Few illusions have captivated the imagination of contemporary Americans so overwhelmingly as the phenomenon of the ‘American Dream’ with its reverberating emphasis on elevated consumption patterns, compulsive acquirement, and immediate indulgence.
A corollary of this delusion seems to be propelled by the fact that the only way to accomplish the dream that has its origins in the decade of the 1960s is by engaging in what is commonly known as the culture of consumerism (Renovard, 2007). The new intellectuals of the knowledge-based economy, with their opulent income and fast and fun-filled lifestyles, are the prototypes of the consumerist fantasy that is taking root in other parts of the world.
This paper purposes to discuss some underlying issues related to spending habits and consumption patterns in the U.S., with a view to edify our understanding on the culture of consumerism that has already taken root in the country and its implications on individual users in particular and society in general.
The observations made in one of the retail stores owned by Wal-Mart revealed a highly structured variance on the spending habits of Americans based on several demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. As such, it can be concluded that taste preferences are linked to the demographic indicators listed above, and are rightly or wrongly used by Americans to market their social positions and sensibilities.
This conclusion is reached after observing that consumers who drove big expensive cars to the store for shopping always visited shelves that stocked highly differentiated name brands in terms of taste and value, while those that arrived by cabs visited shelves that stocked low-cost generic items.
According to Thomas (2009), “…there is nothing which more exactly defines social differences than personal taste…The choices that people make in [this area] of life may seem spontaneous and genuine, but, without any apparent pressure or coercion, they usually conform to class lines” (para. 1).
It can also be concluded that age and gender is critical in defining an average American’s spending habit. The observations revealed that teenagers and young women spent more financial resources on items that helped them define their individual identity, refinement, and elegance while the more elderly consumers attempted to restrain their spending habits.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, while the teenagers and young women spent more on luxuries such as designer clothes, jewelry, dolls, greeting cards, flowers, and liquor, the adults spent more on items that are mostly used at the family level such as foodstuffs, detergents, and utensils, among others. Still, another conclusion could be that the spending habits are driven more by the inordinate and insatiable appetite of acquiring and enduring possessions than by a justifiable attempt to quest a basic need.
According to Shaw (2005), such a trend has been advanced by the misplaced need of outdoing each other in the quest for power, both at the individual and society level, and often results in the ruinous consequences of self-indulgence upon a person’s financial resources. This perhaps explains why an estimated 63% of Americans admit the fact that they don’t save enough, while over 25% acknowledge they sometimes spend more money than they can earn (PewReseachCenter, 2007).
Evidence was adduced that Americans are indeed living in a consumer-oriented, materialistic culture. Indeed, observations were made of Americans who spent huge sums of money for non-utilitarian reasons such as satisfying immediate-gratification impulse, envy-provocation, self-expression, and pleasure-seeking rather than a deliberate attempt to satisfy a basic need.
Observations were also made that most Americans overspend on shopping sprees due to the misplaced belief that they can have whatever they want using their credit cards – the most commonly observed method of payment.
This, according to Reinstaller
The Relationship between Suggestibility and Self-monitoring Report writing essay help
Abstract This report presents the survey aimed at examining the link between self-monitoring as measured by the Self-monitoring Scale and suggestibility, which is measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS). In this study, it is hypothesized that there is a significant difference in the suggestibility scores between the low and high self-monitoring groups.
The study involved 51 participants aged 17-48 years old. The results obtained in this study suggested that there is a significant difference in the suggestibility scores between low and high self-monitors. Furthermore, these findings support previous studies on the same topic.
The studies suggest that high self-monitors are more sensitive to interrogative challenges or suggestibility when compared to low self-monitors. Thus, they are bound to have high suggestibility scores on the GSS than the later. Therefore, there is a statistically significant difference in the suggestibility scores between the two groups.
Introduction Previous research studies on suggestibility are concerned with investing the factors influencing this psychological concept relative to the results of the two forms of GSS, that is, GSS 1 and 2. Self-monitoring has been identified as the major factor influencing suggestibility in the context of a variety of interviews or interrogations particularly in clinical and forensic interrogative practices (Klein et al., 2004).
Very few such studies have been conducted on university students in order to explore any significant differences in suggestibility among the two levels of self-monitoring.
However, a variety of studies indicate that there is a strong relationship between suggestibility and self-monitoring such that the later influences the various degrees of suggestibility. According to Bain et al. (2006), high self-monitors score highly in almost all the four categories of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 1 (GSS 1) relative to low self-monitors. Therefore, self-monitoring entails the practice of paying attention to various personal, situational, and social factors during an interrogative exercise that requires strict memory recall.
The personal and social prompts include various beliefs and values held by various individuals relative to the society’s concern for the correctness of an individual’s actions. On the other hand, suggestibility refers to the degree to which, an individual in an isolated social context, accepts and comprehends the content of a query, which prompts the subsequent behavioral changes and responses categorized as suggestible or resistant. Therefore, suggestibility is dependent on self-monitoring in many aspects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Gudjonsson
Definition of Cognitive Psychology Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The comprehension of how the human brain functions has been a puzzle for many people. Most people begin to think critically about the operation of the mind only after it has failed. For example, when one is not able to get something they had in their hands just a few minutes ago (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.5).
That is when they scratch and beat their heads in a bid to wake it up. For many years researchers have worked tirelessly hard to get detailed information on the working of the human mind. About 200 years ago, the researchers identified theories that could explain the operations of the brain through cognitive psychology.
Definition of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is one of the major doctrines of psychology. It therefore examines the behavior of the internal procedures of the brain. These processes include solving problems, decision making, comprehending languages, memorizing ideas and the other functional duties of the brain.
In actual sense, cognitive psychology focuses on how the brain perceives information, transmission and processing of the input to give the output. Cognitive psychologists usually make two assumptions, the first one being that it is possible to understand and describe the components of the human mental processes.
The other one is that the mental processes of a human mind can be reported using models that are installed with specific rules and formulas. Related to cognitive psychology is cognitive science which gives a detailed look at the mechanisms of cognition (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.9). Cognitive science is however divided into different sub-groups such as neuroscience, psychology, philosophy and physiology.
Key milestones in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline Developing cognitive psychology as a discipline was not an easy task as there were many hindrances during the stages of development. Most of these milestones greatly affected the progress of the initiative to create and develop philosophy of the mind. One of these factors was the emergence of the Christian church.
When the church arose, people turned to it and trusted everything that they got from it. The church however, was so much into the soul other than the studious material from scholars. This negatively influenced the developmental process of cognitive psychology as it was not related to theology (Eysenk, 2000, p.32). More to this was the fact that during that time people could not make intellectual decisions, they instead followed different channels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another hindering factor was the problem of making assumptions. The Greek philosophers had come up with three assumptions. They said that any explanations were to be of the world as it was easy to understand and predict the world. They further said that the human beings were not special.
This meant that it was easy to predict and explain the human body just like the other living and non-living creatures. This cannot be the case as without research, the mystic about the human body could not have been uncovered. The people believed in a kind of brain that could be predicted such that specific rules are applied in specific situations
The idea of applying scientific research methods during the development of cognitive psychology also affected its progress. The people could not understand how the behavior of human beings could be studied scientifically. They in fact made fun of the people who were conducting the research hence derailing the process of developing cognitive psychology.
Lastly, the objection from other great philosophers hindered development of cognitive psychology (Braisby and Gellaty, 2001, p.23). A good example is philosopher Immanuel Kant who argued that the process of the brain or mind could not be measured as they do not occupy any place other than time. He was able to convince a great number of people who therefore failed to support the process of developing cognitive psychology.
Importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology The cognitive theory has been found to be a blend of the human and behavioral theories. The behavioral theory is the most defined and structuredwhile the human theory is the least structured (Eysenk, 2000, p.45). Behavioral data can therefore be used to test cognitive theories and from there make absolute conclusions. This entails getting the concepts that are not observable and manipulating them to behavior which is easy to observe.
Behavior is thus important in cognitive psychology as it makes it easier to understand. Past research shows that the origin of cognitive psychology is in the behavior of a human being. The behavioral psychologists claim that cognitive psychology is not scientific because it is more of a theory other than being obtained from experimental data. It is also difficult to prove the theories behind cognitive psychology hence the inclusion of behavioral theory as a supportive mechanism.
Behavioral observation is further classified into different divisions. Among them we have the naturalistic observation. Naturalistic observation involves keeping an eye on people as they run their normal daily errands as you not down the behavior that matters to you. A good example is watching people in a social gathering; from such a place one is able to observe the activities and draw conclusions related to human cognition hence the importance of behavior in cognitive psychology.
We will write a custom Essay on Definition of Cognitive Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Braisby, N and Gellaty, A. (2001). Foundations of Cognitive Psychology, Web.
Eysenk, M. (2000). Cognitive Psychology. Keane Psychology Press.
Alexander the Great Essay cheap essay help
Introduction History shows that Alexander the great was the greatest commander of his time. The evidence of his greatness is revealed by the massive conquests he made. Alexander succeeded in conquering many kingdoms, thereby presiding over the greatest empire in recorded history.
It is reported that he succumbed to a fever while planning another conquest on the expansive Babylonian kingdom. He took over leadership of Macedonia after the demise of his father and initially focused on stabilizing his reign before rolling out expansion schemes. He was an astute student of Aristotle, the great philosopher. His talents were discovered early in his lifetime, prompting his father to seek specialized education for him. Some of his most notable conquests are discussed below (Duiker
How do service organizations achieve alignment? Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How Alignment Can Be Achieved
Culture and Strategic Alignment
Alignment and Competitive Advantage
Introduction In the fast-paced, ever-changing world, organizations are continually seeking ways to gain and maintain competitive advantage. Though there’s no single thing that makes an organization successful, no secret element, some concepts do universally apply.
One fundamental is to create a foundation for success by ensuring alignment in organization dynamic relative to strategy, design, actions, culture and results. This paper will give an analysis of how a service organization can achieve alignment in its actions and results as way of ensuring a competitive advantage in the market.
Strategic Alignment The key to uplifting organizational performance is to achieve a strategic alignment. This is one of the intrinsic aspects in the realization of an organization’s objectives and mission. A strategic alignment does not only provide lucidity of direction; it also provides an exclusive market position that enables a company to achieve its goals and missions.
It ensures harmony among the key activities within a company that is culture, strategy, design and processes (Bird, 2010). These activities are responsible for effective production. It is good to note that, a strategic alignment is not a static process but one that varies with time. Therefore, it requires regular assessments of the targets and results to measure the gap that exist between the two so as to look for ways of accounting for the same.
The potential for the overall success of an organization in creating alignment is directly related to the passion of the leader and leadership of the organization. Leaders give life to the vision for the organization, allowing it to inform direction and decision making throughout.
Vision can not be delegated; it must initiate and flow from the top leader to leadership in order to inspire others in the organization. Organizations with engaged, involved leadership are those for which the sense of alignment is obvious, in the quality of its decisions, among its staff and in customer interactions. Alignment must be lived (Anon. “Information Assurance: Strategic alignment and competitive advantage”, 2010)
How Alignment Can Be Achieved The dream of every organization is to achieve alignment that will ensure effective production. Service organizations are not left behind when it comes to alignment and they too aim to achieve it. This can only be successful if the organization has a well designed strategic plan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The global market has been so competitive that without a strategic plan, an organization can not be able to achieve a competitive advantage. It is through a good strategic plan that good decisions are made resulting in a firm’s success. In achieving alignment, an organization has to focus on its unique potentials, resources, and competencies.
These should be in line with market requirements as well as customer needs and values. The organization has to consider and balance its past, present and future demands so that it is able to achieve a sustainable performance (Miller, 2010). The alignment of goals with resources plays a great role in establishing a long lasting strategy that can be used by the organization for successful development.
The route to objectives and goals alignment is not that smooth; it calls for dedication and undivided commitment from the entire management. The nature of organizations and businesses is always changing due to economic development and the ever changing technology.
To cater for these changes, strategic alignment has to be a continuing process with aims and goals linked to the mission of the organization. The purpose of a strategic alignment include but not limited to balancing conformity and dedication within an organization, helping the management ask and answer the appropriate questions, and improving the system of information communication used in conveying information among the major stake holders (Gottschalg, 2006).
Culture and Strategic Alignment To achieve a strategic alignment, one has to define clearly the organization culture, and assess the actions made in relation to that culture. Culture is the organization’s heartbeat, an expression of spirit and soul, an articulation of values. Culture reflects why and how people interact inside and outside the organization. It is the soil in which organizational behavior (group dynamic) grows or dies functions and dysfunctions (Gottschalg, 2006).
It is where commitment and investment reside. Culture is the experience. An organization culture should be designed in such a way that, it is capable of laying a strong foundation for achieving positive results. After defining the organization culture, the next step is to evaluate the actions so as to ensure that, they are in alignment with the results.
Alignment and Competitive Advantage The alignment of goals and actions provides a competitive advantage for the organization in the global market. A competitive advantage is a unique aspect in every organization that helps it compete in the global world. An essential core competency is an organization-wide ability to effectively deal with change and to be comfortable with being uncomfortable.
We will write a custom Term Paper on How do service organizations achieve alignment? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change is not an option. It exists everywhere, in every industry, every social sector initiative. When organizations build expectation around the ability to ride the waves of change into the culture, and manage that expectation, they fundamentally position themselves for success. The interaction and integration of the three critical components creating the dynamic within an organization play a critical role helping an organization achieve its competitive advantage.
When put together in a way that aligns these three components (that is strategy, design and culture), they work together as a dynamic that helps an organization gain and sustain competitive advantage. Alignment determines the organization’s potential for success in the marketplace and creates the internal environment to get it all done. As a dynamic it creates a way of working (Powell, 1992).
Strategy links to vision and strategic intent. It creates where the organization is going and defines the road it takes to get there. Clarity and agreement around what the organization is designed to do is an essential driver to success. Having a common purpose is critical. On the other hand, design involves the tangible elements organizational structure, systems, processes, practices, facilities, just to name but a few. Design creates the framework within which organizations operate. It is the framework and becomes the engine (Miller, 2010).
Conclusion Creating organizational alignment is a journey, not a destination. As the world changes, systems for scanning, measuring and ensuring continued alignment become basic requirements. By developing, accepting and aligning, this dynamic forms the best position for an organization to create sustained excellence and success, resulting in competitive advantage.
The business world is changing drastically requiring organizations to engage in ongoing processes for alignment. One of the key factors to consider while considering strategic alignment is the organization culture. Every organization has a different culture that defines its operation. Failure to understand this culture may result in poor performance due to lack of a competitive advantage.
Reference List Anon. (2010). Information Assurance: Strategic alignment and competitive advantage. Web.
Bird, M. (2010). Modern Management Guide to Information Technology. Create Space. Web.
Gottschalg, O. (2006). Interest alignment and competitive advantage. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on How do service organizations achieve alignment? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, S. (2010). Increase competitive advantage with business process outsourcing alignment. Web.
Powell, T.C. (1992). Organizational alignment as competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 13:119-134.
Strategic Issue Facing the Firm Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Peterson Fan is majorly dealing with an employee attitude problem. Employee attitude problems have a very negative impact on an organization and especially on the bottom line performance. Most often, employee attitude is attributed to poor work conditions, employee inadequacy and a lack of employee appreciation programs.
In this regard, employees at Peterson Fan are not coordinated and often show up late at work. These are clear signs of an attitude problem among employees. This is also the main problem Peterson Fan faces and drastic measures need to be taken to ensure the organization doesn’t further slow down in performance and experience low profits.
Firm’s Strategic Options The first option management has is to get commitment from the employees through a consultative approach. Management therefore has the duty to explain its concerns to the employees so they may understand why it needs to change the status quo. The ideal situation in this kind of strategy would be that employees are supposed to exert some form of self-control and improve performance in the long run. This approach is better than blindly carrying out an order which the employees wouldn’t understand why it’s been employed.
This action is supported by Douglas’s Mc Gregory’s theory Y which advocates for a participative management style. A participative management style would be the perfect management criteria because poor employee attitude is no different from work and play. In other words, it is a natural occurrence and imposing artificial threats to improve employee performance, as management did, was a wrong approach. Essentially, firing poor working staff was setting precedent that employees had to work properly or else they would be fired.
Douglas’s theory Y advances the fact that employees will naturally improve self-control and increase performance without the exertion of external control or imposition of threats. The management of Peterson should therefore expect self-direction from the employees if they give them the liberty to make their own decisions (but after providing a good environment for them to operate in). Douglas’s theory also identifies that employees often accept responsibility and can even seek it if they are given the liberty to work without external controls.
In addition, the participative approach if analyzed in the context of Douglas’s theory Y will improve employee creativity, imagination and ingenuity without being forced or initiated.
This expectation is therefore set to solve organizational problems and improve product development because employees will be more likely to chip in creative ideas on how the company can improve their products for future competitive advantages. This conclusion is affirmed from research studies advanced by the Y theory stating that the capacity for employee creativity and innovation is usually partially utilized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The participative management theory the company should have undertaken is also supported by Herzberg’s motivational theory which states that employee dissatisfaction and poor performance is not attributed to only one factor as was previously thought.
According to the scholar, employees are normally under the pressure of two needs which is to avoid pain and to grow on a psychological level. In this respect, Peterson management should have undertaken the participative approach because their action assumed at least one factor of the motivational theory. It also totally neglected other prevailing factors of employee motivation
Herzberg’s theory further goes on to state that the motivational factor for employees to work can be advanced in two aspects. The first is related to strong ethical management and social responsibility while the other is the strong psychological contract individuals often have with themselves.
Herzberg’s theory is therefore concerned with the general wellbeing of all the employees in the workplace and supports employee views instead of management’s. This approach is correct because the objectives of management cannot be accomplished if employees aren’t performing in the first place. This necessitates the participative approach to management because it is the only way management can bring employees on board and understand their concerns ahead of their own.
Just like the Herzberg’s theory, more humanity and caring ought to be shown in the workplace because that is what Peterson lacks. The company’s management is essentially ruthless and if perceived from a neutral point of view, the employees have no channel to voice their concerns because management doesn’t provide a forum for that. This is what the participative approach to management will bring (a forum for consultations).
Herzberg’s theory was not just developed for the sake of motivating employees at work but also to factor in the interests of everyone in the organization. Part of his analysis was on the fact that people were motivated by hygiene factors though he identifies that management needs to think beyond that.
This is an important factor if Peterson is to adopt the participative approach because Herzberg identifies that it is not only enough to provide a good environment for the employees (which he used hygiene as a factor) because once employees achieve a level of satisfaction, they are bound to slide back to their initial state of dissatisfaction. This happens because they get used to the improved situation. Herzberg identifies that this is the leading cause of failure for poorly managed organizations.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategic Issue Facing the Firm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This intriguing situation brings us back to the initial factors Herzberg identified in the first definition of his theory. He identified that management needs to comprehensively help employees achieve the two levels of satisfaction which are avoidance of pain (which is equivalent to provision of a clean working environment) and the facilitation of employee growth and advancement.
In this regard, the management of Peterson company need to realize that improving employee performance in the organization is a continuous process and after primarily making the working environment conducive, they should embark on facilitating employee career progression.
Most practically, management should be motivated to offer partial scholarship for the advancement of employee career through extra classes for employees who may be willing to undertake them. This is a good strategy the company can use because as employees advance their careers academically, they will be more motivated to work and also develop some form of loyalty to the organization because it sponsors them to advance their careers.
However, this strategy requires mature employees in order for it to work. In a more ideal situation, the employees should see themselves as part of the managerial hierarchy and also be positively motivated for the strategy to work.
Though all these factors are not present at Peterson’s Fan, management should use the participative management style because it is better than the autocratic approach of giving orders to fire all poorly behaving employees. The implication of this approach is improved employee performance in the long run. This approach is supported by social studies done by Douglas McGregor which emphasize that controls or punishment are not viable methods of solving employee problems.
The second approach the management could have undertaken was motivating employees into good work performance. Motivation should however be done through many structures such as improving the work environment, increasing the pay among other methods.
Management can also review its company policies to ensure they are flexible enough for the employees to feel motivated enough to work. They also need to equally review supervisory practices and hygienic conditions in addition to improving employee appreciation programs and increasing their willingness to promote them. In this manner, employees will feel there is room for growth.
The implications of this strategy may involve an internal restructuring of the company; especially if management is willing to consider employees as part of its management hierarchical structure. The strategy may also force the company to introduce new programs aimed at improving the motivational level of employees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategic Issue Facing the Firm by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Additionally, this may involve a change in leadership styles and management attitude. This strategy is also supported by the two-factor theory that identifies hygiene and the need to motivate employees as some of the most important elements in improving employee attitudes.
Company’s Strategy The company’s management took an authoritarian strategy of firing all poorly behaved employees without any consultations at an employee level. Theory X developed by Douglas McGregor explains this approach but it has been proved counterproductive in most modern practices. This theory is normally based on a fallacy that employees will avoid work at all costs because of their laziness and that typically, employees dislike work. The assumptions to this theory are largely false.
Instead, management should have discussed the poor employee performance with the employees before taking any drastic measure. The confrontational approach the company took was uncalled for because they should have first probed why the employees were behaving the way they were, so as to improve their level of satisfaction in the long run. In this manner, management would have known the root of the problem.
Management should therefore have made it clear to the employees what actions were wrong and which ones were acceptable. The consequences of a continuation of unacceptable behaviors should also have been openly communicated to the employees. In other words, even if management had decided to consider firing poorly performing employees, the least they could have done was to warn the employees and notify them of the consequences of a continuity of their behavior.
Management should also have been straightforward with the employees and refrained from exhibiting any threatening signs. However, before coming up with such solutions and consequences, they should have been willing to discuss their decision with all employees.
Conclusion The management of Peterson fan took a wrong approach. They should have adopted a consultative approach when dealing with disgruntled employees. However, in the development of a consultative approach to management, the management at Peterson Fan should include the participation of employees in improving overall organizational performance.
There is no practical way that the management of Peterson can achieve this if not through a participative approach. Douglas’s theory Y and Herzberg’s motivational theory also identifies that a participative approach is the best method to curbing employee attitude problems. This strategy has been proved to have better chances of success than the authoritative approach it took.
Management’s approach is therefore not expected to yield much result in the long run because the strategy they adopted is based on false presumptions that employees are lazy and dislike work. They should have therefore discussed the problem with the employees and come up with an amicable solution.
Extent to which the UN can shape order and ensure justice in world politics Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Tensions between justice and order
The UN as an agent for normative integration
Limitations of the UN
Internalisation of international norms advocated by the UN
Introduction An international body like the United Nations has an enormous task with regard to shaping order and justice in world politics. It must balance problems emanating from the actual conceptions of justice and order; it must deal with the needs of these stakeholders and must also look for ways of overcoming its limitations and inefficiencies.
Tensions between justice and order One significant problem that the United Nations must contend with is the divergence of order and justice in world politics. In certain ways, justice appears to compromise international order. This implies that stakeholders need to make a decision on which of the two concepts should be given precedence over the other (Hoffman, 1986, 185).
According to conservative international relations players, minimum order is the only true value that can be achieved and should therefore come before concerns about justice. On the other hand, revolutionary stakeholders in oppressed parts of the world like the Middle East assert that once justice is instated then disorder may come in temporarily but this will be followed by establishment of a new order (Watson
Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
An examination of the phenomenon
Why globalisation produces winners
Why globalisation produces losers
Introduction The global economic crisis triggered a renewed interest in the process of globalisation and an analysis of whether increased interdependence among nations is actually all it has been cut out to be by its supporters.
An examination of the phenomenon Globalisation can be understood in various ways but for purposes of this analysis, it will the process by which technological, cultural and economic aspects of sovereign nations begin converging and becoming interdependent on one another (Burchill, 2008, 5). One of the most prominent depictions of globalisation is the interconnectedness of the world financial markets; a fact that contributed towards the world economic crisis.
In economic terms, globalisation can also be seen through increased use of internet banking, currency trading and the credit card phenomenon. Culturally speaking, globalisation is prevalent through continued Americanisation of the world, the use of the English language in several countries and spread of the Hollywood culture as well. Concepts like social networking websites, emails, global media and mobile technologies are also an important part of the phenomenon.
Indeed exposure to global forces and convergence of distance and time have been one of the short term effects of this phenomenon. Despite these seemingly new additions, one must not imagine that globalisation is anything new. It has been in existence since the 20th century and was analysed or predicted by early scholars such as Karl Marx who asserted that the need to increase the forces of capitalism would eventually result in a unification of world entities.
Globalisation should also not be seen as a combination of events; it is a combination of unrelated decisions made by authoritative entities in various nations of the world (Dickens, 2007, 8). Consequently, this explains why the phenomenon has as many supporters as it does sceptics. Sometimes globalisation can occur in reverse or may be manifested in a totally different way (Burchill, 2008, 189).
Why globalisation produces winners Frieden (2006, 15) explains that the last one hundred years in the world’s history can provide valuable insights on globalisation. Some countries started benefiting from it especially in the first two decades of the twentieth century because at that time the movement of people around the world was prevalent thus facilitating growing times.
Therefore, nations that spearheaded this rapid rise such as Great Britain were the ones who greatly benefited from it (Kampfner, 2005, 103). As years went by, market economics altered and new western nations took over. The United States started winning in this globalisation ‘game’ because they held a central role in the world economy after the Second World War. Their approach to economic management was quite workable because it appeared to benefit both the recipients and initiators of global exchanges (Warren, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, poorer countries would be encouraged to open up their borders to trade with the US and they would in turn benefit from increased aid during war and the like. Most importantly though, Frieden (2006, 237) shows that the United States was able to benefit from globalisation because it was in a position where it could effectively control the global economy through currency exchange.
The dollar had become the currency upon which other currencies were standardised and this gave it an upper hand. Another element that led to the US’s growing benefits from globalisation was the issue of reducing transportation costs. This eventually led to a decrease in the prices of factors of production and consequently, brought about greater prosperity and dependence between nations that traded with one another.
The US alongside its partners from Asia could both grow from globalisation and this led to subsequent increments in their developments (Wolf, 2004, 28). The US was able to ‘win’ in the globalisation tussle because it spearheaded a series of elements that caused convergence. For instance, the use of supply chaining in its organisations led to great returns back in the US. Walmart is one such example; this company has used technology to coordinate shipping, distribution and other supply chains and this has led to its worldwide growth.
Franchising from the latter country has also been responsible for placement of the US in the global map and hence their rapid growth (Friedman, 2006, 57). Conversely, Smith (2007, 154) argues that it is the spread of a hegemonic power that has contributed towards the US’s prominence in the global arena.
In other words, the ideas behind colonialism continue to plague the United States which continues to focus on its need to dominate other societies. American society has always been at the forefront of many political changes in the world. It has a tendency to impose its ideas upon many nations and this creates a situation where it appears to be more prominent than others.
In the last two decades, the United States was gaining from this domination because the world thought of it as an essential caretaker. The US reinforced those perceptions by advocating for human rights amongst oppressed nations, equality for minority groups and other freedoms. The world therefore looked at the US as a ‘big brother’ that was crucial in preserving world peace (Smith, 2007, 98). Its positive contributions therefore led to greater prominence in the world political arena and positive results thereof.
Another state that has grown and benefited from globalisation is Russia. As Friedman (2006, 201) explains, the falling down of the Berlin wall was one of the critical flatteners of the world. In other words, the end of the cold war denoted the fall of communism and also indicated that the former Soviet Union could be open to world interchanges.
We will write a custom Essay on Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Members of the former Soviet such as Russia were now able to access world markets and this eventually led to improvements in their economy. In fact, communism was seen as a threat towards the free flow of capital and factors of production in the world (Bisley, 2007, 94). Since this ceased to be a problem after the cold war, then countries that had not been participating in world trade could now be free to do so and this promoted greater levels of interaction.
One state that has contributed greatly towards globalisation in the past two decades is China. The latter country, alongside other Asian nations became the preferred choices for off shoring and outsourcing among older economies. China was seen as a cheaper production source for manufactured goods and this caused many western based firms to offshore their production to the latter country.
Countries in the west were also able to split costs of producing or delivering goods and services through outsourcing. China was seen as an ideal location for subcontracting. The country’s economy therefore grew by leaps and bounds and these trading activities reverberated across the globe. In other words, it benefited from globalisation because one of the critical drivers for globalisation i.e. cost cutting, could be achieved from China (Friedman, 20006, 79).
Why globalisation produces losers As described earlier, a number of nations have been at the forefront of globalisation and they have therefore appeared to be winning. However, because of the changing patterns of this phenomenon, some countries that were previous winners have started experiencing the downside to globalisation and have therefore lost their ability to benefit from the growth. Smith (2007, 51) asserts that the US’s notion of being an empire has contributed to the latter scenario.
In the past, the US presented itself as a philanthropic entity in the global scenario and this could cover up its hegemonic interests (Baylis et al., 2008, 19). However, when the latter changed, it became clear to the world that the US was propagating a hegemonic agenda that revolved around their interests rather than on human rights issues. A classic depiction of this matter was the war in Iraq (The US led 2002 invasion).
It has been seen that such an invasion sought to advance the US‘s interests as directly and as unashamedly as is reasonably possible. The move to military methods by the US is an indication of a change from neoliberalism which had dominated the nineteen nineties to neo-conservatism (Smith, 2007, 177).
The inability of markets to evaluate fundamentals has also contributed to the creation of losers in globalisation because this has reversed trends. Eichengreen (2008, 67) argues that many emerging economies heavily depended on exports in the twenty first century. They were forced to embrace the concepts of free trade because their economies are heavily relied on other nations. To this end, these nations were forced to rely on monetary policy to control their economies.
The problem with this approach was that it led to vulnerability to currency fluctuations which are quite unpredictable in the outside world. To this end, a country such as Thailand underwent this problem and its currency started going down. Eventually, other currencies in the region like South Korea were also affected (Zakaria, 2005, 7). This susceptibility to foreign currency fluctuations is what has caused a victimisation of nations to globalisation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why some states benefit from globalisation while others fall victim to it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnson (2009, 51) gives a thorough explanation of what has led to the crisis that the US is currently going through. Here, America had entered into agreements within the financial sector with many global lenders. Its overreliance on the financial and service sector also made it very vulnerable (Sirkin et. al, 2008, 57).
Its lenders worried over its ability to deal with its rising debt levels and therefore stopped lending to them. In the end, major financial institutions like the Lehman brothers had to close and this led to greater bankruptcy in other spheres of the economy which were tied to the financial sector. The financial sector was propagated and grown by globalisation and therefore illustrates how globalisation can create a winner at one point and a looser at another.
Rachman (2009, 14) believes that the interdependence of nations caused the economic crisis in one nation to spread to others dramatically. Financial markets are largely interlinked thus illustrating that an alteration in the New York Stock Exchange will be reflected in the Nikkei exchange as well. This means that the bankruptcy that started in US spread to other trading partners of the world (Held and Mc Grew, 2007, 109).
Consequently, some sort of de-globalisation was recorded where nations reported lowering employment rates, reduced investment and increased protectionism. A number of developed nations like the UK and China have witnessed this and are therefore feeling the pinch of this phenomenon negatively (Naim, 2009, 30). Nonetheless, Tett (2009, 17) asserts that the problems of the global crises started with the continued greed prevalent amongst investment bankers who resisted government intervention and acted recklessly.
Their financial gambles trickled into other spheres of their lives and eventually spread to global markets. So developing nations are losing this globalisation ‘game’ (Wade, 2008, 18). Ironically though, marginalised societies that were initially ignored in more successful times of globalisation are not as devastated with the financial crisis as developed nations because their resources were not as directly tied to these influential states as anticipated (Ghemawat, 2007, 15).
Conclusion Globalisation caused immense victories when the world economy was stable and growing; however, after the global crisis, traditional winners have fallen victim to globalisation and must therefore reassess their reverence for this phenomenon.
References Warren, B. (2005). The Great Leveling. Washington post, 6th September
Ghemawat, P. (2007). Why the world is not flat. Growth strategies, 4th June
Wolf, M. (2004). Why globalisation works. New haven: Yale university press
Sirkin, H., Hemerling, J.,Bhattacharya, A. (2008). Globality: competing with everyone from everywhere for everything. NY: Business plus
Kampfner. J. (2005). Inside the new superpowers. Guardian unlimited, May 15th
Baylis, J., Smith, S.
How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? Essay online essay help
Introduction Digital arts incorporate the use of the current digital technology as a major art in a range of its artistic practices and works in the creation or in the presentation of a certain piece of work. There are various terms which are used to describe the art viz: – computer art or multimedia art. It is basically contained in the new media art (Mundloch 2004).
Digital technology has been able to transform many traditional modes of art into newer forms. this has been through the reduction of the manual works into technologcal modes.
For example net art, digital-installation art, and modes like virtual reality (VR), have come to be the most grossly recognized artistic practices. In a more general way, the term digital artist describes an artist who brings into play the digital technologies which is found in the creation of art. in other terms, digital art is an art that has been able to employ mass production and digital media (Samis 1999).
The techniques which are mostly applied in digital arts are in most cases used in the media in such realms as advertisements and also have been extensively used by filmmakers in the production of certain effects which add quality to the film. Another use of the technology though not a direct use of the digital art is desktop publishing.
The acceptance of this kind of technology is rather low and will require time before it has been full accepted as a form of art. This paper will discuss the various ways and means in which this kind of technology has had an impact on the traditional and cultural values that have been the strengthening factor in the art world.
Challenges emanating from the digital art According to most people, traditional art is the real meaning of art. Cases of drawings, paintings, dark room photography, print making, sculpture and lithography and any other form of art which can be done using the hands is considered to be the traditional art. The major contrast of this form of art with the digital form is that digital art can be done using a computer. This ranges from photography to photo editing using specialized software like Photoshop and such other kinds.
One of the challenges that the new kind of art brings to the world is the perception of the artists. Traditional artists are viewed to be people who are angry, sad and have scattered brains.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They are left wingers who are radical and have a certain ill feeling towards the outside world. On the other hand, digital artists are people who are viewed to be possessed with technology (Soukup 2005). They are sheltered from the other part of the world due to use of much of their time with computers. They are more than often assumed to be nerdy individuals.
Unlike the traditional artists, digital artists have the extra obligation of keeping in touch with technology at almost all times. The artists have to be more so very emotionally connected to their work and also be very creative.
This plays a great part in making sure that the material they come up with is always interesting. The artists have the tendency of being in a totally new set of ideas and vocabulary which is not common to the outside world, an issue which makes them look different in their conversation with the common fork (Steinheider and George 2004).
Both traditional art and digital art have a mode of principles and elements that have a considerably good composition. They have a link to the color theory in that the work is much determined by the variety of colors that they impose on their designs. Their concepts have to be creative and a good coordination of their hands and their eyes plays a great part in determining the end piece.
there are various advantages that digital art has over traditional art and vice versa. the originality of the latter is determined by a messy nature due to splatters while digital art is precise due to the ability to undo moves.
The biggest challenge that the digital art has is when it comes to preciseness (Muhammad 2001). It is a little way difficult to place a dot or a mark in an exact place using the cursor the way you want it to appear than it would have been when one is using his or her hand. Some programs do not have the ability to accept search marks as compared to others.
Digital art has made the traditional form of art to lose the grandeur that it has had in the museums over ages. Works of art like the famous Mona Lisa by Leonardo has been remembered over ages as the pieces were done by people who had an impact in the society due to their masterpieces.
We will write a custom Essay on How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, digitization of the art has made it with only a little experience to produce works which have grown to be remembered by many. The major and useful role of film productions have been made easy and simple to manipulate. This has resulted to a greater sophiscation in the production of the images which has also proved to be very interesting; this has led to many people being oriented towards this mode of art.
However, according to most traditional artists the reason as to if this kind of work could be referred to as “art” is still very doubt. This has created a debate amongst a big group of artists who doubt whether the upcoming artists will in future have the ability to use oil-based colors to create the magic found in most traditional artistic impressions. The main challenge here is whether the digital artists have the ability to create their images in oil.
This brings about the need for extra training in the art for production of better masterpieces. Digital art is further involved with more than just basic computer skills; it is composed of an integration of some artistic talents and also an advanced knowledge of computer technology. If an artist has the mandate of making a great painting in a digital format, there is no difference between this and doing it on canvas.
The artist is required to be as skillful and as passionate as if he were doing it on canvas. A painter must have the integration of the extra needed computer knowledge in which he can make use of in transferring his work from the canvas to the computer if it were to be in digital format. Such a skill can be a simple scan of his final piece of work followed by the necessary editing (Taylor and Joe 2005).
Digital artistry has been seen to be ruining the traditional mode of art. It has also been viewed as to be ruining the desire to create the traditional art pieces. This is due to the large amount of time that a person sits before a computer thus has the uncontrolled urge to copy and paste pieces thus discarding originality, undoing unwanted works which on the other hand does away with the interesting messy bit of the traditional art (Weil 2002).
Arguments have been raised concerning the time and effort that the traditional artists take in creating their artwork which should be praised by the digital artists as it is basically a revolution of the traditional ways. Looking at a traditional piece of artwork, it is impossible in all ways to reproduce it (Macko, 1997).
This is irrespective of the material and technology that was employed in trying to do so search as serial graphs, color correction, offset lithographs, scanning and any other type of current technology that may be employed.
For a digital artist to be perfect and produce good work, the challenge ahead of him apart from being good in computers is to have the basic knowledge of traditional art production. This includes the knowledge of shadows, lights, shapes, lines, forms, color and anatomy of the mediums in which traditional art is based on. As much as it is easy to reproduce a digital piece in terms of the effort spent and the time involved, it is the mandate of the person doing so to be a good artist if the work is to be considered a good piece of art (Weil 2002).
Not sure if you can write a paper on How does digital art challenge the regimes of cultural value that underpin Art worlds? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is evident that digital work is highly likely to suffer if the artists involved in the work do not have the traditional techniques of the culture involved in the other forms. There has been cultural erosion in the way that the artwork was previously viewed when digital art is compared to the traditional art. Before, art was taken to be something that one can understand and relate to in real life (Mondloch 2004).
Nowadays anything from a blank canvas with an accidental ink splatter is referred to as art. This does not necessarily mean that art should be beautiful in all ways but should have some exceptions like being intriguing, evocative and one that draws you to it. As much as this is possible with the current use of the new software that are always emerging in the market, the real question is whether there is a conflict between talent and tools in the market.
The traditional aspects of painting that go missing with the overuse of technology are the lack of paint tainted, smell of turpentine all over and pint splatters all over the body of the painter. This are some of the tell tale signs that depict a real painter from just any other software user.
The uniqueness of the traditional paintings has been lost of late. This would have been possible to note from the imperfections in lines, color and forms. In traditional art works, the painter or the artist does not use a computer to create these unique and aesthetic intrigues (Steinheider and George 2004).
Digital art in its true and real form has a bit of handwork in it though it gets incorporated with technology with time. There is a bit of inferiority that is considered when dealing with the digital artwork. In the traditional work, the artist is familiar with making the work very interesting as compared to the digital formats where he does not necessarily have to be grossly experienced. This has the effect of making the digital artwork a bit less brilliant as compared to the traditional format.
References Macko, N. (1997) A View of the Intersection of Art and Technology. Art Bulletin 79.2: 202-205.
Mondloch, K. (2004) An Invitation to Think Again: Digital Media Revisited. Art Journal: 98-100.
Muhammad, E. (2001) Race in Digital Space: conceptualizing the Media Project. Art Journal: 92-95.
Samis, P. (1999) Artwork as Interface. Archives and Museum Informatics 13.2: 191-198.
Soukup, K. (2005) Artists in Webby Wonderland: Rafael Lozano-Hemmer interviewed by Katarina Soukup. ISEA Newsletter. The Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts. 10
Steinheider, B. and George, L. ( 2004) Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Digital Media Arts: A Psychological Perspective on the Production Process. Leonardo 37.4: 315-321.
Taylor, H. and Joe, R . (1995) Museums and galleries on the Internet. Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy 5.1 80-88.
Weil, B. (2002). Art in Digital Times: From Technology to Instrument. Leonardo 35.5: 523-526.
Large-scale universe to Milky Way Essay essay help
Table of Contents Modern cosmology
The big bang theory
The Milky Way
Modern cosmology Different communities hold different views about the initiation of the universe. The ancestors explained the universe using various unsubstantiated myths and misconceptions based on their everyday observations.
Biblical view embrace nature while cosmologists put it that the universe begun by an explosion called Big Bang. Modern cosmology gained popularity around 1918 following the discoveries of Robert Einstein as it pertains to relativity theory. Previously it was thought that the earth was unchanging and remained as it were before. The scientists held a debate in the US to discuss the structure of the cosmos.
The advent of the modern cosmology is based on extensive evidence supported by full observations and theories. “The cosmology of today attempt to explain the commencement, the current state and eventual end of the universe” (Scott 2003). The modern cosmology can explicitly explain the Big Bang Theory using the greatest particle smasher. It explains how different galaxies erupted when the universe came into being like the Milky Way.
The big bang theory There are moments when the universe was not there and the time when it came into being. The Big Bang Theory explains all the scenarios which took place during that time span. The universe erupted from one minute substance. This took place fourteen years ago. The grain had extremely high pressure, density and intensity. Ideally the source of this singular thing is not known.
It reached a time when it expanded and finally cooled down thus present circumstances. It is presently controlled and gigantic in size. This theory is surrounded by some myths. Some people claim that the tiny feature blasted like a bomb blast. The best experiment so far was performed in Geneva support the Big Bang Theory. It is the greatest experiment which used massive particles smasher and branded the world’s dominant experiment.
This giant smasher gave an insight to many scientists. It involved two streams of particles travelling at astonishingly high speed towards each other. The speed was commensurate to that of light; furthermore, there was an unusually high temperature in the tunnel. The protons colliding at elevated energies gave an insight on the atoms and forces which could answer the origin of the universe (Bivek 2010). This enabled the atoms to melt into a unique form. They could not take diverse variety of matter.
The Milky Way One form of the galaxy, which houses the solar system plus other numerous stars, is estimated at three billion. The Milky Way compromises of planets together with their stars. This group is vast and estimated at approximately 900 billion solar masses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the most enormous galaxy; however, specie of the galaxy called Andromeda is also immense. It is the group of the stream of light that streak out on the sky at night. A shadow may be formed when viewed from quite dark places. The hub of the Milky Way is exceedingly bright thus is usually called the Scorpius area.
There are two bright stars towards the right where the dark valley lies. These stars are called Beta and Alpha. The Lyra and the Vega are to the left of the structure. It consists of a base region usually surrounded by a mass of stars, gaseous and solid particles. The whole structure is a four armed structure spiraling out in a logarithmic nature. The distribution of mass is closely related thus forming loose arms.
References Bivek S. (2010). Big Bang experiment successful. NDTV Web.
Scott D. (2003). Modern cosmology. California: Elsevier.
The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction The field of organizational learning entails knowledge about theories and models in an organization which are learnt and afterwards adjusted to. In the field of organizational development, learning is taken to be a characteristic of an organization which is adaptive. According to Argyris and Schon (1978), organizations involved in these kinds of task should be quick in pointing out which changes are occurring in the environments within and without them and so be able to acclimatize as fast as possible.
This paper is a critical evaluation of a human resource development program and its subsequent intervention basing on the theory of action research as developed by Chris Argyris.
The paper will start with a discussion of the concepts of adult learning followed by an insight into the theory at hand. Another theory which will be idealized in practice is the Mezirow’s transformative learning theory. The paper will also consider in brief, the application of Kolb’s theory to some students as it has happened in a past real life process (Mezirow, 1975).
Learning is relative and permanent change in the behavior of a person which results from the experiences a particular person undergoes. This results to a change in the in the way a person thinks, perceives issues, and reacts to his current environment. This is in no way affected by his genetic make up or resulting from naturalization.
The overall process of learning makes the person increase in sophistication, flexibility and creativity. Learning is not a fixed entity but is a process through which concepts are derived and through experience, these concepts get modified with time (Argyris and Schon 1978).
Adult learning falls in three domains which can be classified as emancipatory, instrumental and communicative. The instrumental learning domain involves learning which results in manipulation of the environment. This type of learning is task oriented and consists of solving problems.
Once a person has learnt using this kind of method, it is possible to know the resulting changes through the productivity of the person, his performance or his behavior. Communicative learning on the other hand deals with the dynamics of how people understand each other. In this type of learning, a person knows the other person means through the use of writing, art, speech or drama. This domain does not determine truth but attempts to establish the justification or validity behind beliefs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For adults, learning is a complex affair which does not merely occur in the three domains but occurs in stages (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2003). This makes the learning process not instantaneous and has a time delay which can be exemplified in four levels as shown below:
Aware but post facto
Aware post facto but does not act in time
We will write a custom Essay on The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aware and consequently acts
From the above discussions, to deliver a successful human resource development program in organization A, the adult learning process should then go hand in hand with the stages of human resource development which are discussed below.
The investigative stage comprises the strategies and tools for investigation which are needed to be selected and then devised when the concerned person has the level of learning required in his mind. This stage can use survey questionnaires or apply the use of interviews and focus groups.
The design stage brings together all the aspects than are involved in adult learning. These aspects include basic types of learning in modification of behavior and modeling, learning principles, rational discourse and the challenging of Para-dynamic assumptions.
The implementation stage is when the developers of the human resource programs must have the appropriate and the required skills which are necessary for the development of the learning strategies. The three learning domains that is the instrumental, the emancipatory, and the communicative approach have a strict requirement of professionalism and competence in a certain set of skills which are required for the comprehension of the values that underpin each of them (Delahaye 2005).
The evaluation is if looked at in the view of a legitimate system completes the cycle where all the issues that were raised in the investigative stage are solved. Communicative and emancipatory learning require more active research strategies as compared to instrumental learning due to the fact that the latter method is more susceptible to cost benefit analysis methods which are mechanistic while on the other hand are indicators to the former methods.
According to Argyris and Schon (1978), Action Science starts with a study of how human beings design their mode of actions in various situations. A predefined set of economic variables usually have consequences which they govern therefore triggering the actions. The design difference in the variables acts as the gap separating single and double loop learning (Bontis and Serenko 2009) (a).
Single loop learning is involved with the sole achievement of the results which are needed whilst as much as possible try to have fewer divergences. A combination of both the discussed cycles of learning occurs when there is an inquiry into the sources of the disagreements together with an achievement of the same.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Field of Organizational Learning and Its Theories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In simple terms, double loop learning can be termed as learning about the first mode of learning that is the single loop learning. These two cycles have been made practical by Argyris in both personal and organizational behaviors in his various works. The difference between this and experimental research is that in experimental research, environmental variables are controlled and the researchers attempt to look into the cause and is usually effected in an environment that is isolated (Bontis and Serenko 2009) (b).
In an organization context for instance, learning is comprised of the traditions in human resources. In this case the people involved or else the adults in organization A get to increase their skills and experience as they get more formalized education. For any organization to be deemed as successful the determining factor is the knowledge of the employees within that organization and so it entirely means that the learning process must go on.
This therefore means that an organization should be ready to improve its human resources through facilitation, promotion and rewarding of collective learning. For ones knowledge to be useful to an organization, then this knowledge must be captured. This is made possible using the normal methods of primary data acquisition like interviews.
In a classroom where the Kolb’s experiential learning theory was applied, the class was divided in groups where a quarter of the students got divided into divergers, another quarter used the assimilator whilst the remaining two quarters were equally divided into convergers and accommodators.
The divergers group consisted of people who focus on concrete information and observations which are reflective. Such kinds of cases are found amongst mathematicians who deal with abstract numbers. Assimilators dealt with experiences and learnt in a way that they had to get the logic behind their information. The learning mode subjected to accommodators was that which had much focus on experiments and the teachers involved them in learning new experiences (Kolb, 1994).
In an experimental research later conducted in the same class, most students said that Kolb’s style was very effective in that it encouraged most people to work in groups and so they were able to help each other. Personal experience through this theory showed that learning was faster amongst the student community one would fit into their styles with much ease having the option of the four. In this method of experiential learning one can easily be able to gather new skills with ease.
Argyris (1990) claims that in model I of learning, one should infer about the behavior of someone else. In this case, on a real life basis the teacher did not check up the validity of the behavior and then advocate his/her view in an abstract manner which did not seek to explain how the person reasoned.
The theory which was in use in such a case was that the person was implicitly disposed to winning. Students who engaged in this mode in the classroom could easily be told out from the ones in Kolb’s theory due to their protective nature of reasoning. The strategy which has been primarily put in place is the control of the environment in a unilateral manner and also for the protection of one’s self and also for the others (Argyris and Schon 1978).
This model has entrenched itself into deep defense actions and routines. The end result of this model is that it seen as a way in which the person is moving away from some truth and thus the reaction which is posed is not one that is governed by the person but one that is judged by whatever the person is moving away from. In an organization, this tends to hide the person from in-competency by being defensive towards what he cannot do (Bontis et al. 2002).
This model is operationalized by people advocating some courses of action which tend to discourage inquiry, people treating their views with absolute confidence of correctness and not stating facts which would lead to eventual embarrassment.
Model II has values which include giving of valid information, internal commitment and freedom of informed choice. There is evidence of strategies which are shared and individuals participate the design and consequent implementation of actions. This eventually leads to an increase in the likelihood of double loop learning.
When a different theory is experimented in class, a different output is generated. This will be deduced from a case study of Mezirow’s theory. Teachers applied the use of emotions in class and in some other group, the use of critical rationalism. This methods required the students to behave in a receptive manner where they had to be ready to learn something and at the same time, be open to the issue at hand be it a belief or otherwise.
This method proved to be more of psychological oriented and hard to implement as compared to the others. The existence of this mode required a lot from both the teachers and the students where the teachers had to incorporate themselves into the learning environment and showcase their willingness to adopt the changes. The learners on the other hand had to be ready, though complicated, to transform. The complication comes in because the method has to incorporate the use of someone’s feelings and also emotions.
To the organization, it should adopt a strategy of intervention which can be formulated and implemented in some steps. In the beginning, the intervening person should map the problems as the clients see it.
At this stage, one should have an idea of the determinants of the problems together with how they relate to organization A. from that step the person involved should have within him a map which will be in line with the needs and commitments of the clientele. After this step, the model should be tested by looking at the predictions in the model which have the capability to be tested. If these predictions do not stand for themselves by looking into history, then the model should consequently be modified.
The other important phase in intervening the model so as to make it improve is invention of solutions. These are solutions to the model which should then be simulated so as to test their possible impacts (Imants 2003). After these the person should go ahead by producing the intervention. After this step one gets to study the major causes of errors so that when the novel model is created, things work out better. If at this stage everything works correctly, then there is no disconfirmation for that particular map.
Following model II in this sequence, then it is very possible to have human resource and organization development in the organization. According to Common (2004), clients need to give their full dedication towards this phase. By this, risks will have been minimized and all parties have to agree on the starting point.
In action research, the process of change goes in three processes starting by unfreezing, changing and then refreezing. Unfreezing occurs is when people or the human resources get aware that there is need for change. Changing involves diagnosis of the situation and exploration and testing of new models. Refreezing is the adoption or the application of the new behavior (March and Olsen 1975). Thus action research can be viewed as a series of three phases which are planning, transformation and then view of the results.
Other interventions are interpersonal interventions which aim at the development of the individual skills. In this case group dynamics can be utilized whereby; people are gathered into small meetings and then they decide on the subject matter. This subject should be within the list stipulated prior by the facilitator of the meeting.
This helps the members to understand each other better and improve on their behavior. Group interventions on the other hand try to assist teams in making sure that organizations are more effective (Common 2004). They usually assume effective communication between groups and ensure a good balance between personal needs and group needs. Their functionality is through consensus with no majority rule or autocracy.
Inter-group interventions are very important in that they make sure that all parties within the organization work as team. This helps in making sure that here is interaction within departments in the organization (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2003). Such interventions can be conflict resolution meetings. In search meetings, teams meet and discuss feelings that they might be having concerning other departments and therefore solve any issues arising from such.
Comprehensive interventions enhance change throughout the organization. This can be through the use of surveys to get information. In such surveys, the attitude of the employees in the entire organization is gathered and a comprehensive report on the collected data is disseminated (Garvin 2000). If the so stated interventions and others are incorporated into the system of organization A, then the model will improve and in the end, there will be a gross improvement in the human resource program.
References Argyris, C. (1990) Overcoming Organizational Defences: Facilitating Organizational Learning, Allyn
Should public schools be required to restore physical education classes to the curriculum? Research Paper college essay help near me
Introduction The occurrence of obesity prevalence in children, in the U S, can be associated with the removal of physical education courses in public school curriculum. These courses were serving a lot in reducing the numbers of children suffering from obesity and obesity related illnesses.
This was so because the students were passed through a curriculum that worked out their mental and body strength. They were able to burn the extra calories that would have other wise accumulated in the body causing obesity. Currently the students are not involved in any physical course. As a result, there is a high rate of obesity prevalence in children, in America. It is estimated that of all children under the age of 12 in America 30% are obese. This is an alarming signal to the authority concerned (Axelrod, Cooper
The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Evaluation of African Beliefs
Western Africa: From Past till Present
The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa, Kongo in Particular
Voodoo people: Western Vodun
Symbols of the cult of the dead
Introduction It is always very interesting to investigate cultures, traditions, and religions which are inherent to different people and compare the ideas people prefer to choose in their lives. Each continent and country introduce a number of new perspectives concerning how people should demonstrate their religious preferences and what customs they have to follow.
Western Africa is the region where more than 15 countries are united and eager to demonstrate their own interests, religious demands, and traditions. Due to numerous historic migrations, the representatives of different cultures have to link their interests in order to achieve success and satisfaction with the chosen activities.
A historical perspective has to be mentioned because its impact on cultural and religious aspects of Western Africans is considered to be great. The cult of the dead that is supported in the vast majority of countries is one of the traditions appreciated, and the Kingdom of Kongo (now it consists of the Republic of Congo, Angola, and Cabinda) is one of the central points where the cult of the dead was developed.
The cult of the dead is considered to be a kind of basis for many African religions that enhances people’s understanding of life and the life after death; an Nkisi that is close communication with dead people and Western Vodun are the powerful means to support an idea of dead powers and the cult of the dead itself and to prove that a life is not the only possibility to teach and improve personal knowledge, but there are many other sources where information is gained.
Evaluation of African Beliefs West African spirituality in the Caribbean where the above-mentioned region is located undergoes considerable innovations from time to time. Its rich history, relations with other cultures, and religious improvements influenced the way of how African people lived and what styles of life they prefer today.
Thought the cult of the dead was highly appreciated between 15-19 centuries, its signs are noticed in the form of the Day of the Dead that was annually celebrated. The vast majority of African citizens define the cult of the dead also known as veneration of the dead as a possibility to communicate with dead relatives and believe that all those people who died continue their existences in some other place and may influence the life of those people who are still alive.
In Africa, ancestor worship is rather prevalent and provides people with a chance to admire the fact that some supreme power may assist them, show the right way, and help to make right decisions. Some people even believe that “God himself may send sickness which leads to death” (Middleton 79) in order to demonstrate his power and help other people in supernatural.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In comparison to Egyptian religion where huge pyramids were built and the dead were mummified because a soul survives only in case a physical receptacle is available, the Africans accept an idea of spiritual existence without an importance to save bodies. Vodun is the religion of the Africans that centers on the spirits that are side by side with people to assist them.
Western Africa: From Past till Present West Africa is not the largest region on the continent, still, its influence on different religions and traditions remains to be rather huge. In spite of the fact that there are a number of different cultures on the region, there are still certain similarities in the traditional architecture, cuisine, music, and even dresses which are crucial for the development of the cult of the dead. Robert Farris Thompson made a magnificent attempt to evaluate the impact of African traditions on the New World.
Though Mande-influenced textiles as well as its musical paradigm and architecture fails to explain the ways of how the Africans shared their traditions with other nations. “The Mande diaspora did not diminish their cultural identity. Such was the Mande strength of ethnicity that the cultural focus of the civilization was maintained” (Thomson 196).
Western Africa spreads its ideas and suggestions all over the world, and America was one of the first countries who was eager to accept the ideas and define the chosen style as a separate approach to creativity:
“Variable of Mande and Mande-related cloth-making remain indelibly intact in these Mande, West African-influences regions of the New World. The recombination of these variables to form novel creole art – also embodying European influences – is an autonomous development in the history of Afro-American visual creativity, especially in Suriname. Nevertheless, the vibrant visual attack and timing of these clothes are unthinkable except in terms of partial descent Mande cloth, a world of metrically sparkling textiles.” (Thomson 209).
The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa, Kongo in Particular A great variety of African traditional religions are usually orally or spiritually practiced. There are three important terms in the Western African traditions to be mentioned: Nganga, Nkisi, and Vodun. Each ritual provided by the African people has to be “accompanied by the chanting of scared songs, mambos, intended to bring down the divine power in the form of a spirit, simbi” (Matibag 162).
With the help of the ideas and traditions offered by the representatives of the Kingdom of Kongo, the cult of the dead and the possibility to appreciate the afterlife extended considerably in the New World and spread over the whole West Africa region. The cult of the dead was a successful mix of Roman Catholic religion, Christianity, and tribal animism which were so popular among the African people.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “When the Yoruba religious system, under the conditions of slavery, was made to coalesce with the Catholic religious system, the resulting Reglas Lucumís retained the notion of aché as that metaphysical substance inspiriting and consecrating matter in accord with ritual properly carried out. Such investment of powers, marked by the appropriate signs, plays its part in determining the critical difference between the sacred and the profane.” (Matibag 11).
The cult of the dead in Kong, based on the ideas offered by the Yoruba religion, Christianity, and animism, may be traced in such rituals connected with Nkisi, Nganga, and Vodun religion.
Nkisi. On the territory of Central and Western Africa, and in Kongo in particular, the idea of Nkisi is supported by the citizens. Kongo cults emphasize the necessity to work with spirits of the dead people, and the Nkisi is one of the possible mediums to rely on. “The Nkisi served as refuge or prison to the soul of a returned ancestor or of some spirit attached to this world” (Matibag 162).
Due to the cult of the dead spread over Kongo, people got used to think that any kind of exceptional human power is a result of communication that happened between those who are alive and those who are dead. The Nkisi may be in the form of some ceramic vessels, various shells or bundles, or even animal horns because these objects aim at containing spiritual substances and providing people with a chance to communicate.
There is no necessity to save human bodies because it seems to be enough to have a symbolic object where a human soul can be found. Numerous functions of Minkisi (plural form of a Nkisi) are of divine nature. To appreciate the cult of the dead, Kongo citizens could use the Minkisi for healing purposes (in comparison to Greek and Egyptian cultures, animal horns were used while hunting or trading).
With the help of worship of the dead, a number of Minkisi were used to support order and follow an appropriate style of life. Eugenio Matibag admits that “Nkisi means ‘charm’ but also ‘positive magic’” (162), so, the idea of the Nkisi can never be regarded as something harmful for people or something with a negative impact on human life. The necessity to communicate with gods and dead people is regarded as an integral and rather helpful part of life.
Nganga. Talking about the spiritual life in Kongo, and the cult of the dead in particular, it is necessary to mention and evaluate the role of Nganga, a spiritual healer or a herbalist who is responsible for proper communicate with the world of the dead. One of the most significant roles of the Banganga (a plural form of an Nganga) is to protect the cult of the dead against witchcraft and religious impacts that may come from different countries and regions.
According to Matibag, “the name of Nganga refers either to the small cauldron that holds the spirit or to the spirit itself… the Congo Nganga itself is therefore a figure of ‘multiple representation’” (162). So, the Nganga can be of different forms, and many historians and writers are ready to prove their own positions and give various definitions to the term.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Cult of the Dead in Western Africa: The Kongo People by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though, if an Nganga is considered to be a person, the cult of the dead requires the necessity to communicate to the dead and find out the secrets of afterlife and the methods to improve the current life and make right decisions.
If an Nganga is another significant object of a ritual where the cult of the dead is supported by the citizens of Kongo, this object remains to be a divine means of communication with the dead. Another important detail about the cult is that the Nganga aims at doing what its owner orders. In some cultures, the use of Kongo’s Nganga is similar to a game: owners of Banganga are playing with their spirits and make their do what has to be done.
Voodoo people: Western Vodun Voodoo religion is popular in many countries on different continents, however, its origins came from Kongo. Haitian Voodoo has a number of characteristics, and one of them is the development of the cult of the dead.
As the already discussed ideas, Voodoo representatives also made numerous attempts to provide proper veneration of the dead and protect communication with the dead against witchcraft. However, some historians still have many doubts concerning a true nature of the Voodoo craft and believe that some portion of evil magic and witchcraft is present.
Many people still believe that Haiti is a true origin of voodoo people, however, it is not actually true. At the beginning of the 17th century, Americans and some European countries knew a little about Vodou and African beliefs. These beliefs “seem to be fused with the national history and culture in Haiti more than in any other country in the Americas” (Galembo ix). It is well known that West Africa underwent considerable changes because of slavery present.
This region was a famous Slave Coast because many transatlantic traders had an access to African people who, in their turn, were able to share their religions with other nations. Within 400 years, the lands of Brazil and Haiti were full and West Africans who introduced new beliefs and abilities. Voodoo people used a number of objects to arrange rituals and communicate with the dead. They truly believe that life is a constant struggle, and dead people had to assist their generation to achieve success.
True Vodun came from Kongo, the land of slaves, and as many other supporters of the cult of the dead, it was closely connected to animism, Christianity, and even Catholicism. Vodou is more than just a religion. It is the way the vast majority of Africans prefer. They believe that it is possible to improve their lives with the help of communications with the dead and practice transmigration of souls to gain better understanding of the essence of life.
Symbols of the cult of the dead Blackened stool: This was mythical symbol honored annually by the Kumasi and was associated with the Odwira festival. The honoring of the stool was designed to appraise the spirits of the ancestors (Murrell 40).
Masks and charms: according to Murrell, carnival type masks were worn during gleeful occasions. The masks were made of fabric layers of dark color and it was believed that whosever wore the egungun attire will be possessed with spiritual power of the ancestors he or she represents (Muller 40).
Yams: The feast of the yams was festival dedicated to the return of the patrilineal ancestors, which was conducted annually and was also known as egungun (Murrell 40).
Drums: The drums were used during the mourning period whereby, the men were entitled with the task of beating the drums throughout the night (Murrell 39).
Mountains: The Mountains were considered to be the dwelling place of the ancestors. During the rituals, the ancestors would be petitioned and invited from the mountains by the priests (Murrell, pg 40)
Conclusion West African natives performed a variety of cultural traditional rituals, which were later incorporated in Europe. The western African religious cultural practices were characterized by various components including the use of music, dancing, and textile industry development.
An individual was considered to possess different personalities according to the cultural traditions of the Western Africa. Kongo was the place where a number of traditions like Vodou or Nganga were originated, and due to the transatlantic trades, Africans were able to share their traditions and religion with other people.
The cult of the dead was widely spread over the African people. In spite of the fact that communication with dead people may lead to some negative outcomes, the main purposes of Vodou and Nganga remain to be protective, so that any witchcraft or evil magic cannot spoil true educative intentions of the believers and supporters of the cult of the dead.
Works Cited Galembo, Phyllis. Vodou: Visions and Voices of Haiti. Berkley, CA: Ten Speed Press. Print.
Matibag, Eugenio. Afro-Cuban Religious Experience: Cultural Reflections in Narrative. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1996. Print.
Middleton, John. Lugbara Religion: Ritual and Authority among the East African People. Oxford: LIT Verlag Münster, 1999. Print.
Murrell, Nathaniel S. Afro-Caribbean religions: an introduction to their historical, cultural and sacred traditions. PA, Temple University Press.
Thomson, Robert, F. “Round Houses and Rhythmized Textiles.” In Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books, 1984, 193-225. Print.
Ethical and Social Obligations Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Practicing ethical integrity
Work based ethics
Ethical and social obligations
Optimal ethical Decision making processes
Abstract Ethical integrity means possessing principled character like empathy, honesty and loyalty. Each person possesses ethical character that he or she exudes on a regular basis. They can be personal ethics, work based ethics or familial ethics. Ethical integrity is when people implement these ethics and stick by them regardless of the consequences. Individuals with apt ethical integrity will always stick with their preferred choice of action consequently taking responsibility for such actions.
Ethical integrity is a vital quality that individuals should possess. Ethics is also called moral philosophy as it describes what is morally apt or inapt. Whether an individual considers him righteous or not does not pass. This is so because, at any particular time, everyone must think in ethical ways. We all think about what is good or bad, what being fair means and justice accorded to everyone.
Practicing ethical integrity Ethical integrity is an essential quality in everyone’s life. Thus, it must be practiced in everything we do. Ethical integrity is practiced at every aspect of life. This includes at home, at work and in personal life.
Work based ethics Ethical integrity is important at work as it results in many actions that enable an individual to perform, and relate well with their colleagues and clients. Ethical integrity is not about what we tell others or what we want to do. It is what we do, or the actions we perform. The best way to show integrity at the work place is to be consistent in ethical principles and practice. Some scholars refer to ethical integrity as a measure of character.
In any organization, there must be a set of ethical values that the employees understand and adhere to, in accordance to their responsibility, in that organization. Ethical integrity at work mainly refers to the loyalty and commitment of employees and clients. In my view for employees and clients, to be completely loyal and committed they must be contented that their organization has ethical practices.
The employers have the responsibility of presenting employees and clients with labor practices, policies, fairness, integrity and values. They also have to ensure that all employees are contented with the presented moral practices, and follow up their implementation.
The organizations should always put the client interest at heart. For instance, James Burke who is the previous CEO of Johnson and Johnson displayed his moral integrity when he addressed consumers’ interest before the company’s objective. He recalled all Tylenol, which was manufactured by the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The initiation charge of these drugs was $ 100 million, but to James Burke the consumers’ health was paramount (Guy, 1990). Currently Johnson and Johnson has benefited from an apt reputation arising from application of ethical integrity thus, earning public trust. It is not forgotten that in any business organization, nothing is preferred more than an apt reputation. The long-term trust between the organization and clients is vital to profitable business in the future (Guy, 1990).
Personal ethics Personal ethics refer to how an individual wants to live his life thus; it constitutes self regarding and other regarding ethical practices. Self regarding includes immorality and grounds of survival, self concern and rational anticipation. Other regarding includes mainly interpersonal-moral relations.
Some scholars refer to personal relations as morality. They argue that it represents the expectation of an individual in a society. The main concern, in personal ethics, is the way an individual conducts his life. Those ethical integrity values that an individual possesses constitute the personal ethics. Personal ethics are the moral commitment to do the correct thing, and it might include financial, emotional and social cost. It is noteworthy that ethical principals be used as the foundations in decision making.
There are various principles of personal ethics which an individual must posses. One principle is an individual’s interest in the well being of others. One must make decisions in life while considering the well being of others. Another principle is the respect for others freedom. An individual must revere the independence of others by not interfering or obstructing.
One must also be honest and trustworthy. An individual must always say the truth; furthermore, it is vital to comply with the law and be fair in his judgment. One must refuse to take unfair advantage over others. Personal ethics also constitutes the ability of an individual to prevent harm. Individuals, who never want to accept a loss, must engage in strategies that foster success (Schminke, 1998).
Familial ethics Family affairs are recorded as ethically momentous. This ethical character spawns familial compulsion. In view of the fact that, the family is considered a social unit that involves a passionate, long-term, supportive, cooperative and protective relationship among its members. We usually think of family affairs as necessarily including some basic mutual sharing, company, aid and care.
This scenery of family affairs obliges one to make suitable retort to family members’ interests, problems or needs. Familial integrity involves the developing of family traditions that are translated to the other family members. Familial ethics majorly involves the relationship within a family. It highlights how the family members relate with one another. A family with good familial ethics encourages well and better living conditions. In such a family, there is always tranquility and affluence.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethical and Social Obligations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In a family, ethical decision making always take the center stage for the development of a good family relationship. The conduct, especially that of the head of the family serves as a model to the family. Decisions must be made by the implementation of ethical integrity (Schminke, 1998). For example, the sex scandals about Tiger woods that were recently in the media were against familial ethics. However, he applied ethical integrity when he apologized to his family and fans and accepted his mistakes.
The implementation of familial values is the most outstanding way to nature ethical integrity within the family. The ethical principles in a family will help nature the family off springs in to responsible adults. The family is the bed rock for the foundation of all the other forms of ethics. The way one relates to the family will affect that person’s relation at work and any other place (Schminke, 1998).
Ethical and social obligations There is the need for ethical and social obligations in the society which result in good moral and interpersonal relationship. It has been evident that it is always difficult for an organization to put in place ethical standards and then comply with them. Whether the ethical principles of an organization are set or not, employees should stand by their personal ethics.
This helps in bringing about unity and understanding in the organization. It requires consciousness and audacity to take action in that instant thus clasping out for a preference. This is in configuration with the affirmed ethics of the organization and the integrity of those involved. Ethical Integrity provides the motivation to translate awareness into action. There is fundamental fulfillment in accessing courage at times when ethical integrity is tested (Wolfe, 1989).
Ethical and social obligations examine the need for appropriate action. There are various factors that bring about the need for appropriate action. The chief motive is to bring about steadiness within a society. There are various ways that result in the satisfaction of ethical and social obligation. When one is, open to feed back, he will interact well with the society as he will provide opportunities for others to comment on his deeds thus accepting criticism.
This will bring out the need for appropriate action. In order to examine, the need for appropriate action an individual should accept personal responsibility. This helps in the establishment of fine interpersonal relations. Essence of appropriate action is also portrayed when one balances his needs with the needs of others. Here, the individual considers others in his actions. This brings understanding and apt relations.
Need for appropriate action comes out when one practices understanding and compassion. When one posses this ethical integrity trait he avoids conflict with colleagues who have divergent views as evident at work or home. This brings unity among individuals working together or living together as a family thus, the need for appropriate action. Seeking advice from others enhances the need for appropriate action (Wolfe, 1989).
Since, consultation strengthens relations as people are free with one another. This portrays the need for appropriate action as it results in better understanding and communication. Being respectful of views that are different is a clear indication of the need for appropriate action. It streamlines the relationship among individuals and encourages prosperity especially at work and at school. This shows that appropriate action brings prosperity at the different levels of life (Wolfe, 1989).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical and Social Obligations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More So as, to reflect the need for appropriate action an individual must act with integrity even when it is inconvenient. This shows the care one has for his colleagues or family. This builds strong familial units or an excellent reciprocated relationship at work. The need for appropriate action is portrayed when an individual keeps agreements he has made with other people. This establishes trust between individuals in an organization or at home.
Establishment of trust amongst individuals reflects the importance of appropriate actions. The essence of appropriate action comes out when one knows the difference between humor and hostility. This enables and individual avoid offensive statements and actions that may necessitate appropriate action.
Optimal ethical Decision making processes There are three main ethical decision making processes. These include dictatorship, democracy and consensus decision making. In dictatorship, only one individual is involved in decision making as no one’s view is considered. In most occasions, those individuals are normally the head of such organizations or departments.
This ethical decision making process has merits and demerits that come with its implementation. One major merit is that the decisions are made quickly and in time. A major demerit is that a wrong decision may be unnoticed which hurts the organization or family in days to come (Brown, 2005).
The other decision-making process is democracy. In a democracy, the stakeholder’s views are considered before a decision is made. This involves a wide range of consultation that comes with the decision made. Everyone is given the chance to air their views before the people present (cannon, 2003).
It suits a situation where many people are involved. Its merit is that a consultative and appropriate decision is made about an issue. Its demerit is that it takes a long time to arrive at a decision that suits the entire stakeholder. It is one of the processes preferred by many individuals and organizations.
The last decision making process entails consensus. This is a process that involves few people. Here, the individuals indulge in a round –table-discussions (cannon, 2003). Each presents his decisions and discussion begins thus assessing the tabled ideas. A decision is reached when all the ideas are merged to form one decision that suits all the parties involved. The demerit of this process is that it takes time before a pronouncement is reached. It has a merit which is, it results in a consultative-effective and appropriate decision (cannon, 2003).
These decision-making processes have to be improved so as to suit every one involved. My first suggestion is the abolishment of the dictatorship process. This is so because it mostly results in wrong decisions, as they only suit the decision maker. This decision-making process also brings conflict whenever a wrong decision is made.
My other suggestion is the improvement of the consensus process since the parties involved should strictly constitute of experts and not people interested in the decision. This will enable the process to take a shorter period, and the decision will be comprehensive.
Decision-making and deeds among the customer and the professional are altered by the influence of the organization. Each organization has a diverse way of managing the decision-making process; furthermore, organizations decide the way it will work with reference to the ethical behavior. An individual’s principles and morals are dissimilar to others thus the way they interpret social regulations or expectations is different. Professional restrictions and behavior plays a major role during decision making.
These factors might influence someone to act dissimilar to others if put in the same situation. In actuality, all of these factors and others not stated are factors that affect daily professional work. The present economic and political situation contributes to the complexity of this concept. It is hard to make excellent decisions without being questioned as a result of ethical positions or suitability (cannon, 2003). Professionals at work must do their best in making apt decisions.
If an individual encounters ethical dilemmas, decision-making steps are used i.e. concerns explanation, principles acknowledgment, addressing opposition, issue resolution, stakeholder investigation and decision accomplishment. Many ethical decision making methods exist; most of the methods constitute comparable steps in unraveling ethical dilemmas (cannon, 2003).
Conclusion Ethical integrity is essential in one’s life. It constitutes how one conducts himself and makes a decision. Work based ethics are the ethical behaviors at the work place thus bring efficiency and productivity at the work place. Familial ethics are ethical integrity principles in the family; they mainly enhance unity and understanding.
Personal ethics pertain to the manner in which an individual wants to live his life. It constitutes self regarding and other regarding processes. Ethical and social obligation helps realize the need for appropriate action by viewing the results of an individual’s positive, ethical integrity behavior. There are three main ethical decision making processes thus totalitarianism, democracy and consensus decision making.
References Cannon, B. (2003). One Sigma Decision in a Six Sigma World. The Cannon Advantage. Web.
Brown, M. (2005). Corporate integrity: rethinking organizational ethics, and leadership. New York. Cambridge University Press.
Dorrien, G. (2008). Social ethics in the making: interpreting an American tradition. Oxford. Wiley-Blackwell.
Guy, M. (1990). Ethical decision making in everyday work situations. New York. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Schminke, M. (1998). Managerial ethics: moral management of people and processes. New Jersey. Lawrence Erlbaum associates Inc.
Wolfe, A. (1989). Whose keeper? Social science and moral obligation. California. University of California Press
Wesley Cragg. (2005). Ethics codes, corporations, and the challenge of globalization. Massachusetts. Edward Elgar Publishing
Analyzing International Marketing Environment and Foreign Direct Investment Essay essay help free
Introduction Marketing entails making products that are desired by a certain section of the target population or consumer. Marketing in special fields include the marketing of services, agricultural marketing and international marketing.
International marketing which entails marketing across political boundaries, as well as the marketing activities of an enterprise that sells and/or manufactures goods and services within a given country when that organization is a subsidiary or is affiliated to another firm which is located in another nation (Kotler, 2006).
Multinational enterprises are involved in international trade since the business represents a major share of gross domestic product (GDP). This implies that these international corporations have multiple operation points that report to one headquarter, thus powerful enterprises that have an influence in the domestic economies.
Going multinational is deemed to bring some diversification gain to the corporation, and these can be elaborated as the company diversifies across “product space” and geographical space (Caves, 2007). This paper discusses the international marketing environment in relation to factors such as the cultural, political-legal, and economic forces that affect the selection of a potential market for foreign direct investments. The main concern of this analysis is in reference to Zimbabwe as a non western country.
Market Research Market research involves identifying or analyzing opportunities that are available in the marketing environment. This research is performed in a view to identify customer’s needs and taste which forms a foundation for the production of an optimum marketing mix. In an international perspective, when analyzing the market there are some issues to be considered in relation to the marketing environment.
Forces both internal and external to the organization can affect its performance. The environments for international marketing include the political-legal, economic, social-cultural and technological environments; also known as PEST Analysis (Bogozzi, 1991).
According to Perner (2009), before entering international marketing, a firm needs to take into consideration the following decisions:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 1. whether to go abroad – does the firm possess the economic and marketing power? The marketing managers should be well informed of the opportunities in abroad markets.
2. Which markets to enter – this requires proper market research on the current growing industries in the target market, competitors and culture.
3. How to penetrate the market – a firm can opt to enter the market through exporting, joint venturing or direct investment. This depends on the knowledge about the local market and control over it.
4. On an appropriate marketing mix – this phase involves implementing the correct marketing mix including straight extension, communication adaptation, product adaptation, dual adaptation and product invention.
5. On a suitable marketing organization – a firm can be an export department, international division or a multinational organization.
Through exercising research, information about consumer behavior in the target country can be obtained in several ways. Kotler (2006) asserts that the study of consumer behavior enables a firm to determine how consumers make decisions to spend their resources.
Information about consumers is gathered through observation and interviews with them on an official (use of structured questionnaire) or informal (guided interview) arrangement. Such information includes customer perceptions about their needs and the likely future purchases. This can be intensive in case of international market analysis.
We will write a custom Essay on Analyzing International Marketing Environment and Foreign Direct Investment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another method is the focus group, in which a group of customers in a certain culture, region, age group or education level are analyzed to come up with information about their preferences and buying behavior. However, a firm may opt to perform an observation of the target market; how the consumers behave in relation to their buying decisions. Thus, a company can be able to enter the international market after a systematic market research.
International Marketing Environment The marketing environment of an organization consists of the elements that affect the way the marketing functions are carried out. These forces also influence the domestic and international marketing decisions made by marketing managers in regards to making products that are desired by consumers in the targeted countries. In reference to Zimbabwe, forces that affect direct foreign investment include social-cultural, political-legal, economic, demographic, and technological.
Since markets involve the purchasing power of buyers and sellers, the economic conditions must be analyzed in a view to make the right marketing decisions. Economic circumstances influence the way in which a firm performs its marketing operations; bad economy leads to negative impacts on the organizational strategy.
Marketers should be able to forecast on the economic conditions in the domestic and international markets in the nearby future. The issues to consider here are the levels of new industrial growth, impact of fluctuations on exchange rates and the major economic indicators of a country; for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation and employment levels, global economic interdependence and trade agreements (Bennett and Blythe, 2002).
The level and distribution of income and industrial structure varies among nations. Income distribution of a country can be considered as very low, mostly low, medium, high, or very high. In the case of Zimbabwe, the rate of economy is very and there is a high inflation rate. Investing in Zimbabwe requires a larger profit that can sustain the business uncertainties.
Knowing the income distribution enables companies to produce goods and services that can be affordable in various market segments. Consequently, companies need to know the consumer expenditures and their spending patterns. Consumers spending are influenced by funds, debt, and credit accessibility.
For instance, the saving rate for the Japanese consumers is over 10% as compared to that of the U.S consumers, which is less than 10%. This implies that banks in Japan can offer loans to companies at a lower interest rate as compared to U.S, hence faster business expansion. Thus, marketers must take into consideration the main changes in cost of living, interest rate, incomes, and savings patterns because they can help in positioning products according to the level of income.
Furthermore, the global economic interdependence enables companies to have access to markets of different countries. This is due to the regional trade agreements that are set by organizations such as Word Trade Organization (WTO). Trade agreements like the European Union (EU) and the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) ensure that companies falling under the member countries are able to enjoy free trade. In this regard, companies are forced to produce and market products that satisfy the conditions set by the agreements. It is essential for companies to realize that the world is moving towards a global economy, thus there is need to take advantage of global economy through international marketing (Peter
Platonic Literature about the Later Days of the Socrates Essay online essay help: online essay help
The essay focuses on Platonic literature about the later days of the Socrates who existed in Athens, Greece during the early centuries. Plato, an Athenian, was born on 427B.C. to an elite family that was greatly involved in the politics of Greece during the rule of Pericles, who was his step-father. Plato studied under the Socrates whom he developed close friendship though when they were executed in 399B.C, he distanced himself from the Athenian politics and ventured into Western philosophy.
As a teacher, he extended Socrates inquiries to his students, one of them being Aristotle. He founded an educational institution, the Academy, which focused on philosophical studies.
Furthermore, Plato wrote several works including the famous one, “The Republic,” which was edited by two authors, Hugh Tredennick, who was a professor of classics at London University Faculty of Arts, Royal Holloway College, and Harold Tarrant, who was also a professor of classics and head of the School of Liberal Arts at University of Newcastle, Australia. What were some Plato’s ideas concerning the Athenians focusing on Socrates?
Plato’s ideas focused on education, poltics, religion and legal systems of the Athenians. Socrates was born between 470-469BC, ten years after the conclusion of the Persian wars, at a time when Athens’ economy, military and education sector were recovering. Born in a family where his father was a stonemason, he was not able to get good education.
Socrates made strongly efforts to ensure that the Athenian youths were well educated, his point of focus being the quality of their souls. Most of the education that existed was basically practical skills that were geared towards transformation of the life of the young men. Socrates concern was mostly on the young men of Alcibiades and Charm ides who were most sought-after at that time though his feelings were much erosious leading to an unusual course (Plato 27).
Plato, just like Socrates, had a great passion for knowledge, although he lacked finances to fund formal courses, he preferred engaging the professional intellections in conversations. It is the lack of formal education that portrays him as having not acquired wisdom what could lead to him being famed by it (361d-e). Plato vividly points out that it requires philosophical experience in order to be able to arrange the universe and this philosophy is got through the formal education that one gets in school.
This is seen when he points out that “Socrates is in charge of a weird school of philosophy” (Plato 28), yet in real sense such school never existed. Most of Socrates guidance was intelligent governing principles that are why he was seen as being very clever. Acknowledging Plato, the Charmides and Protagoras painted an outstanding youthful picture of him having a conversation with Charmides and he is portrayed as being much contentious and headstrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plato views the Apology as a struggle between two centers of piety where one overlooks the others religious duty which are fused with ones duty to the traditional values of the city.
Thus, for an individual not participating in religious ceremonies but giving respect to the political institutions and social principles, could have a social breakdown if he or she keenly follows it. The dispute between Socrates and Athens is looked at by Euthyphro as the piety that preserves both private household and the cities and that the results of impiety were felt by both families and the cities.
Socrates believed that trespasses can cause harm to an individual and that divine law does not permit the better individual to be harmed by the worse (apology 30b-c). He says that laws of justice should not be used to suppress and oppress guilty individuals especially on the Socrates like him. Plato exemplifies this to Georgia’s view 474d-480d, he says that punishment is due for an individual who has broken the law as it relieves him injustice and that it is this justice that determines the individual will act justly (Plato 33).
Though he did not like the Athenian laws, he was forced to adhere to them as because higher law calls for obedience to just agreements, and that by one deciding to reside in a given city means that he or she has agreed to abide by the laws stipulated. Apology 37 further points out that the higher authority associated with God and individuals’ perception precedes the derived authority of the city laws. It is this that leads to the Socrates following the Athenians and even supporting them in everything that came about.
In conclusion according to Plato, education is a key element in an individual as it invokes ones thought and actions, and this is what that thrives a nation. By being a philosopher one is able to understand the laws and interpret them effectively thus preventing a conflict from the centers of authority.
He demonstrates this practically when the people vehemently resisted to follow the Athenians laws due to misconceptions of the law, but they finally accepted to abide and work closely with the authority after being taught about the law. Intelligence is an important tool in a human being as it gives him or her knowledge and experience to act with respect to the law.
Works Cited Plato, Tredennick. The last days of Socrates. New York: Penguin Classics, 2003. Print.
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Long and Short term Memory Research Paper essay help
According to psychology, memory is the ability of a human being to store, retain, and recall information and experience that characterize life. Although Lewandowsky, et,al,(2004) notes “ several intermediate states are less well understood, short-term and long-term memories are accompanied by different biological states and mechanisms of retention and therefore there are two distinct forms of memory”. Human beings have two types of memory to hold information: the long term and short memory.
Long-term memory (LTM) stores information for a longer time than short memory: It is different from the STM in structure and function. “Biologically, short-term memory is a temporary potentiation of neural connections that can become long-term memory through the process of rehearsal and meaningful association” Parmentier, et al (2005). There is no researcher who is sure of the process but they say that it results in the transformation of the configuration of the neurons but the time that it takes is also debatable.
The short term memory is also referred to as active or primary memory as it holds minute quantity of data at a particular time and it only remains obtainable for a short duration. The duration is estimated in seconds and research has it that the short term memory keeps information for 7 seconds plus two or minus two depending on an individual because its length is about seven bits.
The memory works like a computers RAM memory; it provides a operating space then transfers the details to the other memory or discards it if its not necessary and the information is also vulnerable to interruption and interference. “Biologically short term memory involves the firing of neurons which depletes the Readily Releasable Pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter vesicles at presynaptic terminals.
The pattern of depleted presynaptic terminals represents the long term memory trace and the depletion itself is the short term memory” (Nairne, 2002).
The short term memory
The short term memory has three major operations: the iconic memory, the acoustic memory and the working memory. The iconic memory memorizes the visual images, the acoustic grasps the sounds and it more effective that the iconic.
Information can be easily recalled by this memory depending on the length, phonological effect, semantic categories and words familiarity. Short-term memory relies generally on an acoustic code than the visual code for accumulation of information because People always find it difficult to remember a series of words that are acoustically similar for instance, dog, hog, and log).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Davelaar, et, al, (2005) notes “short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe (especially dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the parietal lobe”. The working memory stores the information until it is used and not until it’s moved to the long term .For example, when memorizing a telephone number it keeps the digits until one dials the numbers. It therefore keeps information for immediate use and not for latter use.
The procedure of conveying information from STM to LTM entails the encoding and consolidation of information: it is not a task of time; the more the data resides in STM it increases the chances of it being transferred into the long term memory but multifaceted data is sorted out in the STM ahead of it being programmed into LTM.
The Long-Term Memory
Information is stocked up on the origin of sense and significance and it also has a huge capacity. Information from the short term memory is transferred to it through rehearsal and also information learnt over a period of time is transferred to the long term memory and can only be removed by interfering with it or through decay .
The information we store in it has to do with our understanding and views concerning issues around us. Significant information gained is also stored there and is retrieved according to need; for example learning new technology and applying the knowledge every time one needs it. Information is stored in mental models known a “schemas” the schemas are arranged in a manner that they are related through networks depending on the information that each contains.
One schema therefore activates the other which also does so to the next hence creating a link and therefore enabling people to remember the required information when similar data is presented. The schemas guide our minds to the relevant information while ignoring the irrelevant .Therefore for one to easily remember something it’s advisable to use questions or graphical presentations to activate the schemas.
The brain does not put everything together in a single compartment like it is in computer’s hard disk drive but instead there are different parts for storage. The long term memory is divided into two main regions: declarative memory and implicit memory also known as procedural memory. “Declarative memory comprises of all memories that are consciously available such as: the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex, but consolidated and stored elsewhere in the cortex” Scruggs,
United Nations Global Compact Report essay help online free
Introduction The United Nations Global Compact being an initiative which has played a major role in making sure that business organizations subscribe to policies which enhance social responsibilities has enacted some principles which have been able to bring companies together in ensuring a global sustainability. In addressing the integration of Hewlett Packard into the United Nations Global Compact, this paper will basically consider two principles.
The first principle will principle number six which focuses on labour standards and seeks to ensure that in all types of occupations and employments, discrimination should totally be done away with (Utting and Zammit 2006, 16). The next principle in focus will be the 9th principle which entails precautionary measures to be taken as companies approach challenges posed by the environment (UNGC 2010, 155) (a).
Business approaches Hewlett Packard, in its undeterred ambition to providing cutting edge technology to the populations all over the world became a member of the United Nations Global Compact initiative in a bid to be in support of the ten principles. Some of the practices and approaches that the company can and has tried to follow concur with the principle of equity in labour distribution (Kell 2005, 33).
This has been a sad case in many companies who have been discriminating amongst color and origin. To incorporate this into the business system, the company must integrate transparency in its human resource system such that all workers feel respected. This too has to consider that the process of hiring and/or firing falls in under the same conditions where meritocracy is respected irrespective of skin color (UNGC
The Divine Comedy Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Durante degli Alighieri, shortened as Dante, was an Italian poet born in the spring of 1265 in Florence. Of his works, The Divine Comedy is the greatest literary statement in the medieval periods of the Europeans. It marks the foundation of the Italian language. The comedy explores the greatest unreciprocated, distant love story between Dante – the author, and Beatrice. Dante is almost nine years when he first meets Beatrice, who is a few months younger.
Dressed in crimson attire, she completely obsesses him. For nine years, he remains captivated by her from a distance. It is not until 1283, when she speaks to him as they pass each other on the way. After marrying Beatrice and enjoying three years together, sorrow strikes him. His 24-year-old wife dies! Though short, the time they spend together, significantly influences the rest of his life. Though dead and forgotten, her principal inspirations speak volumes of Dante’s works.
Firstly, after Dante meets Beatrice for the first time, her dressing forces him to fall in love with her in the first sight, mistaking her for an angel with divine and noble characteristics.
Though they hardly speak, it is from this first encounter that makes him write the poem Behold, A Deity Stronger Than I; Who Is Coming, Shall Rule Over Me. One afternoon, they meet along the Florentine streets, when Beatrice greets him. She says, “Love prompted me, that love that makes me talk…” (Lawall 1841). This greeting is enough to make him retreat to his room where he falls asleep, only to experience a dream that becomes the subject of one of his greatest romantic poems-The New Life.
Next, he frequently tours parts of Florence, his home city, looking for just a glimpse of Beatrice. His words, “You with your words have so disposed my heart, into longing for this journey…” (Lawall 1842) induces nervousness. These shows how much influence Beatrice words have on his decisions.
They are so powerful, that he has to pay her visits. His efforts to privatize his thoughts about Beatrice force him to compose poetry to a woman, to use her as a “screen for the truth.” Her influence is far from a straightforward inspiration, Dante makes her a character in his greatest works.
The book, The New Life, is almost full of poems of his praises to her. The Divine Comedy book shows how much she has influenced his spiritual life. She is the one who directs him to heaven For instance, “You are my guide, my governor, my master” (Lawall 1842). Owing to the fact that their relationship has no contact, their personal terms conversations is just Dante’s imaginations. The Beatrice on study is his mind’s creations. He calls her “The glorious lady of my mind.”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, truth and beauty seem inseparable. Through an animation, Beatrice goes to the purgatory for Dante where he greets her. His journey from the purgatory, through inferno to paradise parallels a change of his relationship to Beatrice. In his journey with Virgil through the inferno, he depicts Beatrice as his only reassurance.
She says, “When I had risen from flesh to spirit and beauty and virtue and increased in me I was less dear to him and less welcome and he bent his steps in a way not true…” (Lawall 1843). Beatrice here asserts the fact that she is different from all the women Dante has met and for him to love any other, is unholy.
In conclusion, the author influences men’s imaginations, touching their hearts so that they can turn to righteousness. To the author, this truth reveals the divine wisdom. Being a poet with divine commission, he wants to familiarise men with this revelation. From his experience of a man on earth, this design is practicable.
Though Dante cannot be explained beyond this earthly plain, from the love that cropped from the sight of a beautiful girl, he has produced great works of poetry earning him the title “Father of Italian Literature.” As a lesson, the readers should be worthy of these heavenly gifts when they bestow their hearts on those they love.
Works Cited Lawall, Sarah. (Ed.) “The Norton Anthology of World Literature, Vol. A: Beginnings to A.D. 100, 2nd Edition, 2003.
The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City Essay college admissions essay help
In the modern world of competition it is essential for hotel business to understand the needs and preferences of customers and provide them with the best possible services (Hall and Page, 1999, p.97). Thus, the majority of international or regional hotel companies start investing in training and development programmes (Olsen and Zhao, 2008, p.171). Hudson Hotel (New York) pertains to one of such regional hotel chains, Morgans Hotel Group (“Morgans Hotel Group”).
Admittedly, hospitality is the key consideration for every respectful hotel (O’Fallon and Rutherford, 2010, p.30). Hospitality presupposes that hotel staff will provide “the flexible delivery of hotel services” (Bardi, 2006, 309). Fortunately, nowadays flexibility has become accessible due to technology which assists in addressing “the training needs” and the needs of providing good services (Wallace, 1993, p.62).
As far as training is concerned, various visual aids have proven to be very effective in development training (Pike, 2003, p.63). Fortunately, Hudson Hotel has the opportunity of implementing various training strategies using technology since it is designed to become an example of the boldness and diversity of the city” with numerous conference halls and other accommodations suitable for training (“Hudson New York”). Thus, technology assists in implementing various development programs.
As well as many successful hotel companies Hudson Hotel uses various training techniques which can be divided into three major groups: “vocational training, professional education and executive development” (Jafari, 2003, p.176). Vocational training plays the essential role since it helps to develop the key consideration of hotels, hospitality (Weber and Chon, 2002, p.80).
This kind of training is preoccupied with such areas as skills (bad making, vacuuming, bathroom cleaning, using equipment, industrial safety), attitude (meeting standards, appearance, personal hygiene), and knowledge (hotel layout, knowledge of rights and benefits, grievance procedure understanding) (Jones, 2007, p.159). Executive development also plays a significant role in Hudson Hotel training programs. This training is aimed at developing new (modern, innovative) skills in management personnel.
To develop skills and knowledge mentioned above various training techniques are used in Hudson Hotel. For instance, demonstration and skill practice are very effective techniques (Malhorta, 1997, p.265). Demonstrations consist in sharing experience when a person who possesses definite skills shows (demonstrates, teaches) them to a newcomer, and the latter tries to repeat the same gaining the necessary knowledge.
Talks, lectures and seminars are also very effective in terms of employees’ development (Malhorta, 1997, p.266). As for such kind of training it is necessary to mention that one effective technique of organizing lectures (conferences, talks) is used at Hudson Hotel, i.e. the seating arrangements are organized in the “lecture theatre or classroom layout” (Rae, 1995, p.109).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This strategy helps to involve all people in discussion and lead to very positive results. Admittedly, the most effective training can be reached if it is a voluntary process (J, p.45). Thus, at Hudson Hotel various benefits for employees exist, and this forms a positive tendency of eagerness to self-develop. Thus, self-education is another effective technique used by Hudson Hotel (Hayes and Ninemeier, 2008, p.227).
Thus, Hudson Hotel implements various training techniques which are aimed at the employee’s development. These training techniques include talks, lectures and conferences. The training programs are mainly concerned with developing skills and knowledge in employees which will create the necessary atmosphere of hospitality, since it is hospitality which is the key consideration for any hotel chain.
Bibliography Bardi, J.A. (2006). Hotel Front Office Management. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Hall, C.M., Page, S. (1999). The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place and Space. New York, NY, Routledge.
Hayes, D.K., Ninemeier, J.D. (2008). Human Resources Management in the Hospitality Industry. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons. “Hudson New York”. https://www.morganshotelgroup.com/hudson/hudson-new-york#/explore/?id=overview
J, David. (2005). Textbook Of Hotel Mgmt. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.
Jafari, J. (2003). Encyclopedia of Tourism. New York, NY, Routledge.
We will write a custom Essay on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, T.J.A. (2007). Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Malhotra, R.K. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Hotel Management and Tourism. Delhi, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.
Morgan Hotel Group. https://www.morganshotelgroup.com/
O’Fallon, M.J., Rutherford, D.G. (2010). Hotel Management and Operations. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley and Sons.
Olsen, M., Zhao, J. (2008). Handbook of Hospitality Strategic Management. Burlington, MA, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Pike R.W. (2003) Creative Training Techniques Handbook: Tips, Tactics, and How-To’s for Delivering Effective Training. Amherst, MA, Human Resource Development.
Rae, L. (1995). Techniques of Training. Brookfield, Vermont, Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Wallace, P. (1993) Multimedia Boosts Holiday Inn’s Training System. InfoWorld, 15 (24) June, p.62.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Training Techniques of the Hudson Hotel in New York City by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Weber, K., Chon, K.S. (2002). Convention Tourism: International Research and Industry Perspectives. New York, NY, Routledge.
The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Capital Punishment
Introduction Capital punishment has otherwise been referred to as death sentence or death penalty. It can also be used to refer to legal execution of a convicted individual or through a judicial process.
The capital punishment has always been used in situations where an individual or criminal is judicially convicted of a capital offence or capital crime (Milhorn 401). It is important to examine the origin of capital punishment. The capital is a term that was coined from the Latin word “capitalis” which actually, in its literal sense means “gaze at the head.”
So it means that initially, capital punishment was a situation where a convicted criminal had his or her head judicially severed. Nonetheless, it is important to note that capital punishment, in the past, has virtually been utilized every society (Milhorn 401). However, available literature indicates that only 58 countries of the world still practice capital punishment; this represents only approximately 5% of all countries in the world.
The meaning of this is that about 95% of all countries in the world have turned away from using capital punishment to contain crimes. In many countries, capital punishment is still a subject of hot debate in many countries, including the United States of America, and standpoints can vary within a given singular cultural religion amongst a group of individuals or political ideology (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).
Amongst the nations that do not recognize capital punishment as a form of deterring or terminating the commission of capital offences are those that are found within the European Union. This is well spelt in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Even though the Transparency International consider most countries as abolitionists against capital punishment, research findings indicate that more than 60% of the worlds population reside in countries where capital punishment is still an option for punishing or deterring capital offenders. Example of such countries where capital punishment is still an option are the United States of America, the People’s Republic of China and Indonesia (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).
However, looking at the contemporary society, the global distribution of death penalty has been varying greatly with some countries and states abolishing and reinstating capital punishments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the end of the Second World War, the global tendency toward abolishing the death penalty has been on the rise. According to available information, there are countries that have abolished death sentencing completely; some have only allowed it under special or specific circumstances while others are yet to make their decisions and take a stand on abolishing it.
Even though death penalty is still being practiced in a significant number of developed nations, it was widely practiced in developing countries most of which were under the control of repressive, dictatorial or totalitarian governments. With regard to this, it will be accurate to argue that that capital punishment has some times been used for political reasons to contain political dissidents.
The death punishment in America is varied depending with jurisdictions. Practically, death punishment in the United States of America is only applicable in cases of motivated murder and more remotely for felony assassination or what is otherwise referred to as indenture murder. The (capital) punishment is believed to have been there even at the time of the earlier colonies of the United States; it as well continued to be in force within the states that came to form afterwards.
In the process of judicial execution, the methods are different and depended on the type of criminal activity committed. The first to be sentenced to capital punishment in America was executed in 1608; the person was judicially executed after being convicted of spying on behalf of the government of Spain.
Afterwards, the capital punishment in the United States have been abolished and reinstated for a significant number of times. Nonetheless, several states within the United States apply capital punishment for differently in relation to crime committed (Clarke and Whitt, pp.03-68).
This positional paper will argue in favor of death penalties. To this effect, the paper will examine the various reason death penalty is still appropriate and important towards containing certain types of criminal activities. Moreover, the paper will utilize the ideas such as DNA evidences and other forms of evidences as they relate to death as a penalty. The various impact of banning death as a penalty will also form part of the themes in this paper.
Abolitionists’ Views In order to get the basis on which to understand the significance of capital punishment, it is important to start by looking at arguments against the judicial execution.
We will write a custom Essay on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is important to note that even though death penalty has gained support from various individuals, private organizations and state institutions, the subject is still hotly detested; there are a significant number of people or group of individuals who cannot see the positive side of capital punishment. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.
The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. Meanwhile, it was Cesare strongly campaigned against capital punishment the world over. Beccaria hypothesized that the state does not encompass any validation to take away life either for a group of individuals or an individual.
The work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. In fact, the influence of this theory achieved some grounds worldwide where some countries actually abolished death penalty as a way of judicial killing.
The ideas of Beccaria on death penalty had great influence on the American intellectuals who fought for its abolishment except in extreme cases like treason and crimes of murder. The abolitionist movement has argued, borrowing from Beccaria’s arguments, that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent to crimes for which it is meted.
During the early part of the 19th century, abolitionist movement gained momentum in the United States of America and consequently some states revised their statutes in relation to capital punishment. Even so, more states maintained their capital punishment statutes. By the time the United States was facing the First World War, capital punishment was reinstated; this could be interpreted as a blow to the anti-capital punishment crusaders.
As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of incontrovertible arguments that are worth acknowledging. They have argued that there exist nothing like humane method of judicial execution irrespective of what crime the convict might have committed to warrant death sentence. These people state that execution is torturous to a convicted criminal and that it must be realized that the criminals are also human beings with human feelings and fear of losing their families.
Moreover, an argument has been advanced that the mental conditions of the convicted as at the time of commission of capital offense is not usually given the attention it requires; besides, it is noted that from the time capital punishment is pronounced on a convict upto the time when execution takes place, the convict undergoes a lot of psychological torture and mental disturbance. This causes more suffering to the convict than the commission of offence may warrant.
The most important point raised by those arguing against capital punishment is the virtual conviction that there may be a miscarriage of righteousness where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this takes place. Due to this uncertainty, many individuals have petitioned and pressurized states to consider abolishing death penalties in their judicial systems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another argument advanced by anti-capital punishment crusaders is that the families of the convicts should not be overlooked. They say that the families also feel pain when they realize there loved ones are to be judicially executed; the families of the convicts are said to go through hell during the time starting from the pronouncement of death sentence to the actual execution of the convicted criminal.
Racism has been linked to unjustified death sentences where members of a given race are more likely to be handed death penalty than others. For instance, it is estimated that black capital criminals are highly likely to get death penalty where the victims are mostly whites; in cases involving black victims, white capital offenders are most likely to escape death penalties.
Meanwhile, there are so many reasons the anti-capital punishment crusaders have advanced against death penalty. However, maintenance of death penalty in the penal code is still very important in terms of certain crime prevention.
The Need for Capital Punishment As much as there have been oppositions to death penalty by human rights and activists and other abolitionists, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences.
In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention (Council of Europe, pp.3-13).
The argument between those for the death penalties has been going on for sometimes now in the United States of America. There are many people who have tried by all means available to them to push the state to abolish death penalty.
However, the fact is that death penalty is necessary in cases of certain crimes like serial killing, abduction and rape of underage children and other forms of felony. Those opposed to death penalty base their arguments on the possibilities of convicting and subsequently executing an innocent person (Council of Europe, pp. 15-25).
The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.
One striking fact is that before someone is convicted of a felony and sentenced to death, through investigation must be conducted; the process of conducting such investigations includes the use of scientific techniques like DNA tests even though this has been faulted to have possible errors of proof just like any other means of determining the guilt of a criminal offender.
Most important to note is the fact that the conviction process does not only utilize one means of determining whether one is guilty or innocent, a combination of methodological techniques is used so that one technique is highly likely to examine what is beyond the scope of another.
It is important to note that those arguing against the death penalty have advanced some arguments that are both logical and realistic. However, they seem to be oblivious of the fact that the process of conviction is so elaborate and effective that the chances of convicting an innocent individual is actually close to unlikely (Council of Europe, pp. 15-30).
Moreover, it is still wrong to argue that death punishment may condemn an otherwise innocent person to death. There is absolutely no proof for this claim; before anybody faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed.
Therefore, the likelihood of any innocent individual being executed by mistake is actually limited. Given the perpetually improving forensic science, the chances of judicial execution of an innocent individual is nearing zero. It therefore implies that the fear of executing an innocent person judicially should not now be amongst the reasons anti-capital punishment crusaders use against the death penalty (Gershman, pp. 107-117).
The inappropriateness of capital punishment has also been widely propagated through the various media. The fact is that the media has always confused the true distinction between the terms “acquittal” and “innocence” as they are used in the justice system.
It is this confusion in the media’s judicial reporting that present the public with the belief that those who escape convictions are actually innocent individuals who would otherwise be executed for a given crime. The clear characteristic is that innocence suggests that the individual did not indulge in the offense although being exonerated does not imply innocence.
The fact is that the court is likely to acquit a suspect in cases where the defendants are not able to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the accused actually committed the offense. It is in such cases where the court has acquitted an individual, irrespective of whether he or she committed the crime or not, due to lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt that the media has taken it as if the court has found the individual innocent.
In summary, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. This is also a proving ground on which capital punishment should not be abolished (Gershman, pp. 131-140).
The possible conviction and subsequent execution of an innocent individual is unfortunate by all standards of justice available. But, it is noteworthy that the unfortunate scenario can not only be avoided through abolition of death penalty. Instead, the immense role played by death penalty in terms of criminal deterrence should appear in the bigger picture. Even if innocent people can mistakenly be executed for crimes they have not committed or abated, their number may not match those offenders who qualify for death penalty.
This implies that the probability of executing an innocent person is immensely insignificant and hence should not be a reason for which death penalty should be abolished. Besides, in the recent past, there has never been heard of a situation where and individual has mistakenly been convicted and sentenced to death. This reinforces the argument that the chances of executing an innocent person are very limited and almost unlikely (Gershman, pp. 202-213).
Looking at the bigger picture, it is important to acknowledge that there are some career criminals whose existence means perpetual threat to social tranquility besides creating social disorder. For example, a career criminal whose presence in any setting is always defined by violence and even death might have been in and out of jail. This implies that such as criminal cannot be rehabilitated through jailing and hence the need to eliminate him or her from the society.
In this case, death penalty may not be considered as a punishment to the offender, but should be seen as a way of ensuring that a single individual or few people do not threaten the overall social peace within a given society. In relation to this, it will be noted that judicial execution is an effective way of stopping capital offenses. There may be many criminals who carry out capital offenses, but the judicially executed ones will never commit such crimes again.
The victims of criminals vary in terms of gender and age. In many cases, there are vulnerable groups which suffer in the hands of certain offenders. For example, children and women are the most likely victims of sex offenders. Sex offenders are normally handed more severe punishment than other offenders.
This is acknowledgeable, but the fact is that punishment should not be seen in terms of what kind of offence is committed; it should be viewed in the light of what effects or impacts it is likely to have on the general public, especially with respect to right to life and other fundamental freedoms.
In this case, it will be defeating to logic to let an individual whose behavior has proved heinous to the general public to continue living amongst the members of the society; this will simply offer such an individual more opportunities to continue with is heinous act. If left unchecked through death, such individuals are likely to remain threats to the neighborhood of their residence. So, the only way to ensure they do not continue with their socially threatening undertakings is sentence them to death (Gershman, pp. 231-137).
Generally, punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. In view of this, it is worth mentioning that death sentence is a unique its own capacity as a deterrence to reoccurrences of particular crimes. Unlike other penalties, death is not meant to teach the convicted a lesson. It performs two levels of functions; one, it simply puts an end to heinous criminal activities by a specific individual.
This implies that there may be other criminals committing similar crimes but the actions by the executed individual are completely terminated. Two, it is a fact that many people fear dying; and the constitutional provide for death as a penalty to deter an individual from committing certain crimes. Therefore, in situations where a convicted individual is executed, the message is not to the executed but to those who are yet to commit a similar act. This is what is referred to as general deterrence or indirect deterrence to crime.
According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.
The study findings further indicate that each death sentence pronounced resulted into 4.5 reductions in murder crimes while each execution led to reductions in murders by three. Research studies have also been conducted within the United States of America and the findings shows that the rate of homicide increased by 91% in the states where death penalty was abolished. Meanwhile, 70% of the states are reported to have experienced a decline in homicide after the states had re-introduced death penalty (Espejo, pp1-15).
Data collected from the general public are in agreement with the sentiment that capital punishment should not be abolished. Many of the surveyed public members of various countries have expressed their sentiments that retribution for the criminal activities committed against them, their relatives and friends is more significant to them than deterrence. An important point to take into consideration is that many criminals have been executed since death penalty was introduced several decades ago.
This means that the justice system has actually not been sufficiently equipped to handle the criminals and hence failed to reform their behaviors. For instance, different sex offenders have been caught severally in different cases. The fact therefore is that the threat of death has not deterred them, so the focus shifts from rehabilitating the criminals to protecting the safety of the general members of the society; and this is through legally eliminating them by execution.
The argument here may be that death penalty has not succeeded to deter such heinous criminal activities; nonetheless, it is better to have new people committing the crime dealt with rather than let individuals to live and repeatedly commit there heinous acts. This makes sure one does not perpetually commit the offence (Espejo, pp.34-38).
Death penalty has been limited to certain age. In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United State of America made a ruling that adolescent individuals are not subject to capital punishment. The ruling was premised on the research done by the American Psychological Association.
The research findings claimed that adolescents are less mature than the adults and hence are subject such factors as peer pressures, difficulties in restraining their impulses and the general underdeveloped sense or responsibility. This research made the Supreme Court to rule that people under the age of 18 years old cannot be handed death sentence.
The Supreme Court ruling on this matter is not sustainable in terms of ensuring justice for all citizens, especially the victims whose only hope is retribution for criminal acts committed against them. It implies that victims of heinous activities committed by the less than 18 years old criminals can never get justice yet the state is mandated to ensure justice and safety for all.
The fact is that, in terms of development, there is a thin line between an 18 year old and 17 years old individuals and thus adult age may not imply. The 17 year old averagely thinks just like an 18 year old individual. In this case, age should not be a factor in determining who gets death sentence and does not. Every behavioral activity should be considered with respect to its danger to the members of the society (Espejo, pp.132-146).
Death sentence should apply to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. For instance, the victim of rape by a less than 18 year old teenager will have the same horrible experience as the victim of rape by some who is 18 years and above.
The death penalty should therefore be applied for the safety of all members of the society. The rationale here is that the magnitude of pain inflicted through heinous act is totally independent on the age of the offender and that is what should actually inform the justice process.
It has also been argued that death punishment is cruel an unusual to both the convict and the convict’s family members and friends. Those who pose this argument are oblivious of the fact that the victim and his or her families and friends also have the same experience.
To argue on the cruelty about the cruelty of capital punishment meted to a convict and remain silent on the side of the victim actually defeats the logic of justice. One thing that is important to be borne in mind that the convicted criminal must have been aware of the consequences of committing capital offenses. This is reinforced by the fact that the consequences of crimes are well spelt in the statutory books and have been in existence for very many years.
Again, it is worth recalling that every judicial execution taking place now, especially in the 21st century, is not the first ones; the executions have been going on since over a thousand years ago. It is therefore a common knowledge that every criminal should know the most probable consequence of every criminal act. In addition, the law is very clear on the kind of people who can be tried and convicted before the court (Espejo, pp.156-162).
There are those who are exempted from judicial proceedings; such are those who are mentally ill or have mental disorder, the minor children who are statutorily underage amongst others. In view of all these, it is important to realize that a convicted criminal is always aware of the consequences but went on to commit the crime anyway.
Again, the convict must have been aware of the potential harm and pain to the victim, the victim’s family and friends but went on to commit the crime anyway and also, the convict must have been aware of those who have committed similar offenses and actually convicted and judicially executed.
So, it is justified to say or assume that a convicted individual sentenced to capital punishment had sufficient information at his or her disposal to enable him make a rational choice, though this may not always be the case. It therefore implies that in the presence of all these overwhelming information, that is also common in the public domain, the convicted individual still chose to go a head commit a capital offense; this may be referred to as crime by impunity.
For this reason, it justified to judicially execute the convict irrespective of whether he or she feels the pain or his or her friends and family do. The idea here is that in case of pain felt by family members and friends of the convict, the convict failed to think of that before committing capital offense.
In support of the forgoing argument, it is suitable that the mode of an eye for an eye is utilized. Many people who support capital punishment are highly likely to see this as cruel, but this will be very effective in terms of deterring capital offenses and protecting the general innocent public members. The issue is that the victims of capital offenders are, in most cases, innocent; and in cases where they die from heinous acts of offenders, it cannot be argued that they will ever get justice.
So, judicially executing somebody who has killed does not necessarily afford the dead victim justice, but it is ensuring that as many capital offenders as possible are eliminated from the society. In terms of moral grounds, anti-capital punishment crusaders have argued that death penalty does not have moral standing; but it is important to state that if that may be true, then the activities of capital criminal offenders are also not morally acceptable in the society.
Nonetheless, the question that may be asked is that of how the perpetually or dangerously immoral behavior can be eliminated from the entire society if not by judicial execution. If this question were to be answered, then the response will be none, hence leaving capital punishment as the only means (Mandery, pp.1-9).
One other thing that has not been given much of attention in the debate about the appropriateness of death penalty is that every prisoner or inmate would like to escape from prison should an opportunity arises. In fact, there have been several reports indicating that many prisoners have escaped from prison premises. In particular, those on long-term jail terms are most likely to escape from prison given that there lives are at stake due to the jury’s approval.
In this case, if capital offenders were to be given long jail terms, they are likely to escape and find their ways back into the society where they are likely to continue committing the very capital offenses they had been convicted of. In order to avoid such incidences, it is important that those found guilty of capital offenses be handed death penalty and thereafter be executed within the shortest time possible (Espejo, pp. 260-167).
Again it is important to recognize that laws are very dynamic and subject to change with time. In situations where a capital offender were to be jailed for life without a parole, the change of law may grant such an offender some minimum level of parole which may beat the logic of justice for the victim or close relations of justice.
For instance, a capital offender may be sentenced to life in prison but after some times, the law may possible change in such a way that those who are on life imprisonment jail term may be eligible to release if they meet certain requirements like changed behavior or showing remorsefulness. The consequence of this is that this kind of statutory change may be misused by the inmates through pretending to have behavior change but once released may again go back into committing similar capital offenses for which he or she was jailed.
This imprisonment may be considered to be the most appropriate alternative to capital punishment, but laws change and people also tend to forget about the past. In this scenario, life imprisonment may be abolished and capital offenders may be allowed back into the society after a given period of imprisonment. For this reason, it serves no good the society to abolish capital punishment and this may even lead to upsurge in the number of capital offenders (Yorke 283).
The cost of judicial execution has been fronted as one of the reason capital punishment should be abolished; it is explained that the process of running a case of capital punishment demands a lot of money from the state and also the family members of convicts who may be engaged in several court appeals.
It is true that going through the process of issuing capital punishment is complex and requires time and financial input. However, the cost is justified; first to ensure that the due process is thorough to avoid convicting an innocent person and also to ensure that it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect is actually guilty.
The processing of executing a convict requires exhaustive evidences which should be ensured are as accurate as possible since everything at that time revolves about lives; first, it revolves around the life of the suspect who may unjustifiably be executed for a crime that might attract lesser sentence and second, in case of murder, the life of the members of the society who may continue to be victims if the accused is released on account of insufficient proof. It is clear that the cost of the whole process is to ensure justice for both the suspect and the victim and potential victims (Yorke 283).
Conclusion Death penalty is a capital penalty used in punishing criminals who engage in serious criminal activities that may even go far as causing real or perceived threat of life. The death penalty has been a serious debate topic in the United States of America.
The existence of execution as a form of meting punishment to serious offenders and criminals has over the past drawn mixed perceptions. It is important to note that the differences in opinions are significant reasons for which some states within the United States have abolished death penalties while some still maintain it in their statutes (Milhorn 401).
As much as capital punishment is still relevant, there has been heated debate about it with a significant number of people arguing against it. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots.
The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. However, it was the work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice.
As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of undeniable facts that are worth acknowledging. They argue that capital punishment is cruelty against humanity, offenders might have not been sound mind at the time of commission of a capital offense and that execution puts the family of the convicted into pain and agony (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46).
The most central point raised by those arguing against death punishment is the virtual certainty that there may be a miscarriage of fair dealing or honesty within the court system where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this happens. Because of this, several human rights group have petitioned various governments in the world to drop capital punishment from their statutes.
Despite the opposition to it, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment.
This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention. The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect.
In order to avoid executing an innocent individual, anybody who faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed. However, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt.
Death punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties.
Capital punishment should be applied to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. Moreover, capital offenders seem to be always aware of the consequences of their criminal act before they commit it yet choose to go ahead (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57).
Again, in case capital punishment is commuted to life imprisonment, there is high possibility that if the long-term serving inmates escape out of prison, they will still continue to commit the very crime they were convicted of and hence place a mockery on the justice system for the victims and potential victims. Besides, the laws may change in such a manner that the capital offenders get an opportunity to go back into the society and may possibly not be cowed by the lesser consequences (Espejo, pp.156-162).
Works Cited Clarke, Williams
Seeking Philosophical Problems Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract Philosophical problems are solved by thinking critically, unlike scientific experiments and mathematical equations, which give the undisputable results and solutions to their respective problems. In this essay, the writer argues whether all varied philosophical responses to a philosophical problem or question are valid or if a solution can be preferably accepted more than others can.
Philosophical Responses There are different ways of solving problems or questions we encounter in life; the scientific questions need laboratory experiment result to answer the question, mathematical questions need mathematical theory to solve and give result, while philosophical questions can be answered by just thinking.
The philosophical approach to problems by thinking begs more questions as to whether our minds are very similar in response to similar problems in same or different environment, whether we have duplicate thoughts, and what standard of thoughts can give preferred solution among varied responses?
There are broad philosophical questions that are answered by many philosophers with all different kinds of evidences in support of their answers. However, how do they get these answers? What kind of experiments and thoughts make them give the probable answer to a problem? They say it is the conception analysis that determines the philosophical answer.
The first step that we should know about to answer the philosophical question is the basic concept. The meaning of basic concept is what we learned from experience in our lives and the knowledge gained from the people. Novak and Canas define concept as “a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label” (Para. 1).
In the simple philosophical question “Does God exist”, first, we have to know what God is. The meaning of God from a dictionary says is “The creator and ruler of the universe.” Now we have basic concept of what God is, we can now think the God exist or not. However, the answer could not be the right answer because the evidence is not absolutely coming from the mathematical calculation or a laboratory experiment (Clayton Para. 3).
If God does not exist, what are the evidences and proofs that makes us so? If God does exist, what are the concrete arguments that support our thinking?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The start point of the argument is the word “God”. Human being came up with the word “God|” as a name of their creator and ruler of universe. Do they have a picture or seen the God who made the universe? If God exists why does not He/She shows up in front of us? Do they ever hear God’s voice? Have they touched God before?
They probably answer is no, hence this could be the evidence and support my answer that God does not exist. This answer did not come from any laboratory experiment or a mathematical calculation. The assumption of the thoughts is that all the questions were negative (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Para. 1-5).
If the answer to the question is not right, why should we answer it? Should we also think all science experiments, mathematical theory, and the other questions do not need answers? Human beings have to think and determine their own future by their experiences or analysis of the collected data, which help them in solving problems.
The world is full of problems, for example; human being solves technologies, fire, cars, nature, and variety of tools that help in our living. If they did not have minds to think and knowledge from their experiences, we could not exist in this world.
Conclusion Most philosophical problems cannot have evidence like science and mathematical but are just solved by using basic concepts of thinking and life experiences. Philosophical answers are not right but are very subjective since many people have different thoughts and knowledge, which justify varied responses to be valid in their own right.
Works Cited Clayton, John. “A Practical Man’s Proof of God. Does God Exist?” 27 Aug. 2007. Web.
Employment Relations Essay a level english language essay help
I would advocate for a minimization of the state’s role in regulating employment relations. Most workplace matters should be left in the hands of employers and employees. However the complexity of employment relations in many states tends to make it hard to comprehend this argument.
The areas of interest between the parties in employment arrangements, which take centre stage are: “typical and flexible work arrangement; disagreement settlement procedures; job security, anti-discrimination and gender equality; acknowledgment of unions and employers’ associations; regulation of collective bargaining; parental leave and childcare directives; the capacity of individual agreements to override or not override collective agreements; and minimum wage rates among others”.
Every company or industry has its own code of regulations that are to be adhered to by its employees in all the activities being coordinated by the employer. It is the employer who ensures that a harmonious coexistence prevails between the organization and the employees so as to have smooth running of activities.
The role of the state should be to enact laws that will have to be followed by the employers and their employees, but the role of implementing the laws should be left to the labor organization within that given country. By looking at employment relations, it involves interactions between the employer and the employees at a workplace meant to boost the firm’s performance.
All actions taking place within a working environment concerns the employers and their employees, so any actions or decision making matters pertaining the place of work is within their jurisdiction. The states full involvement in employment matters happens to paralyze the activities as it may impose laws which may act as a barrier to the performance of the organization.
For the implementation of laws regarding workers and their employers, an institutions within the government known as trade unions are formed which link the company and the state, although the powers of the union are independent and do not allow for government interference. However, looking from a Marxism point of view it is undeniable that the state plays a vital influence over the conduct of employment relations.
The state is largely involved in providing an environment in which capital can flourish at the expense of the labor interest by setting up measures, such as progressive legislation for instance, designed to protect employee’s consciousness and assist legitimize the exploitative nature of the employment arrangement.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In support of this argument, we will discuss the various theories have been developed to explain this interaction. The most common theory is individualism, which bestows the management of the employees solely on in the employer. It majorly focuses on safeguarding the interests of the employer over the employees at the workplace.
The state and the labor organization tend to play a passive role, although they act as watchdogs to ensure the rights of the employees are not violated in areas of remuneration and how they relate with their employer at work at work. In Australia individualism has taken center stage in the labor market where the federal has established the Workplace Relations Act that ensures all the stakeholders in the employment system work under good conditions.
According to individualism, human resource is a key factor in a working environment. Individualism theory argues that there is need to develop high trust and promote a sense of common purpose between the employees and their management system. So in the absence of labor unions things like open communication networks, team work, incentive compensation and the dissolution of status barrier have been easier to implement.
Individualization here refers to “formalization of management’s power to determine terms and conditions unilaterally rather than rather a shift on emphasis towards mutual trust and shared power”. Although it encourages smooth running of activities without external interference, the employees are denied the chance to present their grievances to the union incase they are not well attended to because it has been excluded from decision making in company matters.
The best thing that employees ought to do is to adopt a strategy that will benefit them and their staff what is commonly known as collectivism where both the state and trade union have a say in the decision making of the employees at a working place. However, the state’s role should be limited to overseeing the adoption of best policies.
Furthermore, the prevalence of market individualism and laissez-faire principles provide the foundation for the development of ‘collective laissez-faire’, and argues that employers should handle employment arrangements matters, and with unions, themselves, without direct intervention by the state. This framework enables employers to handle union activities in ways that do not undermine their objectives.
Another important theory is the welfarism theory that mostly addresses issues to do with industrial relations of employees and their employer. In Australia it was meant by the employers to increase productivity and control from external challenges (Balnave 36). The importance of welfarism movement is to create a scope of good and quality workers from which the management can emulate.
We will write a custom Essay on Employment Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also it is a strategy by managers to enhance control of their workers and their productive effort as a way of building worker consent to managing system. This increases worker dependency on the company thus minimizing individual or collective resistances at the same time strengthening managerial authority.
Industries pose a great risk on the life of employees as they are deemed to work with machines that happen to pose a risk to their lives, so the managers should understand and listen to their grievances incase any are raised. Democratic principles ought to be incorporated so as not to hamper with the industry operations. If these institutions are established, they should either be freely offered or low costs are charged on the workers who are meant to be the core beneficiaries.
The achievement of this can be done through the introduction of programs such pension schemes, company sponsored recreation, provident funds, health and accident schemes, company housing, in-house medical care and company libraries and if possible schools for the children’s of the employees, all aimed at boosting the morale and loyalty of the workers.
Mostly employers will not be ready to incur extra costs on establishment of institutions that are meant to care for the employees thereby lowering their productivity as their performance is minimized due to management services they are offered. Attending to your employees in a very cruel manner by establishing strong dictatorial laws that they are bound to follow, usually results into a state of tension in the company, it may result into a strike that may hinder the functions of the company thus making it run a great loss.
Every employee is entitled to enrolment in a labor union that is mandated for fighting for their rights while at the work place. A number of factors tend to interfere with employment relations at any given firm one of them being management style and attitude towards Trade Unions Recognition.
Some firms and their managers tend to neglect the role of the trade unions in the welfare of the workers in a way that they stop their employees from joining them, or if they are enrolled, the unions are not usually recognized in the area of collective bargaining or consultation. Some will even try to persuade employees not to join the union citing that they are in their best interests, just as a way of maintaining their authority without interference from external sources.
According to the theory, the management should restore the confidence of its employees on how it executes its duties by allowing them to join trade unions. It should also be sensitive and attend to the employees’ needs so as to save the firm from incurring losses as a result of strikes or boycotts. The management style adopted by the firm’s stakeholders is also vital and it should encourage a harmonious working environment with the workers.
Regulations that are stipulated as the firm’s guidelines ought not to be oppressive, and those coordinating them should act accordingly, not administering autocratic kind of leadership. What they should note keenly is that human resource is most important at a workplace, and by showing that their presence is much recognized boosts their morale of working even extra hard in order to ensure the company objectives are achieved as well as their own welfare and needs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Upgrading of workers from one position to the other is also vital and should be done with a lot of transparency and integrity. An employee working in the same position over a long period of time feels that he or she gets little or no attention from his employer, and by developing such a feeling it totally destabilizes his performance.
When a worker is moved from a lower position to a higher one his morale of working extra hard is increased as he will be fighting to ensure that he is moved to an even higher position, and this creates a healthy competition among the employees at the same time production being increased hence high profits.
Learning opportunities should be encouraged as a way of helping them acquire new skills and improve on their working and also their salaries. This can be done by establishment of things like study leaves where they are given time off to go and study and then come and take on new position. This is a good idea although most employers do not value it as they cite it increases the cost of production as the company will be forced to hire extra staff to take care of the vacant position for the time being.
Another good way of conducting knowledge acquisition and skill improvement without incurring extra costs is by organizing in-service programs. Here the workers can improve their knowledge at the same time executing their duties what leaves the amount of money spent on salaries remaining at the same rate. All this are contributing factors towards good relations between the employer and their employees within a given work place.
Time specifications should be spelt out as to when the workers will be reporting to work and the time they will have to leave. Incase any employee is not able to report at the work place within the specified time, a friendly interaction should coexist to establish the reason why and be able to reach an agreement without conflict arousal.
A situation where an employer becomes the overall authority leads to conflicts every now and then because they believe workers have no role in decision making concerning matters of the workplace. Bonuses should be given to the workers as per how well one has performed his or her duties and according to how long he or she has at the company or institution.
This bonus should not be part of the net salary of which one earns but should be seen an extra boost on the usual salary as a way of recognition for service offered. Incases where there is need for overtime working, there ought to an agreement reached between the two parties and not being the decision of management. This should be followed by an extra pay on their salaries reflecting the extra hours they dedicated to work.
The use of scientific system of management should not at all be used within a workplace as it puts a lot of pressure on the employees on the amount of work that they perform. This involves the use of things like stop watches top record the time one has worked or use of a card recording system as it was introduced in Australia, but it was welcomed with a great resistance as it was characterized by the great strike that called for government intervention to control it.
This a clear indication of lack of efficient management principles that can encourage good service delivery but it only deals with individual interest, which is of the employer.
Workers are supposed to work at free will and that they should know that they are working because they are after earning an income. Everyone should do his work with interference from the other and that they should love their work so that they may do it without much hindrance. A big problem that happens to affect most employees is the manner in which they take decision without consulting them.
A decision like retrenchment of workers as a way of cost cutting to save the company from making more losses should be discouraged completely. One thing is that activities will be interfered with at the same resulting into a major strike that will at long last ruin everything. Other important measures such as reduction on input cost in order to maximize output profits can be used to substitute the retrenchment process.
The overreliance on personal regulations that are quite stringent is what normally calls for government intervention in order to control events. A situation where a worker is involved in sort of an accident in the line of duty should be treated as a company expense as for the treatment. This makes the workers to carry their activities without fear as they are sure of their safety incase they get injured.
This is a measure that should be included in codes of regulations governing industries they working conditions pose a big threat to the lives of employees as they are the ones exposed to the tough working conditions.
In conclusion the participation of the state in employment relations should be minimized; instead an emphasis on ‘free’ collective bargaining between employers, or employers’ associations, and trade unions.
An organization should be allowed autonomy to operate within its parameters in achieving its objectives, though the state can set standard measures, which address the labor market as a whole.
However, the abstentionist role of the state in the employment relations should not advantage the employer, because as others have argued the removal of the state from employment relations would allow unbalanced effects of the functioning of private law, so that collectivized labor can engage with capital, on a par basis, in the independent economy.
Bibliography Allan, C., Bamber, G. J.
Principles and Practice of Information Security Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Security threats in computer networks Computer security is an issue that has grown to be of gross concern in the present years. Individuals and companies have suffered major losses as a result of the vice. Many people have spent quite a lot of money on the same though at times information insecurity has gone on to rise.
This paper aims at identifying threats posed by viruses and security tools which can be used to protect computer data from inadvertent usage and for maintenance of confidentiality within persons and organizations. At first the paper will focus on the security issue in general as guidance to the rest of the paper.
There are very many security threats that exist in any particular system in the organization. Some of the most serious threats include intrusion by hackers, terrorists, spies, corporate raiders, professional criminals, military forces and vandals, and viruses.
Due to the way the current generation has become technology savvy, there are various tools that the attackers have specialized in perfecting their trade. Some of the most common methods are using user commands to gain entry into computer systems, using special scripts and/or programs, making use of autonomous agents, toolkits, data taps and distributed tools.
The attackers then pose various vulnerabilities to the system which includes implementation, design and configuration vulnerability. In order to make sure that their efforts are fruitful, they either infiltrate into the computer systems using unauthorized use where a person uses data or information which is otherwise supposed to be limited to him and unauthorized access to some systems.
After various series of processes, the person or persons can be able to access files stored in the computer or other information which may be in transit like data, objects and invocations. This paper will be specific in its focus and will clearly go through virus attacks with a special concern on poison Ivy.
Poison Ivy is a computer virus that started showing up in the year 2006. When it attacks the computer, it makes firefox.exe to appear in the task manager without the consent of the user. According to experts, the factor that leads to this behavior is a malicious Trojan which is based on Poison Ivy.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is tools which has been used for bypassing a firewall and remotely administer a system. When the tool is in the system, it tends to create up a server kind of a file on the system it is occupying. It alerts a maker of the Trojan of the presence of the system when it is online.
When this happens, the maker is given the rights to access, monitor and completely control the system which has been infected. Among the critical information which can be made available to the user is system passwords and usernames, banking information, credit information, and private data which might have been accessed on screen either through typing or just viewing for the instance that the system was infected.
The settings for this ‘server’ entail it to infiltrate itself into the browser’s memory of the system which is being targeted. After this, it runs as a duplicate process of the browser thus being able to bypass firewalls installed in the system and router protection. On securing itself safely any other actions go ahead unnoticed (MozillaZine, 2009).
This mode of sophistication has been the reason that the virus has been able to go undetected by many antivirus software and also other detectors. In the recent past, the virus has been detected by some common antivirus like nod32, avira, bit defender and others.
The worst case about this utility is the way that it is undergoing constant development and also the fact that it has been able to be developed by the hackers without being noticed. The virus has been said to be spread through emails and also in most instances through online games which mainly attacks through the cheats (Mozillazine, 2009).
Some of the symptoms that are evident when a computer has been infected with the virus are automatic loading of fire fox as the default browser ones the systems loads the OS. In the task manager, there are two instances of the web browser though one is open. After closure of the browser, it still persists in the processes. At times, the browser becomes so slow or at times alerts that a certain un-requested port is being accessed, and at times some uncontrolled movement of the mouse which falls in when the hacker has control over the mouse.
The virus has quite a lot of impacts to the system. Some of the files get renamed, executed and even deleted. At times the hacker can download files from the system or upload files to the system without notice. The hacker has the capability of viewing and editing the windows registry. He has such powers in the system such that it is possible to view and consequently kill or suspend processes that are currently running in the system. The person gets permission to view and control services in that he can start or stop them. It is possible to view the installed devices and also to disable them. Programs which have been installed in the system can be viewed and uninstalled.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Looking at the above possibilities not forgetting the ability to record voice or web footage, it is very dangerous to have the system exposed to this virus. Financially, it is a killer virus. Once the person has been able to access saved passwords and password hashes, the person can simply get the banking information for online bankers and be able to directly interfere with the banking system to such an extent as exhausting someone’s accounts.
Access of someone passwords can lead to various other security breaches which can cost companies a lot of money. It is possible to get into the deep secrets of a company and sell the information to enemies or malicious traders who may want to sell back the information or pose the company a risk of exposing it. People can be able to interfere with bankroll details posing more financial drains.
From this information on the presence and the capability of the risks that can be posed by poison ivy, it is necessary for all IT personnel to be aware of the dangers that can occur due to some of these risks. The main thing that should be taken into consideration is the way technology is being used as a tool against others. Poison ivy does not just get into the computer through sheer luck or guess work, but it is a tool that has professionally been made to achieve some objectives (MozillaZine, 2009).
With this in mind, the management of all companies irrespective of how big or how large need to equip the IT department with constant updates and refresher courses so that they can march with the incoming technologists who are proving to be more equipped with the latest in the books. The question of security should bypass physical security at the door but also should incorporate IT security as a whole.
Threat classification for the threat being averted Human made threat → intentional fault → interaction fault → deliberate
Data is insecure in a variety of ways which range from storage, transmission and even when in custody of the right people. When the right person has the right information, attackers can easily get it through social engineering processes which makes the companies vulnerable to all kinds of threats. This means that the management should always seek to block all the vulnerabilities so as to minimize the attacks. Apart from sealing the vulnerabilities, which might not be enough, measures should be employed through which data is protected in all means whether during storage or transmission (Dawson and Wong, 2007).
In conclusion, security in all areas of IT is under threat and it is upon the relevant authority to be cautious enough of the possible attackers. This paper has focused on security as an issue and deeply looked at the poison ivy virus, what it does and the dangers it poses to users of the internet and intranets. It has winded up with some of the lessons that the people in charge of security should learn as they undergo the duty of securing all the systems (Volonino and Robinson, 2004).
References Dawson, E. and Wong, D. (2007). Information security practice and experience: third international conference. New York: Springer.
MozillaZine (2009). Firefox.exe always open. Retrieved from: http://kb.mozillazine.org/Firefox.exe_always_open.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Principles and Practice of Information Security by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Volonino, L and Robinson, S (2004). Principles and practice of information security: protecting computers from hackers and lawyers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Australia and international relations challenges Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction In the 2000s, the concept and understanding of security in Australia has dramatically altered. What was once considered a self defence issue has now been redefined to encompass economic issues, social factors and environmental concerns associated with the well being of the nation. Therefore, trade, political relations with other nations, immigration and diplomacy are all critical contributors to the challenges faced by Australia in its international relations.
Whether there is a challenge to Australia given that it faces numerous international challenges (China and the US) in the areas of potential great power conflict
Armed forces as a form of national defence in Australia have been critical in assessing the perceived challenges in international relations. In the cold war era, Australia along with the world did not shy away from the use of military power because the war was seen as an ideological battle that would assist in the end of totalitarianism.
The continued existence of such a phenomenon (Totalitarianism) would have been a threat to world peace and it was therefore justifiable to act militarily at such times. Later on, in the 1990s and into the 2000s, perceived threats to Australian security were seen through events in New Guinea, East Timor and Fiji. Therefore, events occurring around the Australian region prompted the country to act accordingly in order to protect its interests in this regard (Ravenhill