plants. This is the fact that has made the World Health Organisation (WHO) to name China as the primary producer of the World’s deadliest hazardous gases.

According to the WHO annual reports on effects of air pollutions on the Chinese citizens, annually more than six hundred and fifty six thousand Chinese citizens die of complications resulting from inhalation of dangerous industrial gas emissions; hence, an evidence of the contributions of China to global climate changes. Other sources of pollution in China include industrial discharges and emissions from automobiles, because of its extensive transport system (Platt p.1).

Although China is one of the greatest world polluters, the good thing with the Chinese Government is that, it acknowledges the impacts of its practises on global climate. Such acknowledgements have made the Chinese government to formulate a number pollution control measures, although other global communities argue that, China’s policies clash with other nations’ environmental policies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such blames on china were evident in recent Copenhagen summit, whereby other global communities blamed it for its increased pollution rates and refusal to give access to the world pollution monitoring bodies to ascertain its emission rate (McCarthy, p.1).

China like any other country has had its share of the ever-worsening climate changes. Such effects are evident in its agricultural sectors, for example, in the production of staples, wheat, animal products, and rice. In addition to declining agricultural production, another evidence of the effects of climatic variations on china is increasing water shortages, which from time to time face some Chinese cities.

Currently most frozen Chinese lakes are at the verge of melting, a fact that is becoming worse with the current increasing rise in the sea level. As reported by the Chinese Marine Department, currently there is an increase in sea temperatures; a fact that has caused the disappearance of the rarest species of marine flora and fauna.

On the other hand, the increasing rate at which the northern Chinese desert is approaching the productive southern and central regions is another clear indication of the effects of the global climatic changes on China. Considering these effects and many others, curbing effects of rapid climate changes is one goal of the Chinese government hence, the current pollution reduction initiatives (Chinese State Council of Information, pp. 4-7).

To curb the emission of green house gases, the Chinese government has implemented a number of pollution mitigating measures, aimed at controlling the rate at which its industries emit green house gases. Prior to the current state of the environmental pollution condition in China, the government implemented a number of pollution control measures that included the Energy Intensity Target, Top 1,000 Enterprises Program, and The Retiring inefficient Power Plants plan.

Although this plans at first worked, increased energy and economic needs become great impediments to their working hence, the ever-increasing pollution rate. Such failures in policy implementation have made global communities to blame China for the increased global warming and other environmental problems.

In addition, to failure of most conservation initiatives, as it was evident in the Copenhagen Global Summit, China is always at loggerheads with other word societies on the real causes of pollution and how world governments can join forces in dealing with the pollution problem that greatly endangers the existence of mankind (Pew Centre, pp. 1-3).

We will write a custom Essay on China Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As McCarthy (p.1) argues, to the Chinese government, pollution is not the primary cause of the ever-changing global climatic conditions, but rather the problem has other causes, which unless discovered, the survival of the living species is in danger. This has made China to refuse to sign global agreements, a fact has greatly jeopardised the stability of the global climatic conditions (Allan, p.1).

In conclusion, although currently the Chinese government has adopted a number of pollution mitigating factors, it is important to note that, the continual use of coal as the primary energy source will still put its efforts at stake. Therefore, for China to curb its pollution rates there is need for it to adopt other modes of energy production, for this is the only way of ensuring it reduces emission of green house gases.

Works Cited Allan, Nicole. China’s climatic change scepticism. The Atlantic, 2010. Web.

Chinese State Council of Information. Impacts of climate change on China. China. Org.Cn. 2010. Web.

McCarthy, Michael. China stands accused of wrecking global deal. The Independent, 2009. Web.

National Development and Reform Commission. China’s national climate change program. 2007. Web.

Pew Centre. Climatic change mitigation measures in the peoples’ republic of China. Pew Centre. 2007. Web.

Platt, Kevin. Chinese air pollution deadliest in the world, report says. National Geographic News, 2007. Web.

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Maximizing profits in market structures Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Profit maximization is the primary objective of each business enterprise. Whether a business is operating under a perfect competitive market, a monopoly market or a perfect competitive market, the business should strive to maximize its profits by determining prices that would help them achieve profit maximization and determining the level of output that helps them achieve profit maximization (Wells, 2008, p. 19).

This paper explores the characteristics of these market structures, examines both price-based and output-based profit maximization strategies, explores the barriers to entering these markets and states the role of each market structure in the economy.

A perfect competitive market is the one in which a large number of buyers buy products from a large number of sellers. The products are characterized by similarity and thus the market has a myriad of product substitutes. On the other hand, an oligopoly is characterized by the presence of a number of firms in the industry.

Since the firms are few in number, they have control over the prices of their products. The products that these firms sell are almost identical and thus the firms have the task of differentiating the products using minimal differences like packaging, colors, shapes and using promotion to emphasize these small differences (Wells, 2008, p. 15).

Finally, a monopoly is characterized by the presence of only a single seller or supplier in the market. Thus in a monopoly, the industry is just one enterprise. Monopolies are mostly created when product control is a subject of ultimate priority or when entry in the market is nearly impossible.

The price at which a firm sells its products is a great determinant of profit. It, therefore, follows that, to maximize profits, a profit maximizing price has to be determined. In a perfect competition, demand is price elastic since a firm that raises its price experiences a fall in demand due to presence of other producers and substitutes.

In this kind of market therefore, the profit maximizing price is determined by the forces of demand and supply. On the other hand, profit maximizing price in an oligopoly market is given by the price at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. In the same way, the profit maximizing price of a monopolistic firm is the price at which marginal cost is the same as marginal revenue (Woiceshyn, 1998, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just as the price of a product, the level of output is a key determinant of profit maximization. In perfect competition, the level of output that maximizes the profit can be given by the value of output corresponding to the maxima of a profit curve or by the output that is responsible for the greatest difference of total revenue and total cost or by the output at the intersection of marginal revenue with marginal cost.

In an oligopoly the output corresponding to the equality of marginal revenue and marginal cost is the one that achieves profit maximization. In a monopoly the output at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue is the one that achieves profit maximization (Perlman, 2009, p. 1).

In perfect competition, there are usually no barriers to entry. In case there are any barriers of entry, they are very few and thus price determination is mainly dependent on the forces of demand and supply. It is thus apparent that the producers rely on the market to know how to price their products since poor pricing decisions will make the producer lose revenue in terms of market share or unreasonably low prices.

An oligopoly market, on the other hand, is characterized by enormous restrictions to entry which are normally high capital requirements, licenses and brands. This is why it has few firms which can easily collude in a bid to achieve profit maximization.

As evidenced in the characteristics of a monopoly, entry in to a monopolistic industry is normally restricted (Liu, 2009, p. 1). This is usually due to political, socio-economic reasons or the high costs associable with operating a monopoly (Woiceshyn, 1998, p. 1). For example, the intention by a government to control a certain product may lead to the creation of a monopoly. An example of such products is electricity.

Each of the discussed market structures has a characteristic role in the economy that makes it uniquely important. The basic role of a perfectly competitive market in microeconomics is the efficient allocation of resources that it achieves. Since the market is controlled by demand and supply, it achieved the best resource allocation as compared to other market structures.

This efficiency means that product price is maintained at the marginal cost of producing it. It is however argued that perfect competition only exists in hypothetical circumstances and that it is not possible in the real world (Perlman, 2009, p. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on Maximizing profits in market structures specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, oligopoly markets have a very significant role in protecting industries in which price wars could be very destructive. Oligopoly ensures that firms in such industries are protected against unreasonable competition since their products are normally costly to produce.

The raw materials for these products are also difficult to access and therefore, the market structure ensures that the materials are well utilized by ensuring that reasonable prices are given to products and thus quality products are made. Oligopoly markets are also very instrumental in the protection of rights of production.

This ensures that firms are not adversely affected by counterfeiting. Finally, monopolies encourage what could be described as allocative inefficiency. This means that goods will be sold above marginal cost due to the power and control associated with monopoly markets.

This makes the consumers lose their surplus and thus it makes the economy lose its efficiency. Monopolies are instrumental in helping the protection of industries producing sensitive products (Liu, 2009, p. 1). This ensures that consumers do not run out of products that are compulsory in life. This is why monopoly markets are able to manipulate prices as they wish; the products they offer are a must have. This compromises consumer surplus in other goods.

The characteristics of the discussed market structures make each of them unique in its own way. While monopolies are a “one-mans show”, oligopolies are composed of a number of suppliers while a perfect competition has a large number of suppliers or retailers. These characteristics make price determination and determination of output in the different market structures a variable practice.

They also make them have variable effects on the economy as a whole. In virtually all market structures, profit maximization is achieved at the price or level of output at which the marginal cost is the same as marginal revenue. All the other market structures have barriers to entry except a perfect competition.

Reference List Liu. W. (2009). Potential benefits from monopoly. Web.

Perlman, K. (2009). Price Determination. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maximizing profits in market structures by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wells, R. (2008). Microeconomics. New York. Barnes


Chemical Spills in Forensic Setting Report college admission essay help

A chemical leak is characterized by discharge of a chemical compounds. It commonly occurs during haulage, storage, handling and disposal of compounds with chemical characteristics. Spilling of chemicals is a frequent incident in many labs.

Necessary steps to clean the spill are extremely imperative due to their perilous nature. Chemical spills may cause immediate peril to the life and wellbeing of a person (St. Clair, St. Clair


President’s tools available to influence bureaucracy Compare and Contrast Essay essay help

Comparing and contrasting presidential tools Every institution either governmental or privately owned has bureaucratic procedures to be followed as stipulated by the constitution. Bureaucracy is the procedures or actions followed within a chain of command; it defines how offices are set in terms of authority. It is noted that, bureaucracies have diverse skillful persons with the capacity to organize a great function or event.

As a chief bureaucrat, the president has many tools at disposal capable of influencing and controlling bureaucracies. Powers on budget, appointments and executive commands are some of the tool used by the presidents to influence bureaus. Offices of the President, congresses, parliaments and judiciaries are some of the institutions that influence bureaucracy.

In comparison to other tools, power of appointment is considered as the primary tool to a president for manipulation of bureaus. In many states, the chief executive has the mandate to appoint persons that will work as his subordinate. As the executive boss, he has the power to appoint government and other institution’s top officials as stipulated in the constitution.

It is regarded as a stronger tool because of its vast influence and manipulation on bureau activities and performance. Considering executive appointment powers, a president will hire persons who are loyal and submissive to him. Consequently, many appointees will perform their duties with presidential interests in mind. This may limit the use of executive orders by the fact that most crucial positions are under presidential supervision with submissive employees.

In comparing setbacks, executive orders create governmental controversies while executive appointment may result to employment of unqualified or unskilled personnel in crucial positions.

In addition, unqualified presidential appointees do not last long in office due to unprofessional conduct resulting in underperformance in bureaus. Power of appointment is far much stronger than other tools; this is because control, directives and limited monitoring will automatically be at place as compared to executive orders where presidential interests are done only when orders are issued.

Although in many state parliaments or congresses are given the basic mandate to exercise budgetary activities, presidents also do have some budgetary powers. The chief executive can decide to delay his consent concerning the budget consequently stagnating budgetary activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the president has the authority to limit or increase fiscal expenditure on different institutions or bureaus. In comparison to effects caused by executive orders, the president may reduce the amount of expenditure thus inactivating organizational activities. Concerning their negative aspect, budgetary powers may act as an avenue for the president to punish some organization by minimizing their budgetary expenditure while executive orders may result to employment of unqualified personnel in vital positions.

The most effective tool Basing my argument on effects caused by the tools and their influence on bureau, appointment power is the most effective presidential tool. In fact under normal circumstances when you are appointed by an employer, one thing is that you will have to be submissive, same applies to presidential appointees.

When comparing the tools based on the level of influence, appointment powers has greater influence to an extent of surpassing the others. For example executive orders may not be necessary to persons appointed by the president. Furthermore, it gives the president more authority to control, manipulate and also directs the organizational activities making it more effective.

Effects of presidents on bureaucratic performance In the event that these presidential tools are put into practice, they create immense influence on bureaucratic performances. Many presidents use these tools to manipulate bureau so as to suit their political and monetary interests at the expense of bureaucratic performance.

Considering presidential appointment as a tool, unskilled or unqualified personnel may hold vital positions just for the reason that they are loyal to the president. Such a bureau will suffer a great deal especially in key position where skills and professionalism is needed in practice. Bureau will not only fail to uphold professionalism but also conduct its activities to suit the interest of the president especially when his job is at stake.

In circumstances where presidential executive orders are in execution, many activities of the bureau will be done as par the president’s directives, especially when addressing his subordinates.

Bureaus may suffer extensively, especially when the president’s directives are based on personal interest and not performance. By use of budgetary powers, a president can make an organization dormant with the aim of punishing them. He may decide to either delay a budget or reduce the amount of expenditure on an agency thus making it dormant. This affects an agency’s performance.

We will write a custom Essay on President’s tools available to influence bureaucracy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though chief executives can use these tools to influence activities of a bureau in order to gain political or personal interests, it is possible to limit them for the sake of bureaucratic performance. In some countries, before any action on these tools, approval must be done by a supreme body.

In addition, the activities done are extensively monitored for the sake of bureau development. This maintains bureau’s performance at its peak whether the tools are being used or not. In conclusion, the degree of bureau’s influence by presidents depends on the system of governance and the laws behind the tool. In addition, the performance of a bureau is also determined by presidential policies, some presidents uphold policies that are bureau friendly while other only care about their interests.


Government Withholding Information: Is It Justified? – Argumentative Essay essay help free: essay help free

The government is not justified in withholding information that directly impacts the citizens except when releasing such information to the public may comprise its security systems or put the public at a precarious position security-wise. For instance, Binyam Mohamed was illegally put in detention at the Guantanamo for six years, and during this time he was subjected to extreme torture (Duthel 135). After his release from prison last year, Mohamed tried to seek justice for what he went through.

He has mainly tried to secure a day in court, but his efforts have futile because it is alleged that his torturers were under protection by influential individuals within the Obama administration (Duthel 135-141). This is particularly because it is believed that President Obama’s government is on a campaign to prevent details of the Bush administration’s torture program from reaching the citizenry. It is immoral for a government to try and cover for the crimes of its predecessor.

This is mainly because Obama and his Democratic party had it in his manifesto that he would ensure that victims of injustice particularly by previous governments would be given a chance to present their cases in the public domain. Withholding information can lead to a govermment’s image getting tarnished especially if the public discovers that the government has been secretly creating policies that present with extreme consequencies.

The United States government is seen to have quietly created the policies guiding the process of detaining and interrogating terrorism suspects. When the likes of Binyan Mohamed’s case and the scandal at Iraq’s Abu Ghraib prison come into the open, it becomes challenging for the government to try and explain itself to the public.

Recently, the government has been accused of withholding crucial information regarding the Fort Hood murders linked to Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan (Capote 323). Ideally, no individual should be above the law and criminals should be subjected to the same legal processes.

For the government to try and cover up a crime in a bid to save face infront of the international community is a crime in itself. The best thing for the government to have done was to present all the incriminating evidence on the part of the major and letting the law follow its due course. This would have served to boost the credibility of the administration, and the doubts that currently linger over the reason for the misrepresentation of information could have been avoided.

From the examples above, it can be safely agreed that lying in any form does compromise the integrity of a state. Integrity in this instance is defined as an ideology based on consistency in actions and outcomes of such actions either on an individual or group level (James and Merickel 660).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When the state conceals information and the public later comes to learn that information was withheld that could have prevented a terror attack, then it becomes challenging for the affected government to convince its citizens that it is doing its best to protect them.

For instance, following the September 11 attacks, it has been widely claimed that the CIA had been forewarned about the imminent attacks but instead chose to downplay the threats (Seeger, Sellnow and Ulmer 235). Once the damage had been caused and such information leaked to the public domain, the administration at the time lost all its sense of integrity as its actions were not seen to be consistent with its pronunciations.

The war on terror cannot be a government-only effort. Instead, all the stakeholders should be involved in analyzing critical information regarding security. The stakeholders for any particular nation are its citizens, and it is only prudent that the people they have chosen to represent them in higher offices appreciate the importance of consultation.

Terrorists are everyday individuals and in some instances are people whose agenda is well known by their neighbors. It is only by the government realizing that it can obtain crucial information from members of the public regarding the strange among their midst that the war on terror can be said to be fought effectively.

The public, however, cannot communicate with a government whose integrity appears to be compromised. Trust has to be established between the citizens and the administration, and this can only be achieved if there is bi-directional openness in communication.

The Obama administration has come to realize the importance of openness and transparency as factors of integrity. This was well illustrated when President Obama’s executive order revoked the order by his predecessor, George Bush to limit access to former president’s records following the September 11 attacks.

This action served to revert access to presidential records to the levels initially determined by the presidential records act. This action by President Obama’s government served to promote the agenda of this institution, and the action was also well received by the public.

We will write a custom Essay on Government Withholding Information: Is It Justified? – Argumentative Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the individuals who argue in favor of the government withholding information claim that in most cases particularly with information regarding terrorism and other national security issues, releasing crucial information will be detrimental to the state’s well being.

This is particularly because citizens in America like in every other part of the world tend to take any such information and blow it out of context. In this sense, the nation might end up panicky were the state to reveal that terrorists are planning an attack in the country.

The premature revelation of any national security information may also serve to warn the terrorists to make shifts in their plans. They may end up leading the government to believe that they are sticking to the original plan (which the state is already aware of and then change tactics at the last minute to strike in another region where the government has not paid particular attention.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that as much as withholding information may appear as an admirable strategy for ensuring that the government’s plans in the war on terror are in check, it is likely that such an action can have even dire negative consequences as far as state security is concerned.

It is therefore advisable that the senior government administration, particularly the individuals who advise the president regarding issues of state security consider opening the channels of communication such that public contribution can be entertained. This is a good way for the state to ensure that its integrity is maintained because no action taken by the state can later be said to have been agreed at while leaving the public in the dark.

Works Cited Capote, Truman. In cold blood: a true account of a multiple murder and its consequences. Massachusetts: Vintage Books, 1993. Print.

Duthel, Heinz. The Closing of Civilization in Europe. Europe with Out Peoples? North Carolina: Lulu.com, 2008. Print.

James, Missy, and Alan P. Merickel. Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Government Withholding Information: Is It Justified? – Argumentative Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Seeger, Mathew, Timothy Sellnow and Robert Ulmer. Communication and organizational crisis. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003. Print.


The Great Depression Effects on American Economy Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of the Great Depression

Effects of the Great Depression

The end of the Great Depression


Reference List

Introduction At the end of the second decade of the twentieth century, countries were hi t by a staggering depression in their economies. The severity of this depression was particularly pronounced in the United States.

In 1929, October, there was a serious fall of the values of common stock which caused crash of the stock market. In this situation, politicians tried to remain calm and exercise optimism but this was to no avail. The situation worsened and people lost their confidence in the government as they bid the last dollars of their savings goodbye.

By the year 1932, an approximate quarter of United States population was unemployed. Factories had been shut down due to the harsh economic climate, banks had failed in their operations and businesses had been closed. As 1933 approached, stock exchange in New York was barely a fifth of its 1929 peak. The Great Depression, as this is what it was called, had a number of causes and a lot of effects on American economy and the world as a whole (Smiley, 2008, p. 1).

Causes of the Great Depression The main problem behind the stated Great Depression experienced in the United States in 1929 was the mismatch between the consuming capacity of the population of the United States and the production capacity of the country.

After the WWI, the country had undergone a serious revolution in innovative production that had seen its output surpassing the purchasing capacity of the people of the U.S. at the time. The inadequate demand of products was the one that led to closure of businesses and the subsequent failing of banks (Temin, 1991, p. 41).

Another contributing factor was the investment habits of Americans at the time. The middle class and the wealthy had actively invested in stock market speculations and real estate. With the collapse of the stock market, the middle class and the wealthy lost billions of dollars to their investment naivety (Amadeo, 2010, p. 1).

Analysts have attributed the crash of the stock market and the Great Depression that followed to tight monetary policies instituted by the Federal Government at that time. Some of the mistakes that the Federal Reserve made include the following.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The federal government raised their funds rate in1928, in August of the year 1929, the rate was still raising. This culminated in the crash in the stock market that occurred in October the same year. Another mistake was the preservation of the gold value of the dollar by the feds by an increase of interest rates. This is discussed in detail below (Amadeo, 2010, p. 1).

Prior to 1929, the Franc and other currencies ware undervalued after adopting floating rates for some time. At the end of WWI, countries with devalued currency wanted to return to the gold standard.

On the other hand, courtesy of holding on to a fixed gold value for the dollar, a large number of gold deposits had been made to the United States by investors from a number of countries. With this situation the Great Britain and the United States offered to redeem gold for t pounds and dollars respectively. This led to an increase of gold demand.

In the year 1928, the French government lowered interest rates which increased interest rates in America. This led to more gold being shipped to the U.S. Other countries initiated policies aimed at lowering economic activity through deflation and reducing price levels. This started the Great Depression. This cause of the Great Depression explains why the United States was among the countries that were affected the most by the depression (Smiley, 2008, p. 1).

Effects of the Great Depression The most profound and lasting effect of the Great Depression is the way it changed the involvement of the federal government in economic matters. It occurred due to public demand ignited by the dissatisfaction of the public towards the extent to which the Depression had affected the United States and the fact that recovery was painfully slow.

This was despite the fact that people with business interest resented the involvement of the government in these matters. The response of the federal government was the creation of compensation for the unemployed as well as Social Security for the elderly (Amadeo, 2010, p. 1).

The depression also brought a revolution in labor laws. The Wagner Act was introduced which introduced the safeguarding of the interests of employees. This was achieved by its intervention in labor negotiations and the promotion of unions. This necessitated an expansion of the federal workforce which also created employment (Smiley, 2008, p. 1).

We will write a custom Essay on The Great Depression Effects on American Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Great Depression had an impact on the philosophy of economics. This is due to the fact that scholars and economists had associated the Great Depression with the inadequate demand that prevailed in the period.

There was, therefore, the need to look for scholarly solutions to avoid the occurrence of such depressions in the future. This was responded by the development of the idea that governments should control demand in a bid to prevent occurrence of such depressions in the future. This was summarized as the Keynesian theory (Smiley, 2008, p.1).

The end of the Great Depression With the election of Franklin Roosevelt as the president of the United States, in 1932, a new chapter in the efforts of ending the Great Depression was opened. Roosevelt got most of his votes due to his policies regarding the creation of programs with the Federal Government to help in fighting the depression.

Within a period of less than three months, his policy was incorporated into law. This saw the creation of about forty-two agencies meant to create jobs. The agencies were also meant to provide insurance against unemployment and allow the formation of labor unions.

A large number of the programs that were put in place this time are still in force today and they are very instrumental in protecting the economy against downturns. Examples of the discussed programs include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Social Security and the SEC (Amadeo, 2010, p. 1).

Despite Roosevelt’s efforts, the economy was faced with seemingly insurmountable problems that made the recovery process considerably long. For instance, the rate of unemployment was unbelievably high in the decade between 1930 and 1940. It remained more than 10% until the start of the Second World War when some jobs related to defense were created (Smiley, 2008, p. 1).

President Roosevelt was, however, quick to react to these challenges in a constructive way. For instance, after the occurrence of a third banking panic in 1933 March, President Roosevelt announced a Bank Holiday that stopped a run for financial institutions after their closure.

This ensured that people did not withdraw and hold the finances they had in the banks and kept money in circulation. He also rejected Keynes’ idea of implementing heavy deficit spending and implemented his idea of wealth redistribution that was a great effort towards the fight against the depression (Temin, 1991, p. 39).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great Depression Effects on American Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With the start of World War II, the depression began to end as countries were concerned about the coming hostilities and they had to prepare. Roosevelt adopted a strategy of deficit spending in a bid to arrest the economy. This had an enormous effect on the economy making the United States register record growth rates.

This is evidenced by the fact that President Roosevelt achieved a higher economic growth than President Ronald Reagan. Notable among the historic economic figures is the fact that the rate of growth during Reagan’s administration in the “Seven Fat Years!” (Temin, 1991, p. 23) was lower than the growth realized during the Great Depression.

Although most of President Roosevelt’s policies and strategies worked for the economic prosperity of the United States, he also made some mistakes. An example is when he reduced deficit spending after the remarkable growth of 14% in the year 1936. His reason for the decision was because he thought that the economy could grow to be imbalanced and so he wanted to balance their budget. The effect of this decision was the recession that took place in the year 1938 (Temin, 1991, p. 32).

The Congress also had considerable input to the end of the Great Depression. It helped to foil coup de tat plans by the rich which were organized as a reaction to Roosevelt’s idea of wealth redistribution. It also passed several acts that made economic recovery easier. Examples of such acts are the 1935 Banking Act, the Social Security Act and the National Labor Relations Act (Temin, 1991, p. 11).

The World War II was the greatest calamity the world has ever seen, it brought economic advantages to the United States. After becoming the world’s only superpower, America underwent a quick economic recovery registering more attractive ratio of debt as a percentage of their GDP after deficit spending. The tax rate was also significantly lowered with America experiencing an economic boom as from the year 1963 (Temin, 1991, p. 18).

Conclusion The Great Depression was inevitable with the limited monetary policies and non-coordination of countries in making economic decisions. There was also limited protection of the workforce which was the reason that the depression hit countries hard. Policies in one country were responded by other countries with desperate counter-policies like currency devaluation that left the latter countries in problems.

These problems made them to make more economic mistakes in a bid to reduce the effect s of the mistakes they made earlier. This had a great effect on the world’s economy as a whole. The most affected countries in such cases were the most developed ones.

The occurrence of the Great Depression made the world learnt a very important economic lesson. Since then every country’s central bank, inclusive of the Federal Reserve in United States have been always aware of the essence of monetary policies in maintaining economic stability. Economists have over the years argued that it is impossible for a Great Depression of the same magnitude as the 1929.

This is because the world’s economy is unified and therefore the central banks of different countries coordinate their operations to make sure that such an occurrence does not happen again. We should thus be thankful that the Great Depression occurred this early because it is the reason we have commendably stable economies.

Reference List Temin, P. (1991). Lessons from the Great Depression. New York. Barnes


Individual Performance Appraisal Paper Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Merits and Demerits of this Tool

Effects on Employees

Effects on Departmental Performance

Improvement Suggestions/ Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Individual performance appraisal is a way of evaluating the level of an employee’s performance in workplace. In healthcare, the 360-degree feedback is the commonly used individual performance appraisal tool; also known as multisource assessment or multi-rater feedback because it can involve external organizations in some cases.

Any appraisal system should be “relevant and applicable to everyday work, acceptable and fair, and a mutual collaboration between workers and employers” (Duraisingam


The Epic of Gilgamesh Analysis Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The epic of Gilgamesh is one of the oldest poems written from Mesopotamia, a country that is present day Iraq. It is a story of two legends, Gilgamesh and Enkidu who were the greatest of friends. In the story, Enkidu who was created to be wild is meant to counteract the oppression of King Gilgamesh on the inhabitants of the Uruk territory.

They become legends while working together and the number of dangerous encounters they conquer causes the gods to be unhappy with them. Together they make a sojourn to the wild mountains of Cedar and concertedly kill Humbaba who was the monster guarding the mountains. The wrath of the gods becomes evident when the two comrades put the Bull of Heaven to death; goddess Ishtar had sent this bull to check the excesses of Gilgamesh. It was an abomination to kill the messenger of the gods.

Displeased by their actions the gods in turn kill Enkidu and this incident marks a turning point in the life of Gilgamesh. The death of his close confidant sends him to embark on a quest to discover immortality. The remaining part of his life, he spends trying to seek the solution to cheat death.

The concept of immortality comes out more clearly when he sets out to meet Utnapishti who is considered an immortal hero but he breaks his heart when he announces that the gods during creation give only death but retain with them eternal life. This ideally ends his perilous search for eternity and indeed justifies the preposition that it would have been difficult for Gilgamesh to change if Enkidu would have remained alive. Enkidu’s death therefore changed the life of Gilgamesh.

Discussion The entire epic can be rightly divided in two halves, the beginning essentially exploring the exploits of the two legends working together. Heroism is explicated from their conquests of the giant Humbaba and the messenger of the gods (the Bull of Heaven).

Their friendship and togetherness (unity of purpose) is fundamental as they support each other to destroy a common enemy (Humbaba and the Bull). In this except “Hurry up, step up to him, do not let him go. Climb to the woods, do not be afraid.” (Tablet IV, Column V, 43-44). We see how the two collaborate and “They cut off the head of Humbaba” (Sandars, 47).

This death infuriates the gods who now vow to destroy Enkidu. Enkidu finally dies and this marks the turning point in the life of Gilgamesh, he is worried and is forced to change his antics, his lifestyle and convictions, he now realizes that he was mistaken to imagine that he would live forever.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gods intentionally decide to take away his closest companion in order to warn him that one day soon, he too shall die. Confused and worried by the truth, Gilgamesh is in a state of denial. With the corpse of his colleague before him as per (Tablet VIII, Column II, 15-16) it says, “I touched his heart, it does not beat”

He embarks on a quest to find immortality and reverse death, “me! Will I too not die like Enkidu? Sorrow was come into my belly. I fear death; I roam over the hills. I will seize the road; quickly I will go to the house of Utnapishiti offspring of Ubaratutu. I approach the entrance of the mountain at night. Lions I see, and am terrified. I lift my head to pray to the mood god sin: For a dream I go to the gods in prayer… preserve me!” (Tablet IX, Column I, 3-12).

Death is permanently inevitable and man can never attain eternity. Gilgamesh finally realizes this though late in the epic. A legend previously portrayed as a hero and conqueror of many now cannot conquer immortality, his entire lifestyle changes from a brave and confident warrior to a fearful personality in complete denial of the facts of life.

His initial life of bravery was useless as he finally discovers in the final sections of the text. The response he receives from Utnapishitim deflates his ambition and brings him back to earth. “Never has a mortal man done that Gilgamesh” (Tablet IX Column III, 8).

The death of his colleague humbles him as he had initially placed himself on the same status with the gods not knowing that he was a mortal man. “The fate of mankind overtook him… in fear of death I roam the wilderness…. Me shall not lie down like him, never to move?” (Tablet X Column II, 3, 8, 13-14) it finally dawns on him that “From the beginning, there is no permanence” (Tablet X, Column VII, 32).

In the beginning, the great warrior king Gilgamesh had acquired great amount of wisdom and experience s in combat. In the end however, he is unable to translate his prowess in war and battle to conquer immortality, this indicates a significant shift in his life from a hero to a defeated warrior, it illustrates that however strong, one cannot conquer himself

In the beginning also Gilgamesh was seen as a king who put his subjects under an oppressive regime, that is the reason the gods sent Enkidu to help counter his oppressive regime but instead they collaborate with Enkidu to destroy and kill the messenger of the gods, the gods are unhappy and want to communicate to him that he cannot conquer immortality; they however do this indirectly by killing Enkidu and this manages to instill fear in his life. Thus his oppressive regime on the outset finally comes to haunt him in his latter years.

We will write a custom Essay on The Epic of Gilgamesh Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He was oppressive to his subjects but now the thought that he too shall finally die oppresses him too and puts him at the same level with the people he ruled. No one is special in life; death is for everyone and makes all people equal, king or servant, warrior or subject.

From the beginning, the warrior king is seen as being adventurous, self righteous and one who is motivated by fame. Had the partnership between him and his comrade Enkidu persisted, he would never have changed his lifestyle and convictions; however the death of his accomplice makes to seriously contemplate his purpose for living.

He begins to ask questions about his own morality, he fails to accept the truth and tries to disapprove it but realizes that his efforts to justify himself are futile, this is what caused the king’s wander dangerously in search for morality and personal growth (Sparknotes, 45).

In essence the epic of Gilgamesh emphasizes the significance of a simple life. It is important for one to live within their means without struggling to achieve what is impossible or unachievable. Life itself is limited to mortality and an understanding of this fact shall lead to living it honestly and morally.

It teaches us the importance of humility and demonstrates how difficult it is for one to achieve greatness and fame with humility. Human beings are encouraged to strike a balance between greatness and humility in as much the two are in opposition to each other. King Gilgamesh by being a great legend in battle lost his human perspective of morality and humility. He was too full of himself and wanted to place himself next to the gods because he had forgotten that he was a mortal being.


Psychoactive Drugs Analytical Essay college admissions essay help

Psychoactive drugs are drugs that interfere with the proper functioning of the brain leading to unusual behavior, mood swings and unstable state of consciousness. They are classified into three main categories. These are psychedelics, stimulants and depressants (Cherry 1). Drugs that belong to the depressants category like alcohol are among the commonest and are therefore used widely throughout the globe.

They are known for their characteristic inhibition of the Central Nervous System. Other drugs in this category include benzodiazepines and barbiturates. This paper concentrates on alcohol as a psychoactive drug and also discusses the physiological effects it has on the human body together with the coping strategies that can be used to end its addiction.

After taking alcohol, it is not digested but it goes into the blood stream. Here it mixes with water and it is carried by this bodily water into the major organs which normally have large volumes of water. These organs include the brain, the heart, the liver etc. After reaching the major organs, it is carried to the rest of the body.

These organs, particularly the brain, are normally highly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and thus extended drinking periods are most likely to lead to diseases of major organs. A person becomes intoxicated with alcohol when alcohol reaches the CNS (Central Nervous System) and makes sensory and emotional functions of the CNS to weaken (Dunlap 1).

This results in the dulling of sight, smell, taste and other senses which is a technical description of the drunken stupor. As mentioned above, drinking of alcohol may lead to acquisition of diseases to major organs. This usually occurs if the person is addicted to the alcohol or he/she has taken alcohol for a long time.

Addiction to alcohol occurs due to dependency on alcohol which is caused by physiological changes in the body of the addict. Some of these changes include decreased excitation of the body, affected neurotransmitters, an affected brain, an increase of the dopamine “rush” that makes a person thirst for alcohol (Dunlap 1).

Alcohol addicts are normally advised to know their cause of addiction to alcohol in order to fight the addiction in the most appropriate way (King 1). For Instance, genetically inherited addiction can be fought by avoiding alcohol. On the other hand, addiction to alcohol brought about by hypoglycemia can be stopped by avoiding sugary things.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general however, alcohol addiction can be controlled and stopped if the patient maintains psychological stability and strength (King 1). With an undeterred determination to succeed in breaking an addiction to alcohol, the patient will be able to stop the addiction and the body metabolism will slowly adapt.

Alcoholism is one of the most dangerous habits that people acquire. As stated earlier, extended drinking periods lead to addiction to alcohol which ultimately leads to diseases to major organs. These diseases are normally terminal and they may take very long before they kill their victim.

The victim will therefore live in pain until his death. It is therefore advisable that people avoid engaging themselves in drinking habits since the complex physiological processes that take place when one takes alcohol may lead to addiction. If a person is already addicted to alcohol, he/she should evaluate his/her eating habits and past in order to find a practical way to break the habit.

Works Cited Cherry, Kendra. “Psychoactive Drugs.” June 10, 2010. Web.

Dunlap, Michaele. “Biological Impacts of Alcohol Use.” June 10, 2010. Web.

King, C. “Body physiology behind Addiction.” 2008- June 10, 2010. Web.


Computer Communication Network in Medical Schools Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Literature Review

Analysis of these Literature Reviews


Reference List

Computer usage in medical schools is becoming increasingly inevitable as time goes by. The enormous and drastic technological revolution that started in late 20th Century and persisted to contemporary times has affected all learning institutions largely, medical schools included.

Majority of researchers agree that computers play major role in medical schools and in future, computer communication network in medical schools might be the centre of interest if the current requirements by medical school curriculum is anything to go by. Most medical schools have made it compulsory for any reporting student to have a computer and this point the place of computer communication network in medical schools now and in the future.

Nevertheless, while most researchers agree on numerous issues concerning this area, there remain few disagreements concerning particular elements of the whole process. This paper reviews different literature materials in this area, citing the controversial elements, weaknesses, strengths, and areas subject to improvement in computer communication network in medical schools.

Literature Review As aforementioned, there are numerous peer-reviewed studies concerning this area and researchers agree on several issues. According to Ostbye (2006), “computers and computer networks are becoming increasingly recognized as important facilitators of communication among researchers and educators in medicine schools” (p. 43).

This study reveals that use computer communication network in medicine schools is increasingly gaining popularity in a bid to keep pace with the increasing changing trends in contemporary world which has become a global village.

This research revealed that, computer networks are used to access directories and important information like journals contained in Medline, Pub Med and other scholarly sites in the interment. Moreover, through computer communication network, students now transfer computer files or data to lecturers thus making learning easy and interesting.

Ostbye (2006) notes, because of the increasing need to use computer communication network in medicine schools, education stakeholders are organizing more computer conferences to create awareness across the world. In conclusion, Ostbye agrees that, the place of computer communication network in medicine schools is inevitable noting that most medicine schools have fully embraced the use of this technology in their curriculum.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In another research on the same issue, the findings are similar to what Ostbye observed. “Introduction of the new technology has brought significant changes in education especially in medical education which undergone profound changes due to recent technological advancements” (Bulu, 2009). This confirms earlier claims that the recent technological advancements have infiltrated most education systems including medicine schools.

This research particularly cited the huge investments in information and communication technologies (ICT) in medicals schools especially in developed countries. This investment is meant to ameliorate education standards in medicine schools. Most stakeholders agree that ICT is a powerful tool in addressing most education challenges in medicine schools. The role of ICT in medicine schools is so significant that it was cited as one of the objectives in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Study carried in Edinburg University medical school showed, “86 percent of students agreed that computer skills will be beneficial to them in their future career and that 62 percent wanted a structured course in computer use” (Bulu, 2009). This shows how important computer communication network in medicine schools has become. Currently, students do not want to remain in the Stone Age where information flow was restricted to emissaries; no, they want free flow of information accessible at the click of the mouse.

A research carried by Platt, Anderson, and Obenshain in 1999 to determine use of student-centered, computer-mediated communication to enhance the school curriculum indicated increased need and pivotal role played by computer communication in medical schools. “Many medical schools have made computer purchase compulsory for all incoming students” (Platt, Anderson


The role of Human resource management in the implementation of successful Total Quality Management (TQM) in hospitality industry Research Paper college admission essay help

Introduction Human resource management has become one of the most vital emphases of the management in most organizations. The success of every organization to a great extent depends on the effectiveness of human resource management.

In both manufacturing and service industries, the quality of products or services depends on the effectiveness and level of human resources management. Human resources management plays a big role in organizational and man power management, personnel administration and lastly industrial management all of which are vital in ensuring that quality services are rendered by the organization.

HRM is an important tool in ensuring that there is effective total quality management in an organization. In both service and production industry, total quality management is crucial because it ensures products or services of the best quality are produced by the company.

The aim of every organization is to produce the best services or products that will best serve the interest of the customers or offer great satisfaction to them (MacMillan, 41). The whole idea of customer satisfaction is addressed by total quality management commonly referred to as TQM. Human resources management plays a big role in ensuring that there is TQM in an organization. It should therefore be maintained at a high level to ensure successful TQM

The general purpose of this research is to investigate the role of human resources management in ensuring that there is successful implementation of total quality management. Specifically, the research explores the concept of human resources management, the concept of total quality management as a component of HRM and then the role of HRM in ensuring successful implementation of TQM. All these areas are tackled in the context of hospitality industry. We first describe the methodology used in obtaining the information presented.

Methodology The information presented in this research was gathered from different literature materials that have been published concerning the topic in question. The books, journals, web pages and articles concerning human resource management, total quality management and the role of HRM in ensuring successful implementation of TQM were also used in this research.

There was no formal research that was carried out but secondary sources were used to obtain the information. Personal opinions and experiences are maintained to a minimum level. The literature materials obtained about human resources management and the role of HRM in the success of TQM are discussed in the context of hospitality industry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The concept of human resource management in hospitality industry According to McNamara (1), human resources management is a composite function consisting mainly of deciding or assessing the staffing needs of an organization, decisions on how to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best qualified candidates for the posts, maintaining high performance of employees, conducting performance appraisal and ensuring that employees comply to various regulation in the course of their service.

It is also the role of HRM to ensure that employees get their entitlements and other benefits as per their contract of service and at the right time. The employee policies (personal) and record regarding their induction and contract of service are also recorded and kept by the HRM.

In the hospitality industry, quality of services offered should be maintained at a high level in order for any organization in the industry to stay in business. The success of every business in this industry is directly dependent on the level of quality of services rendered to the customers.

To ensure that customers’ satisfaction is met, quality of services must be maintained commensurate with the customer’s expectations. Customer satisfaction is the whole idea of HRM developing and implementing the concept of TQM that will be discussed in the later chapters. TQM is actually a function of the roles of human resource management in an organization.

According to Nickson (1), it is the role of the HRM in the hospitality industry to come up with HRM policies regarding the employment needs of the industry and the criteria to be used in selecting the best staffs to serve the companies.

The aim of these polices is to ensure that the industry gets the right persons to work for it every time it is in need. This will in turn ensure that the company delivers the best quality to satisfy the needs of the customers. HRM also lays strategies of ensuring that the organizational culture within the organization is well manned in order to ensure quality services to customers.

The HRM ensures that the culture is upheld and that all the employees of the organization work towards achieving the goals of the organization. The new recruits are introduced to the organizational culture and are trained on how to ensure quality service delivery.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The role of Human resource management in the implementation of successful Total Quality Management (TQM) in hospitality industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To ensure that the whole organization is focused to providing quality services, the human resource management is charged with the role of ensuring the success of organizational and man power management, personnel administration and lastly industrial management. These areas cover the main areas of the organization that are vital in maintaining the customer royalty. The HRM therefore plays a big role in ensuring the success of the organization and satisfaction of the customers.

The concept of total quality management as a major component of HRM The role of human resource management is made complete in any organization when total quality management is achieved. The two concepts are inseparable in the event of appraisal of the performance of the organization. The need to ensure customer satisfaction through offering quality services or products is the core reason of instituting the two departments in the organization.

The future of an organization and its strong positioning in the market depends on the level of satisfaction of its customers. Customer satisfaction is a goal that every organization strives to realize. The success of an organization depends on how well it satisfies its customers. All the practices set by the company that helps to ensure that the organization fully meets the needs of the customers are referred to as total quality management or TQM.

According to American Society for Quality (1), total quality management entails continuous measurement and improvement of the extent to which the organization fulfils the requirements of the customers. TQM employs strategies and effective communication within the organization in order to incorporate the quality principles in to the culture and activities of the organization in order to ensure that all the activities are geared towards satisfying the customers.

Total quality management is a long-term success strategy that a company seeks to achieve through customer satisfaction. In a successful total quality management, all members of the organization work together to improve the quality of products, services and the culture within the organization in order to achieve total customer satisfaction (O’Donovan 39). All members of the organization need to be taught on the ways of ensuring total quality management within the organization.

Due to globalization of business, the organizations have developed a new view for quality and to survive in the market, the Human resources management must ensure that the quality of products and services are in standard commensurate with the needs of the customers. TQM ensures that all the goods and services produced by the organization are fit for the customers. The TQM philosophy is to ensure that the there are no wastage or there are zero defects in production of products and services and that all customers are satisfied.

The role of HRM in ensuring successful implementation of TQM The success of TQM implementation is made complete by the intervention of HRM. As mentioned earlier, TQM is a major component of the role of HRM.

In ancient businesses, the role of quality improvement was taken as the role of quality improvement specialists like product and process designers but in the current business environment, it has become a major role of HRM. This is due to increasing industry demand and the increase in customer quality expectations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of Human resource management in the implementation of successful Total Quality Management (TQM) in hospitality industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The HRM department is today charged with the responsibility of ensuring quality development across all department of the organization; the role it executes through Total Quality Management philosophy (Kotelnikov 1). If the HRM in an organization fails to take its charge of implementing Total Quality Management, the other departments will fail as well because they have less expertise of training and quality development.

The HRM must therefore ensure that TQM is well implemented in order to give way to the other department to focus on quality as a key to success. Training the employee on the principle of Total Quality Management is of paramount importance because it equips the employees with the skills they require in delivering quality services to the customers.

TQM as a management strategy considers quality as the key to the success of the organizations in the market. In the hospitality industry, the core business is service to customers and the aim of this services ensuring customer satisfaction. The HRM has been training frontline staffs to ensure that they serve the customers the best way possible (Skinner 110).

It is therefore the responsibility of the HRM to ensure that the staffs are well trained and developed in their career in order to ensure that they offer the services based on the quality goals of the organization. There should also be training to update the staffs on the chances that have occurred in the TQM. This will ensure that the staffs are well equipped to offer quality services always based on the policies of TQM.

For HRM to combat competition that has been increasing in the market, it has placed more emphasis on TQM. This is because the TQM is the determinant of the business or organization value perceived by the customers.

To keep pace with the growing competition, the HRM in the hospitality industry strategize on the mechanisms of improving the quality of services offered to customers. These mechanisms or strategies are implemented across all departments. TQM is therefore ensured in all departments and customers reap full satisfaction because they get quality services.

The human resource management is a vital tool in the implementation of total quality management and acts as a senior management tool of TQM strategy by training and developing the staffs so that they can provide skillful support to TQM. Long term training is conducted so as to shift the culture of the organization to the direction desirable for the TQM.

The long term training ensures establishment of a strong organizational culture built on quality thoughts. This is vital as it positions the company to cope with or keep pace with the changing market environment.

HRM also boosts TQM through its strong system of quality-first orientation. The Human Resource Management department has a strong system of characterized by recruitment and selection, performance appraisal and compensation system. This system ensures that at every stage, quality is instilled in the employees.

Quality recruitment and selection ensures that persons capable of meeting the quality standards stipulated by the TQM policy are hired. These persons are thoroughly trained to enhance their skills and make them able to apply their theoretical knowledge and skills practically.

Performance appraisal helps in determining the level at which the employees have been able to perform their duties and what they have achieved. This helps identify the higher performers and the task that one is good in. This might necessitate shift of employees from one department to another in order to ensure quality is delivered in all department. The specialists in a certain areas are also identified depending on the task they perform exemplary.

The idea in this form of strategy is to ensure the skills and the ability that the employees are endowed with is optimally utilized in improving TQM. The compensation or reward system is meant to recognize employees with exemplary performance and reward them. This is a very crucial role of HRM because higher performers are energized and motivated to work harder. The quality of service rendered by the employees is dependent on the level of motivation of the employees.

This improves Total Quality Management because employees are motivated to deliver quality. When these roles of the organization are done continuously, the customers will reap total satisfaction from the organization and the organization growth potential increases. According to Heathfield (1), reward system may include giving the employees prizes or promoting them depending on the decision of HRM.

The TQM that most organizations have adopted has called for the Human Resources Management to institute a participative system that is allowing the organizations to empower its employees to take part in the implementation of best quality in an organization. This participative model is important because all the members of the organization are involved.

To a great extent, it improves decision making process and ensures that all the decisions made address the needs of the members of the organization. Allowing members to participate in the implementation or quality policies motivates them to work even harder and quality services are ensured as a result. The participative model ensures that problem solving is performed in an open environment so as all the members of the organization can learn.

This sharpens the employees and improves their problem solving skills and also ensures there is transparency within the organization. This is an atmosphere conducive for quality service delivery since the employees are involved in the issues affecting the organization and are therefore they exercise caution. It also gives the employees a sense of ownership and they feel that they are really part of the organization.

According to Wilkinson (42), this is a motivation factor because employees also feel a sense of responsibility and they gear their potential towards achieving the goals of the organization. With this kind of motivation and devotion of the employees towards realizing the goals of the organization, the services rendered by the employees are of good quality and capable of satisfying the desires and the expectations of the customers.

Employees take it as their own responsibility to achieve the goals of the organization because they take them as their own goals. They do every act in keeping with the vision of the organization. They get married to the vision of the organization and devote their effort to realize it.

The HRM also plays a role of ensuring there is retention of the best employees. The implementation of TQM requires experienced, well trained and highly qualified persons to achieve it successfully. The role of HRM is to ensure that the best employees are satisfied by the salary they get and the work environment so that they are retained in the organization.

In the hospitality industry, there is high movement of the staffs from one company to another. It is the responsibility of a company’s HRM to ensure that its employees are not attracted by the terms and the work atmosphere of another company. Employees will always move to where they are best satisfied by the work conditions and other terms of environment.

The other role of HRM in the implementation of TQM is HRM department acting as a role model to the other departments in the organization. The HRM serves the other departments in the organization and therefore it must ensure that it delivers quality services to them.

The HRM department should therefore regard other department as its customers and serve them the best way to satisfy them (KING, 14). There should therefore be continuous improvement in quality service delivery by HRM to other departments. This will create a culture of continuous quality improvement within the organization. The other department will learn to give quality services to the customers as they receive from the HRM Department.

Lastly, the HRM demonstrate its commitment to ensuring that the principles of TQM should be upheld. The department will follow the principles of TQM in serving other departments and this will instill the principles to the other departments. For instance the HRM can be customer oriented and focus on the needs of the customers which are the other departments (Armstrong 23).

In cases of problem solving, team approach could be adopted to ensure participation of other departments. The other principle is to train the employees on how quality service to the customers could be ensured. The HRM should also focus on the strategies to prevent the problems instead of solving them. The idea here is to ensure that the problems encountered in dealing with the customers currently are not encountered in future.

Conclusion The concept of HRM and TQM are inseparable in any organization. Due to the increased competition in the market, The Human Resources Management Departments of many organizations have concentrated on implementing Total Quality Management as a strategy of winning a bigger market share.

TQM has the responsibility of ensuring that there are zero defects in the production of goods and services. This is aimed at ensuring that the customers are fully satisfied by the products or services rendered.

The success of TQM is the responsibility of HRM. For service industry like hospitality industry, TQM is vital as the customers measure their satisfaction with the quality of services they receive. TQM is therefore a major strategy of HRM for ensuring the success of the organization through improving the services ands products offered by the company to the customers.

Works Cited American society for quality (ASQ). Total Quality Management. Milwaukee: ASQ. November, 2006. Web.

Armstrong, Michael. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th Ed.). London: Kogan Page, 2006.

Heathfield, Susan M. Performance Management: Performance Improvement Plan: New York, 2010. Web.

KING, Carol. Service quality assurance is different, Quality Progress, June, pp. 14-18, 2007.

Kotelnikov, Vadim. Total Quality Management (TQM): An Integrated Approach to Quality and Continuous Improvement. UK: Ten3 Business e-Coach, 2010. Web.

MacMillan. Seizing Competitive Initiative. The Journal of Business Strategy, 2008 pp. 43-57, 2008.

McNamara, Carter. Human resource management (and talented management). USA: Free Management Library, 2010. Web.

MILL, Hanley. Managing the service encounter, The Cornell HRA Quarterly, February, pp. 39-45, 2008.

Nickson, Dennis. Human Resource Management for the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. Scotland: Scottish Hotel School, University of Strathclyde, 2006. Web.

O’Donovan, Gabrielle. The Corporate Culture Handbook: How to Plan, Implement and Measure a Successful Culture Change Program. Raheny: The Liffey Press, 2006. Print.

Skinner, Seymour. Managing Human Resources. Harvard Business Review, September-October 2006, pp. 107-118, 2006/

Wilkinson, Adrian. Empowerment: theory and practice. Personnel Review 27 (1): 40–56, 2007/


Food and Agriculture Essay custom essay help

Human beings make up the largest number of any species that roam the face of the earth today. Dramatic rise in population was one of the prominent features of the twentieth century, with the human population expected to hit the 12 billion mark between 2050 and 2100. Feeding the large number of people has remained a complex challenge where in some parts of the world malnutrition is critical while in others obesity is the chief concern.

An increasing human population in the 20th and 21st centuries calls for the use of several strategies to improve food production. Mechanization of agriculture running back to the days of the industrial revolution contributes quite a lot to increasing food production. Large tracts of land are cultivated with minimum labor thus lowering food production cost.

Secondly, improved farming methods have been significant in improving food output. Use of fertilizers to improve soil quality has had a significant positive effect on crop production with higher yields reported for almost all crops planted under them. This measure coupled with use of pesticides to ward off pests has ensured increasing supply of food.

Animals have provided better yields due to improved animal husbandry. With research, it has been possible to take better care of animals to ensure optimum yield. “Confined Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO)” (Cunningham


Climate and Air Pollution Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The earth has a number of climatic systems that ensure the distribution of heat across the face of the earth. Global warming is the result of retention of heat by the earth’s atmosphere originally from the sun because of the presence of green house gases released through many natural and artificial processes.

Cunningham and Cunningham (2008) point out that “The greenhouse effect is a natural atmospheric process that is necessary for life as we know it”, and need not be a major concern so long as the fluctuations in the emission levels remain within safe levels.

Human activity has however titled the scale of emissions to levels currently considered by many scientists as untenable and human beings are the major culprits behind global warming. Cunningham and Cunningham (2008) warn that too high emissions “may cause harmful environmental change”.

The implications of global warming are dire, extremely diverse and far-reaching. All spheres of human existence seem tragically interlinked by the consequences that global warming threatens to unleash. Indeed, global warming threatens the very existence of human civilization, as we have known it.

Global warming threatens food security the world over. The changes it brings about in climate patterns affect growing seasons adversely, in some places causing too much rainfall, and in others prolonged drought.

It also has led to more difficult disease prevention and control as pests and parasites move to newer regions, which can support their life systems as the climate in their old habitats change. “Biologists report that many animals are breeding earlier or extending their range into new territory as the climate changes.” (Cunningham


Influence of the three branches of government on policy making Essay college admissions essay help

Public policy is the counteractive measures taken by the government to solve a problem (s) affecting its citizen and hence improve their lives. Normally, policies address industry and business problems, security problems and other social problems like crime and poverty. This paper investigates the roles of the three branches of the government in policy-making.

A deeper look at the functioning of the U.S. government would reveal issues the general public have no idea of their existence. The general view of the functioning of the government in making and implementation of policies is that the Congress makes laws which are in turn implemented by the executive and applied by the courts.

However, this general understanding of law making and implementation in the U.S. is, to some extent, wrong. The truth is that, all the branches of the government play active roles in making, enforcing and legitimizing of public policies (Miller, 2010, p. 1).

As stated above, the Congress holds the power to legislate. Within its jurisdiction therefore, is the power to make laws, bills etc. Almost every United States citizen knows the active role of the congress in making laws. Despite its power to make laws, the decision made by the congress regarding public policy is not final. The congress therefore works in conjunction with executive agencies and the judiciary when making policies (Trethan, 2010, p. 1).

The executive branch of the government is established by the constitution due to the president’s inability to solely enforce laws. The executive is therefore appointed by the president, with exceptions, to implement laws. The president is given such powers by the constitution by virtue of being the commander in chief of the Militia, Navy and Army (Barbara, 2008, p. 451).

The executive is therefore, the governmental branch that identifies problems and initiates the law/policy making process. The congress has the power to regulate the performance of executive agencies pertaining laws made by the congress. The judiciary also has the power to determine the constitutionality of the actions of executive agencies in the implementation of laws (Trethan, 2010, p. 1).

It is generally assumed that the judiciary only interprets and applies laws after checking their agreement with the constitution. However, the judges make policies as they carry out their functions (Barbara, 2008, p. 451). The main reason why judges are able to make laws is their precedential power of judicial review. This is their aforementioned power to determine the constitutionality of certain laws made by Congress and the executive branches of the government.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some people argue that the fact that judges are not elected should make them unable to control the policy making process while others argue that judicial review is necessary to ensure that the government is run in accordance with the constitution. Considering both the dark side and the advantage of judicial review, it is a positive step towards ensuring that the other branches of the government do not use their powers unconstitutionally (Miller, 2010, p. 1).

From the discussion above, it is apparent that all the three arms of the government have active roles in policy-making. It can be seen that if one of the branches of government was excluded from the law and policy making process, things could terribly go wrong. This is due to the disparity of ideas that exist among and within the branches of government. This disparity ensures a refined policy is made before it comes to force. For instance, the congress itself may be substantially divided on a given issue.

Reference List Barbara, A. (2008). American government and politics today 2008: The essentials. New York. Barnes


Importance of budgeting to the decision making process Report (Assessment) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Policy making is, perhaps, the most difficult function of the government. This is mainly due to the risks that are taken during the formulation of policies and the standardization which characterizes the process.

The government reduces the challenges of policy making by using budgeting techniques in order to ensure that the policies formulated and implemented achieve the results they are intended to achieve (Sade, 2008, p. 1). This also ensures minimal problems as plans are implemented. This paper discusses the importance of budgeting in the making of policies.

Whenever a policy involving the expenditure of federal government and state funds is laid out, the policy must have a detailed analysis of the methods that are to be used in its implementation and a detailed budget. This requirement necessitates the involvement of the congress and voters in the policy making process (Sade, 2008, p. 1).

Therefore, congress approval has to be sought by the government whenever it makes policies. Additionally, before any policy is implemented or cancelled, specific rules and regulations that are set have to be met.

The above discussion is an indication of the great importance of budgeting in policy making. The reasons for the discussed importance are numerous. First, in order to successfully implement policies, a precise budget must be prepared.

The budget ensures that the project suggested by the policy does not run out of funds before its completion and it also ensures that the project does not have surplus funds which could be misused (O’Regan, 2010, p. 1). Therefore, precise budget is desirable in this case to ensure that state and federal resources are maximally utilized in their intended projects.

Another reason for the importance of budgeting in policy making is that almost all policies affect each other financially. Thus if the government funds the various states to implement a certain policy, the money has to have a source, which could make them abandon other important projects. Thus the aforementioned projects could either be halted or forgone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the “No Child Left Behind Plan” (Sade, 2008, p. 1) was imposed by the government on the states without government funding. Schools had to find a way to fund this project. The results of such projects may turn out to be disastrous, especially if the party expected to find funds for the project has limited means. In the aforementioned plan, schools had to find money from funded programs to implement the plan.

This obviously affected other projects planned by individual schools. Another example stressing the necessity of budgeting is the formulation of policies that lead to military action (Birkland, 2005, p. 17). For instance, if a certain amount of money is directed towards the funding of a war, this will have immediate effects on the taxpayers. This explains why the president’s decision to request for money for use in war must be approved by the government and the taxpayers.

As evidenced in the discussion above, budgeting is an inseparable part of policy making. Budgets make policies achieve the results they are intended to achieve and the lack of a budget in a given policy makes it susceptible to failure. It is thus of essence that every policy that the government makes has a carefully planned budget to ensure that the policy achieves its intended objectives and avoid wastage of resources.

Reference List Birkland, T. (2005). An introduction to the policy process. New York. Barnes


Stealing Buddha’s Dinner Themes and Analysis writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Theme of Identity

Food and Identity

Identity Crisis


Works Cited

Introduction There are many reasons why an author may decide to write a book that is different from other books out there. They include entertainment, education of the reader among others. The author uses themes in order to attain their objective. Themes can be conceptualised as the general ideas or messages that the author desires to put across to the reader. A book or any other writing may have one theme or many of them. The themes may be independent of each other, or in some cases, they may be intertwined with one another.

Bich Nguyen’s “Stealing Buddha’s Dinner” is not an exception. There are many themes that are discernible throughout this memoir. The book is regarded by many as a memoir that depicts Bich’s life as a war refugee in America (Grousel 26). The memoir relates, in first person narrative, how Bich’s family run away from Vietnam to America in search of abetter life. Themes such as food, culture, identity, and communism are some that are to be found in this memoir.

The Theme of Identity For the better part of her life, Bich struggles to create an identity that she can call her own (Pangok 1). This is especially so given the fact that she is growing up within a community that has a different culture from that of her family. She is a Vietnamese girl growing up in white dominated Grand Rapids region of Michigan State (Hinstel 18).

Bich is exposed the American culture given that she has to attend school and interact with the white children. This is unlike her grandmother who is able to sustain her Vietnamese identity with few challenges. The grandmother keeps a shrine in her house that is dedicated to Buddha (Malinowski 4). She also withholds her Vietnamese culture through the food that she prepares for the family. She prepares traditional Vietnamese cuisine such as the “sticky green rice” (Bich 37).

More than anything else, Bich desires to attain the American identity (Pangok 3). She realises that she is an outsider in the American society, and her only hope is enculturation. She has to immerse herself into the American culture so that she can fit in with the American crowd.

Like any other human being, Bich is terrified of being different. This is especially so considering the fact that the white society looks down on the minorities in their midst. The need for an all American identity was also promulgated by the media (Cao 76). Bich remembers the signs that adorned the highways, “….flags proclaiming ‘An All American City’….” (Bich 10).

Food and Identity Food forms a very important part of one’s cultural identity. As Cao aptly puts it, there are a lot of meanings attached in food, and the meanings are like “additional flavours” to the food (Cao 64). Either consciously or subconsciously, Bich seems aware of this fact. She literally tries to eat her way into the American identity (Pangok 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bich is convinced that if she can eat the American food, she will become an all American, albeit from the outside. This is why she indulges in American food such as “….hamburgers with onions, hot chocolate, (and) fried chicken….” (Bich 87). In this, the interplay between the media and self identity is evidence. The television commercials glorify fast food, and Bich is under the impression that this is the hallmark of an American identity.

She wants to eat the food that is advertised on television. She was very attached to this food to the point of becoming anxious. She wished all the food in her home to bee all American; “….every time I opened the fridge, I would wish for the food inside to magically turn into American food…… [author’s paraphrase]” (Bich 28). She would even go to the extent of stealing money to satisfy her cravings.

This was especially so given that Rosa, the woman that her father married, was frugal (Cao 70). She even went as far as to despise the food that her family ate. This is because she identified it with Vietnamese culture, which was lowly regarded in an all American city. She regarded American as the food for “normal people” and she wanted to be a “normal” person (Cao 69).

Identity Crisis An identity crisis is visible throughout the memoir. Despite her indulgence in American food, Bich felt that she never fitted within this society. She felt she was an outsider. The identity crisis extended even within her family. Not only could she not fit within the community, but she was also an outsider within the family. Many are the times she felt relegated into the background, at home and in school (Hinstel 21).

This was aggravated when her father married Rosa (Malinowski 5). The latter was an American Mexican. She brought to the family a half-sister and a half-brother for Bich. Bich could identify with her siblings since they were of different cultural extraction. Her grandmother was comfortable with her Vietnamese heritage. She had no need to change in old age. This left Bich alone.

Bich’s identity crisis was not helped by the fact that she lacked a stable family to support her. Her father was only concerned with his feather factory job and his friends with whom they drunk together, her sisters and brother expunged her out of their worlds, her grandmother was busy with her Buddha shrine while her step mother lacked to in maternal guidance (Cao 71).

Conclusion In conclusion, it is important to note that it is not Bich alone who has an identity crisis in this memoir. Identity crisis is evidence in the life off the other characters, albeit in varying degrees. Bich’s grandmother could not identify with the American cuisine.

We will write a custom Essay on Stealing Buddha’s Dinner Themes and Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the family ate out, “…….her (grandmother’s) dislike for the fries was as evidence as the masks that we wore…….” (Bich 38). Rosa’s son with Bich’s father also has an identity crisis. He is born of a Vietnamese father and an American Mexican black mother.

Works Cited Bich, Nguyen M. Stealing Buddha’s Dinner. New York: Penguin Group, 2007. Print.

Cao, Thanh H. “Identity Presentation in Stories of Past and Present: An Analysis of Memoirs By Author’s of the 1.5 Generation of Vietnamese Americans.” University of Kansas, Google Documents, 2009. Web.

Grousel, Newton. “Thematic Analysis in Nguyen’s Writings.” Journal of Higher Education 3.8 (2009): 26-27. Print.

Hinstel, Mark. “A Review of ‘Stealing Buddha’s Dinner’.” Journal of Higher Education 2.6 (2009): 18-21. Print.

Malinowski, Hurbert. “An Analysis of Stealing Buddha’s Dinner.” Reading Junky Library, Reading Junky, 2010. Web.

Pangok, Gregory. “Stealing Buddha’s Dinner: A Reading Guide.” Penguin Group Library, Penguin Group, 2010. Web.


Why Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal Essay custom essay help

Regardless of the changing societal systems, norms, values, ethics, behavioral patterns, since time memorial the institution of marriage has been one of the most valued institutions in all societies, because of its role in continuation of the human species. Yes, I cannot deny that not all individuals marry with an aim of raising children, but could we be alive today to cherish the kind of choices we make in our daily lives had our ancestors not given birth to our parents.

Therefore, because marriage is a consecrated unification of a male and a female, ready to sacrifice all that is at their disposal for the continuation of the human species and societal values, I believe all individuals should respect it hence, the need to illegalize gay marriage.

It is important to note that, regardless of nature of value systems adopted by a society, we can never detach the union of a male and a female from its cultural, holy, and natural foundations, without interfering with societal systems, norms, and values (Messerli 1).

With the increasing number of same sex marriages, I believe unless the government takes serious legal steps, soon such marriages will entirely erode the significance of marriage in societies. The gay alliance should be illegal, because the union between a male and a female in matrimony is of great significance not only to an individual, but also to societies.

Yes, I cannot deny that, as normal couples, gay couples can also handle all financial needs of their family however, what kind of values will such couples instill in their children or children in their neighborhoods? As research studies show, such unions have many negative influences on growing children hence, the likelihoods of such children developing desired societal norms and values are minimal.

In addition, although gay parents have the potential of bringing children, such children lack the parental love that mothers and fathers can provide, because you can imagine the many questions that children brought up in such families always ask themselves.

It is important to note that, all societal and religious values form the primary pillars of any society’s well-being. Therefore, because the society frowns at the mentioning of gay marriage, most children brought up in gay marriages suffer from stress and psychological torture, as most of them are never comfortable in associating with their peers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Because of psychological suffering that these children have to endure, most of them will engage themselves in deviant behavior, for example, substance abuse and criminal activity (Patterson and Redding 31-39). Considering this, it therefore means that, allowing the practice to continue in our societies is a disrespect of children’s rights; hence, greatly jeopardizing the well-being of future generations.

Yes, the argument by supporters of gay marriages that the constitution should give equal protection to all individuals’ rights is correct.

However, although this is the case, do gays recognize the impact of their practice on the general societal systems, more so the marriage institution? In addition, it means that, accepting of this like a practice is like accepting matrimony between relatives, because the society needs so. Therefore, it is important to note that, the effects from this domino effect will greatly affect other societal practices hence, the need to abolish the practice completely from the society.

On the other hand, although the constitution should provide all individuals with equal freedoms, the society must not fail to recognize that, to some extent accepting gay marriages may render “normal” marriages to lose meaning.

Hence, because no individual is special, there is need for the law to limit granting some legal rights to practices that will alter the normal peaceful and accepted societal lifestyles. Supporters of gay marriages should always bear in mind that, the joining of a female and a male in matrimony is a natural practice that has been there since time memorial, and not a law created practice (Bidstrup 1).

From a religious point of view, the joining of two individuals of different sexes in matrimony is of great significance not only to the church, but also to maintaining healthy relationships between the state and religious organizations (Bidstrup 1). Yes, although the argument that not all individuals are religious fanatics is correct, one thing they supporters of gay marriages fail to recognize is that, there is no way we can separate the church and the state.

Although not all individuals believe in church doctrines, it is important to note that, the church is one pillar of the society, whose contributions are enormous as far as the peaceful co-existence of individuals in societies is concerned. Therefore, it is of great significance to respect church doctrines, because of the contributions churches make to societies to ensure people live peaceful, loving and supporting one another

We will write a custom Essay on Why Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, although most supporters of gay marriage associate it with reduction of sexually transmitted diseases, as research studies show more than seventy-five percent of gays at one time in their lives are promiscuous and never use protection.

Therefore, the argument that gay marriages can reduce transmission of sexually transmitted diseases is refutable, because research has proved that, instead of reducing it increases the prevalence and spread of deadly infections, for example, HIV and AIDS (Shea, Wilson, Ranali, Paulaitis, Castagna, Raabe, and Lafrance 1-2).

In conclusion, considering the impacts of legalizing gay marriage to the social health status, norms, values of the society and practices cherished by the society, in my view there is need for the government to enact tough legislation to prevent the practice from spreading. Such legislation should ensure all societal members give the marriage institution the respect and sanctity it deserves, it being the primary determinant of the continuation of the human species.

Works Cited Bidstrup, Scott. Gay marriage: the arguments and motives (arguments a against Gay marriage). 2000. Web.

Messerli, Joe. Should same sex be legalized? Balanced Politics, 24 June. 2009. Web.

Patterson, Charlotte and Redding, Richard. Lesbian and gay families with children: Implications of social science research and for policy. Journal of Social Issues, 52.3 (1996): 29-50. Web.

Shea, John, Wilson, John, Ranali, Paul, Paulaitis, Christina, Castagna, Luigi, Raabe, Hans-Christina, and Lafrance, Andre. Gay marriage and homosexuality Some medical comments. 2010. Web.


Heroes and gods Compare and Contrast Essay essay help: essay help

Heroes and gods are a common feature in all societies they are highly respected and feared , stories of their actions and deeds are passed down to future generations through myths which are tales and stories of the past. Heroes and gods are associated with creation, death, wars, love, betrayal and loyalty.

There are some countries with deep mythical history for example Greece, the Romans, Japanese ,Chinese ,Egyptians and Indians .Events occurring in this communities were explained in terms of gods and heroes; such were wars famine harvests birth death, festivals among others.

The gods were used to explain a certain phenomena for example there was a head god for protection in Greece known as Zeus while that of the Romans was Jupiter, a good of war for the Greek was Ares for Romans it was mars, there was also a mother god called Hera by Greeks and juno by Romans.

Other gods were gods of agriculture, hunting wine, wealth, sea, home, and also fires. The god’s and heroes have always in all communities had some way of connection and communication. The myths told claim that various heroes were assisted by gods in their activities and mostly during wars.

Greece has a very deep mythical history: Zeus the father god was in charge of everything he had to be pleased to as to keep matters under control ,he was promiscuous had very many children with women of which some turned to be immortal while some remained mortal. He had an immortal wife Hera, who he had tricked into marriage after raping her.

Hera was the mother god she was very evil and led to the death of many especially children born by women conceived through Zeus. Aphrodite Zeus daughter was the god of love in Greece she was the cause of the Trojan War as explained below, and had very many lovers. She was in charge of marriages people had to please her so that she can allow people to marry or even be lovers, this often brought about controversies and the death of many.

Most of Greece heroes are associated with the Trojan War a major event in Greece history .The war was triggered by a conflict between their gods, Aphrodite the god of love promised prince Paris of Troy a very beautiful woman and in return he would chose her as he most beautiful goddess instead of Athena or Hera. The woman was Helen and unfortunately she was married to King Menelaus of Sparta. This did not worry the goddess; Helen had courted almost all Achaean leaders before her marriage to Menelaus including Theseus.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When she was married by the king of Sparta, He made the previous suitors to swear that they would help him incase Helen was snatched from him and so it happened because they could do anything for her. They launched a thousand ships into the sea and went into war hence the origin of the Trojan War heroes. Some of these heroes were Achilles, Theseus, Jason Odysseus, and Perseus among others with the greatest hero being Heracles/Hercules.

His wars began when he was very young when his nemesis Hera tried to kill him with snakes because he was Zeus son from another woman but he survived. He is best known for the Trojan War 12 labors he performed for the king, Eurystheus, So as to gain full immortality and have his sins forgiven for killing all his children.

They involved capturing and killing great giants and monsters of other cities a task which no other person in Greek’s history has ever achieved. He was born human but gained immortality through breast feeding by Hera under the orders of Zeus.

He was very masculine, strong, and courageous, very well built, and had sexual relations with both with both females and males. He married four formal wives in his lifetime and had uncountable male lovers and won the Olympics when he killed clothinic a great warrior. He died as a great Greek’s hero and he went into the underworld to stay with the gods

As noted above, heroes and gods are similar in very many ways: they love power, they are strong, they do anything to achieve what they desire, people fear them, they are promiscuous, caused many deaths and often they corporate with each other to achieve their goals but other times they are in competition, for example Aphrodite and the Trojan war heroes.


“The Corporation” a Film by Mack Achbar, Jennifer Abbott and Joel Bakan Critical Essay custom essay help

“The Corporation,” a film by Mack Achbar, Jennifer Abbott and Joel Bakan, is a fascinating film presenting convincing and realistic perceptions on the origin, nature, emergence and impacts of the modern corporate institutions, which are dominating the economical, political culture and the social life of many people, while also presenting people and organizations fighting against corporate dominance.

The film interviews CEO’s, top-level executives, a corporate spy, academicians, critics, historians and thinkers. ‘The corporation’ re-sounds a requiem for the perception that an entity’s social responsibility is met by optimizing wealth for its shareholders.

The documentary begins with an intriguing synopsis of the recent culmination of corporate scandals, and then it proceeds to ridicule the overriding media’s analysis of this scandal “crisis” as the consequence of many “bad apples” as seen in the fit Corporate Americas. “The documentary breaks down this “bad apple” metaphor, often showing how the “rotting” of corporate “apples” is just a piece of the growing evil inside these corporations which groomed it.”

Theoretically, this documentary is based mainly on the concept of “externalities,” that is, the outward impacts of a firm’s transaction between two parties without considering the third parties who are often affected adversely.

However, the film shows the demoralizing onslaught of such “unintended corporate” intrusions on the community, public dynamics, and information asymmetry. While often showing how those who orchestrate these invasions as themselves “individually” against them, that is, their acts as slaves to the corporation’s objective disagree with their values as private citizens.

However, one central question highlighted in the film is that, “since the law defines a corporation as an actual “person”, what kind of person would a corporation be?” ‘The Corporation’ is organized like a business presentation and it takes a closer examination on corporations’ personality.

It is argued that if a corporation is likened to individuals its innate characters would make them outright psychopaths. A corporation has no guilty conscience, not concerned with others, no moral obligations and more worse characters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initially, corporations were created to deliver public services and when the undertaking was accomplished, the entity was dissolved. But the corporation is nowadays a main establishment, amassing a lot of wealth and causing danger. They are formed to make profits at all costs may it be from destructing the environment, the use of harmful chemicals, moral indecency, a fact that has led the loss and threat of lives and unethical practices and other problems.

The film argues that excessive power that has been conferred on practically “unaccountable, private tyrannies”, as Noam Chomsky describes them, expected by the laws to act in a way that disgrace democracy and the most basic civil liberties, endangering man’s survival.

The institution is likened more to slavery that made slave masters to act harshly and inhumanely. However, the Liberal Elites argue that the masses are too ignorant to understand what they exactly need, although it is somehow ridiculous that these assumptions are never made in third world nations where individuals die of starvation.

In conclusion, it can be held that the film argues that there is political impotence of reconstruction to the prevailing issue of corporate dominance. Although the documentary does not give a definite conclusion on what the situation would result to, it is clear that globally people are in dire need for a polity praxis, which is dedicated to unearth all about the “bad” corporation.

Comparing “The Corporation” film to Fahrenheit 9/11, it presents a more “superficial demonization of bad corporations” in terms of historical, operational and institutional examination of corporation’s makeup and personality.


Marketing basics Report best essay help

Marketing involves ensuring that customers are aware of a company’s products or services and also making them to gain inters in their quality and effectiveness while also creating a strong relationship with them. It is a major component of a business because it enables creation of new markets, and it involves communication sales and development of an enterprise. Activities involved in marketing include product pricing branding promotion, distribution, market research, market dominance, management and strategy.

MRF (Madras rubber factory) is a company that specializes in manufacturing tryes and it is located in India. It is a very large and major company in the tyre industry and exports its products to more than 75 countries in the world.

It has six manufacturing units in India and has the largest variety of tyres to include trucks and bus tyres, light tyres for passenger and personal cars, tyres, farm, industrial and sports activities. The company is also involved in various sport activities such as bat and cricket which is a major marketing strategy for the company. MRF also has branded its products boosting over 10 different brands.

A brand is the identity of a product, service or a company; it could be a color, sign, a symbol a name among others, it is also a trademark.

It enables relating the product to the customer’s, staff, and other stake holder’s of the company. The brand is used to communicate the uniqueness of the product service or company and hence it is an essential part of advertising. In order to achieve successful marketing through branding one has to make sure that the brand is recognized by customers even in absence of the parent company name.

One also has to understand the needs of the clients so as to satisfy them, and maintain them. Companies should also be informed that branding is not about competition with other companies in the industries but is meant to inform the customer who is offering what. A good brand communicates this, test credibility of the product, creates a relation with the customers, motivates them and wins their loyalty and trust.

MRF company slogan is ‘’tires with muscles’’ ‘, and some of the product brands are; Lug 50-FS, MRF Nylogrip Zappea, a high performance tyre for new generation bikes, MRF Racing, MRF ZVTS, a steel-belted premium radial, MRF Super’ and ,MRF Events.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also has brand ambassadors who are mainly involved in sports such as; Sachin Tendulkar and Steve Waugh who are experienced batsmen, their bats have been branded MRF for the many years that they have been in the sports. The company has a program to improve cricket known as the MRF pace foundation that trains young people.

Another marketing strategy is promotion; it involves persuasion and informing a buyer so as to influence their decision to buy. Promotion can be done through the media this are; news papers, TV, radio, mobile phones the internet or advertising agencies. Other forms of advertisements are; product placement, merchandising, shows, sponsorships or public relations.

In promotion people should adopt a promotional plan or a mix that consists of sales, promotion, direct marketing, advertising and publicity. A company can have promotions for different objectives such as retaliating to a competitive move made by other companies, launching a new brand, and also to increase revenues. Promotions can be long term or short term Coca-Cola has had a long term one ‘My coke awards’ in addition most companies use the word special offers when having promotions.

MRF has not been involved in promotional activities in large scale may be because they have a large and stable customer base hence the huge sales.

However MRF in some occasions gives special offers to their very regular customers and also when launching a new brand for example; the racing tires were offered to top rally motorists when they were launched to market their effectiveness and performance. MRF also does a lot of advertising of their products, there is no single day that there is no an advertisement of their products in one or more media channels.

Statistics have shown that it is the leading company in the industry that advertises a lot in the print media. Because of this strategy the customers are always informed on new products and also reminded of the existing ones including the improvements made.

The tyre industry is relatively composed of about 450 tire manufacturing factories and is the largest consumer of rubber in the world since millions of tires are manufacture each year. India is the producer of tires having a 8.02% annual growth of the industry .However it faces stiff competition from china because it is achieving new markets every day. Truck and bus tryes is the biggest segment of the industry passenger cars tires follow, then motorcycle tires and scooter tires are the least and they are used in the two wheeler industry.

We will write a custom Report on Marketing basics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tyre industry is currently being faced by an increase of costs of the raw materials used; the industry uses a lot of materials and the slightest change in the costs largely affects the revenues not forgetting the huge duty on tyres. The major players in the industry are MRF, Apollo and Ceat tyres. Other companies in the industry are Metro tires Ralson,Michelin group ,JK ltd tyres and Bridgestone among others.

MRF is the leading company in this industry and has the most envied market record in the world. It has the most sales and revenues, a large and stable customer base, most manufacturing plants, brands variety and the most effective advertising strategies. The company is the only supplier of large motor businesses such as General motors, Fiat and Ford and it is the world’s largest exporter of tires.

Previous analysis carried out on tyre brands showed that six of MRFN brands are leading in sales and quality with a market share of 22%.It has recently revived its auto industry and joined in the radial tyre industry hence business for them is expected to shoot even higher. It has been voted three times for the award of customer satisfaction by JD Power ASIA Pacific. The factors considered are durability, traction, appearance and handling.

As said earlier MRF is greatly involved in sports and has a pace foundation that sponsors youngsters into playing cricket an activity that has turned to be a very effective marketing strategy for the company. It is also involved in community based programs to improve the lives of rural folks a step that other companies have not taken seriously.

In conclusion MRF has managed to dominate the tyre industry and if current figures and analysis are to be trusted it will continue being in the same status. Advertising is a major component of doing business and hence every business should have good marketing strategies to ensure that their products are well known and recognized in the market. As note above branding, and promotions are some of the major advertising strategies that successful companies use to achieve customer’s interest and trust.


Concept of Academic Portfolio Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction A person would want to present or record his or her personal accomplishments or achievements over time. A structural collection of this information differs with respect to career field of the individuals or their experience.

Such a structural consolidation of a person’s progress or achievements presented in a formal record is called a portfolio. A portfolio may consist of materials illustrating one’s abilities and may be in form of resume, a notebook or any other presentation containing the original document relating to the individual abilities.

A portfolio with one’s academic experiences and achievements in line with the professional growth and development is referred to as academic portfolio and is prepared to cove a given period of time. In this essay we shall discuss what is really meant by the term academic portfolio and what its use is. We shall also look at a brief history of academic portfolio and what its content is.

Discussion History of Academic Portfolio

Academic portfolio is a clear history of one’s academic development including the personal work and out put realized, self evaluation and the feedback that is received in his of service at work. It also stipulates the future plans of an individual in his academic progression. Portfolios have changed from being used for education achievements alone and they are now used in all career categories to record performance, skills and experience gained at work.

The use of academic portfolio has also changed over time is currently vastly used in evaluating individual performance in a certain occupation. All employers in the world today rely on the academic portfolio in order to mitigate the risk involved in recruiting employees. Academic portfolio was initially taken as a project that every student must accomplish after accomplishing an academic degree (Stewart 2010, 1).

Currently, the portfolio is a continuous record of personal journey that one goes through in the education profession and including all the experience gained that enhance the education progression. Academic portfolio is updated as time continues and as more experience is gained over time. There are different formats that are used for the preparation or presentation of academic portfolio depending on the use for which it is prepared.

There is no specific format that is universally accepted for the preparation of the academic portfolio but it should be formal and presentable. As regard to the content, it is for the individuals to decide on what to include in the portfolio. Every academic portfolio development depends on the purpose for which it is prepared but there are some basic details that must be included for the document to be regarded as academic portfolio.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Definition of an Academic Portfolio

Arter (2003, 1) describes academic portfolio in the context of student portfolio and argues that the definition of portfolio varies depending on the individuals and usage. He describes a portfolio in what he regards as the general definition that, “…a portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that tells the story of student achievement or growth” (Arter, 2003, 1).

This definition is limited to the student’s context but academic portfolio goes a step further to describe the abilities of the individual. According to IML, an academic portfolio could be described as “…an organized record of your academic experiences, achievements and professional development over a period of time” (IML, 2007, 1).

This definition goes a step further to include the professional development which is polished through working. In this context, the academic portfolio will demonstrate the quality of work that one is engaged in and the development in it over the period covered by the portfolio. The academic portfolio is a document that shows the achievements, the range of experience and training that one has undertaken and the skills and the abilities gained.

The Uses of the Academic Portfolio

As mentioned earlier, the use of the academic portfolio has changed with time from demonstrating only the academic credentials to including the skills and the abilities that have been gained through the work that one does or the various responsibilities undertaken. Presented in this manner, the academic portfolio is useful in a number of ways both by the individual preparing it and the others with interest in it.

One of the basic uses of the academic portfolio is for students to market themselves to different prospective employers (IML, 2007, 1).

Students use it to communicate their academic achievements, skills acquired and the ability they have to apply the skills in a working environment. For students to secure opportunities in the current competitive market, they have to have a creative and informative portfolio that convinces the prospective employers that they are the best candidates for the available posts.

Although the academic portfolio does not work magic, the way the document is presented determines the kind of decision that the employer will make. The document must be able to communicate the qualifications of the candidate.

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Academic Portfolio specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Academic portfolio is also used by the experienced professionals in transitioning between jobs. In this case the content of the portfolio must be relevant to the job the professional is wishing to move to.

The experience, skills and abilities indicated in the document must be commensurate to the requirements of the employment being sought. The employer will use the portfolio to gauge the skills, abilities and experience of the applicants in relation to the requirements of the new post being filled (UWEC, 2009, 1).

The academic portfolios of different applicants are compared and the one with the most desired qualifications for the job is selected. The employers will therefore use this method of recruiting to mitigate the risk that might be associated with recruitment. This is because without the documents the employer might employ the unqualified candidate.

Professional portfolios are also used by the faculties to appraise the performance of the members. This will help in determining the qualified professional for a certain promotion. The professionals with outstanding performance within the faculty will be selected for promotion.

Such kind of portfolio will have the proven record of performance of the professional within the faculty. This may be indicated by different awards that have been achieved by the professional(s) because of showing exemplary performance. As stated by IML, “Extracts from a portfolio can be particularly useful for supporting applications for tenure or promotion.” (IML, 2007, 1). To such kind of professionals, the portfolio shows their career goals and other useful information for promotion like their career progression.

The academic portfolio can also be used by an individual for personal evaluation. In this case an individual examining his portfolio from time to time will gain insight about what he has been able to achieve over a period of time. This will enable them to evaluate their academic and career progression as well as identifying their strengths that have been proven through career progression.

Through this examination, the individual will be able to know their potential and define their next level of career that they would want and are eligible to pursue. They will also be able to know whether the career vision they had at the time of career commencement is being met or will be met in future.

Academic portfolio could also be useful in networking and resource building. In teaching profession, portfolio gives expands one’s chances of participate in teaching related events that helps one to build up resources that will help the become better in their career (IML, 2007, 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concept of Academic Portfolio by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Meeting with other professionals in such events, seminars and conventions enables one to gain more resource that one can apply in classroom and improve their performance. Academic portfolio is very useful for persons seeking tenure consideration. For such aspirants, the portfolio will enable them to be considered for tenured positions or the promotion.

The portfolio in this case will need to be updated and the experiences that are relevant be indicated for the recruiting team to use them for appraisal. The portfolio will be the determining factor on whether one will be hired or not. It therefore need to be presented vide the credentials under consideration.

The Contents of the Academic Portfolio

The content of the academic portfolios depends on the person preparing it and the purpose for which it is being prepared. It is up to the individual to decide what to include depending on the academic field he is in and the job that he is applying for. According to UWEC (2009, 1), there is not a standard content that should be included in the portfolio but some academicians have argued that some information or details are important in any portfolio.

Some details are important in academic portfolios and one should consider including in the academic portfolio preparation. Firstly, the students should include the reports of different internships that they have undertaken and any other relevant experience gained.

This will help the employers to gauge the extent to which the candidates were involved in formal responsibilities and whether it is important for the post being applied for. Secondly the students should have in their portfolio the letters of recommendations showing how they handled various responsibilities as well as proving that they actually handled them (Stewart 2010, 1).

They should also have certificates of training that will prove that they attended a certain institution and the course they pursued. The certificates will also indicate the level of academic performance attained by the student. They should also include resumes and the reference list.

The resume will indicate a summary of the academic details, the work experience gained, the career profile and a description of various responsibilities handled, when and where they were handled and the skills and experienced gained. The reference list will include the persons who should be contacted to verify the information presented by the candidate in the portfolio.

For instance there should be a referee to be contacted concerning the internship reports presented by the candidates. They should also indicate the skills knowledge and strengths they are endowed with (Stewart 2010, 1). All these information depends on the purpose for which the portfolio is prepared and the academic field the candidate or any other person is in.

Conclusion The academic portfolio is important in the career life of all professionals and even students seeking jobs after school. This is because the uses of academic portfolio are important in the career of every individual professional. The portfolios are prepared depending on the purpose they are aimed to fulfill. The content also depends on the purpose that is sought to be accomplished.

Reference List Arter, J. A. (2003). UAPR FAQ – What is a student portfolio? North Carolina: NC State University. Web.

Institute for interactive media and learning (IML) (2007). Developing an Academic Portfolio: Guidelines. Sydney: University Of Technology Sydney. Web.

Stewart, B. (2010). Academic Portfolios: Realizing the Potential. Charleston: The Citadel Career Center/Business Faculty. Web.

University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UWEC) (2009). FAQs about Portfolios. Eau Claire: UWEC Career Services. Web.


Selection of the gender of correctional officers Essay essay help

Correctional officers in correctional institutions face many problems such as staff turnover, inmate demands especially the minors with the most powerful issue affecting them being racial discrimination. I t is also not easy for the correctional officers to work in prisons where the inmates are of the opposite sex.

Either way there will be hurdles to face brought about by the issue of gender faced by both the correctional officers and the offenders. This paper will look at both sides of the coin to find out if male correctional officers can work in female institutions and whether female correctional officers can be assigned in male institutions.

Female correctional officers have been before not assigned to work in male institutions because they are thought to be of the weaker sex thus lack physical strength, can be easily assaulted by the male inmates and may not be obeyed by the inmates. It is for the above reasons that females working in correctional institutions were allocated the posts of matrons in the female institutions or clerical officers in the male institutions such that they hardly interact with the inmates.

Research indicates that female officers working in male institutions bring about a moderate situation the prison (Siegel, 2009, p.67). This is because women are known to have excellent skills in communication hence will always be ready to listen to the inmates developing good relations as opposed to their male counterparts.

It is due to this reason that women officers are allocated in prisons for women or minorities otherwise assigned to low risk duties such as working in the visiting areas or control rooms. This is a disadvantage to the female correctional officers since they end up lacking the essential skills of working in the hardship areas due to the lack of exposure.

Male correctional officers on the other hand often work in both the male and female institutions. However, when allocated in the female correctional institutions they tend to be assaultive thus subjecting the female inmates to sexual menace, rape and offers or proposals (Siegel, 2009, p. 27).

Thus if working in female prisons the male officers should not be allowed in areas that the female inmates carry out most of their chores so as to reduce their interaction time as well as their housing units. Female inmates have been suffering a great deal yet are afraid to complain since no one listens to them, instead the male correctional officers are thought to be telling the truth (Kasdan, 2001, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore this problem can only come to an end after placing strict rules for the male officers working in female institutions or rather completely removing them.

All the accusations on correctional officers have been proved to be groundless, women officers can comfortably work in male institutions and at the same time male correctional officers can work in female institutions as long as rules and regulations of the institution are followed. This is because there is no correlation between the number or gender of correctional officers in a correctional institution and the efficiency in work or number of assault (Kasdan, 2001, p. 1).

The only significant difference in the gender is that male officers prefer a situation of free will while the women correctional officers prefer social organisation. Despite the allegations being not true, a lesser number of female correctional officers have been recruited in correctional institutions because of their male counterparts’ antagonism.

Reference List Kasdan, D. (2001). Male correctional officers should be restricted from some areas of women’s prisons. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/male-correction-officers-should-be-restricted-some-areas-womens-prisons-aclu-says?redirect=prisoners-rights/male-correction-officers-should-be-restricted-some-areas-womens-prisons-aclu-says

Siegel, L. (2009).Introduction to criminal justice. United States. Wadsworth publishing.


Blake’s The Little Girl Found and The Little Girl Lost: Analysis and Comparison scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Little Girl Lost: Summary and Analysis

The Little Girl Found: Analysis and Summary

Comparison and Discussion


Introduction “The Little Girl Lost” and “The Little Girl Found” are poems written by William Blake. Together with “The Angel,” “The Fly,” and other Blake’s poems, they were published in “Songs of Innocence and of Experience” in 1794. The two poems are about a little girl called Lyca, who is lost in the jungle, and her parents who search for their daughter. This paper aims to make an analysis of “The Little Girl Lost” and “The Little Girl Found”.

The Little Girl Lost: Summary and Analysis The poem “The Little Girl Lost” by William Blake tells the story of a young girl who finds herself wandering into the jungle where she is lost. She is later picked up by a lion who ends up taking good care of her and at the same time, protecting her from all the other animals of the forest. In summary, The Little Girl Lost illustrates a period of transformation from innocent childhood to the complicated ways of adulthood.

The lion in the poem represents the evil people in the world. At the end of the poem, Lyca, the little girl, and the lion are involved in an unlikely association. That is symbolic. It is generally the case when children grow older, and they begin to realize that there is a much bigger world outside what their parents have introduced them.

At seven years old, Lyca is technically years away from her teenage, but we can conclude that Blake used the figure to represent the youth. Lyca’s parents suffer because of her disappearance. That can mean that a teenage girl may be involved with the wrong company to inflict pain on her parents.

The lion is described as old, and he is tempted to devour the little girl, but after a few licks, he opts not to. This symbolism probably represents an older man who would like to take advantage of the rebellious young girl but cannot bring himself to do so. Instead, he ends up acting like a father-figure and protects the young girl from other men (leopards, tigers) with equally evil motives.

The Little Girl Found: Analysis and Summary The poem “A Little Girl Found” is a sequel to “The Little Girl Lost”. William Blake tells there the story of Lyca’s dejected parents as they struggle to find her. Eventually, they spot the lion under whose care Lyca is. The sight of the lion instills fear into them, and they stand motionless as he (the lion) approaches.

However, Lyca’s parents are surprised when, instead of attacking them, the lion licks their hands in a friendly manner. It gestures them to follow him to his cave. There they find little Lyca lying peacefully. The lion, in this instance, represents a guardian angel. His care of the little girl means that in this world, no matter how challenging things may be, there are some good people ready to give a helping hand.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Blake also used the lion to show that sometimes, the people we would like to avoid are probably best suited to give us the help we need along the way.

At the end of the poem, Lyca and her parents choose to live in the wilderness, and this illustrates the developing bonds of faith between individuals who would naturally not trust each other. By the lion taking good care of Lyca instead of taking advantage of her, he can establish his trustworthiness in the eyes of Lyca’s parents, and this could be the prime motivator why they choose to stay.

It is almost as if the girl’s parents have concluded that the people who are thought to be most untrustworthy are the ones who end up being loyal and honest. It could be that in the place where Lyca and her parents stayed, there were some people looking innocent on the outside but turned out to have ulterior motives. That affirms the saying that it is better the devil you know than the angel you don’t.

Comparison and Discussion The two poems, that is, The Little Girl Lost and The Little Girl Found, are essentially two parts of one story, with the latter being a continuation of the former. The first poem brings the reader from the point where little Lyca finds herself lost in the jungle to the point where she is taken by a lion (in all its symbolic forms explained above) who ends up being her sole protection. The second text traces the journey of Lyca’s parents, who have to go through all sorts of challenges in their quest to find their daughter.

The story intersects with the final part of the first poem when the parents meet with the lion, who shows them to his cave where the little girl sleeps peacefully. The two texts employ a lot of symbolism and imagery, as has been detailed above. Unfortunately, the use of one thing to represent another has ended up causing the poem to be taken with a lot of contention.

That is because, in as much as the stylistic device gives the story more gist, to some extent, readers cannot squarely identify the author’s original implication in the usage of a particular symbolic item. Readers have to come up with various interpretations of the two poems based on their understanding. As long as they can defend their interpretations, even the author could not raise a dispute.

Another stylistic device that has been used exhaustively in the two poems is rhyme. For instance, in the first stanza of the poem The little girl lost; the lines “shall arise and seek” and “for her maker meek” have been rhymed at the ends. Likewise, in the poem The little girl found the opening lines “all the night in woe” and “Lyca’s parents go” rhyme. As a matter of fact, every two lines of both poems are rhymed together.

We will write a custom Essay on Blake’s The Little Girl Found and The Little Girl Lost: Analysis and Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Now let’s make some brief content analysis. “The Little Girl Found” and “The Little Girl Lost” share two main themes. These are domestic quarrels between parents and rebellious children and proper human relations within society. The first them has been presented with Lyca’s disappearance from her parents’ company and her parents’ struggle to find her.

The second theme has been illustrated from the angle of Lyca’s association with the lion as well as by her parents coming to an amicable understanding with the same lion to such an extent that they chose to stay in his company henceforth. A supporting theme illustrates the relationship between men and women in society, with the latter depending on the former for security.

This is presented in the way Lyca’s mother clings to her husband’s arm when the lion makes towards them. It is most likely that the man was also scared of the impending danger but gathered courage and stood there acting macho-like in defense of his wife. Lucky for him, the lion happened to be friendly.

Conclusion This paper is a case study on The Little Girl Lost and The Little Girl Found by W. Blake. Both of the poems are essentially two parts of one story, with the latter being a continuation of the former. The poems tell about a little girl lost in the jungle and her parents who search for her. This paper contains a comparative analysis of “The Little Girl Lost” and “The Little Girl Found.”


The life and works of Margaret Mead Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Margaret Mead was a sociology scholar, an eminent anthropologist, a scientist and a great author on anthropology, sociology, religion and ancient society’s issues. She was an intelligent woman and used both knowledge and action to achieve her goals. She was also involved in politics and helped many presidents in formulating policies in ecological and nutrition matters.

As a politician she served as an ambassador, without a portfolio, to many presidents in the areas of ecology and nutrition something that gave her the title, “Mother of the World” in 1969.Her works are still used in learning by students and also for understanding various issues that characterize the world today.

She was born in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, to a religious family and both of her parents were sociologists. She was dropped out DePauw University in 1919 after one year of studying and then joined Barnard College where she graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in 1923. She did her masters at Columbia University with the help of Professor Franz Boas and Dr. Ruth Benedict and later received her PhD from the same university in 1929.

She was married three times; once to a fellow student, then to an anthropologist, Reo Fortune, who divorced her because she could not give birth to children then. Her third marriage to Gregory Bateson an anthropologist was the best according to her, and their daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson also decided to follow in their footsteps and became an anthropologist.

She closely worked with her husband and even went to Bali for field work with him, they were married for fifteen years then divorced and when questioned about this she said that was her best marriage and that, “American women are good mothers, but they make poor wives” (Lapsley 1999).

She defended women rights in her writings and also educated them on child rearing and many other family issues. She filmed the life of her daughter since childhood and observing her grow assisted in writing many of her publications.

She was also recognized as a national and an international leader and at a time the president of the following major associations: American Anthropological Association, Anthropological Film Institute, Scientists Institute for Public Information, Society for Applied Anthropology and the American Association for Advancement of Science. Mead lectured at the New School and Columbia University1954 to 1978, and she was the chair of the department of social sciences at Fordham University’s and founded founding their anthropology department in 1968.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She also worked during the World War II as an executive secretary of the committee on food habits of the National Research Council and during this time she wrote she pamphlets for the Office of War Information. Mead is one of the major contributors in the sociology discipline she has done a lot of research and wrote about families, children and the male and female gender.

Her works have been used in understanding problems and issues that face families and also gave an insight on how to solve them. She also has made it possible for sociologists to understand societies and how they influence an individual’s life, not forgetting also her commitment to find solutions to the global social issues facing the world so as to make it a better place for people to live in.

Her greatest works that made her known were the most controversial books “Coming of Age in Samoa” and “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies”. In the first book Mead wanted to understand adolescence and determine whether it is the same for all individuals worldwide.

Her goal was to answer the question “Are the disturbances which vex our adolescents due to the nature of adolescence itself or to the civilization? Under different conditions does adolescence present a different picture?” (Caton 1990). In her survey, she went to Samoa in a village of 600 people where she interview 68 adolescents between 9 and 20 years.

She found out that adolescence for them was a peaceful change with no emotional or psychological misery, apprehension, or disorder as it happens in the United States. She also realized that the Samoa girls were better child raisers than Americans. When she published the book, many westerners were offended by the findings and claimed them to be false; with others even going to an extent of going back to Samoa for more research and claim that some of her informants say that they were forced to give false answers.

Her colleague, Franz Boas, defended the book and said that “courtesy, modesty, good manners, conformity to definite ethical standards are universal, but what constitutes courtesy, modesty, very good manners, and definite ethical standards is not universal. It is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways” (Caton 1990).

The other book “Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies” was about three societies in which she studied the nature of women and men. One of the societies was Chambri, (Tchambuli) in Papua New Guinea where women are dominant that men

We will write a custom Research Paper on The life and works of Margaret Mead specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The men ‘primped’ and spent their time decorating themselves while the women worked, did all the chores and were the leaders of the society without causing any problems completely opposite of what was happening in America then. In the other society Melanesia males were dominant and also some few women who mostly were witches hence making both genders equal and similar in temperament.

The other community Arapesh was different; both genders were nonviolent and avoided war although sometimes they went into war with other communities when necessary. The society share land, brought up their children together and relationships among relatives were good. She therefore concluded that temperaments were communally instilled into people and they were not personal.

Mead continued writing and some of her major works were: Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World, after observing the behaviors of people in the South Pacific and the East Indies.

She said “we know of no culture that has said, articulately, that there is no difference between men and women except in the way they contribute to the creation of the next generation.” Her other books include: An Anthropologist at work (1959), which was about her friend and colleague Ruth Benedict, The memoirs Blackberry winter (1972), and A rap on race (1971).

Controversies have risen concerning her relationship with Benedict because some people have claimed that she was bisexual and her daughter confirmed that by saying that their relationship was a little sexually due to the letters they wrote to each other. In her life Mead did not state her sexual orientation although she had mentioned in her writings that an individual can decide to change it later in life.

She died of cancer in 1978 and she was buried at Trinity Episcopal Church in Buckingham, Pennsylvania. Her greatest legacy is the Presidential Medal of Freedom awarded by the former President, Jimmy Carter.

“Margaret Mead was both a student of civilization and an exemplary of it. To a public of millions, she brought the central insight of cultural anthropology: that varying cultural patterns express an underlying human unity. She mastered her discipline, but she also transcended it. Intrepid, independent, plain spoken, fearless, she remains a model for the young and a teacher from whom all may learn.” (Bateson 1984).

Reference List Bateson, M. C. (1984). With a Daughter’s Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson. New York: William Morrow.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The life and works of Margaret Mead by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Caton, H. (1990). The Samoa Reader: Anthropologists Take Stock. Cambridge: University Press of America.

Lapsley, H. (1999). Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press.


Evaluation of us natural gas industry Research Paper college essay help near me

The use of natural gas in the United States has experienced dramatic growth since late 20th century. In most of the period, natural gas which saw massive production was a by-product of crude oil production. Long-lived reserves and easy target have since been provided by the large reservoirs of dry natural gas production.

“On April 1992, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued an order requiring a comprehensive natural gas restructuring, which was meant to enhance a more competitive ground into the natural gas industry.

Subsequently, the order enhanced the unbundling of pipelines’ gas sales and transportation services, thus the natural gas producers and the shippers could engage in arms-length transactions.” More importantly, the order made it possible for natural gas buyers to do this with an equitable and fair access to pipeline transportation from the sellers (Dahl, 112).

The main focus of the order was to create a capacity reallocation program, known as “capacity release.” This was to enable the shippers who had the capacity right of firms to release large amount of capacity through the pipeline for sale.

In addition, there were requirements on the pipe release, which required posting of information necessary to provide the interested parties with an opportunity to bid on the release capacity. This created a bidding competition, which saw the bidders with the largest value to become the acquiring shipper.

In 1993, the FERC commenced evaluating pipeline’s conformity filings, also putting in place the ‘capacity release’ enactment. All pipelines were to be approved and their operations were to be as per the requirements of the Order. The FERC aimed at ensuring that there was a well functioning capacity release to the market and a more competitive ground for natural gas delivery by the natural gas industry.

While on the same time, enhancing the efficiency of cost distribution and mitigating rate increases to firm gas customers, which were achievable since the firm shippers of natural gas paid for the fixed costs of transportation (Lautzenhiser


Evaluation of the MMM Website Argumentative Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Accuracy




Contact information

Work Cited

The advent of technology in the society especially the Internet illuminates the need to come up with strategies to determine efficiency of information posted in websites and WebPages. This makes it necessary to come up with conclusive and accurate judgments on how a website meets or fail to meet the needs of consumers (Lawrence


Judaism Doctrines Compare and Contrast Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Comparison between Christianity and Judaism


Reference List

Introduction Judaism is one of the most common, old, and strong religions that have existed since time memorial with a very strong and unwavering monotheism belief.

Prior to its current state of integrating a Jewish state and a religion, in the past Judaism was only a religious practice of the Hebrews. Although it is a distinct religion and other religions have their own set of doctrines, which they follow, influences of Judaism on other religions are many.

This is because, although religions such as Christianity and Islam have their own doctrines, which its believers follow strictly, they have many concepts borrowed from Judaism, it being one of the primary symbols of human civilization. Globally, there exist more than fourteen million Jewish believers, and approximately 3.5 billion others who belong to other religions that apply borrowed Judaism doctrines.

To the Jewish, strict adherence to ritual laws is one of the doctrines that any Jewish believer must respect. Most Jewish believers never believe is the rigid religious beliefs, because most of them hold very liberal views towards spiritual viewpoints (Bamberger, 2010, p.1).

As research studies on the origins of Judaism show, this religion has existed since the time Abraham was alive; one of the most respect biblical figures, for Jews consider him one of their greatest ancestors. According to the Jewish believers, Judaism is a symbolic representation of God in their midst, for it represents the covenantal agreement between God and the children of Israel.

Historically, Judaism is one of the religious groups that have endured extreme suffering and persecutions, although this has never been an impediment to its spreading. Their suffering goes back to the times of the Pharaoh in Egypt, travelling through the desert and their eventual receiving of the Ten Commandments and the Promised Land.

Although the Jewish people believe in the commandments, their views on what God gave Moses and the extent of including modern religious concepts in their practices varies; hence the current splitting of the early Jewish religion into the present Judaism groups namely the Orthodox, Reform, and Conservative Judaism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All this groups have differing Judaism beliefs, which guide their religious practices, although they al believe in the existence of one God (Bamberger, 2010, p.1).

Comparison between Christianity and Judaism Although the two biggest world religions namely Christianity and Islam have distinctive doctrines, which their believers must adhere to, these regions have numerous Judaism borrowed concepts. It is important to note that, although the Islam and Baha’i religions use some Judaism borrowed concepts, the level of borrowing is not much as Christianity has done.

Judaism and Christianity share very many theological and historical facts for example, the existence of Jesus and his twelve followers. In addition, according to biblical teachings Jesus’s entire family lineage was of the Jewish origin, hence his upbringing among the Jews. This is a fact both Christians and Jews believe hence, clearly showing the resemblance between this to religious groups in beliefs and systems of operation.

Both the Christians and the Jewish depend on the bible for spiritual nourishment, a fact that is evident in the Christians and Jews’ practice of referring to their bibles for guidance and spiritual providence. Further, theologically all the writers of the Old Testament; a section of the bible read by both Christians and the Jews,were of the Jewish origin hence, proving that although this two religions differ in doctrines, they must be sharing very many concepts (British Broadcasting Corporation: BBC, 2009, p.1) .

Although Christians and Jews are both monotheistic holding the ideas that only one God exists; Jesus existed; human beings are products of God, and God will come to take his faithful ones (although some Judaism groups do not believe in the second coming of God), many variations exist in ways which these religions interpret biblical and other spiritual books.

In addition, although they show some form of conceptual co-existence and interdependence, they are contending religions, for each believes that, its teachings emphasizes Godly doctrines. For example, the Jewish dispute the notion held by Christians that God Manifests himself in three forms namely God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

According to the Jewish, this trinity idea is inconceivable; hence, the Christian practice of emphasizing the Trinity of God goes against provisions of God’s holy books. Another Christian concept that faces much antagonism from the Jews is the idea of the origin sin.

We will write a custom Essay on Judaism Doctrines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Judaism, the original sin concept held by Christians lack a basis of explanation hence, the varying atonement modes adopted by Jews and Christians. On the other hand, Judaism never accepts the concept of the communion ceremonies, because to the Jewish, this is a form of worshiping idols (Rich, 2001, p.1).

As theological research studies show, almost all doctrines that govern Christianity are Jewish-borrowed, although with new definitions and interpretations. According to Christianity, acceptance of a Jewish believer to follow Christian doctrines is not a religious transfer, but rather it is acceptance to be a complete child of God.

This is different when it comes to Judaism, because for one to qualify to be Jewish, new converts have to abandon their early beliefs, vow to respect, and adhere to Jewish principles and church doctrines. Therefore, to some extent accepting the Jewish doctrines is like being reborn again with a new identity and affiliation, a case that is different in Christianity.

Another primary difference between these religions is the personhood of Jesus Christ. According to Christianity, the primary reason why Jesus came to earth was to save humankind from perishing in the final fire; a fact that authors of the Old Testament had prophesied was to happen.

In addition, according to Christian doctrines, Jesus is the only Messiah; hence, through him the world should receive eternal salvation. Although Judaism accepts the belief that Jesus was the son of God, it opposes the idea that he is the Messiah of the world hence, its belief that Jesus might be a prophet of God blessed with good and Godly teachings.

In addition, according to Christianity, because of God’s mercies and in the endeavor to save humankind, God transformed Jesus’s Godliness, and made Jesus a human being through making his mother conceive through the Holy Spirit. Jewish doctrines greatly oppose this idea, by arguing that, Jesus was and will never be Godly, and although God wanted to save humankind, such a sacrifice was not essential (Herberg, 2007, pp. 7-21).

Because the New Testament carries primarily teachings of Jesus, which the Jewish do not value very much, the Tanakh (the Jewish Bible) does not have the New Testament. Unlike the Tanakh, the Christian bible has both testaments, which are very crucial in a Christian’s spiritual endeavors. The Tanakh has three main sections namely the Torah, Ketuvim, and the Nevi’im. According to the Jewish (although not all), there exist two forms of the Torah (written and oral) for spiritual nourishment.

According to Christians only the written Torah exists, which Christians accept as a religious book, although they use a Koine Greek Septuagint decoded version of Torah. On the other hand, although this two groups share some biblical concepts of the Torah, the naming system they use in naming constituent books in their bibles vary.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Judaism Doctrines by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That is, unlike Jews who named constituent books in their bible using the traditional Jewish system, Christians have named the constituent books in their bible using names that resemble those used by the creators of the Septuagint (Meyer, 1995, pp. 7-19).

In addition to the personhood of Jesus and books that these two groups use, although cultures within which these two religions thrive vary, the effect of the Jewish culture on Judaism is great.

For example, unlike Judaism that permanently prohibits the consumption on certain foods, for example, pig and meat products and that all individuals must adhere to Kashrut laws in preserving their foods, Christian doctrines never specify any preservation method. In addition, although the Christian bible specifies certain animal products that Christians must not consume, it is not very rigid hence, giving Christians the flexibility of choosing foods to consume (BBC, 2009, p.1).

As concerns church rituals, as a respect to the existence of humankind, the Jewish incorporate their traditional practices in church activities, for example, when dedicating newborn babies to God and during marriage ceremonies. Therefore, largely the Jewish traditional practice plays an important role in church, a fact that is contrary in Christians, because traditional rituals are distinct components of a Christian society (Bamberger, 2010, p.1).

Conclusion In conclusion, although Christians and the Jewish have many antagonizing ideas, these religions share very many concepts. For example, although these religions give their churches and leaders different names, for example, in Judaism Synagogue or Schul, led by a Rebbe or Rabbi, and a church or chapel in Christianity led by a priest, minister, and other Christian leaders, both religions emphasize one concept, the salvation of mankind from sin.

In addition to their common goal, these two religions share a common heritage, although their levels of accepting religious concepts vary. Common variations among these religions occur in the personification of Jesus, the nature of God, and some religious practices for example, eating of the sacrament as a representation of Jesus’s body and drinking of wine as Jesus’s blood.

Reference List Bamberger, B. J. (2010). Judaism general information. Web.

British Broadcasting Corporation: (2009). Religion: Judaism. BBC. Web.

Herberg, W. Judaism and the Modern man-an interpretation of the Jewish religion.

Woodstock: Jewish Lights publishing. Web.

Meyer, M. A. Response to Modernity: a history of the reform movement in Judaism. Wayne state University Press: Detroit. Web.

Rich, T. R. (2001). What do Jews believe? Judaism 101. Web.


Sources of Capital Essay custom essay help

The entrepreneur’s likely sources of venture capital are banks, private capital investments, and customer contributions. With sufficient capital investments, the entrepreneur can easily secure loans to aggressively pursue his business goals and objectives.

Featured as a risk taker, innovative, and visionary coupled with initiative and true business abilities, these qualities make him worth of external capital injection. Success is evident from gains made in business sales revenues in the range of $750,000 a year.

This is also demonstrated by a striking rise from a humble beginning when the business consisted of an old computer and a single two head machine to its current status.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Sources of Capital A bank loan is a reliable source of capital for any business enterprise. Bank loans are offered at competitive interest rates which are pegged on current market rates (Grossman


“The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems.” Summary Essay (Article) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

“The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems.” E. Michael Foster and Stephanie Watkins. Child Development, 81(1), 368–375. January/February 2010.

In the study, Foster and Watkins employ the reanalysis procedure in order to explore the developmental issue of interrelation between watching television and attention disorders in children (2010). To conduct their research, the authors choose the tool of semiparametric regression replacing the procedure of linear assessment that has led to limited results of a previous study (Foster and Watkins, 2010).

In addition, Foster and Watkins introduce two additional variables in their investigation, a measure of mother’s achievement and a measure of the family’s income (2010). The study has been conducted among a sample of 2692 children between ages 1 and 7, equally divided by gender and representing a varied racial composition (Foster and Watkins, 2010). The results of the study have shown that the danger of attention disorders becomes significant only for those children who watch television over 7 hours per day.

Furthermore, such relation between television watching and attention problems becomes insignificant when two additional factors are introduced into the study. The information from the article raises the topical psychological issue of the influence exerted by mass media products on child development.

References Foster, E. M.,


Dickinson’s Poem Essay college admission essay help

The intricate and subtle meanings in poetry are created not only by figures of speech but also by structural elements, which include form, meter, and rhyme. Despite their outward formality, those structural elements, when organized and arranged accordingly, help to emphasize certain poetic ideas and to bring forth the needed mood and emotion.

An example of a creative application of form, meter, and rhyme can be discovered in Emily Dickinson’s poem “After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes”. Combined together, those structural elements assist the poetess in developing a sense of numbness that creeps over a grieving person who loses the sense of time and stiffens in the freezing embrace of death.

The form of the poem comprises three stanzas of unequal length. The first and the last stanzas are both four-line quatrains, while the second stanza is a five-line cinquain. Such unevenness in the quantity of lines immediately turns the reader’s attention to the middle stanza and makes the reader wonder over the reasons for such choice.

The answer may be found in the fact that by making the middle stanza longer, Dickinson attempts to emphasize its meaning as a lengthy description of numbness. While reading this prolonged stanza longer as compared to the four-line verses surrounding it, the reader literally experiences the slowness of the motions impeded by suffering and grief.

The meter of Dickinson’s poem demonstrates constant fluctuation without much stability and evenness. The metrical foot of iamb is the basis of the poem but is often latent by semi-accents, as if to demonstrate the interruptions in the narrator’s breath. The line-length is also uneven, ranging from dimeter in the third and second lines of the middle stanza to as long as pentameter in the final two lines of the poem (Dickinson, 2006, p. 168).

Such difference in line-length can be viewed as the desire to show how emotionally unstable this state of numbness is and how thoughts occurring to the narrator differ in length depending on the level of rigor. Moreover, to emphasize the interrupted train of thought experienced by the narrator, Dickinson employs long rhythmic dashes that create semantic pauses. These pauses accumulate especially in the last line of the conclusive stanza, as if showing the final numbness of the grieving person.

The rhyme scheme of the poem additionally contributes to the feelings of distress and affliction. While the first stanza demonstrates a relative stability in rhyme AABB, the subsequent verses feature only two last lines rhymed in each, as CDEFF and GHII.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from an obviously unstable rhyming scheme, Dickinson employs such sound pattern as alliteration in order to put additional emphasis on certain meaningful words. Thus, for example, in the first line of the poem the sound ‘f’ is dominant to attract the reader’s attention to the words “formal feeling” which are the key subject of the poem (Dickinson, 2006, p. 168).

Further on, the stanza features the hissing sound of ‘s’ which reminds of the rustling ancient runes, as well as the sound ‘h’ in words “Heart” and “He” which are thus linked to symbolize a living being whose heart became numb in suffering (Dickinson, 2006, p. 168).

Dickinson’s skillful treatment of formal structural elements produce an undisputedly significant impact on the way the reader perceives the ideas and emotions of the poem. The semantic accents placed by the form, the meter, and the rhyme scheme turn attention to the numbness and unevenness of the narration which are the key emotional characteristics of “After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes”.

References Dickinson, E. (2006). After great pain, a formal feeling comes. In D. Lehman (Ed.), The Oxford Book of American Poetry (p. 168). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.


Analysis of Music Pieces in Terms of Rhythm, Melody, and Texture Analytical Essay essay help free: essay help free

Rhythm, melody, and texture are some of the significant basic elements of music that can be found in literally any musical piece. Yet, those elements differ dramatically from piece to piece, thus creating the individual image of each composition and making it unique.

The present paper focuses on analyzing the rhythm, melody, and texture in a selection of two musical compositions and discovering both the similarities and differences in the way those musical elements appear in the compositions. The works under discussion come from different styles of piano music.

The first piece, Allegretto Graciozo from Piano Sonata K333, was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in the golden age of Classical tradition in 1780s. The second piece, Fantaisie-Impromptu op.66, was created by the Romantic genius of Frederic Chopin in the first half of the nineteenth century.

The rhythmic peculiarities of Mozart’s Allegretto Graciozo reflect the graceful nature of the piece, announced in its name. Streaming through the simple quadruple time signature alla breve, the movement proceeds in the steady rhythm of quarter-notes and eighth-notes, with a significant rhythmic accent placed on the first beat of the bar by placing a dotted crochet rest there (Mozart 00:00, 00:08).

The stability of rhythmical scheme is somehow enlivened by a triplet of sixteenth-notes appearing in the variation of the initial motif (Mozart 00:08). A more obvious shift from duple to triple rhythm is observed in the fourth realization of the main theme, with its final bar breaking out in a series of four eighth-note triplets (Mozart 00:22–00:24).

Mozart uses the method of rhythmical variation quite widely, with the second theme diversified by a small syncope during its repetition (Mozart 00:38–00:40). In addition to these small rhythmical variations, the overall diversity in rhythm is achieved through altering more stabile rhythmic schemes of quarter-notes and eighth-notes with more agitated patterns of sixteenth-notes (Mozart 00:41–00:51).

As it is typical of music written by composers of Viennese Classic period, the melody of Allegretto Graciozo is based on the sounds of chords. For example, the first bar of the piece features a melody highlighting the tones of a triad, and in the second bar it outlines the tones of a seventh-chord.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to this peculiarity, the first motive is characterized as disjunct melody (Mozart 00:00–00:04). In contrast to this part, the final motive of the phrase moves in intervals of seconds, and therefore features a conjunct type of melody (Mozart 00:05–00:07).

The significance of the initial phrase is emphasized by the fact that it is repeated four times at the beginning of the piece (00:00–00:24), then in the middle of the piece (01:00–01:21), and then developed in a different mode (02:15–02:25), returning in the original variant two more times (02:44–03:05 and 05:15–05:25).

In the traditions of the Classical period, the texture of Allegretto Graciozo is homophonic. The main melody is placed in the top layer of the texture, the highest pitches. Although the rest of the layers sometimes demonstrate interesting melodic lines, they do not represent an independent melody.

Therefore, those subvoices cannot be viewed as equally significant melodic materials and should rather be classified as accompaniment. Inside this homophonic texture, however, there are fragments of polyphonic dialogue between the voices, imitating each other’s motifs (Mozart 01:30–01:33 and 04:21–04:24).

Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu for piano represents a curious piece of music from the point of view of its rhythmical scheme. The basic time signature of the composition is simple quadruple, but it is almost leveled by the intricate polyrhythmic pattern: the right hand of the pianists plays passages in four sixteenth-notes per beat, and the left hand of the pianist performs triads of eighth-notes per beat at the same time.

This creates an original effect of continuous and quite irregular movement. Rhythmic organization also helps to divide the form of the piece: the polyrhythmic pattern of four sixteenth-notes against eighth-note triads gives place to another polyrhythmic pattern of two eighth-notes against eight-note triads in the middle section of Fantaisie-Impromptu (Chopin 01:03–02:55).

It is hard to talk about the melody in the two parts of Fantasie-Impromptu located around the middle. In fact, the real melody appears only in the middle part, featuring a melodic line of a wide range and both conjunct and disjunct movement (Chopin 01:03–02:55). The large leaps in melody increase the expressiveness of the piece by enlarging the melodic range to almost two octaves (Chopin 2:25–2:27).

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of Music Pieces in Terms of Rhythm, Melody, and Texture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emphasizing the romantic nature of the piece, the melody of the middle part is rich with various embellishments like trills and ornamentation (Chopin 01:10, 01:20, 01:30). Contrasted to this obvious melody in the middle section of Fantaisie-Impromptu, the outer sections represent a constant movement of sounds without a definite melodic line. However, even in this sound entity, there emerge certain melodic impulses, allowing to link sounds together in an audible melodic line (Chopin 00:20–00:38 and 03:07–03:24).

The texture of Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu is obviously homophonic in the middle part where a definite melodic line is accompanied by figurations in the bass (Chopin 01:03–02:55). On the contrary, the texture in the outer parts does not possess an outstanding melodic line.

The texture there is quite thick due to the figuration in the parties of both the right and the left hand of the pianist. However, since the material played by the right hand prevails in the hearing perception of the listener, it can be assumed that in the outer parts the texture is homophonic as well.

Despite the difference in style between Mozart’s Allegretto Graciozo and Chopin’s Fantasie-Impromptu, there is certain similarity in the way the two compositions are organized rhythmically. On the one hand, both pieces maintain one and the same type of time signature, the simple quadruple one.

On the other hand, when comparing the ways the composers handle repetitions of the main melodic line, it becomes apparent that with each repetition the theme is varied rhythmically. By theme here is meant the initial phrase in Mozart’s Allegretto Graciozo and the melodic phrase that opens the middle part of Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu (Chopin 01:03–02:55). Rhythmic variation as a means of development is thus common to both pieces.

In terms of melody, the pieces are similar in that they both possess distinctive melodies that combine both conjunct and disjunct movement. Again, in case with Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu melody is discussed in terms of the middle section (Chopin 01:03–02:55).

Both of the compositions feature repetitions of melodic phrases in order to emphasize the significance of the given melody as the main theme of the piece. Moreover, Mozart, like Chopin, employs the techniques of ornamental embellishment as variation in consequent repetitions of the melodic phrase (Mozart 00:15).

Remaining within the conventional tradition of Classical and Romantic music, both Mozart and Chopin write their pieces in homophonic texture. The melody clearly dominates over the accompaniment, however interesting subvoices the latter may feature. The accompaniment of both pieces is mainly based on supporting the melody by harmonic structures that actually represent harmonic chords expanded in separate sounds. Therefore, the subvoices merely fill in the harmony and cannot be viewed as independent melodic structures.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Music Pieces in Terms of Rhythm, Melody, and Texture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Along with the similarities, the music pieces under discussion demonstrate significant differences in terms of rhythm, melody, and texture. The differences in rhythmic organization of the two compositions are apparent in the fact that Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu demonstrates a bright example of polyrhythmic music, with its outer parts featuring a collision between triple and quadruple rhythmic structures.

Such conflict of simultaneously sounding rhythms creates a conflict and dramatic character of music itself. On the contrary, Mozart keeps his piece in relatively steady rhythms, occasionally introducing a series of triplets or syncopes to diversify the rhythmic scheme. This placidity in rhythm contributes to the graceful nature of music announced in the title of Allegretto Graciozo.

The melodic organization of Mozart’s and Chopin’s pieces demonstrates a difference in terms of the expressive effects of the melody. While Mozart keeps the main melody of his composition emotionally neutral by sticking to the standard pattern of following the sounds of triad, Chopin appears more creative in his approach to melody.

In the two outer sections of his Fantaisie-Impromptu, the composer conceals the melody in the streaming passages of sixteenth-notes and only rarely lets the audience trace intonations that resemble a melodic line (Chopin 00:20–00:38 and 03:07–03:24). Such veiling of the melody in the outer parts makes its appearance in the middle section ever significant. This melody of the middle part differs from Mozart’s melodic structures by a much wider range and length of phrase.

The difference in the texture between the two pieces reveals itself mainly in the level of texture denseness. In Mozart’s Allegretto Graciozo, the texture is mainly light and almost transparent, since it is only limited to the melodic line and a simple accompaniment with either chords played together or figurations on the sounds of chords. In Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu, the texture is seemingly based on the same principle of melody with accompaniment.

However, it seems much denser to the listener due to the accumulation of multiple sounds sustained on one pedal. In addition, the lack of melodic clarity in the outer parts of Fantaisie-Impromptu contributes to the loadening of texture, as the listener intuitively connects the many tones into one reverberating whole.

Upon comparison of the two pieces, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Allegretto Graciozo from Piano Sonata K333 and Frederic Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu op.66, it becomes obvious that certain conclusions should be drawn from the analysis.

On the one hand, the similarities in rhythm, melody, and texture prompt that there exist certain artistic standards common for every style in music. Rhythmic variety as a principle of development, repetition of melodic fragments in order to emphasize the significance of a certain melodic theme, homophonic texture as dominant in both pieces, – all those features appear universal principles in classic music.

On the other hand, composers individualize their works by employing various patterns of rhythmic organization, a narrower or wider range of melodic lines, and a more or less transparent texture. Singling out the common and the different in music compositions helps to realize the universal and the individual in art.

Works Cited Chopin, Frederic. Fantaisie-Impromptu op.66. Perf. Vladimir Horowitz. 6 Jul. 2010. Web. .

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Allegretto Graciozo from Piano Sonata K333. Perf. Vladimir Horowitz. 6 Jul. 2010. Web.


Winnie-the-Pooh by A. A. Milne Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Author’s Biography

Main and supporting characters

Plot Synopsis

Theme of the story

Work Cited

Author’s Biography Alan Alexander Milne was born in1882 in London to a master of Henley House and a teacher. At three years of age, Milne amazed his father by reading a word which his two older brothers could not and it was not long after this incidence that he (Milne) realized that he was good at reading; his favorite book then being Alice in wonderland. By 1906, he had been part of a team that created successful comedies and novels.

He has written numerous novels and among his most successful novels is Winnie-the–pooh in 1925 (Ward, 6). Winnie-the-pooh was a dedication to his son whose name, Christopher Robin, features among the main characters in the novel. The story became so popular that it even made the headlines of the local dailies then.

Milne went on to write several other novels, diversifying from his original writing of children books. He even played a role in the Second World War as a home guard captain. A few years after retirement, he experienced a stroke which led to his death in 1956.

Main and supporting characters The characters in the story are mainly animals, mortified pets and one human character. Winnie-the-Pooh is the main character in the story and is described as having a golden skin and a characteristic red t-shirt. He is presented as the silly one with silly actions and an everlasting craving for honey, which, more often than not lands him in trouble.

Christopher Robin is the only human character in the story. As mentioned earlier, this character is named after the author’s only son who also shares the same name (Ward, 6). In the story, he is seen to be everyone’s favorite friend and is portrayed as being the closest friend to Winnie-the-Pooh.

The Bouncy Tigger is an ever-excited character who is described as one who frequently jumps around, hence his name. He is portrayed as a fun loving tiger who is additionally egocentric. From the novel, Eeyore the Donkey is portrayed as not being amused by this ‘jumpy’ behavior.

Many who have read the story find Eeyore the Donkey to be interesting in many ways even though he is the gloomiest of the characters (Browne, 917). Eeyore, in most instances has some tinge of humor in his statements. His falling tail and falling house are a constant taunt to him and this adds some good humor to the story. According to the story, he is excited by red balloons and disturbed by jumpy characters like the jumpy Tigger.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rabbit is among the characters named as a real animal. This is perhaps, is because he is named after the author’s pet rabbit. Like Owl, he is a minor character in the novel. Rabbit is portrayed as being an organized and responsible character, and this is represented by his behavior of taking notes of most occurrences around him.

Piglet in the story is revealed as Winnie-the-Pooh’s best accomplice who also happens to be also very close to Christopher Robin. He is depicted as the brave one in spite of his small size and is mostly seen in his characteristic stripped shirt.

Owl is the wisest of the animal characters and is often consulted whenever crises occur. He however finds difficulty in pronouncing some basic words like his own name, ‘OWL’, which he spells as ‘WOL’. He comes in later in the play probably to fill in the characters just like Rabbit.



The effects of body dehydration Research Paper essay help

Introduction Water is a very vital component in the human body. The human body can stay for weeks without food but can only manage a few days without water. 58-78% of human bodies are composed of water, depending on the body size. In a single day, the body requires about two to three liters of water. Approximately, 20% of this water is obtained from food, which means that the remaining amount needs to be drank directly (Guyton, 1991, p. 274).

Nonetheless, this should not be the fixed rule for all people since various activities, professions and environments demand varied levels of body fluids. For instance, professional athletes more often than not do require more than the 2-3 liters a day while people in hot places require a higher water intake than those in cooler places. This fluid is so vital in our bodies because virtually each body process needs it. Thirst is a very good pointer that one’s body is getting dehydrated and thus should not be ignored.

Functions of water in the body Water is responsible for the general well-being of the human body; sixty percent of the body is basically water. The roles of this fluid in the body are mainly four: various forms of movement around the body, protection of various body organs, lubrication and body temperature regulation in order to fit to prevailing conditions (Jackson, 1985, p. 240).

Digestion cannot take place effectively minus sufficient water. The fluid keeps the body hydrated while at the same time it assists digestion especially in the intestinal tract. Food is enabled to flow freely through the system if it is contains adequate amounts of water. Absorption of vital nutrients in the intestinal tract also relies on the wetness of the digested food passing through.

Effective ridding our bodies of wastes and other toxic substances also relies on the amount of water intake. Processes in the urinary tract, sweating and in getting rid of fecal matter rely on water (Koeppen, 2002, p. 108).

It has been proved that people suffering from kidney stones need to up their water intake in order to liquefy calcium in their urine thus reduce stone formation. Sufficient water also prevents urinary tract infections by cleaning out impurities. Persons who don’t take enough water daily experience problems of constipation every now and then.

Various organs in the human body need protection for general comfort and wellbeing. Water plays a vital role in protecting eyes from shocks and dirt, protecting cells, protection of joints against compression through the synovial fluid, protection of fetuses within expectant women and protection of our mouths from choking (Koeppen, 2002, p. 108).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organs in the body require sufficient lubrication for effective functionality and comfort. Our eyes and joints and mouths need constant lubrication, in which water is the major component.

Several forms of transportation need to be carried out within a normal and functional body. Water present in the blood is the transporter of oxygen and foods to all our body cells. Water also returns waste products such as carbon dioxide to the lungs and urine to the kidneys for excretions.

Temperature regulation is important for our bodies and it takes place with the help of water (Guyton, 1976, p. 424). In hot conditions, sweat glands that are located under the skin secrete sweat which is mainly water onto the surface. This water evaporates leaving a cooling effect behind and thus comfort for the body.

Effects on a body without sufficient water Dehydration is defined as a loss of body weight of 1% or greater resulting from fluid loss. Timely signs that one is getting dehydrated include queasiness, dizziness, irritability and headaches while on normal duty or working out on a hot day. If one gets more dehydrated, then it can lead to dim vision and severe exhaustion (Koeppen, 2002, p. 109). In fact, attention and concentration levels get reduced, together with short term memory. Any more fluid losses after this can lead to coma and eventually death.

Blood plasma is normally 90% water and dehydration serves to lessen the amount of blood in the body which results in overworking the heart system. Working out turns out to be more labored since the body’s arrangements are not functioning as effectively as they do with the right hydration and performance ends up being affected negatively (Koeppen, 2002, p. 111).

How different electrolytes function within the body Electrolytes refer to substances that separate in water to form positively and negatively charged ions that conduct an electrical current. In relation to the human body, these electrolytes are usually sodium, potassium and chloride. These electrolytes serve to normalize fluid equilibriums and are vital in balancing acid and base amounts all through the body.

The main functions of sodium include nerve transmission, contraction of muscles and maintaining fluid balance (Jackson, 1985, p. 246). The main deficiency symptom of sodium deficiency is cramping of muscles. Those at risk of developing sodium deficiency are people who take a severely sodium limited diet and those who sweat excessively. High levels of sodium lead to hypertension in salt sensitive people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The effects of body dehydration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Potassium serves as the main positive intracellular ion. It is also vital in nerve transmission, contraction of muscles and fluid balance within the body. Deficiency symptoms include a notably uneven heartbeat, exhaustion and cramping of muscles. The people who are vulnerable to this deficiency are those taking poor diets high in processed foods and the ones consuming thiazide diuretics. Excessive levels of potassium lead to an irregular heartbeat.

Chloride is the major negative extracellular ion and also aids in fluid steadiness in the body (Jackson, 1985, p. 246). There are usually no noticeable deficiency symptoms and there is no group of people that are specifically inclined to acquire it. It also harbors no toxic effects to the body even if it is in excessive amounts.

Effects of alcohol and caffeine on hydration levels in the body Too much alcohol and caffeinated drinks leads the individual taking them to pass water more. Consequently, the amount of fluids leaving the body is increased which in turn leads to dehydration followed by failure of the kidneys (Guyton, 1991, p. 278).

Steps that people need to take to ensure they do not get dehydrated Intake of a good deal of regular tap water and vitamin packed water guards against dehydration. Individuals who exercise like athletes should not forget to take plenty of water before exercise, in the course of the exercise and after they are done in order to replenish the lost water (Guyton, 1991, p. 280).

Thirst is not a good indicator of dehydration. It should be a habit for everyone to drink water when they get up in the morning and throughout the day.

Reference List Guyton, A. (1976). Textbook of Medical Physiology (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p. 424.

Guyton, A. (1991). Textbook of Medical Physiology (8th Ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p. 274-280

Jackson, S. (1985). Anatomy


The Future of Psychology Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Over the past few decades, the field of psychology has undergone tremendous changes not only in its approach to problems associated with the behavior of the society, but also in terms of methodologies its practitioners use, in their endeavor to understand the working of the human mind.

Because of the ever changing socio-economic, political, and the overall mental health condition of individuals; as a result of the rapid changes in global systems of living, currently the field of psychology uses mostly a scientific approach in solving human behavioral and psychiatric problems.

In addition to using scientific approaches in dealing with these problems, practitioners in this field also widely use technological tools, for example, computers, because of their great significance when it comes to understanding the human behavior. Considering these and many others uses of scientific innovations in psychology, with time, the field of psychology is bound to undergo a drastic transformation, both in methodology and practice.

On the other hand, with inclusion of more scientific innovations in psychology, likelihoods of researchers finding better methods of dealing and understanding the human mind and behavior are high, something which is likely to offer psychologists or medics a chance of finding better treatment remedies to psychiatric and behavioral problems.

To deal effectively with such problems, psychologists are likely to combine both therapy and medicine, as both are necessary in dealing with human psychiatric and behavioral problems (Baker, McFall,


Multicultural Education: Concepts and Strategies Definition Essay college essay help

Multicultural education is an educational field that targets at achieving equal educational opportunities for individuals from different races, ethnicities and social classes. The primary goal of this field of study is to ensure that each and every student is in a position to obtain the necessary knowledge and the skills to enable them operate properly in cosmopolitan societies. This kind of education also puts students in a position to relate and communicate effectively with people from other social-cultural groups.

Multicultural education is different from other forms of education in the sense that apart from being based on theoretical concepts also entrenches the use of practical strategies to ensure that students are in a position to put information garnered in class to proper societal use.

This is achieved by the usage of references of heroes from the different racial/ethnic/social classes amongst the students or the inclusion of a particular holiday in the curriculum. Students who are in a position to understand why individuals from social groups different from theirs see things from a different perspective are able to meaningfully relate with these peers.

For instance in American classes, students who are able to understand that the viewpoints of the native Americans when they clashed with the Europeans is of primary importance to the American structuring story, just like that of the pioneers, are in a position to see that the various challenges encountered in their respective communities cannot be tackled from a particular point of view.

If these students are able to see that women respond differently from their male counterparts when faced with a given adversity based on their racial and social-class backgrounds aside from their gender, they can ensure that a balance is achieved in the way they handle the problems they encounter.

This therefore means that multicultural education calls for the usage of critical thinking strategies in such a way that students are able to make meaning out of abstract situations. Individuals are expected to through a lot of research regarding the different viewpoints of their peers from other social groupings such that they are in a position to grasp the complexities of social relation.

Traditionally, multicultural education has been viewed as education for minority students. This has however come to be disapproved as it has been found that in the multicultural societies in which these students live, they have to constantly interact with students from the majority races and social-cultural groups. This therefore means that the students from the so-called majority groups have to be introduced to multicultural education in order to develop desirable relational social skills.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In summary, it can be said that multicultural education is a field of study designed to establish change in society. It employs the usage of critical thinking skills as well as extensive lessons structured to ensure that students are able to adequately appreciate the information they acquire in class as important and applicable in society.

This educational field has over time come to be structured in such a way that it not only targets the minority groups in society but also allows for students from particularly the majority races to gain from the classes. Unlike other forms of education whose primary aim is to equip students with skills to earn a livelihood by securing meaningful jobs, multicultural education mainly focuses on shaping the individual characters of the students.


The Major Theories of Crime Causation Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The rational choice theory

The social structure theory



Introduction The survival of any civilization hinges on the establishment of laws and codes of conduct and the subsequent obeying of the same by the members of the society. Since not all members of the community follow the law on their own accord, forms of punishment for wrongs done may be used both for retribution and deterrence purposes.

Over the years researchers have developed theories on how the brain works in regards to processing information, learning, and environmental adaptation. These theories have made it possible for various experts to identify and divide human beings according to their different intellectual capabilities and behaviors.

In this paper, we shall research on how criminals come into being, the different types of criminals and the theories that best relate crime to the perpetrators. This paper argues that criminals in our societies are fueled by various political, social and environmental factors. The different theories that have been formulated to correlate this statement shall be explored, and the rationale behind them analyzed.

According to Dweck (2000), there is a difference between a fixed and growth mindset. She states that people with a fixed mindset often believe in the basic intelligence they are born. They often doubt their abilities because their minds cannot perceive beyond what they think they can manage, and as such, they lack the motivation to try harder because they are afraid to lose.

On the other hand, those with a growth mindset perceive challenges as an opportunity to prove and test their mental capabilities. With this in mind, the question that begs to be answered is: why do people commit crimes? The answer to this question can best be addressed by exploring the various theories that explain the causes of crime.

The rational choice theory Miller (2009) asserts that this theory assumes that crime is a rational action undertaken by people and aimed towards an expected outcome. Therefore, crime is a matter of choice and is orchestrated with due diligence to the risks and benefits that may be accrued upon the undertaking of such actions. He claims that this theory is based on concepts that determine the motive behind every criminal activity. From this statement, it is evident that crime is a matter of careful planning and cost-benefit analysis.

Siegel (2003) states that the perpetrators decide on which crime to commit after evaluating both the personal factors (financial gain, entertainment, revenge, etc.) and the situational factors such as availability of opportunities, police concentration and the level of security present.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Siegel (2003), there are two types of crimes in this theory. An offense-specific crime refers to an event chosen by the perpetrator due to its nature or characteristics. Criminals who specialize in this type of crime are mostly driven by the expected gain, ease of execution (escape routes and getaway vehicles) of the crime or the probability of evading capture/apprehension. On the other hand, an offender-specific crime depends mainly on the personal traits of the perpetrator.

Before executing the crime, the criminals analyze their skills and capabilities to gauge whether they indeed have what it takes to carry out the act successfully. In addition to this, the individuals with this mind set are less likely to commit a crime if they feel that there are other legitimate means to actualize their specific goals.

It should be noted that there is a significant difference between crime and criminality. Siegel (2003) contends that while crime refers to the actual event, criminality is a personal trait. This being said, it may not be surprising to find criminals that do not commit crimes or innocent people that commit crimes. This is because crime is influenced either by personal or situational factors.

Criminality as a trait is fostered mainly by personal factors such as economic needs or seizure of available opportunities. For example, a student may choose to peddle drugs to supplement tuition fees or even maintain a particular lifestyle (financial needs). On the other hand, one may decide to shoplift simply because an opportunity has presented itself.

Another factor constituting to criminality is false expectations. In this segment, the perpetrators view their criminal activities as a ticket to a better life. They believe that committing crimes present them with a chance of becoming successful or wealth in an uncompromising world.

Siegel (2003) states that others learn criminal techniques in a bid to avoid detection and apprehension. In this case, the criminals manage to master ways of blending in and minimizing the risks of getting caught. The factors mentioned above have been noted and documented as means that condition people to adapt to criminality. On the other hand, two main factors structure crime: where it occurs (location), and the type of target.

The social structure theory Akers (2009) affirms that there is a solid relationship between poverty and crime. The social structure approach to crime assumes that people commit crimes due to social, political, cultural and economic structures that govern them. To further understand the relationship between these structures and crime, we shall divide them and discuss them separately.

We will write a custom Essay on The Major Theories of Crime Causation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economic structure of any nation determines the atmosphere that its citizens dwell in (Deflem, 2006). This is because the availability of money makes it possible to access the necessary amenities required by humans to exist. Such amenities include food, clothing, education, health facilities, security and shelter among others. However, almost every nation in the world experiences inequalities among its citizens in terms of wealth, prestige and power.

Such inequalities further lead to socioeconomic stratification where people are grouped according to their financial status. Those people classified as the lower class at times have problems in accessing the amenities mentioned above due to inadequacies in their finances or neglect from the responsible authorities.

As a result, they are left in a state of despair, frustration and poverty factors which lead most of them into crime as they try to make their ends meet. In addition to this, the lack of these resources accompanied by poverty has contributed to the elevated levels of school dropouts among the minorities.

Siegel (2003) states that the lack of education minimizes the chances of succeeding in life, kills the motivation required to achieve and increases unemployment. Therefore, to cope, people often find themselves committing crimes or doing drugs. Socially, the theory assumes that people commit crimes as a result of the social structures adopted by a community.

As mentioned earlier, this approach to crime dwells on the assumption that the unequal distribution of resources leads to an increase in criminal activities within a given area or social group. As such, the presence of gangs, lack of adequate security in the neighborhoods and social disorder are among the significant causes of crime.

Akers (2009) states that the social structural approach to crime is further divided into other sub-theories which explain the causes of crime. The social disorganization approach is one such theory, and it assumes that crime is committed due to a general breakdown in the system which leads to a disorganized community.

Secondly is the strain theory which contends that people commit crime due to a conflict between personal goals and the ability to achieve them. Even though we all have goals and dreams, our ability to realize them depends on our social class. This means that the higher class members of society have a better chance of achieving their goals than those in the lower class.

This leaves those in the lower class desperate, angry and frustrated; factors which may lead them into committing crimes. The final sub-theory is the cultural deviance theory. This theory is a combination of the other two sub-theories and articulates that the factors that lead to crime push members of the community into formulating a culture which works for their interests.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Major Theories of Crime Causation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Criminology is an essential science in today’s society. The need to understand the mindset of criminals is invaluable. As such, the development of theories that best explore criminality plays a pivotal role in the reduction of crime in our societies.

Two of these theories have been highlighted, and the various factors that lead to crime discussed. It is however evident that there is a difference between crime and criminality. Therefore, to minimize crime, the responsible authorities must ensure that they focus on finding the solutions to the latter because solving such issues will go a long way in fighting crime and providing a safer future for generations to come.

References Akers, R. L. (2009). Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. USA: Transaction Publishers.

Deflem, M. (2010). Popular Culture, Crime, and Social Control. USA: Emerald Group Publishing

Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: their role in motivation, personality, and development. USA: Psychology Press.

Miller, J. M. (2009). 21st-century criminology: a reference handbook. USA: SAGE.

Siegel, L. J. (2007). Criminology. USA: Wadsworth Publishing.


You have recently been assigned Health Promotion as a new priority for the upcoming year. Review the C-Span Health Promotion https://www.c-span.org/video/?300273-5/health-promotion-strategy video and determine how you can use this information to promote health within your community. Explain the importance of health promotion and the impact on the nation and the world. How much should the government play a role in our health? How much should the individual take control of his or her own health? Would it be a more effective strategy to invest in preventive healthcare rather than treating sickness and disease? Provide an argument for and against health promotion. best college essay help: best college essay help

The Health Promotion assignment Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. Must include a separate title page with the following: Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course text. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.


Suspense in “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” Essay argumentative essay help

This essay analyzes the theme of suspense in “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge”. The mystery story by Ambrose Bierce, that was written in 1890, focuses on the life of a middle-aged man called Peyton Farquhar. The plot of the story unfolds at the time of the American Civil War (1861-1865). For trespassing on the Owl Creek Bridge, Peyton is condemned to death by hanging upon the same bridge. A Confederate sympathizer, Peyton Farquhar is shown to be already bound at the edge of the bridge as the story starts. As much as the central part of “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” essay is set in Peyton’s mind, it culminates in a curious twist in the plot. However, one does not realize this quickly until the end of the story. Only then the reader learns that Farquhar has died and is hanging with a broken neck from the edge of the bridge. In summary, all three parts of “An Occurrence At Owl Creek Bridge” are suspense-filled.

The author captures the reader’s attention with elements of horror and suspense throughout the story. As the story begins, the reader is introduced to a man having a noose around his neck, “The man’s hands were behind his back, his wrists bound with a cord. A rope closely encircled his neck” (A.Bierce, 1).

However, the reader is not told the reason for this sad beginning. Therefore, this beginning sentence cements the reader tightly and instantly into the story. One understands later that a confederate soldier had told the main character in the story about the bridge. One can only imagine that he is the one who tried to destroy the bridge since his fate is to be concealed by hanging from that same bridge.

Subsequently, as the noose breaks, the reader almost sees if the prisoner can flee from the Union forces and make it back to his wife and children. All through the short story, the reader is on edge to see if, in any case, Peyton can survive the ordeal. However, the optimism is soon taken away when the reader realizes that he was hanging from the bridge.

In the story, the author uses a third-person narrator with a limited omniscient point of view that creates a tone of analysis in describing Peyton’s experience before passing away. The author recreates a significant period for a man who is about to die. This brief moment is perceived to be the better part of a full day. As Bierce succeeds in portraying the most intimate thoughts of Peyton as he struggles to escape from the hangman, it creates a dramatic journey of anxiety and suspense.

In the journey, he seems to escape the hangman and manage to get back to his family once again, as demonstrated by the quote “As these thoughts, which have here to be set down in words, were flashed into the doomed man’s brain rather than evolved from it, the captain nodded to the sergeant” (Bierce, 4). As we take note of this significant period, it appears to last for the better part of the day. Still, as the story ends, one realizes that it was only taking place in the mind of the main character.

Moreover, the reader realizes that it was only the last moments of his life just before the hangman’s rope broke his neck and rendered him lifeless.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the hanging is an important part of the plot of the story, it remains in the shadows of it. The author creates and maintains suspense by tricking the reader that Peyton escapes the ordeal. With the rope around his neck, the reader expects him to die. However, he plunges into a river filled with different kinds of animal images.

Instead of dying, the author gives the main character in the story an explosion of life. This literary technique makes the reader hooked into the text to be acquainted with the details of the profound occurrence of Peyton’s demise than would a less knowing point of view.

To heighten and consistently create suspense in “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge”, the author uses a variation on the gothic tension-release technique. He achieves this by giving the reader images that are strange, hopeful, but quiet. He then hits the reader with a barrage of bullets and pain and, all of a sudden, the main character is off and swimming or trying to escape.

Bierce intentionally employs this tension-release effect on numerous occasions throughout the story to maintain suspense before the unexpected ending. “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” features an abundance of literary techniques aimed to change the reader’s mood drastically. Before enhancing the sense of tension and suspense using gunfire or sadness, the author takes us into a state of tranquil, but strange occurrences take place first.

The reader is taken back and forth from near-death experiences to sweet illustrations of life, to pictures of life after death, to the physical reality of getting hurt, and eventually nearly into the re-union with Peyton’s family members. Instead, the story’s finale is a sad note with the death of Peyton Farquhar.

Works Cited Bierce, Ambrose. An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge. Enfield, N.S.W.: Royal Blind Society, 1988.


Slavery, Racism, and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Essay essay help: essay help

Slavery is a practice which dates back thousands of years. Conversely, racial discrimination is more appropriately defined by the mental and concrete conduct of the tormenter and the oppressed and their environmental context. Racism essentially defines the revulsion and trepidation that people keep on mankind with different skin colors.

The advent of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the early modern period gives evidence of how old slavery is. Europeans who arrived in Africa came with the impression that they are much superior to Africans. This wont angle clearly signifies how to a degree slavery arose from racism. Africans were seen as lesser human beings who were incapable of much advancement. They were viewed as uncouth and vulgar, traits which differed from the White generations. Colonizers hence used this claim to justify their being slaves.

Africans were seen as less than ordinary human beings who did not merit equal consideration, therefore could not be treated as humanely as the others. There was widespread suspicion, which eventually led to substantial abuse, which further intensified the determination of the Whites to have laborers.

The more the White population increased the more demand for labor in plantations and the existing manufacturing industries. In England, for example, the staff was thoroughly Black; hence the appearance of the idea of Africans being slaves. Their children inherited this image, and the slavery convention gradually became fortified.

By the 17th century, Africans were convincingly seen as assets to be transacted. They were part of the transactions including other stuff in trade. Ciphers were formulated in an attempt to control slaves. Laws which were formulated later in the century endeavored to establish punctilious preeminence over Black people. This form of racism was bent to ensure that Blacks resigned to their fate of being slaves.

These codes gave them no hope of ever acquiring sovereignty. Blacks were not seen as worthy of the privileges of liberty for which they were demanding. Whites constantly oppressed Africans in order to self-enhance their ego. This self-centered psychology and bigoted personality are what resulted in slavery in various countries. This impacted other colonies who strived to pass Black descendants through these ideologies.

Presently, African Americans in America comprise the greater percentage of the prison population. They are among the most poor, uneducated and unemployed. Police are also more likely to kill a Black man than a White individual. The innate fear and hatred that we have on the success of other skin colors indicate the extraordinary existance of racism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discrimination is part of the process of oppression. Differences in inherited characteristics, for example, skin color, have been used traditionally used to classify the oppressed as less inferior.

In the context of the Atlantic Slave Trade, it could be argued that racism in the New World arose from slavery. Bigotry was an outcome of slavery at the onset of early entrepreneurship. Slavery existed as a system of trade before America began its conquests, long before racism could be defined. Classical roman empires were based on the slave trade which had no relations to the skin color of people. Slaves were mainly from countries which had been conquered, or victims of war.

There was no interest on the ethnic attribution of the slaves, as their sole purpose was to provide. Humans were classified as either cultured or heathen. Hence, a White person could be considered as barbaric therefore less accomplished while a wise black being could be viewed as more productive.

The civilization process could not have been that rapid had the spirit and input of slaves not have been integrated in maturity. The trans-Atlantic slave trade, which lasted hundreds of years, is credited for the massive migration of Blacks and the intensification of the slave trade. It was the initiation of globalization of the new world. This resulted in Africans being transacted as property by Americans and Europeans leading to their exploitation and eventually prejudice.

The trade was all-inclusive, leading to an outsized economic framework for the coordinating countries. Religious, legal and philanthropic grounds justified forced labor. The culture and religion of many African communities were affected through this trend hence disadvantaging the intensification of success in the continent.

Africa could not compete effectively with other continents, predominantly America and Europe who were growing their economies through forced labor. The world viewed Africa as a continent of slaves who were doomed to be second-rate to other races. Slavery thus resulted in the background of racial discrimination, with the Whites stereotyping Blacks as being substandard.

These stereotypes were so severe that even Whites who were much poorer than some Blacks were seen as superior and deserving better treatment. The color of their skin exempted them from slavery and ensured their receipt of essential civil rights. The Blacks were keenly supervised in plantations, for fear of revolts. This fear of a revolution gradually grew tensions between the two races; the slave and the lord, leading to the formation of ethnic distinctiveness in the western countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Slavery, Racism, and the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These new distinctions destabilized the resistance of the White generation to slavery. Whites who were once slaves got incorporated into more benign forms of paid employment. Slavery was subsequently exclusively related to any Black person. Any African was thus seen as a potential slave, incase an individual was not one already. The cultural boundaries were thus opened by slavery in the new world.

Slavery lasted for the many years due to its profitability. The affluent became richer as the sweat of the unpaid slaves expanded their farms. The trans-Atlantic transactions of slaves were also promoted by some African leaders who collaborated with Whites in capturing slaves. This portrays an imperfect image for Africans who are seen to have encouraged the trade.

The domestic disturbance successfully eradicated slavery in the United States. Unfortunately, the effect on slavery was exceedingly minimal. Just as it was created to explain forced labor, racism was fashioned to classify Blacks as second-rate citizens.

During colonization, the super powers exploited different territories in search of cheap raw materials to maitain their industries. They made decisions for the populace in the invaded territories thus signifying their superiority. Racism continued in order to justify the mistreatment during the trans-Atlantic traffic.

The development of African children who learn about their inferiority at a tender age is undoubtedly influenced. Leaders were taught how to administer power by practicing dictatorship.

Changing this understanding in order to promote democracy in African countries thus becomes extremely difficult. Europeans and Americans therefore have no weight to disparage the administration criteria of Africans heads of state. This employment of political force has affected many countries, increasing distraught conditions like paucity and food shortage.

The above arguments suggest that racism was made my man in order to justify certain actions like slavery. This means that racial segregation can be eliminated through reducing the feelings of supremacy. The relationship of discrimination and private enterprises is immensely valid. In any capitalistic setting, racism must always be involved. Capitalism is the source of ethnic segregation, and its abolishment will unquestionably eradicate racism.


The Effect of Group Effectiveness in the Academic Circles Essay essay help online: essay help online

The study of an effective group is of paramount importance especially in the academic circles. Here a well thought out group implies a great deal of academic excellence among learners and also a good spirit of team work. This is because working in groups makes learners tolerable to other people with diverse ideals and believes.

In this case we are going to look at an academic group at college level of study which is supposed to work out assignments issued in classroom. We will also look at some tips which make this group to produce successful results. Finally, we will also look at how various dimensions of group participation are expressed in our group of interest and also how they lead to the group’s effectiveness.

There are various factors which can be described to be very critical for the group to attain the intended standards of effectiveness. The most interesting point to note is that all this factors surround the leadership of the group. One of the key factors is the information sharing especially from the group leader to his group members.

This can be realized through practicing open and transparent ways of passing messages which are wholly accessible to each and every member of the group with equal regards. In this case members will be in a position to come up with highly valued decisions since all members are quite knowledgeable about all crucial affairs of their group (Weber, 1983, p. 1). Also, with free flow of information there will be little objection towards arriving at final and most critical group decisions.

Secondly, the other inevitable factor for the attainment of an effective group is the group confidence among the members themselves and also towards their leader.

The group confidence implies the faith that they have upon themselves as it regards to the performance of their tasks and responsibilities and most particularly towards their leader. In this case the leadership style will have a lot of influence in shaping the confidence of the members in a group. Here the group leadership which appreciates and values the contribution of its members will lead to an effective group.

This is because the members will participate more on the group tasks and in decision making due to existing good confidence towards the leadership. Also other practices which can increase group confidence includes retention of membership by the previous leaders of the group and practicing democratic form of leadership other than being autocratic (Wageman, 2010, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other factors which can be attributed to attainment of an effective group include also the performance of the group. This implies the rate at which the group is able to give desired results and also the value of such results.

To achieve this, leaders should strive to develop a common vision amongst the members of the group. This common vision should emphasis on efforts of the individual members of the group which stimulates their devotion towards the affairs of the group thus increasing the level of performance of the group.

Lastly, the other factor is group cohesion which implies togetherness of the members and ability to remain united in their efforts to meet the set goals and objectives (Weber, 1983, p. 1). Here members feel a great deal of belonging to the group because they are highly appreciated and this motivates them to participate fully towards the success of the group thus attainment of an effective group.

The group’s effectiveness can also result from the various dimensions of group participation as expressed in our group of interest. Firstly, verbal and non verbal communication is expressed for example through speeches, discussions, taking minutes and writing letters to members.

This leads to information sharing which is very critical for an effective group. Secondly, the group development over sometime is exhibited by the fact that people keep on forming ties as their interests continue to harmonize as a result of increased interactions.

This leads to the development of a shared vision which motivates the members to put more efforts towards the attainment of the set goals thus high levels of efficiency in the group. Thirdly, the roles-task roles and maintenance roles are seen where the members are clearly assigned some duties and responsibilities to undertake for the common good of the group. Here the group composition will be organized in such a way that members with some distinct talents are placed in position where they can make good use of their talents.

For example people with leadership qualities will be assigned leadership positions in the group. This proper composition of the group will lead to good results thus an effective group. Finally, social interdependence and trust is expressed through mutual respect among members as they interact in the course of undertaking their tasks (Cohen, 1997, p. 7). This will lead towards the effectiveness of the group since all members feel free to participate because their opinions are being heard and respected.

We will write a custom Essay on The Effect of Group Effectiveness in the Academic Circles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the above, it is clearly seen that group are not just mere gatherings. For a group to be effective a lot of efforts are required from each member. Finally, without devoted leadership in the group, effectiveness can not be realized.

Reference List Cohen, S. (1997). What Makes Teams Work. Web.

Wageman, R. (2010). Interdependence and group effectiveness. Web.

Weber, J. (1983). Group Effectiveness: Understanding Group Member Roles. Web.


Contemporary Sexuality Class: Monogamy Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help near me

Monogamy and polygamy are the two different kinds of marriages that exist in the world today in which the former is regarded as the norm and the latter as the exception to the rule. These social patterns for marriage have differentiating circumstances encompassing their views. Monogamy, common in the developed countries, is whereby a person has one spouse at any one time. In contrast, polygamy, which is commonly favored in the traditional African and Muslim setting, takes place when a single male marries more than one female.

The practice of monogamy has been held in high esteem and is considered as the social expectation of anyone in a romantic, sexual relationship. However, as much as this practice has been ingrained in popular culture, it should not continue to be socially expected, demanded of people. We should rethink this cultural sexual norm.

The practice of polygamy has been unlawful in the United States since 1862. However, it has not been enforced strictly. The Mormon Church is well known for allowing this kind of marriage until the year 1980 when it outlawed it. It is important to note that the practice of polygamy is composed of polygyny and polyandry.

Polygyny is whereby a man has at least two wives. On the other hand, polyandry is whereby a woman has at least two husbands. As much as monogamy has been held in high esteem by the developed world, its basic function as the center of civilization has not been understood properly.

Most people hold the false perception that monogamy leads to a peaceful social contract, which is the basis for cultural harmony and economic growth.

This vague awareness has never been explored intensively. No one has expressed that the practice of having one spouse at a time is merely an ancient compromise whose failure only leads to antagonisms that people have failed to acknowledge for a long time. After all, this practice is regarded as the result of the age-old sexual dance, apart from others whose characteristics may not be so appealing.

Similar to every hard-worn compromise, monogamy is not able to give a perfect result to every person. Closer examination of this practice reveals numerous private dissatisfactions, which remain a form of “deviance” that is generally suppressed and disapproved by most people.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although this “deviance” has proved to be virtually impossible to eradicate, it has formed a nagging undercurrent of displeasure within any monogamous culture. Our society currently is full of children born out of wedlock, sexual infidelity, public prostitution, and an ever-increasing rise in divorce rate.

However, if we rethink our sexual cultural norm, we can be able to eliminate some of these evils. This is because some of these evils have resulted since the system of monogamy is unable to make every person happy. It is true that a marked variability exists among people and they often want to be paired with their desirable sexual partners. Because of these, discontentment will always exist under the system of monogamy.

Marriage is considered the best of all human institutions since it perpetuates the human race, lays the foundation of an organized society, and leads to the sharing of responsibilities. However, we are aware that these benefits have been denied to many, especially the women. Even as they have been deprived of their rights, the fault is not theirs.

Since they possess the same susceptibilities for love that others have, they would prefer a wedded life. The fault can be traced to the tyrannical regulations and the fashions of the artificial system of social life that is practiced in this century. The culture of monogamy must be at fault since it is incapable of giving every one on this planet his or her marriage partner.

On the other hand, the system of polygamy does not deprive women the benefits of marriage. The fact that women who are ready for marriage are more than men who are ready for marriage further illustrates this proposition. The surplus of women is due to men dying during warfare, violent incidences, and women living for many years than men. This proves that the system of monogamy is in itself unequal and unjust.

It has been proven that women generally mature faster than men do; therefore, young women become marriageable at a much earlier age. Even after reaching marriageable age, most men prefer to devote most of their years working before they start to assume matrimonial duties. The result is that most men wed at a later period in their lives. Therefore, if monogamy will continue to be socially expected, then more women will fail to enjoy a marriage life.

Furthermore, it has been observed that many men just do not want to marry even after acquiring the means of supporting a family. A number of them no longer have their youthful desires. In contrast, some have acquired decided habits of celibacy and others are too gay to think of marriage. More so, some are too busy or too selfish and others have been diseased by the contagious poison of low vice which makes them unfit for marriage.

We will write a custom Essay on Contemporary Sexuality Class: Monogamy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, the female sex is less susceptible to these difficulties and few of them are usually unwilling to marry. This is because they are naturally dependant on their male counterparts. This dependency is more evident in a marriage relationship. Therefore, it is only in marriage that women are able to fulfill their highest destiny in life. However, monogamy is cruel and oppressive and denies many women from reaching this state in life.

Some argue that polygamy is a means of poverty because of the increase of family responsibilities. However, honestly, they fail to notice that a polygamous marriage is more economically secure than a monogamous one. This is because there is an added income, another pair of hands to run the family errands, or perhaps another shoulder to lean on in times of crises.

To this end, it is clear that monogamy, which has been held in high esteem for many years, should not continue to be socially expected in our modern world. Polygamy can assist in holding families together and lowering the incidences of infidelity that are common in the society.

In a situation in which a wife is barren, the man, in order to preserve his lineage, can comfortably get another wife without throwing out the barren one. If a wife is suffering from a chronic illness, polygamy prevents illicit relationships from taking place. In addition, since men are outnumbered, polygamy is able to deter women from engaging in prostitution to fulfill their sexual desires.


Personal Health Change Autobiography Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Chosen healthy behavior

Reasons for making this health change

Challenges likely to be faced

Ways of overcoming the challenges

Benefits of healthy behavior


Introduction Improving the quality of one’s life is imperative in the present century. Education, establishment of more employment opportunities and private health in life are among the objectives which self-gratify an individual. The lifestyles individuals are accustomed to and their environment impact healthy behavior.

However, there are several ways of improving personal health, which may at times present challenges in their implementation. The benefits of most of these healthy behaviors nevertheless obscure the impediments which are faced.

Chosen healthy behavior I would like to exercise more routinely (5-7 times a week), while trying to develop a nutritional plan. This calls for having a meaningful vision and acquiring skills necessary to achieve the desired wellness. Physical activity, aerobics and muscle training are some of the divisions of exercise which include a painless 20 minute walk to an intensified work out in the gym.

Dancing and engaging in a physical sport like basketball or tennis is also forms of indirect exercise. The beauty of some exercises is that they do not necessarily involve a routine. Walking, for example, may be administered whenever an opportunity carves itself out.

These forms of physical activity stimulate hormones which are necessary for proper growth. Its other benefits like feeling and looking better lift composure and improves character, traits which are critical in the normal human socialization process. Using the stairs instead of the elevator and cycling to work are other valuable processes which are not that hard to achieve.

My main focus will be engaging in exercise, but I will also try maintaining a good diet. My nutritional project involves taking more fruits and vegetables and avoiding junk food which usually has a lot of fat. I have thought out turning into vegetarianism, but it has proven to yield more challenges than benefits, so I will prefer adding more vitamins in my diet.

Reasons for making this health change Health is not just about whether a person is challenged by a disease. I chose to make this condition change in order to further my physical, social and emotional well being. Physical activities help reduce weight and promote better sleep regardless of age or masculinity. I would like to reduce 30 pounds that I am overweight, and while keeping a diet may be forceful and not so feasible, employing straightforward exercise strategies will be my first choice of a health change.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Being proud of my physique would significantly assist in developing the social interactions I want. The observations I have made on the behavior of overweight students in school is not so attractive. They tend to cluster together and receive taunting comments, which lower their faith in life. I want to make a health change in order to maintain satisfactory relationships with my present friends and be able to communicate confidently with others.

Challenges likely to be faced Emotional support and the behavior other people rally will unquestionably present a challenge. Close friends and associations will play a central role in influencing my training schedule and the diet I intend to maintain. Group activities would thus cease, because my schedule will need individual effort without distractions. However, the greatest challenge will be choosing the most appropriate exercise to practice regularly. It would be essential to have a regular plan if I am to achieve my objectives.

Scheduling, discipline and determination will be the factors considered in choosing an applicable practice. It would be useless reasonably to engage in a strenuous muscle application and put in lots of hours in the gym only to give up after a week. Making the decision would be exceedingly difficult, considering I have not engaged in any practical exercise for a while.

Time will also be an obstacle as I am significantly engaged with either homework or domestic duties. Whenever one gets busy, the time delegated for work-outs is usually sacrificed.

I have reviewed specific medical articles, and the negative impacts of exercise others have experienced significantly scare me off. There are those who experience colds or running noses in the middle of training sessions. Other trainers complain about breathing problems and splitting headaches after sessions. Experiencing no changes as soon as they expect them will prove frustrating. In case the practice I employ does not yield visible results within the first month, then I may change the form of exercise or plainly relinquish.

Ways of overcoming the challenges My present physical condition demands for regular exercise notwithstanding the challenges I would face. I have high cholesterol for a young 25 year old, so in order to live longer and healthier, I have to take part in some form of physical activity. The bigger one gets, the harder it would be to practice some routines. I would be thus required to complete a substantial health change before I start suffering unnecessary mortifications.

Exercise is usually strenuous and may involve a lot of wearisome activity. This will prove boring and I predict avoiding some responsibilities. However, devising methods to make it enjoyable would be meaningful. Exercising while having fun would unquestionably inspire me in the initiative to improve health.

We will write a custom Essay on Personal Health Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I consider doing my exercises at home through the use of exercise videos. This will reduce the uncomfortable situations experienced in gyms which may make one uncomfortable. The use of some complex machines may also reduce the esteem of an individual.

Setting realistic fitness goals would be required depending on the pattern of physical activity. Studies indicate that most forms of practice would require consistency for around four months before producing physical benefits. It would be required to understand how different techniques work, how long they take to present visible or mental results, and how best to preserve the process.

Benefits of healthy behavior The cholesterol issue will go away; I will look healthier and sexier and will have a strong body just like in high school, and will live longer. Having a fit body, proper posture, agility and muscles will transparently create the impact I desire with the opposite sex. Engaging in physical activity will help me burn the extra calories hence assist in the supervision of my weight, which is a considerable problem at present.

Physical activity improves concentration; any activity, which involves attentiveness, boosts the psychiatric process hence increasing sharpness and academic focus both in class and later years. Strength is also increased substantially when one specializes in meticulous work-outs of the muscles and stiff joints.

Proper combination of healthful food and appropriate muscles training has traditionally proven to increase the endurance of people. A chance of catching a cold is substantially reduced as the immune system is generally jump-started by regular exercises.

Conclusion Exercising and eating healthy have been proven to progress physical health. Nevertheless, there are several other minor details which affect people’s healthiness. Personal hygiene and social participation have traditionally fostered health in diverse ways. Keeping one’s body clean to thwart illnesses and avoid infections is imperative. Cleaning hands, brushing teeth, cleaning cutlery helps in preventing infections.

One should strive to avoid the appearance of microbes in the body. Establishing social relationships prolongs life and increases productivity and positivism in life. Socialization may also increase knowledge, develop character and make an individual significantly healthy.


Male dominance as depicted two collections of short stories “Woman hollering creek” and “Drown.” Essay essay help free

Woman hollering creek is a collection of short stories written by Sandra Cisneros in 1991.The stories are about the experiences of people living on the Mexican and United States border; they want to remain attached to their Mexican heritage but they are also lured by the American lifestyle. The woman hollering creek collection is about sexuality, gender representations, and the role of women and men in the society.

The characters are neither Mexican nor American, they undergo various challenges in search of an identity and the writer tries to create an understanding of the lives of the immigrants. Cisneros tends to focus on male dominance and heterosexuality a fact that is not surprising considering that she was the only girl in a family of seven children. She uses the stories to analyze the broken relationships of women and men in their lives.

Another writer Junot Diaz explores the same themes on sexuality role of men and women in society and basing their arguments on Mexican American immigrants in a collection of short stories “Drown”. The stories are rather depressing and awful as the writer describes the deformation of ethics, expectations and human activities as a result of the conditions brought about by migration. He explores a society where the fathers have all disappeared and the mothers are left to feed their families.

Diaz himself lived through this life and sometimes these stories seem to be an autobiography of his life using other characters. He uses boys to describe the life of growing up in poverty and with no stable family; the young boys are involved in drug peddling and other evils so as to support their families which the fathers have abandoned (Grossman, 8-24)

Cisneros seems to have no love for men; she does not have any stable relationship with one, not even her father .She says “For her, men seem to be a utility that a woman turns on and off as required.” (Cisneros, 152)

This is undermining the male gender as a whole without even considering class or race because she is a Mexican immigrant who has met men of various classes and races hence she can not be accused of discrimination. Her characters comprise of adolescent teenage girls, frustrated brides, devout women, encouraging allies and intensely skeptical women who get pleasure from devouring men.

She starts by exploring the innocence of her characters in their childhood and in the tale “MY Lucy Friend Who Smells Like Corn”, she presents a girl in Texas but from Mexico “Lucy Anguiano” her family is not financially well off, her mother works hard to cater for their lives while their father is never at home .He has abandoned the family and only passes by bringing nothing for them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the second part there two other narratives of a teenage girl fighting to stay put to the Mexican heritage while still being attracted to the American way of life. She meets an old man who lies to her that he is from the Mayan Clan which is a royal Mexican family line, he seduces her then ditches her only to return later to kill her. Blinded by her desire to be loved by a man of Mexican decent she ends up with a serial killer.

The writer shows how men take advantage of the innocence of young and unexposed girls who are guided by their wish to achieve what the society expects them to be. In the next part which has the tale “Women Hollering Creek” is titled “There Was a Man, There Was a Woman. “ In the tale she describes a Mexican lady who marries a Mexican man, she hopes to live a happy life in a fulfilling marriage .She is disappointed because after they cross the border Pedro becomes abusive, unfaithful and often abandons the family.

She becomes influenced by the Mexican legend of a woman who drowned her children and then herself because her husband abandoned them, but she does not choose death ;she chooses life and escapes back to Mexico with the help of two women who were providing for themselves hence making her realize she can survive without a man.

In the next story, she tells of a girl whose mother was raped and murdered, she becomes the mistress of a Mexican war revolutionary and had two children with him. The man is always away and “Ine” the girl keeps on hoping that one day he would settle down and provide for them, only to receive news of his death.

Finally in “Never Marry a Mexican”, she tells the tale of a girl who hated men of her decent and decides to go for other races, but unfortunately the other men too are no good either, she is abandoned by a white lover and she decides to revenge by having a love relationship with his son.

Cisneros explores how women try to bring change to the world by breaking the odds, marrying people of other races, they use their bodies as objects in an effort to battle male dominance but they end up abandoned and oppressed. These experiences makes them enlightened and exposed and therefore realize they can do without men after all. She uses the narrative mode but she changes it sometimes when needed enabling her to interlink both American and Mexican linguistic cultures (Cisneros, 235)

In his collection of stories The titles in the collection include “Ysrael”, “Fiesta, 1980”, “Aurora”, “Drown”, “Boyfriend”, “Edison, New Jersey”, “How to Date a Brown girl, Black girl, White girl, or Halfie”, “No Face”, and “Negocios”. Junot puts in to the picture a society that is living in poverty, young boys with no father figure and their struggles as immigrants in New Jersey.

We will write a custom Essay on Male dominance as depicted two collections of short stories “Woman hollering creek” and “Drown.” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He explains the suffering and pain of the mothers as they try to make ends meet for their families. In one of the most deep stories “: Negocios”, Junot explains the story of a man Ramon who migrates from Dominican Republic to the United States; he abandons the first family and starts a new one.

The writer tells the tale from the perspective of the mans son Yunior, and describes the life of an abandoned son who survives on boiled yucca and platano, suffering through humiliation, bewilderment, and the pain of growing up (Loss, 830-816)

The two writers comprehensively tackle the issue of male dominance and sexuality; characterizing most of the societies in the world. They are able to demonstrate how men are a source of misery for everyone, and especially where family matters are involved. The plight of women in society is also explored as we see many women come to the realization that men are not to be trusted and hence they decided to move on with their lives despite the conditions surrounding them.

These women undergo demeaning experiences as they try to search for comfort and appreciation from all races only to realize that all men are all alike despite the race or class. The two writers to some extent demean men and stereotype them because not all abandon their families or women but either way many at that time did hence the conclusion that male dominance is a very damaging aspect in a society.

The effects of male gender superiority are evident in the stories and although they are fictional these are experiences that some people have been through and still undergo in all societies worldwide. It is therefore the responsibility of the institutions in our societies to solve this problem, but it is still a challenge since most of them are lead by men.

Works Cited Brown-Guillory, Elizabeth. Women of Color: Mother-daughter Relationships in 20th-century Literature. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1996. Print

Cisneros, Sandra. “Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories”. New York: Random House, 1991. Print

Grossman, Lev. “What to Watch For; The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar War”. Time Magazine.2007:08-24.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Male dominance as depicted two collections of short stories “Woman hollering creek” and “Drown.” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Loss, Jacquelyn. “Junot Díaz.” Latino and Latina Writers”. Detroit: Charles Scribner and Sons, 2003. Print