To date, the establishment of good relations between Japan and its closest geographical neighbours, including China and the two Koreas, remains a mirage due to deep-seated mistrust stemming from Tokyo’s reluctance to extend official apology to victims of its military atrocities, mass civilian massacres, and abuses against prisoners of war (POWs) during the shadows of the cold war conflict (Lind, 2009).
Although Japan extended an unprecedented written apology to South Korea in 1998 long after the death of Emperor Hirohito, who received credit for progressing the war atrocities (Lam, 2002), few political experts in Sino-Japan relations remain convinced that Japanese war apologies will heal the rift between the neighbours (Dong-Choon, 2010).
This paper looks into the history of Japanese war apologies, and also attempts to evaluate why these apologies have been unable to make the intended impact. Japanese war apologies are deeply rooted in the atrocities committed by Japan during cold war conflict, including the nation’s militaristic past against its neighbours, brutal occupation and colonisation (Lam, 2002).
The role of Emperor Hirohito in committing and/or abetting the atrocities cannot escape mention owing to the fact that it was during his time as Japan’s ruler that thousands of people, including innocent civilians, lost their lives under Japanese aggression. The role of the United States in the massacres has been revisited by scholars as it is thought that America showed complicity by covering up Hirohito’s war crimes to win a strong ally in the fight against communism (Ogawa, 2000).
Indeed, immediately after the atrocities, Japan never apologised to its neighbours and Emperor Hirohito continued to enjoy the trappings of power. It should be recalled that Germany apologised for its atrocities immediately after the Second World War, but Japan never tendered its apologies even after committing so many atrocities during the Second World War, the Japan war of 1950-1953, and during its colonisation of Korea between 1905 and 1945 (Dudden, 2006).
Flowing from the above, it is conceivable to argue that Japanese war apologies that began to filter through in the 1990s were an attempt to redress the historical atrocities committed by Japan to its immediate neighbours (Lam, 2002). In one particular atrocity committed in the Korea in July 1950, an estimated 1,800 prisoners of Daejon Prison were rounded up by Japanese police and shot dead at close range, with the perpetrators ensuring that there were no survivors (Yonehama, 2010).
In yet another horrifying atrocity, thousands of women were captured throughout Japan’s colonies and thereafter, forcibly recruited as sex slaves for the Japanese military (Dudden, 2006). The 1937 Nanking massacre which saw the slaughter, mutilation and rape of anywhere between 100,000 and 350,000 Chinese by Japanese Imperial Army remains a dark spot in the history of Japan, although to date the largely conservative Japanese elite denies the massacre took place (Ogawa, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Immediately after the death of Emperor Hirohito in 1989, Japanese leaders realised that the country needed to redress the atrocities for the country to gain a foothold in the region and enhance bilateral and multilateral relations with its frightened neighbours (Dong-Choon, 2010).
Though several apologies have been disseminated ever since to cover for the war atrocities, it was Prime Minister Obuchi Keizo who in 1998 extended an unprecedented written apology to Seoul when South Korea’s President Kim Dae Jung came visiting (Lam, 2000).
However, as noted in the literature, Prime Minister Obuchi refused to extend similar apologies to Chinese President Jiang Zemin when he visited Tokyo in the following month, implying that the apologies that were intended to resolve the historical animosity between Japan and its neighbours had political connotations (Lind, 2009).
As analytically projected by Lam (2000), Prime Minister Obuchi made an official apology to Seoul and ignored Beijing owing to “President Kim Dae Jung’s reconciliatory attitude toward the apology problem, and [Japan’s] perception that South Korea was not a geopolitical rival and potential threat to Japan” (p. 32).
Perhaps such an orientation partly explains why the Japanese war apologies are widely considered as having little impact in improving relations between Japan and its neighbours. While many citizens in Japan buy into the idea that the war apologies are genuine and sincere and therefore, the wronged nations should accept them and move on (Lind, 2009).
With others even suggesting that the Japanese experienced more atrocities due to the atomic bombs in Nagasaki and Hiroshima (Honda, 2000), the popular perception is that these apologies have been a failure. For Japan to be considered more favourably by its neighbours, in my view, it should have apologised for its atrocities long before the death of Emperor Hirohito.
Additionally, there is no way that the apologies can be considered as sincere and well-intended if the Japanese conservative elite and some major textbooks used in school continue to deny the existence of major atrocities such as the Nanking Massacre (Lam, 2000). Indeed, many Japanese leaders continue to pay tribute to Emperor Hirohito in his resting shrine as a war-time hero rather than a perpetrator.
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Tunnel Design and Cunstruction Exploratory Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Tunnel Construction Methods
The Mersey Tunnel
Introduction Tunnels refer to any enclosed passageway. Usually, tunnels pass underground to bypass natural barriers and to reduce the cost and impact of aboveground construction. This paper looks at various aspects concerning tunnel construction. The main issues of interest include the construction of underwater tunnels, construction of tunnels in soft soils, and the examination of tunnel construction methods.
Underwater Tunnels The need to construct tunnels underwater arises from several situations. First, it may make more sense to construct a tunnel under a large river, or the sea instead of a bridge to avoid interfering with marine traffic. For instance, instead of constructing a bridge to link the mainland to an island, it may be better to construct a tunnel to avoid interrupting marine traffic around the island.
Underwater tunnels may be constructed to provide a means of crossing a river. In this case, a bridge may be ruled out because of costs, especially of the river serves as a waterway. In addition, undersea tunnels are ideal where ferries are impractical or impossible to use. Sea canals mainly provide access to large islands or join two main bodies of land separated by a sea.
Underwater tunnels are also ideal because they do not require closure during bad weather. Bridges or ferries, on the other hand, cannot operate full time because they are affected by bad weather. Underwater tunnels are challenging to construct depending in the depth of the water and the length of the required tunnel.
Usually underwater tunnels do not run on the bed of the waterway, but below the bed of the water body. Construction of a tunnel on the bed of the water body adds more challenges to the tunnel construction process.
Tunnel Construction Methods One of the important decisions that engineers must make in the tunnel design process is the construction methods that they will use. Construction of structures on the surface of the land does not compare to the complexities of tunnel construction. Tunnel construction usually takes place underground. A long tunnel usually has more complexities if the geological landscape changes very much.
However, even in areas with uniform geological make up, the local rock and soil characteristics can affect the construction of tunnels. Engineers usually use four tunnel construction methods. Factors affecting the choice of the tunnel construction methods are as follows:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, the depth of the tunnel is one of the main issues of concern. Shallow tunnels built within cities to serve as aqueducts or as underground highways allow engineers to use trenches. If the tunnel needs to pass under a water body or through a hill, the engineers will favor methods that allow them to bore a hole in the rock mass.
Secondly, the construction methods will depend on the purpose of the tunnel. Tunnels used for transporting water and sewerage, or for laying communication cables may only be a few feet in diameter. However, if a tunnel is needed to provide a transport path for a freeway, the construction methods will vary from the smaller tunnels.
The third issues engineers bear in mind when deciding in the best tunnel construction methods to use is the stability of the surrounding material. If the tunnel is passing through solid rock, then the methods for use will be different compared to tunnel passing through loose sand or clay formation. The method will also vary if the tunnel is supposed to pass under a water body or below the water table.
Engineers also choose tunnel design and construction methods based on the seismic activity of a given region. If the tunnel passes through an area with high geological activity, the design needs to factor the impacts of these activities on the operation of the tunnel. Research shows that tunnels bored in depths of up to 500 meters have better resistance to seismic disturbances compared to tunnels bored in shallower depths.
The four main techniques used in the construction of tunnels are as follows:
The first technique is the cut and cover tunneling. This method involved digging a trench, and then covering it to create a tunnel. The actual methods employed depends on the space available for construction and the final use that the tunnel is intended.
It is popular in areas where tunnels are needed to provide more motorways under existing roads or in other squeezed spaces. In the top down variation, engineers cut out channels on the extreme ends of the tunnel, and then construct walls. They then construct a roof creating a chamber.
Excavation works go on under the roof of the tunnel before the final construction of the floor of the tunnel. In the bottom up variation, after the walls are built, the engineers excavate the area in between the walls and then build the tunnel from the ground up, finishing with the roof of the tunnel.
The second method of tunnel construction is the blast and drill method. This method applies in areas where it is necessary to bore through a rock to create a tunnel. Engineers use times explosives to loosen rock, and then remove the debris. This method is ideal for mountainous areas and in places where the bedrock is solid.
However, due to variation in rock formations, it is necessary to carry out drilling operations in areas with loose rock formation where blasting may result in total collapse of the tunnel. In these cases, some construction work is also required to provide support for the tunnel.
We will write a custom Essay on Tunnel Design and Cunstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third main tunneling technique is bored tunneling. This method employs the use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). TBMs make tunneling predictable, and can often be more cost effective. The main application of TBMs is that they make it possible to dig long tunnels.
They work best in areas where the surrounding material is strong enough to support long tunnel sections without the need for support. These machines work best within a given range of rock hardness. If the rocks are very hard, the wear and tear of the machines can be very high. In this case, it is better to use blast and drill methods.
Another advantage of using TBMs is that they can be equipped with sensors to determine when the rock formations change. This helps in making decisions regarding how to proceed. The fourth method of tunneling is the Sequential Excavation Method (SEM). This method is build around the understanding that tunneling reorients the internal stresses in rock formations.
As such, SEM aims at creating an environment that is quite similar to the preexisting stresses in the rocks. This is achieved by the use of careful calculation of stresses and using structures in such a way that the overall forces remain as they were before the construction of the tunnel. This leads to a reduction of the quantity of construction materials usually needed to stabilize tunnels dug in soft soils.
The Mersey Tunnel The Mersey tunnel system is composed of three tunnels. The three tunnels are the Kingsway tunnel, the Queensway tunnel, and the Mersey Railway tunnel. The first two tunnels carry vehicular traffic while the last one is meant for trains. The tunnels were all constructed to ease traffic congestion at the river crossings.
At the time of their construction, the tunnels held records for the longest tunnels ever to be constructed. The fact that they were located beneath the riverbed meant that water was an ever present challenge. The tunnels still require pumps to remove water. The water is not only the result of seepage from the river, but ground water as well.
Conclusion In conclusion, the construction of tunnels is going to improve with time, because more tunnels will be needed to increase connectivity in various parts of the world. Tunnels are also very attractive because of the limited environmental impacts they produce.
In the case of the Mersey tunnels, three important links were made without affecting the flow of beauty of the river over above. In this sense, tunnels provide an ideal way of ensuring that human transport and communication needs do not destroy the environmental aesthetics of the planet.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tunnel Design and Cunstruction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List BAGCT 2013, Methods for Tunneling Construction. Web.
Case Maker 2000, What is Rapid Application Development”. Web.
Engrailhistory 2012, The Mersey Tunnel. Web.
FHWA 2011, Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements. Web.
Infoplease 2013, Tunnel Design and Construction techniques. Web.
Lean, G. 2006, Disappearing World: Global Warming Claims Tropical Island. Web.
Macdonald, M. 2013, Tunnel Construction Methods. Web.
MTUA 2013, Mersey Tunnels Users Association. Web.
Rivers, M. 2012, Doing business Down Under. Web.
Schuetze, C. F. 2012, Travelling with a Smaller Carbon Footprint. Web.
Siterman, E. 2009, Value engineering in Dubai. Web.
Wang, J.-N. 1993, Seismic Design of Tunnels: A Simple State-of-the-Art Design Approach. Web.
Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX Quantitative Research Essay online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents History of the Neighborhoods
Description of Variables
Empirical Profile of the Neighborhoods
History of the Neighborhoods In this social economic analysis, I will focus on Austin city located in Texas as well as Harbor Hills in New York. Austin is the capital city of the US state of Texas. It has a population of approximately one million people according to US Census Bureau. Since its foundation in the 19th century, Austin has grown in an unprecedented rate to become eleventh most populous city in the US.
Besides, the city hosts a myriad of government operations and education institutions such as University of Texas. It is worth mentioning that the city has a cosmopolitan composition of population in the sense that many people living in the area come from different races, nationalities and ethnicities.
To that end, racial, ethnic and other demographic characteristics of Austin are of paramount importance in this analysis. Besides, the report will also analyze other variables including poverty levels in comparison to racial and ethnic belonging and background.
For the purposes of qualitative analysis and comparison, the paper will also focus on demography of Harbor Hills in New York. Harbor Hills has as modest population of around five thousand people. It reflects a hamlet and is located in Nassau County in New York. The city will provide important variables that will be of interest especially when making comparison of various demographic parameters such as poverty rates and racial background.
Fig 1: Racial Composition of Austin, TX
Race Population Percentage (%) Total Population: 1,007,264 White Alone 699,233 69.4% Black or African American Alone 85,468 8.5% American Indian and Alaska Native Alone 5,633 0.6% Asian Alone 58,806 5.8% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Alone 770 0.1% Some Other Race Alone 133,673 13.3% Two or More races 23,681 2.4% The motivation behind this analysis is the fact that Travis County is one of the most diverse counties not only in Southwest of the United States but also in other areas of the country. The rationale is that the entire state of Texas has experienced unsurpassed rate of immigration leading to a multiethnic population.
Most profoundly, Blacks and Hispanics have become significant races within Texas and its cities. Harbor Hills will serve as a point of reference when making comparison about poverty levels and ethnic belonging of the city residents. Besides, the demographic analysis will utilize both dependent and independent variables to arrive at a succinct analysis of the city.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Description of Variables In this analysis, rate of poverty will stand out as of the major variable. It refers to the number of people living below certain threshold. According to the United States Census Bureau, poverty rate refers to the number of people living below minimum wage.
On the other hand, minimum wage is the threshold of income per person in employment that International Labor Organization (ILO) stipulates. It varies from time to time due to other factors such as the rate of inflation and jurisdiction. In Harbor Hills and Austin, analysis of poverty rates will provide us with vital statistics. Besides, analysis of rates of poverty will facilitate explanation of other demographic and external variables such as income and literacy levels.
Second, the paper will analyze the rates of poverty vis-à-vis ethnic and racial backgrounds of the residents in both neighborhoods. It is important to point out that rate of poverty is directly associated with level of education and race. Due to different cultures and demography, comparison of the two neighborhoods will reveal other characteristics that are pertinent to the analysis.
Empirical Profile of the Neighborhoods Poverty rates in Austin vary greatly in accordance to race and ethnicity. The major races in the city are Whites, Black and African Americans, Hispanics, Indian Americans and other races. The Whites constitute approximately 69.4% of the total population while the Blacks and Africans constitute just above 8.5%. Other races constitute approximately 20% of the population.
According to 2010 statistics released by US Census Bureau, poverty rate in Austin varies with age. Poverty rate of children under the age of 18 years stand at 22.1% implying that at least two out of ten children living in Austin live under poor conditions. For the population of people between the ages of 18 and 64 years, poverty rate stood at 15.5%.
Above 64 years, poverty rate of the population seem to have reduced within the period of analysis. It stood at an average of 8.1%. On average, poverty rate in the city of Austin is just above 15%. According to the US Census Bureau, the rate of poverty remains high when compared to the national average that was 12% in the same year. Various factors are attributable to high rates of poverty in Austin.
At the outset, it is of importance to mention that level of education and race are major determinants of poverty rates in the neighborhood. On average, Austin’s income per household is around $88 thousands annually. In black households, the average level of income stands at just below $50, 000 annually.
We will write a custom Essay on Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is different from the average annual income accruing Whites’ households that stood at approximately $96, 499 during the same period. Consequently, the disparities that are apparent in terms of incomes also reflect in other aspects of Austin. For instance, poverty levels among the blacks stand at about 24.3% while that of Whites is a mere 13.3% (in the year 2010).
In addition, it is worth highlighting that other races residing in Austin record a significantly higher rate of poverty than the white population. Central to the rate of poverty is the level of education across the ethnic groups living in Austin. Apparently, over a quarter of the population has attained a bachelor’s degree while almost an equal proportion of the population has some college education.
Education is an important indicator of the likelihood of being absorbed in the labor market according to many social scientists. As such, its rate either increases or reduces the likelihood of employment and influences the amount of income accruing each household. To this end, it is important to pinpoint that that rate of unemployment amongst the white population stood at a modest 5.9% in the neighborhood.
Among the blacks, the rate of unemployment is more than twice when compared to that of the white population. It stood at 12.4% according to the statistics released by Census Bureau in 2010. This helps us to draw a conclusion and deduce that average white population is more literate than respective black population in Austin. This is reflected in the disparities of income per household and the rate of unemployment between the two major races living in the city Austin.
In Harbor Hills, New York, poverty rates are relatively low when compared to Austin. Particularly, the number of poor children stood at five in 2001accounting for 0.8% of children under the age 18 that live in abject poverty. This number has grown in a period of 10 years to peak at 3.2% in 2011. For ages between 24 and 64 years, the rate of poverty has increased from 5.1% to 7.1 between 2001 and 2011 respectively.
Nonetheless, the rate of poverty among the senior citizens has reduced marginally from 5.3% in 2001 to 4.8% by 2011. On average, Harbor Hills has one of the lowest rates of poverty in Nassau County. It is important to highlight that poverty levels vary considerably in line with racial belonging and education attainment of the residents.
Unlike in Austin, Harbor Hills has one of the lowest rates poverty accruing the black population and other minority races. According to the US Census Bureau, the rate of poverty among the black population stood at 0.5% in 2010, which was a lower rate of poverty than that of the majority white population. In fact, the rate of poverty among white residents of the neighborhood stood at 6.8% in 2011.
The mean income accruing every household in Harbor Hills was approximately $83,275 in 2010. While the statistics for the annual income accruing black households was unavailable by the end of 2010, every white household recorded an average annual income of about $83, 451. This implies that the households had a higher per household income than all other racial groups in the neighborhood.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While income per household is a strong exogenous variable that influences poverty rates within a community, other factors such as education attainment contribute significantly to the welfare of the residents. US Census Bureau records that an average of 48.7% of the population has attained a bachelor’s degree with well above 20% of the population having achieved a graduate degree.
This implies that a considerable majority of the residents is able to access employment opportunities in both military and civilian institutions. Due to high level of educational attainment, it is critical to highlight that Harbor Hills has a different social economic profile than Austin. In addition, the number of people living in the neighborhood is relatively low when compared to the residents of Austin.
It therefore follows that population density of the two neighborhoods vary greatly despite similar variables typifying the communities. Besides, seems to be ‘an above average’ suburb in terms of socio-economic parameters that are provided by US Census Bureau.
Conclusion In essence, Austin and Harbor Hills neighborhoods vary greatly. On the one hand, Austin is located in Travis County, Texas in Southwest of the US. It is the capital city of Texas and hosts myriads of state institutions and departments. Due to its geographical location, Austin has different social groups belonging to various races, ethnicities and nationalities.
White and black races are the predominant races although there are other races in the city. According to the US Census Bureau report of 2010, poverty rates among the white residents are lower than poverty rates among the black residents. Consequently, there is a higher level of average annual income accruing white households than black households.
This is due to the average levels of unemployment and educational attainment that are skewed in favor of the white population. On the other hand, Harbor Hills is located in Long Island of New York. It is a relatively affluent suburb of New York City in the county of Nassau.
Unlike Austin, Harbor Hills has a low population of about five thousand people. However, the residents have different ethnicities, races and nationalities. Moreover, the rates of poverty are relatively lower than in Austin. The levels of income and unemployment are more favorable for Harbor Hills; residents than for Austin dwellers.
Reflection From the above demographic analysis, I have learned various lessons that are valuable to my social research and inquiry skills. At the outset, I have learnt that the level of income accruing every household is an important indicator of poverty level and status. However, households’ income is a dependent variable that correlates with levels of education attainment, unemployment and racial background.
It is not surprising therefore, that black population in Austin suffers from the highest rates of unemployment and the lowest levels of educational attainment. This in turn has led to high number of black residents living under conditions of poverty and subsequently, low incomes accruing their households. Second, I have learnt that Austin has a higher number of residents (approximately one million) than Harbor Hills (five thousand).
This has had a significant influence on the statistics that US Census Bureau released in 2010. For instance, it is absurd to purport that no student dropped out of high school in Harbor Hills since the statistics indicate a figure that is well below 1% in 2010. Indeed, the percentages do not reveal the actual number of people highlighted by various variables.
Third, I have understood that Harbor Hills is relatively affluent than Austin. The rationale is that the neighborhood has a population of black residents who are comparatively wealthier than white residents are. Besides, it seems that only the wealthy blacks can afford to live in Harbor Hills.
This is reflected in the high level of educational attainment in the neighborhood. It is commendable that the rates of literacy in the area are above 95%. Finally, I have learnt that Austin city is of strategic importance for the state of Texas. The reason is that the city has a rich diversity that can be used to draw general conclusions about the demographic characteristics of other cities.
Gender Studies: Gathering and Hunting Abilities Term Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Men as better Hunters
Females as Better Gatherers
Advantages that Males have for Hunting
Gender Roles and Spatial Abilities
Influences of Age on Spatial Abilities
Introduction Human abilities are wide and varied in many aspects that can be used to define people. The difference in sex has been found to drive the disparity in human abilities by apportioning certain gifts to the male sex and others to the female gender. Although both sexes can do certain tasks equally, research indicates that people of a specific sex do specific tasks better relative to the opposite sex.
One area that scientists have come up with a hypothesis about the abilities in sex difference is the gathering hypothesis, which tries to find out, which group has the best abilities in gathering and/or which one has the best abilities in hunting. This paper will provide evidence to prove that members of the male gender are better hunters relative to women who on the other hand are also better gatherers. The paper therefore explores the spatial abilities of the two sexes.
Men as better Hunters The theory that men are better hunters can be traced to the ancient world of both primitives and civilization by looking at the roles that society had apportioned to the two sexes. The primitive society did not have an opportunity and ability to make any studies that would then allocate duties to men and women. However, nature did it for them. This case can be attributed to the need to survive and self-preservation.
Scientists have fronted different reasons to support the different theories they have come up with concerning this issue. The division of labor in males and females underpin the development of abilities in both sexes by allocating capacities. Neave et al. (2005) reveal how males naturally adopt Euclidean strategies when trying to find ways meaning that they have good geographical knowledge (p. 147).
Good geographical knowledge is essential in hunting because it is used for locating prey whenever it is. Without geographical knowledge, it might be difficult for males to do hunting because it involves figuring out direction and movement, as well as figuring out the shortest and worth following distance. Direction enables males in their hunting because it helps them use the shortest distance to get to the possible location of their prey.
Neave et al. also argue that males have an advantage in navigational and way-finding abilities (p. 147). Although women can also make hunters, their hunting skills and abilities fade before those of males when the two groups are put to competition. One of the advantages that males have over females, which give them better hunting skills, is in the throwing/interception abilities (Neave et al. 2005, p. 147).
Hunting requires the ability to aim accurately at a target for one to hit it. It also requires one to strike it with the first instance so that it does not escape. This aspect is the biggest difference between males and females because a bigger sample of men can hit the target better relative to a bigger sample of women (Cashdan et al., 2012, p. 278).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the hunting skills of men can be attributed to their being dominant in the arm simply because they have a better chance of hitting the target than women do because of their better accuracy and interception skills. Stoet (2011, p. 420) confirms that men have many skills that are in line with hunting techniques thus automatically making them hunters.
They have the ability to focus and direct their minds on an object they are working on. With this, they are able to achieve accuracy. Stoet (2011) concludes that throwing skills, focused attention, and general spatial abilities of men make them better hunters (p. 420). Males employ different strategies to women in accomplishing their tasks are usually found to be more innovative in doing their tasks relative to women.
Therefore, in the natural setting, which is governed by the theory of survival for the fittest, males tend to become more aggressive in their mindsets whenever they are working on an issue. The natural setting gives males a better chance of survival in relation to females.
Thus, males tend to work hard to secure their offspring and generation hence tending to be more antagonistic in getting food for their own to secure their survival. This case can be attributed to the instinctive nature that males acquire whenever they are doing their hunting.
Females as Better Gatherers Under the natural setting, females take the responsibility of giving birth and taking care of the young ones, which therefore relegate them to laser roles that would not take away all their attention. The need to take care of young ones makes females concentrate on this task. They cannot go out the way males do to hunt (Ecuyer-Dab
Pollution and Human Health Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Ecosystem An ecosystem is often defined as an environment or community, where inter-relationships among organisms take place (Vogt 69). In this respect, plants, animals, natural resources and humans interact for mutual benefits. Other elements such as soil, micro-organisms and non-living things are also included as part of a freshwater lake ecosystem.
A freshwater localized ecosystem A freshwater localized ecosystem consists of plants and animals of all kinds (Silk
Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Requirements for the formation of a valid contract A contract can be defined as a lawfully binding agreement between two parties. It has consequences on either party. Therefore, as discussed below, a contract has to contain some basic elements that should be used to define it.
An Offer There should be an offer by the first party to invite the second party into the contract for negotiations purposes. An ascent to the same by the second party will lead to the contract coming into being and becoming legally binding. An offer can be described as an expression of willingness to contract on certain terms (Jalil 2011, p. 110).
The offer is usually made to the second party with an intention that it will become binding when accepted. When an offer is declined, it extinguishes the idea of the probable contract. Therefore, one cannot be held to account for it.
Acceptance The second element of a contract that is very important is the acceptance bit, which should be done within the terms of the contract. A party to the contract will be assumed to have understood the terms of the contract when he or she enters agreement consent to the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110).
One is legally bound by a contract once he or she accepts it. He or she has the duty to make sure that he or she understands the terms of the contract before accepting it. Breach of contract after acceptance might lead to legal consequences.
Legal purpose/ Objective There must be an intention for the two parties to create a legal relationship between them with the contract. An absence of legal intent will render the contract null and void because social agreements between parties or agreements of a domestic nature are not regarded as legally binding because they do not contemplate legal relations (Jalil 2011, p. 111) as in the case of Balfour vs. Balfour (1919).
Mutuality of Obligation Mutuality of obligation can be described in other words as the meeting of minds. In fact, “parties in the contract must agree to the same thing in terms of the drawn contract, and at the same time” (Jalil 2011, p. 111). Mutuality of obligation can only be achieved when the contract is still on offer. Once the offer has been withdrawn, it cannot happen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lawful Consideration Lawful consideration is an element of the contract that represents either a benefit to the promisor or detriment to the promise (Jalil 2011, p. 112). It denotes the price offered in exchange for a promise, otherwise known as quid pro-quo.
Competent Parties A contract can only be made between two legally competent parties (Jalil 2011, p. 112). Therefore, a contract can only be made between people of legal age and sound mind.
How the law approach the issues of consideration, intention to create legal relations, and the capacity to contract
According to the law, a contract becomes legally binding once the promisee accepts and signs it. The promisee is believed to have read the details of the contract, or is supposed to have read the details of the contract before appending a signature on the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110). In the above scenario, Al has advertised the goods he has on offer to potential buyers thus inviting them to contract.
A negotiation occurs between the Al and Bash cars where an agreement is reached through the mode of communication adopted by the two. In this case, an agreement was ostensibly reached when Bash cars wrote back to Al to accept the offer thus providing a green light for Al to deliver the goods, which he did as per the contract.
According to the law, several reasons can lead to a contract being voidable, with no party bearing liability. According to Jalil (2011), under the issue of consideration in a contract, there is either a benefit to the party offering the contract or detriment to the second party concerning the contract (p. 115). In the above case, Al has done his duty to communicate to Bash cars about the final price he is offering.
It is the duty of Bash cars to read the communication properly before accenting to it. Therefore, the mistake not to read the reply letter properly from Al is placed on Bash cars because their own negligence made them fail to see the price in the letter. The assumption that the price is 45 pounds is solely made by Bash cars and that they have no reason to back up their assumption.
According to the contract law, an objective inference should be made when coming up with a contract in that, when a third party looks at the same contract, they should come up with a conclusion that the contract is meant to achieve (Jalil 2011, p. 113). The mistake in this case is unilateral. It cannot render the contract void.
We will write a custom Report on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Bash cars plc should be responsible for the fault and that it should bear the consequences as in the case of Storer v Manchester City Council (1974). The law provides for an intention to create legal relations by setting up conditions for the same. The two parties must be ready to enter a legally binding contract for it to become legal.
The key problems associated with exclusion clauses and their incorporation into a contract
Exclusion clauses in contracts are usually meant to exclude a certain party to the contract from certain events that might happen within the execution of the contract, which the party might be held liable for them in normal circumstances (Maharaj 2012, p. 636). Exclusion clauses are usually made by parties contracted to carry out certain services on behalf of clients.
Such services usually have certain risks. It is therefore meant to protect the contractor from carrying the costs that might arise from the risk. Exclusion contracts are governed by the Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations Act of 1999 (Jalil 2011, p. 119). Exclusion clauses become valid as long as they meet several conditions.
Firstly, they must have been properly included in the contract and that they do not contravene any law. Some key problems associated with exclusion clauses are evident. For instance, some exclusion clauses are vague. In many instances, exclusion clauses have been vaguely worded in that the reader of the clause might not tell exactly what the scope of the clause is all about.
This step is usually accomplished by the drafter of the clause as a way of giving it a wide range in the case of liabilities (Maharaj 2011, p. 636). On the other hand, it confuses the client because he or she will not be in a good position to tell what liabilities the contractor should carry and/or what the client should carry. Invisibility of the clause is yet another problem.
Many exclusion clauses are not directly visible to the client taking the service. They are usually not noticeable in the wording of the contract. They can appear at the bottom of the contract, written in very small fonts, or be placed behind the document where many people might not bother to find out (Maharaj 2011, p. 636).
Many contractors who might not want to jeopardise their chances of securing the work at hand therefore use this case as a secret weapon. It therefore needs a client to be very careful when reading and signing the contract.
How the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract Regulations 1999 ensure that exclusion clauses are fair and reasonable. The unfair Contract Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracting Regulations 1999 were put in place to regulate the creation, use, and interpretation of the exclusion clause with the sole purpose of protecting the consumer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two Acts made it easy for judges to make interpretations of exclusion clauses by eliminating ambiguities in the wording as in the case of Houghton v. Trafalgar Inso Co Ltd. 1954. The Acts were meant to protect weaker parties in the contract because the consumers were in most cases disadvantaged by the clause (Maharaj 2011, p. 640).
The fact that the clauses were part of the contract regardless of how they have been placed on the document meant that only the drafters of the clause and those who are keen enough would be aware of it thus catching many people unaware of their presence. The Acts regulated the use of the clauses in that the drafters of the clauses had to meet certain conditions or otherwise the clause would become void (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).
The clause in this case has to be introduced to clients’ attention before the signing of the contract, or has to be placed in a very visible place for customers to read before they enter an unwritten contract. The two Acts gave courts the power to nullify any exclusion clauses if they found them unreasonable.
This provision usually happens when the terms of the exclusion clause are in conflict with other terms of the contract thus rendering the clause void concerning the repugnancy rule as evident in the case of Mendelson v. Normand 1970. Therefore, all repugnant cases are deemed unreasonable. They can therefore not stand as legal clauses. In the end, they are voidable by the law.
Will Move It Ltd be able to rely on this exclusion clause?
Move It will not be able to rely on this exclusion clause because it does not meet the legal requirements for exclusion clauses as per the 1977 Act as well as the 1999 Act. In the first place, clients should be informed about the exclusion clause before they sign the contract so that they are fully aware of the contract they are signing (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).
To this effect, Move It failed to notify Cool It of the clause. It can be assumed as well that Cool It was not aware of the clause while entering the contract. Thus, it cannot be held liable by the exclusion clause. Under the nature of the document test, the document does not qualify as a contract document because its original aim is different from the purpose it is being used on by inserting the exclusion clause.
The document that the manager was given with the exclusion note was the consignment note, which cannot be deemed as the contract document for the particular work when objectively tested as revealed in the case of Chapleton v. Barry Urban District Council. On the other hand, the notice of the clause must be made aware to customers before they enter the contract, and not after entering the contract (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).
In this case, the clause is believed to have been entered after the entering of the contract because, even if the consignment note is decided to become the contract document, the clause should be on the face of the page where the customer signs. This exclusion clause by Move It is found behind the face of the document where the contract has been signed.
A duty of care exists A duty of care in this case can be described as the necessary steps that should be taken in a place to prevent the occurrence of an accident. A duty of care comes in the form or rules, structures, and steps that have been put in place to prevent any probable accident from happening (Gray 2011, p. 68).
A duty of care’s responsibility falls within the ambits of authority in charge of a particular facility that is being used by people. Thus, the authority has the duty of putting up measures that would ensure the facility is running according to the law concerning safety measures.
Was a Duty of Care was breached In proving that a duty of care was breached, claimants have to prove that they did not act negligently for the occurrence to happen. They also have to show that they were within the rules and regulations of the given facility during the happening of the accident thus blaming it on authorities owning the facility (Tan 2012, p. 93). In proving that a breach of care was breached, the claimant has to refer to what the law provides for in terms of how the facility should be managed, and what rules the facility has put in place to secure its clients from injury.
The Damage is Both Direct and Foreseeable A claimant should be in a position to prove that the damage is both direct and foreseeable. In this case, an occurrence of a certain event should be linked directly as the cause to a damage that might have occurred by showing successive events that led to the occurrence (Burns 2011, p. 658).
On the other hand, the damage can be deemed foreseeable if certain acts of negligence will lead to an accident. Thus, failure to take reasonable steps is what should be attributed to the accident as in the case of Hughes v. Lord Advocate 1963. Under the rule of vicarious liability, employers are legally responsible for commissions and omissions of their employees, regardless of whether the employees were acting under instructions or on their own (Tan 2012, p. 93).
Vicarious liability can also be referred to as an imputed negligence, since a liability can be assigned to an individual who did not cause a certain injury, but by virtue of the individual being related to the person who caused it in a given way. The employer under this case is burdened with the liability because it is assumed that the employee is the agent of the employer and that he or she was working in the interests of the employer when the accident happened.
Tan (2012) states that vicarious liability goes beyond employer-employee relations. It can also be applied in the case of a car accident when the liability is put on the owner of the car even if the proprietor of the car was not in it when the accident occurred (p. 94). In deciding whether the blame should be shifted from the employee to the employer, the court has to establish the following facts.
The court has to establish whether a tort has been committed. In doing this, court will be establishing grounds for the case because the establishment of the tort will be the basis for the case (Gray 2011, p. 69). Secondly, the court has to establish if the cause of the tort is due to the employee because only when the mistake is attributed to the employee is when the tort can qualify for a vicarious negligent consideration.
Thirdly, the court has to determine if the tort was caused by the employee in the act of employment and specifically during his or her scope of work. An employee’s mistake away from duty cannot be laid on to the employer.
How the legal relationship between the parties in tort differs from the relationship in contract law
The difference in parties in a tort law and those in a contract law is not usually very distinct although the two laws have different tenets. In a tort law, it focuses on the foreseeable ability of an event happening (Burns 2011, p. 658). In this case, one party should have been in a position to foresee the event happening. Thus, he or she should have taken an action to stop it from happening.
Failure to do this can be described as negligence to which the negligent party is liable to pay an amount as determined by the court. The legal relationship between two parties under a tort law comes into existence after an event that leads to some form of damage occurs (Burns 2011, p. 658). The court then has to determine if it is a tort or not before the damage can be computed or not.
On the other hand, a contract is entered between parties once the value of the goods or services has been determined. A contract legally binds two parties once they have signed it. It is meant to secure the party’s interests in case there are losses coming out of breach of the contract (Jalil 2011, p. 110). Whereas a contract is binding only to the parties signing it, a tort can become binding to parties who are not directly related to it, but who can be held responsible under the law.
The tort law is legally hinged on negligence on one party, which leads to the damage of another party while the contract law is hinged on the failure of a party to the contract to meet their obligation. Applying the rules on both negligence and vicarious liability to consider whether Sheila and Karen would be able to claim for the injury and damage.
Under the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, employers are held liable for the negligent acts of their employees as long as the acts happen in the employees’ cause of duty (Tan 2012, p. 96). In the first case, Manjit is regarded as an employee of Hurryhaste and hence an agent for Hurryhaste. He is therefore covered by the vicarious liability rule.
Though Manjit is a casual worker with the company, it does not disqualify him from being regarded as an employee by the company. Therefore, he is regarded as one. The accident occurred during Manjit’s cause of duty hence perfectly fitting in the vicarious liability bracket. On the other hand, Karen has no contributory fault to the accident because she had parked her car properly.
During Manjit’s negligent driving, her car was hit. Karen therefore qualifies for compensation from Hurryhaste who is the employer of Manjit in this case. Hurryhaste should pay Karen. If it so wishes, it can surcharge Manjit for his negligent acts. On the other hand, Dave was within his employment duties when he hit Sheila’s car because the accident happened when he was coming from making a delivery.
To this extent, he had to make his way back from the point of delivery. He is thus deemed to be within his duties. The basis of vicarious liability is simply to shift the liability of an employee to the employer. In this case, the liability shifts from Dave to Hurryhaste (Tan 2012, p. 96). Although Dave is seen to have breached certain rules with regard to using the vehicle improperly, it does not take away Sheila’s right to be compensated by Hurryhaste because her fault did not lead to the accident.
Although Sheila did not have her seat belt on when the accident occurred, the blame for the accident does not fall on her. At the same time, it is not the purpose of vicarious liability to prove that she was not having her belt on at the time of the accident. In the case of Dave, as the statement goes, he has been highlighted as having been the one on the wrong.
One element of the tort law is to establish if there was negligence on the part of an individual party in a case and the predictability of the same (Gray 2011 p. 70). In the case of Dave, he was aware of traffic rules, which are to guide him in his driving. However, due to his negligence, he failed to observe traffic rules thus leading to the accident. The law is meant to prove that the person lacked reasonable care hence leading to a likelihood that the person’s negligent acts would lead to harm (Burns 2011, p. 665).
Therefore, according to the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, Sheila and Karen should claim for injury and damage because, were it not have been for the carelessness of Dave and Manjit, the accident would not have happened. Their failure to observe rules and caution while driving was the sole reason for the accident’s happening.
If Dave’s daughter had been injured in the accident, chances are that the law on vicarious liability would still have applied because the van was not supposed to carry unauthorised passengers under traffic law. Dave’s daughter was one. Therefore, Dave’s daughter as an individual party could claim for damages because Hurryhaste’s agent would have injured her due to negligence (Tan 2012, p. 96).
This case though would become complicated because Dave would be required by the company to reimburse it the expenses. On the other hand, the argument that might arise about Manjit’s employment status might be if a casual employee is regarded by the terms of the vicarious liability. By virtue of Manjit being a casual employee, it qualifies him to become an agent for Hurryhaste because he does duties on its behalf (Gray 2011, p. 69).
Vicarious liability does not define an employee’s status, but simply addresses any person working as an agent for the employer. Negligence on the part of an agent is what leads to a tort. The claimant does not have the duty to find out the employment status of the offender before he or she can lay claim for damages that have occurred.
On the other hand, breach of working rules does not affect the claimant’s pursuit of compensation because it is not within his or her jurisdiction to determine whether the offenders were following rules when they caused the accidents. Therefore, Sheila and Karen are legally in order to claim compensation for both injury and damage from Hurryhusttle.
References Burns, J 2011, ‘Respondeat Superior as an Affirmative Defence: How Employers Immunise themselves from direct Negligence Claims’, Mitchigan Law Review, vol. 109 no. 4, pp. 657-681.
Gray, A 2011, ‘Why Vicarious Liability Must be Abandoned’, Australian Business Law Review, vol. 39 no. 2, pp. 67-84.
Jalil, M 2011, ‘Clarification of Rules of Acceptance in Making Business Contracts’, Journal of Politics
Netflix’s Branding and Positioning Strategy Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Product development
Founded in 1997, Netflix Company has grown and is currently well placed in the movie rental industry of America. Despite its outstanding performance and quick recovery from the global financial crisis of 2010, the company is currently facing the dilemma of a sustainable positioning strategy due to the current hostile business environment.
The threat of competition, non deliveries on Saturdays and the 28-days delay before delivery of new films has put the company in a fix (Cholewa et al. 305). Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to develop a product branding strategy and market segmentation for Netflix in order to remain competitive in the sensitive film industry of America.
Product development In order to remain afloat, Netflix Company should offer the Kiosk model as part of its product brands in order to retain its customers that would be affected by the 28-days delay period before delivery of new films. Reflectively, the kiosk model will facilitate timely distribution of the films to clients and increase the returns since the aspect of convenience will not be compromised.
Besides, unlike its competitors, the company has better distribution network that might facilitate implementation of the kiosk model. Through the kiosk model, the company will offer films to its customers in convenience stores across its distribution channel. The kiosk model will counter the non deliveries on Saturdays since clients will be in a position to directly purchase from its virtual kiosks.
Consumer segmentation The kiosk model targets home user consumers who form the majority of the Netflix market catchment. Since this target group frequent movie store, Netflix will be in a position to conveniently direct the customers to their designated delivery points and stores without having to directly deliver.
The company should merge the strategy with advertisements since this group of consumers has access to social media. Due to exposure to information sources such as new papers, television, radio, and magazines, product announcement through these avenues will come in handy.
Decision on the best product relies on information feedback after multiple exposures to different competing products. As forecasted in the market research, this strategy will be successful towards dominance as it offers a variety of options to consumers, while at the same time, maximizing benefits of economies of scale to the company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marketing Mix The marketing mix is a selling model which is made up of four elements. These elements include price, product, promotion, and distribution. Reflectively, the penetration strategy should have minimal disturbances to the market and the company. Therefore, it is important to establish means and ways of reaching the potential market consisting of young and sensitive clients.
To achieve this, the company should segment and differentiate its ‘young adults market’ along consumer-based market segmentation procedures. The physical distribution patterns are with no doubt a critical area of focus, especially in this segment that is spread across the US market.
On the pricing mix, the US has a high purchasing power. Therefore, the kiosk model should use skim pricing strategy since demand for this company’s product is relatively inelastic. Concerning the place, the kiosk model should use the local media channels to keep in touch with the target segment.
Apart from the TV channels, the company should use the parent company’s channels to reach out to the market segment. Moreover, the company may enter into strategic partnership with other companies to advertise its products. On product, the kiosk model should be made flexible to satisfy the needs of different customers.
Work Cited Cholewa, Vincent, Dreager Lori, Grilliot Greg, Lee Sze, Wallace Drew, and Wright Sean. Case 20: Netflix. Arizona: Arizona State University, 2011. Print.
Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Importance of Play
Characteristics of Play
The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing
Introduction Play refers to any form of activity, which children engage in at free will in order to have fun. In most instances the type of play that children undertake results from intrinsic motivation without the expectation of an external reward. Similarly, children manage the plays by determining how to conduct the play activity.
Therefore, play is a non-programmed activity without clearly specified outcomes, which in most cases is out of touch with the ordinary life. Various types of plays that children undertake contribute immensely to their development. Playing enables children to fully experience and discover their world.
Adults should provide adequate support, play space, as well as, different types of play materials in order to promote the present and the future wellbeing of children. Therefore, this paper examines the importance and characteristics of play in the first two years of a child development, as well as, the link between play and wellbeing.
The Importance of Play Playing is crucial to the healthy development of children and their wellbeing. Play is beneficial to children in a number of ways. For instance, play helps in the cognitive development of a child thereby enabling the child to understand and make sense of his or her world. Play facilitates the process of brain development, which occurs majorly during the early years of a child’s development.
Play helps in the development of new neural connections that are crucial to effective learning in the later years of a child’s development. Through play, a child is able to interpret new experiences by building on the already acquired knowledge. Play enables a child to develop his or her thinking capabilities, which is crucial in problem solving and construction of new knowledge.
When babies are given a chance to engage in free unstructured plays they are able to develop the ability to think creatively and to exploit their imagination capabilities. Therefore, an opportunity to play enables a child to stand a better chance of handling new experiences and challenges
Play also enables a child to develop a sense of emotional intelligence. Play helps a child to perceive the emotional state of others, which enhances how a child relates to those around him or her. Play also promotes the development of positive emotions such as joy among children because play enables a child to develop the skill of entertaining themselves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, from an early age a child will develop the ability to be self-reliant. Involvement in various forms of play enables a child to experience less negative emotions of fear, anxiety, stress, as well as, irritability while promoting calmness and the ability of a child to handle surprises and changes that he or she may encounter on a day to day basis. Hence, play greatly contributes to the emotional development and wellbeing of a child.
Play also helps in language development among children. Acquisition of language is very important in the developmental process of a child because language is the major means of communication. Therefore, developing a proficient oral language will enhance communication between the child and those around him or her.
Play enables children to learn and use language for various purposes, with different people, and in different scenarios. For instance, exposure to pretend plays at early years of a child development will enable a child to discover the meaning of various words that make up a language. Therefore, a child will always try to think on how to communicate appropriately, thereby enhancing language fluency.
Group play also enables a child to develop purposeful verbal communication. For instance, children often use language to ask for materials or information while playing with others. Children in early years of development often use few words in order to express themselves. Play enables children to listen to their peers as they talk and act. As a result, they also mimic similar sounds in order to learn various words.
Additionally, a number of children find pleasure in playing with language in order to understand word sounds, syllables, as well as, grammatical structure. For instance, children are able to develop a good mastery of their language by listening to jokes, riddles, and songs with rhyming words that often have elements of language play. Therefore, play greatly contributes in language development among children.
Play also promotes social, as well as, physical development of a child. Play enables children to interact with others, thereby developing their ability to relate with others effectively. Playing provides a child with an opportunity to develop values such as empathy, compassion, and sharing from an early age. Similarly, a child also gets the opportunity to master a number of nonverbal communication skills.
For instance, at an early age a child can be able to understand and master various facial expressions. Play also enables a child to develop attachment to others and build trust. On the other hand, children also benefit physically through various plays. Plays promote proper development of coordination and balance among children. As a result, play helps to eliminate stress, as well as, fatigue among children.
We will write a custom Essay on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Characteristics of Play The plays in which children undertake during the first and second year of their development exhibit a number of characteristics. For instance, a number of children engage in sensory motor play during their first year of development. Whereby, children will repeatedly perform a motor or sensory activity previously learnt. A number of children in their first year of development derive pleasure from engaging in repeated sensory motor activities.
Most children develop interest in playing with unsophisticated objects at around five months. However, in most instances the infants are usually more interested in their own actions upon the objects rather than the play objects. During the age of nine to ten months, a number of children develop the ability to differentiate various play objects. Majority of children often prefer new objects to older ones.
Similarly, a number of children at the age of nine to ten months develop the ability to handle various objects in different ways in order to generate information from the objects. Therefore, most children aged one year old usually engage in discovery play. The major aim is to explore their environment in order to determine the texture, shape, size, and how various objects are made.
During the second year of development, most children develop the appropriate use of objects and engage more in symbolic play. At this stage, children begin to shift attention from self to the external environment. Similarly, they also develop the ability to substitute and in corporate more objects into their plays. For instance, a child may use a box as a car.
Some may also begin engaging in imaginative play at the age of two years whereby they imitate various animal sounds and behavior. Additionally, children aged two years old also participate in social play whereby they play together in groups. During social play, children are able to initiate their own games and design rules on how to play.
Social play enables children to develop socialization skills such as cooperation, sharing, as well as, honesty. These skills are important, as they will enable the child to develop into a more responsible adult in future. However, adults also play a crucial role in the play of children because they act as directors and can encourage children to develop desired social behavior during social play.
The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing One major reason for play is to have fun. Therefore, enjoyment is one of the key reasons why a number of children play. Play evokes positive emotions in children, which are crucial to the attainment of the wellbeing and health of children. Play enables children to experience feelings of joy, which contributes immensely to the development of a high self-esteem.
Additionally, play enables children to have a healthy lifestyle. For instance, play enables children to burn calories that may be stored as fat if they lead inactive lifestyles. Therefore, play may help in the reduction of health problems such as obesity among children, as well as, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most cases of ADHD among children are linked to diminished play opportunities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, an active play lifestyle has the potential to boost the physical, social, and emotional wellbeing of a child. Through play, children are able to develop a number of skills and competencies such as decision making skills, problem-solving skills, as well as, developing emotional intelligence.
However, inadequate play may inhibit optimal learning and development in children, which may interfere with a child’s ability to socialize appropriately with other people. Inadequate play may result into an impaired brain development because play is crucial in the process of brain development.
Additionally, play deprivation may also lead to deviant social behavior among children. Therefore, insufficient play among children has the possibility of negatively affecting the wellbeing of a child’s developmental process.
Conclusion Play forms an integral part of a child developmental process. The types of plays that children engage in differ depending on the child’s age. For instance, at the age of one year most children engage in repeated sensory motor play activities, which are mostly solitary. At the age of nine months, most children develop the ability to engage in discovery play in order to explore their environment.
In the second year of their development, most children are able to participate in social play. Plays have a number of benefits to children. For instance, play helps in the cognitive and language development among children. Similarly, play helps to promote the emotional and physical wellbeing in children.
Therefore, children who engage in a number of plays are able to experience a healthy lifestyle. On the other hand, inadequate play has the potential of having adverse effect on children such as deviant behaviors and health problems such as obesity among children. Therefore, children should have ample playtime in order to realize optimal development and functioning.
Transformation and Change in Australia Descriptive Essay college admission essay help
There is a certain nationwide pride in the recreational potentials of the Australian environment than any other environment in the world. Australia presents itself to the world as a country with perfect cultures of leisure and struggle. Cultural historians assert that the current Australian cultures resulted from a set of different colonies, cultures, and inhabitants (Jalland, 2002).
This paper focuses on transformation and change in Australia between the years 1850 and 1945. In Australia, a bush refers to a scarcely populated region with or without vegetation cover. Cultural historians believe that in the 19th century the term bush referred to any area outside the urban regions (Ferber
Music as a Relaxation Technique Report college application essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Research and Studies on Music’s Effect on Health
Abstract In this paper, I outline the effect of music as a natural laxative and explore studies that have been done to examine the effect of music on our health. Though Dr. Seaward’s work on stress management is extensive, I have taken the liberty to explore a number of other, equally authoritative studies on music as well.
Introduction The power of slow and quiet music as an effective relaxation technique is widely acknowledged because of its strong link to our emotions. In addition, music has a physiological effect on our bodies. Slow and moderate tempo music counteracts the effects of stress by reducing the production of stress hormones. In addition, it lowers the heart rate and blood pressure. Classical music has particularly been known to be quite effective in relieving stress and making the listener relax.
Research and Studies on Music’s Effect on Health Recent scientific studies show that singing along one’s favourite music can also have a great releasing effect on tension. Again, calming music may also help induce sleep, and by extension relieve stress (Seaward, 2012). The relaxing effect may also be explained from the fact that slow music also tends to slow down the brain and induce the release of ‘feel-good’ hormones (Seaward, 2012).
Meditation is a powerful relaxation technique, and it can be easily induced by music. The sounds of nature, sometimes incorporated into musical compositions, have a tendency to call forth a soothing effect. This in turn induces a relaxed mood and stress relief (Collingwood, 2007).
Given the strong correlation that music has with meditation and stress reduction, the discipline and practice of stress therapy has slowly come to the forefront as an important tool for stress management (Collingwood, 2007). Additionally, “when used in combination with biofeedback techniques, music can reduce tension and facilitate the relaxation response” (Collingwood, 2007, Music Therapy, para. 1).
Though it is generally agreed that listening to music produces relaxation, it is not yet widely agreed what genre is most effective. In a research study by Valorie Salimpor from Rotman Institute in Toronto (cited in Landau, 2013), participants listened to 60 excerpts of music they had never heard before while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine.
Findings from this research indicated that certain components of the brain, that is, the nucleus accumbens and the temporal gyrus play a role in determining which music one is likely to like. Their work is based on ‘templates’ that have been stored in the brain which pre-dispose individuals to like music they have listened to more often than that which they have not (Landau, 2013).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another study corroborated the thesis that music has physiological benefits. Cited by Landau (2013), the study involved researchers looking at the effect of music to patients just about to go into surgery. Randomly, participants were either given anti-anxiety drugs or listen to music. The patient’s own ratings of their own anxiety were monitored as well as the level of the stress hormone cortisol.
It was found that those who listened to music had less anxiety compared to those who took anti-anxiety pills. In the same study, the researchers also discovered that music bolsters the immune system in their evidence that music is closely linked to Immunoglobin A, an antibody. In an experiment by Dr. Mike Miller, the effects of music on the cardiovascular system were tested using high-tech imaging.
Miller measured blood vessel size during a music-listening session. He found that listening to music that one enjoys tends to open up and relax the blood vessels and also produce chemicals protective to the heart (Willingham, 2009). This profound effect on physiological processes may be what brings about a corresponding psychological effect of relaxation.
References Collingwood, J. (2007). The Power of Music to Reduce Stress. Web.
Landau, E. (2013, April 15). This is your brain on music. Web.
Seaward, B.L. (2012). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well- being (7th Edition). Burlington, MA: Jones
Islamic Religion: Zakah Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
The Islam religion in addition to giving spiritual guidance, also gives economic guidance one of which is the Zakah. Zakah is listed among the five pillars forming the basic foundations of the religion of Islam; it is the third of the five. The word ‘Zakah’ in Arabic means to be purified, to grow and receive blessings. In some texts it is also referred to as Zakat.
Khan describes Zahra as a mandatory levy paid on wealth and agricultural products that are in excess of a specified minimum (the nisab) (Islamic Economics and Finance 195). During the time of Prophet Muhammad, there was a list of the nisab for each asset one could own for example the nisab for gold was 85grams and the nisab for silver was 595grams.
At that time value 595grams of silver was equivalent to the value of 85grams of gold. Times have changed and gold and silver are no longer used as currency. We now have paper money. The value of silver has decreased while that of gold has remained almost the same. Muslim scholars differ on whether to use the nisab of gold or the nisab of silver when calculating the nisab for the current currencies.
Those who support the nisab of gold to be used argue that its value has remained the same over time. Those who argue for the nisab of silver argue that it would be of more benefit to the poor if the nausea of silver is used. Using the nisab of silver will lower the minimum hence increasing the number of people to pay Zakah and hence increasing the amount of money.
The nisab of silver is used in some countries like Saudi Arabia; although the nisab of gold is the most common (Khan 1994). Therefore, Nisab’s value is directly dependent on the retailing price of gold (or silver for the countries that use the nisab of silver) in the world markets as it is equal to a specified amount of gold. In 2012, it was an equivalent of USD$5200.
The nisab should be calculated based on the price of gold on the day that the individual pays the levy. The regulations governing the collection and spending of this fund are based on the Quran and the Hadith; works attributed to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad but are not found in the Quran. In some countries the calculation of nisab is based on the poverty level of the country rather than the price of gold or silver (Ahmad 2010).
The levy has a lot of importance in the Islamic faith. In the Quran it is equated to prayer. The funds collected are given to the needy and therefore act to bridge the differences between the rich and the poor. This levy leads to the development of the economy as the rich cannot just keep their wealth as it will continue decreasing over time as the levy is imposed, thus it forces them to invest (Ahmad 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It develops in people the virtue of generosity and condemns selfishness. It prepares one to get used to the act of giving and when they are required to give up all their wealth for the act of faith they will be ready to do so. Muslims believe that all wealth belongs to Allah and humans are just entrusted with the wealth. They are therefore required to use the wealth as required by the owner.
Giving reminds them not to lay too much emphasis on material wealth. Making the contribution purifies wealth and souls of those who give (Khan 1994). Zakah is not based on all the property one owns since some wealth is considered taxable while other types of properties are exempted from the levy. Wealth that is considered taxable include; livestock, minerals, investments in business including stock, and agricultural products while properties for personal and home use such as furniture and houses are tax exempt.
Property that does not have a specific owner such as taxes collected by the government is exempt from Zakar as it is used for the benefit of everyone including the poor. Property and businesses that are owned by the public such as schools and mosques are also exempted from the levy. An individual cannot pay Zakah on property that was acquired through stealing, corruption or cheating.
The property does not belong to them they therefore cannot pay Zakah for it. Muslim scholars make it clear that if an asset is not named in the Quran or Hadith as Zakatable it does not mean that it is exempted from the levy. The Prophet Muhammad who was the founder of Zakah only mentioned in his works assets that were available during his time.
As people continue to develop new products the zakatable products should be revised in accordance with the current trends. Zakah is usually paid as a percentage. The percentage of Zakah to be paid varies with the type of asset for which one is paying the levy. It is 2.5% of profits from investment and income from work; 5% of Agricultural products that are irrigated; 10% of agricultural products that do not require irrigation or are watered by natural means such as the rain and 20% for minerals.
The percentage is a minimum of what should be paid, if someone is willing to pay more, they can. Wealth has to meet some requirements before the owner pays the levy. The levy is based on the wealth that is with the owner for a lunar year; 355days.An individual begins counting the days once his wealth exceeds the nisab. Agricultural products are an exemption to the rule of the lunar year; Zakah is paid after harvesting.
Zakah for mineral wealth is also paid after acquisition of the mineral and not annually. The levy is imposed only on goods that are developing and increasing. The rule requiring that an asset has to be growing to be zakatable has some limitations; individuals who intentionally make their wealth not to grow are required to pay Zakah. Prophet Muhammad warns such people and calls them lazy.
We will write a custom Essay on Islamic Religion: Zakah specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wealth that is not growing as an exemption to payment of the levy is limited to people whose property has been stolen or destroyed or whose lack of growth is due to the characteristics of the asset and not the individual’s choice. The goods also have to be under the individual’s control, debts owed are not included in the calculation. Gold or other precious stones that are in the form of jewels are exempted from the levy as long as they are used for the purpose of looking good and not for business.
In the case of land that is used for Agriculture, if it is in the hands of the owner, then the owner pays the levy. In the case that the owner rents out the land without payment, the person who uses the land for farming will pay the levy. Debts are another area where the payment of the levy is unclear. The debtors cannot pay the levy as the money is not rightfully their neither can the creditors because the money is not under their control.
In this century loans which fall under the debt category are common, Muslim scholars differ on opinions whether one should pay the levy for loans or not. It becomes more difficult when one has loans on assets that are tangible. Some people argue that the creditors should be levied as the property belongs to them while others argue that the debtors should be levied as they are in possession of the asset.
Levying taxes on both of them will be against the Muslim laws (Shariah) which warn against duality. Duality in Shariah is defined as dual payment where an asset is levied more than once in the same lunar year. Another issue that has come up with this century is savings such as retirement benefits. The payment of the levy will vary depending on whether the savings are within the control of the individual or they are within the control of the employer.
In the case that an individual is paid retirement benefits, he would be required to pay Zakah when he is given the money. The Quran and Hadith give a description of who should pay the levy. The individual has to meet the requirements of nisab. The individual also has to be an adult of sane mind; children and mentally ill are not required to pay.
There is debate on whether children and the mentally ill can pay Zakah. The Hadith requires that children cannot pay until they reach puberty and the mentally ill cannot pay until they recover. Those who support that the levy should not be imposed on children and the mentally ill argue that it’s an act of worship and therefore requires one to be willing.
The intention is compromised in children and those with psychiatric illness. They also argue that those who have a compromised state of mind cannot develop their wealth. Those who are arguing that those who have a compromised state of mind should be taxed say that the Quran does not provide any exemptions for them (Ahmad 2010).
The individual has to be Muslim in order to make the contribution. Non Muslims are required to pay Jizyah. Zakah is an act of worship and belief in the religion; it therefore cannot be paid by someone who does not believe. In the case that a non believer converts to Islam, he cannot be asked to pay Zakah for the years he did not believe in the Islamic faith.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Religion: Zakah by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In some states a tax an equivalent of the Zakah is levied on non Muslims to ensure economic balance. The individual to pay the levy has to be free; Prisoners are exempted from the levy (Ahmad 2010). Zakah is considered mandatory for all Muslims. The Quran also requires that one does it voluntarily. In the case that an individual is too mean and refuses to pay, the state has the authority to collect the payment by force and impose a penalty on the individual.
The penalty is equivalent to half of the defaulter’s wealth. A group of people may decide to evade the levy. War should be declared on them as they would be considered to have rejected the Islamic faith. Some people claim that this law was used during the establishment of the Muslim religion and has since been done away with.
There is no evidence to the effect that the law was nullified and therefore most states are considered to have a right to forcefully collect and to impose penalties on those who have defaulted. Those who evade paying the levy will face the wrath of Allah on the Day of Judgment. Those who evade payment are not considered part of the Muslim brotherhood unless the individual is ignorant of the requirements of Zakah or is new to the Islamic faith (Ahmad 2010).
When calculating the percentage of Zakah to be paid, the individual first calculates all his assets and subtract liabilities. The difference should be more than the price of 85grams of gold. The Individual can then group assets of the same kind together and get the percentage of the total. In the case of money, 2.5% of the total amount of money he has.
The laws of Islam prohibit grouping of different kind of wealth when calculating the percentage profit. The laws of Islam discourage double payment of Zakah. An asset can only be levied once in a lunar year. Zakah on investments is based on the profit and not on the total amount while the Zakah on money and cattle is based on the total amount of assets. Products that are not money such as cattle should be calculated based on the market price at the moment (Ahmad 2010).
Zakah is collected through various means; in some countries it is collected by the state while in others it is collected by organizations specifically for that purpose. The Hadith gives regulations for state collection of the fund. Ahmad says that in as much as the state may collect the contribution, the laws of Muslims require that it should be separated from the national budget (49).
The separation is done to ensure that the money collected achieves its purpose of helping the needy. Payment of Zakah can be traced back to when the Muslim religion was established. Its origin is from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Khan says that Zakah has existed in all Muslim societies throughout history although during the colonial period it was neglected but it was later restored following the Second World War (An Introduction to Islamic Economics 81).
The main objective of collecting this fund is to provide support to specific groups of people especially those in the lower socioeconomic status. The Quran gives a list of those people who qualify to receive funds collected through this levy and they include; those in need, street children, people who have gotten debts when trying to earn an honest living, individuals who want to convert to the Islamic religion, travelers who have encountered difficulty, debtors, The people who collect Zakah and people who work for Allah (Ahmad 2010).
The needy are those whose assets are below the nisab and those whose property cannot cater for them for the whole year. The poor on the other hand are described as those who have no assets and do not have the capability to work to earn a living. The fund is given to those in debt only if the debts were incurred when they were seeking to satisfy their basic needs (Khan 2012).
Those who incurred debts through gambling or mismanagement of money do not qualify for this fund. This fund is also given to those who fight in the Holy War. Travelers are defined as those who are far away from their homes. In the past slaves also qualified for this fund but they are no more slaves. Allowing collectors of the fund to take part of it ensured that they are not tempted to steal or mismanage the fund.
Some funds were donated to people who wanted to convert to Islam to aid in spreading the religion (Khan 2012). The Hadith prohibits investment of the money collected through the means of Zakah. The money should be given directly to those in need. The family of the prophet Muhammad and his descendants are prohibited from benefiting from this fund.
The Hadith warns that there would be punishment for people who receive funds from Zakah collection yet they are not qualified. It also warns the collectors not to take more than they deserve. There is debate on whether poor people who are not Muslim can qualify for the fund. Some states prefer that before the fund is given to non Muslim; all the Muslim needs should be met.
In addition to the uses listed in the Quran, the fund can also be used for administration purposes in Organizations that manage the fund (Ahmad 2010). According to Muhammad Khan, Zakah has not achieved its expectations because of the limits imposed by governments. Zakah is also not well managed due to a lack of proper methods of accounting and inadequate monitoring.
These are the problems frequently encountered by institutions collecting this fund and should be addressed to ensure Zakah meets its expectations (81). A case in point is Pakistan, they began a centralized way of collecting the fund but to date they still have problems like interruptions in the collection and distribution of the funds (Khan 2012).
The levy is distinguished from other kinds of religious payments by various ways. Most religious contributions are voluntary, Zakah is mandatory. Unlike the other payments, which even the poor can make, this is paid by a specific group of people. The spending of other forms of payments is based on the agreement of the religious leaders. The spending of funds collected through this means is dictated by the church.
In the event that one does not pay other voluntary religious contributions, no punishment is imposed on them. If a person who is Muslim refuses to pay Zakah, they are given a penalty which is half of their wealth (Khan 1994). In summary, Zakah is an obligatory contribution of Muslims who fulfill the requirements of Nisab. Its main function is to help the needy in society and a means of giving back to Allah the greatest.
There are many issues that have changed since the time Zakah was founded by The Islamic Prophet Muhammad to date. The means of collection and the distribution have to be reviewed to be in line with current trends. This should be done in a way that ensures that the reason for the collection of the fund is still met.
Works Cited Ahmad, Abu Umar Faruq. Developments in Islamic Banking Practice: The experience of Bangladesh Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers, 2010. Print.
Khan, Muhammad Akram. An Introduction to Islamic Economics, Pakistan, Islamabad: IIIT, 1994. Print.
Khan, Muhammad Akram. Islamic Economics and Finance: A Glossary, New York: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Analyzing the Findings of Falcons Analytical Essay essay help site:edu
Findings from the Physical Store Questionnaire Analysis Falcons can meet the time differences for both the public and the private sectors. However, it is imperative that Falcons should adjust the stores opening time and the closing time. Given that the public will arrive as early as 7.30 a.m., it would be prudent for the company to open at 7 a.m. and consider closing after 6 p.m.
The claim is that the private leaves later at 5 pm and closing at time will cater for the private sector. Besides, this will ensure that the company attends to both sectors. Falcons must endeavor to have a large stock to meet the requirements of the customers. Both sectors’ customers will place large orders given that they buy stock in bulk.
However, Falcons should take note that customers in both sectors will make one visit to the stores in three months. Despite this fact, it does not mean that there will be no customers on a daily basis so long as the customers’ demands are met. Evidently, Falcons must ensure it has sufficient wooden equipment stock to meet the high demand for both sectors.
Although both sectors prefer wooden equipment, a significant percentage requires metallic equipment. The demand for office equipment and stationary is high as both sectors purchase these products in bulk. From the data, it is expected that the private and public sectors would differ in their preference to computers and office supplies. Such differences are often driven by the prices and branding.
The private sector is often brand-sensitive. Nevertheless, since both sectors purchase almost equal amounts of stock, Falcons should ensure that both sector demands are met. Based on the data, it appears that the demand for the preferred services spreads equally across all sectors. In fact, it is inherent for humans to prefer services that suit them best to those disliked.
The findings addressed by this analysis confirm this perspective as both sectors prefer quick shipment, offers, membership cards and online services to cater for their needs. Apparently, both sectors have the same thoughts regarding the services they receive. None of the customers in either sector would like to have slow shipment of their consignment or low quality services given.
The findings are accurate given that both sectors suggest that companies provide customer call-desk services to ensure that complaints are timely addressed. In normal circumstances, it is natural for customers to suggest to the companies that they should be provided with functional customer care call-desk.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These findings are relevant to Falcons in its effort to meet all the requirements of the customers in both the private and public sectors. Further, it is of great essence to note that customers are concerned with services they receive.
Findings from the Online Questionnaire Analysis Findings from online questionnaires are not always reliable. The assumption is particularly founded on the fact that the questionnaires are distributed randomly and the researcher cannot substantiate the authenticity of the respondent, their actual physical location, and validity of the feedback. Conversely, this further limits the study to only those who have access to the internet.
According to data, this signifies that a significant number of potential customers did not get a chance to respond to the questionnaires. These facts are supported by the findings under this analysis. From the data, it is indicated that only 53 percent of the customers in the public sector have previously used online service while 33 percent have never used the tool.
The discrepancy regarding accessibility of online service is evidenced by the fact that 87 percent of the private sectors have had access to online service more than twice. All the interviewees in the private sector claimed that they have previously used online services. The claim that those in the public sector prefer to purchase goods from physical stores may not be accurate given that discrepancies in accessing the internet may play a significant role.
The fact that those in the public sector feel insecure to purchase goods online is an important aspect that Falcons should consider when entering the Middle East market. The assertion is anchored on the fact that a majority of companies in the region are publicly owned.
Thus, it implies that the company must conduct an empirical study to establish the potential customers to expect in the market so that it can establish an online system for serving all customers. Additionally, Falcons must be ready to meet the demands of the substantial portion of the public sector customers who do not have access or trust the online purchasing systems.
By ensuring that there are physical stores in the target markets, Falcons will also reach the 40 percent of the private sector customers who do not trust the online purchasing systems. The public sector in the target market would also provide the largest customer base if Falcons opened additional stores that are physical.
We will write a custom Essay on Analyzing the Findings of Falcons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the data, it is apparent that customers irrespective of their geographical locations have closely related service demands. The potential customers under these online findings would prefer that they should be availed with an online payment service. Additionally, it is important for Falcons to underscore the unanimous consensus amid the public and private sector regarding the demand for delivery services.
From the data, it is imperative to notice the diverse demands of the two sectors. The public sector would prefer low priced commodities as opposed to the high quality commodities. Nevertheless, the private sector embraces the opposite. While considering entering the Middle East market, Falcons should consider availing a wide range of products that will cater for the needs of the two sectors.
Charter Communication Company: Case Analysis Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Objectivities and Strategies of Charter Communications Inc
A strategy to improve its opportunity
A strategy to mitigate threats
Competitive profile matrix
External factor matrix
Introduction The growth and sustainability of Charter Communication Company lie in the implementation of its objectives and business strategies. The objectives and business strategies of the organization must align with the market trend and market target (David, 2011).
Charter communications is a leading company that manufactures Internet and broadcasting cable, it provides high-speed connections to corporate organizations, government agencies and home user. The company has its headquarters in the United States.
The mission of Charter Company is to offer value to all customers. The company will achieve its goal by providing quality product and services at fair prices. The strategies of the organization align with its internal and external conditions.
Objectivities and Strategies of Charter Communications Inc The objectives of Charter Communications build on quality service to meet customer’s satisfaction. The objectives are highlighted below
To provide high-speed Internet, digital connections to its customers.
To become the leading manufacturing company in the telecom industry.
To provide affordable products and service to its customers.
To maintain its quality and transform the world with digital technology.
Charter Communications International has a projected 5.5 million client base. The company relies on its business strategy to satisfy its clients. The objectives of the organization can be achieved with an effective business strategy. The performance of the organizations is attributed to the correlation between its objectives and business strategies (Bygrave
Innovation in Various Companies Compare and Contrast Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Nokia
Innovation is the establishment of new or improved equipment and processes that are often driven by information technology, among other key factors. Product innovation comes with many benefits to both the supplier and the consumer.
Companies can only prove their responsiveness to customers’ demands through improved product quality and design. The mobile phone evolution is a good example of the role played by innovation in today’s business world.
This paper compares and contrasts the innovative abilities, successes and failures of Nokia, Motorola and Apple.
Nokia Nokia is a multinational communications company based in Keilaniemi, Espoo. The company produces mobile devices for all major market protocols and segments. Nokia continues to attract users of its exclusive multimedia devices from every part of the world.
The quick technological progress and transformation which has imbibed the mobile phone industry has greatly contributed in making Nokia what it is today. Through high end innovative abilities over the years, Nokia mobile has succeeded in creating a niche amongst the users.
This has seen the corporation come to rule the robust communication industry with their huge-spectrum of quality mobile phone products. Innovation in the mobile phone industry has been stipulated by the increasing demand of these devices in the contemporary world.
The graph below indicates the growth of mobile phone usage in the world since 1987 – 2006.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nokia has always proved its ability in innovation by designing their mobile devices in a more desirable, functional and sustainable manner that satisfies the needs of the customers.
The company has made great advancement in the modification of its mobile devices from the NMT-900 series of the 1980s, to the sophisticated modern day series.
According to Nokia, Inc., the company is known for its agility to change with the times, to match the competitive trend of the market, where changes in customers’ preferences is the key determinant (The Nokia Story).
The corporation has continued to garner much interest globally, as the most preferred choice of mobile manufacturer, owing to their ability to incorporate user-friendly features in their devices.
Unlike the old and obsolete technology of the past, modern Nokia mobile devices come with smart features that are sustained with sophisticated designs.
Modern versions of the Nokia cell phone have proved to be a major attraction to millions of users globally, who have grown to fancy the smart phone lifestyle. The latest Nokia products are based in 3G/WCDMA, EDGE/GSM and CDMA mobile technologies.
All these innovations come in sleek dimensions, compared to the bulky technologies of the past. Among the many features found in Nokia’s latest mobiles include well-sized TFT displays that have been made into a combination of amazing pixel and vibrant colours.
We will write a custom Essay on Innovation in Various Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The handsets are also packed with pre-installed Carl Zeiss optics and built-in cameras that are certain to provide excellent resolution. Another outstanding feature of the latest versions of the Nokia mobile is their memory feature which enables users to manage useful applications effectively.
Following is a recent graph showing the Market Share Estimates of Nokia, Motorola and Apple, among other Smartphones.
These successful innovation strategies have granted the company a global reputation as the market leader in mobile phones, for nearly two decades. This glory however, would be brought into a sudden halt by the entry of new competitors in the market.
Even though Nokia has tried to accelerate its pace of new developments in cell phone devices, their track record is much weaker compared to that of Apple (Gassee 3).
The company’s relative failure can be observed in its dwindling market share in the mobile device market, which has dropped from 40 percent five years ago to an estimated value of just 23 percent this year.
Today, the company is squeezed from the top by Apple and from the bottom by Motorola, among other upcoming companies.
Motorola Ever since its inception in the 1920s, Motorola has been defined by a culture of innovation. Unlike Nokia, whose main products are mobile phones, most of Motorola’s products are radio-related.
Motorola is widely reputed across the world, for its exclusive ability to offer state-of-the-art technology solutions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation in Various Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company had been a leader of innovation in the communications sector and the largest manufacturer of mobile phone devices globally, before it was overtaken by Nokia in the year 1998.
Motorola has not only displayed great ability in innovative matters, but it has also proved to be a major player in the communications sector.
Recently, the company has helped to drive the evolution of the mobile phone technology from the communications product of the past to the modern multi-functional device which is characterized by numerous exciting and convenient features of the day.
Motorola’s outstanding innovation abilities can be seen in its wide collection of Smartphone which include StarTAC®, DynaTAC, RAZR® phones and the DROID™.
After many years of extensive research, Motorola would make history in 1983, when its DynaTAC 8000x was approved as the first commercial portable mobile phone in the world (Ahmed 39).
This helped in revolutionizing the entire communications industry in a manner that would change the lives of many people around the world.
The diagram below shows the performance of Motorola unit sales from 2007 – 2010.
Released in the year 1983, DynaTAC was the first mobile device by the company. This would see Motorola become more popular worldwide, as the company which brought the idea of mobile phones into the world.
In 1989, Micro TAC, the Flip Phone which had improved features was launched. This was followed closely by the Star TAC, which came amid great competition from giant competitors such as Ericsson and Nokia.
Next was the Droid, which continues to make great transformations in the sector. Today, Motorola enjoys the pride of being the hottest mobile phone brand in the world.
The company boasts a wide range of exclusive designs which include the razor-thin RAZR, Sprint and AT
The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction There are several effects of issuing food stamps to people who are faced with abject poverty. The major effects are economic. These effects vary depending on location, eating habits, income and other socio-economic activities.
In my research, I will find out and analyze various effects of issuing these food stamps. To achieve objectives of the research, quantitative methods will be used.
In states with high poverty levels, the government spends millions of dollars to ensure adults and children are not faced with food insecurity. Various interventions are used including food stamps.
These interventions may have economic effects depending on the number of people placed under the program in an area. Food stamps program boost local economies by increasing beneficiaries’ purchasing power. The effects on local economies are both direct and indirect.
For instance, if beneficiaries buy food from groceries, there will be increased employment opportunities in groceries and industries which supply such stores with the goods. There are indirect and induced economic effects of food stamps too.
When groceries increase sales, industries increase their demand for packaging, transport and other services. These are induced economic effects of issuing food stamps of people faced with poverty (Bishop et al. 1996).
Research Method To find out and analyze these and other economic effects, suitable research method will be used. Qualitative data collection method is best suited for this research (Lofland et al. 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the nature of participants expected, a combination of structured and unstructured interviews will be used. Structured part of the interview will help to get specific answers to research questions.
Unstructured part of the interview will help the interviewers to ask questions which had not been planned. The interviewers will engage the participants using random question when it is necessary during and after the structured interview (Minichiello et al. 1990).
This method would be the most suitable because of the large number of participants to be involved in collection of data. Furthermore, personal views would be needed to. Interviewers will follow a given guide but they will not restrict respondents from straying away from expected answers.
Both closed ended and open ended questions will be asked. Participant will be introduced or trained before commencement of the interviews. Since participants will be allowed to elaborate their answers, tapes will be used to record the information.
This will allow interviewers to have all the information which will be transcripted later. Questions shall be asked only when the interviewer feels it is appropriate to ask them.
For structured interview, a list of questions will be prepared before. Some of the questions will be closed-ended, while others will be open-ended. The closed-ended ones will require participants to give specific answers or figures.
For instance, some questions will require respondents to answer by saying either ‘yes‘or ‘no.’ Closed-ended questions will be used to get information about employment status, income, family size and age of respondents. Sometimes interviewees will be required to elaborate their answers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unstructured Interview
In this type of interview neither questions nor the answers are predetermined (Minichiello et al. 1990). During the interview, interviewers will have enough room to adjust some questions which had earlier been planned.
During this time, interviewers will have to exercise a lot of control on the nature of questions they ask. The interviewer will have to be highly responsive to individual differences of participants and situational changes.
To allow respondents to speak their minds, the interviewer will have to start with broad open ended question the narrowed them to specific. Interviewees will have the opportunity to explain what they feel (Kvale, 1996).
A combination of the two methods will enable interviewers to get the required data. All interviewers will have the freedom to choose the extent of exercising either structured or unstructured methods to get the needed data.
When an interviewer feels all the questions have been answered, he or she will choose to end the interview (Minichiello et al. 1990).
The interviews can ask their respondents if there is anything they want to add or if they have a general comment. Finally, they will thank the interviewees for their time and information they have given.
Issues and Problems Which Might Emerge During Research Various issues and problems are expected to emerge during data collection. These issues may hinder the process of acquiring necessary data.
Some of the problems will be associated with interviewers, while the others will be associated with interviewees. Some of the issues expected to emerge are discussed below.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unexpected Participant Behavior
Interviewers are likely to encounter participant’s behavior which had not been expected and planned for earlier. Such behaviors include participants being late, eating, watching television, attending to children and entertaining pets during the interview.
These behaviors and lack of conducive environment may reduce concentration of interviewees. As a result, some of the answers provided will be inaccurate.
Consequences of Interviewer’s Own Actions
Some actions of interviewers are likely to make participants uncomfortable during the interview. Such actions create suspicions between interviewer and interviewee. Discussion of Religious beliefs and political affiliations should be avoided before, during and after the interview (Kvale, 1996).
Interviewers can also talk too much or interfere with participants instead of allowing them to finish what they are saying. Making of certain assumptions before starting the interview can jeopardize the quality of interview.
Phrasing and Negotiating Questions
It is difficult to keep participants focused on research topic which had been introduced. Open-ended questions may not be well phrased allowing participants to discuss irrelevant issues. Interviewer might be forced to keep reminding participants of the limitation of the interview topic.
If a participant fails to focus on research questions, a lot of unnecessary conversation will be recorded and subsequently transcripted.
Since people understand explanation differently, phrasing questions might not give a desired response. However, when rephrased, a different response is given.
Dealing with Sensitive Issues
During the interview, interviewers may be required to ask questions touching on sensitive issues. Interview questions might remind participants of painful events. As a result, a participant may refuse to respond due to his or her emotional situation.
Interviewers will have to comfort participants first before continuing with the interview (Anderson
Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Exploratory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The three fundamental concepts of security are availability, integrity, and confidentiality. These concepts are commonly referred to as CIA or AIC triad which form the main role of any security program.
Confidentiality prevents unauthorized disclosure of company’s data and ensures secrecy of the company’s data and information.
Confidentiality should be maintained at all times while data is within the company’s network or during transmission through the network to its destination (Parikka 2007).
Threat sources associated with confidentiality include network Monitoring, monitoring key strokes or screen, stealing of password files, social engineering.
Countermeasures are encrypting data during storage and transmission by using network padding, employing strict access control mechanisms and data classification, training personnel on proper procedures.
Associated threat sources include viruses, logic bombs and backdoors. Countermeasures include strict access control, intrusion detection and hashing. Availability ensures reliability and accessibility to data and resources to authorized individuals, malicious attacks and threats.
There is a set of mechanisms used by firewalls to protect networks from unauthorized access and allowing access to the authorized once. Below is a figure of a firewall.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has two working firewalls, threats associated with firewalls, as software, include penetration, i.e. hackers being able to get into the companies machines (Ludwig 1996).
This may be a result of a misuse of the software (Firewall) where the firewall is configured or modified by a person who doesn’t understand internet security or it is turned off.
As a result of malfunctioning of the firewall viruses, trojan horses, or worms, may gain access to the network causing serious damage or loss of data and information. In addition, computers may also be destroyed in case of such attacks.
Firewall may also develop bugs and flaws leading to its malfunction. Unauthorized deletion is yet another threat to the company’s network as there will be no control of access. It is thus very important that we ensure firewalls of the company are well configured and updated often.
Windows 2008 Active Directory Domain Controllers (DC) – These are servers that control access to the network resources. Domain controllers work with computers with Windows NT Operating system. The company has two DC.
One is the main or primary DC that controls access to the network resource and the secondary DC which acts as a reserve just incase the primary DC fails or assists the Primary DC when busy e.g. during heavy network traffic.
The main threat associated with DC is Password cracking by hackers (Ludwig 1993). A hacker is any unauthorized person trying or having gained an access to the network resources.
We will write a custom Essay on Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hacking in to the company’s network can be prevented by changing of passwords often, using strong passwords that are not easy to guess and lastly by ensuring that the company hires employees that are loyal and can’t disclose passwords to strangers.
Web / FTP server – This is an application (.html) running the File Transfer Protocol. FTP is the protocol in which files are transferred through the internet, it also provides file security.
These threats can be prevented by proper configuration of routers and the IP protocol and by ensuring that the company has a secure Sockets Layer (SSL) which is a protocol that ensures secure transfer of data between Web browsers and Web servers.
File server – This is a computer on a network responsible for providing a location for a shared file access or shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files e.g. photographs, movies, documents etc.
The three file servers in the company’s network face the likelihood of attacks from Viruses, Trojan horses or worms in case there is no firewall or it is malfunctioned, these elements may cause serious damage to the storage devices of the file servers, thus affecting shared disk access by other computers in the network.
Exchange E-mail server – It works hand in hand with MS- Outlook. It enables users in a network to safely access communications like e-mail messages, instant messaging, and text messages from their devices such as desktops and mobile devices or Web browsers.
Wireless access point (WAP) – Wireless application protocol is a secure specification providing instant communication access for users with wireless hand held devices such as mobile phones etc.
The company’s wireless access point (WAP) faces the threat of eavesdropping which may expose the company’s confidential data and / or information to unauthorized people. Eavesdropping can be prevented by encrypting data packets sent from one device to another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company’s wireless access point (WAP) is vulnerable to attacks from viruses, Trojan horses or worms that may cause difficulty or lack of communication in the company leading to serious problems and loss.
To prevent attacks to the company’s Wireless access point (WAP), the firewalls must be in good working condition at all times.
Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) –This is a system that detects unauthorized access to the network. It does this by monitoring the network traffic for signs of malicious activities.
The company’s NIDS faces threats, such as denial of service attack tools such as firewalls that can block the malicious elements, programs or persons trying to access the company’s network and cause destruction to the computers, alter the organization of data files or cause loss of data files leading the company incurring huge losses.
To prevent such attacks and threats security measure needs to be put in place like ensuring that firewalls are installed and are working efficiently (Gunn 1984).
Desktop / Laptop computers – A computer is an electronic device that accepts user’s data as input, processes it using special programs to more meaningful state that can be understood by the user as output called information.
Computers face threats such as theft. This can be prevented by hiring guards and by ensuring that the computer rooms are burglar proofed.
VoIP telephone system – VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. It is a digital telephone service that uses the public Internet and private backbones for call transport.
VoIP calls can originate and terminate from regular telephones since support for the public switched telephone network (PSTN) is also provided.
Through VoIP telephone system the company faces the threat of eavesdropping which may expose the company’s confidential data and / or information to unauthorized people, resulting into exposure of confidential data to strangers (Hancock 1998).
Eavesdropping can be prevented by encryption of data packets sent from one device to another.
Proper implementation of security control should be put in place and adhered to for the company to be safe from the above attacks, threats, and vulnerabilities.
These problems continue to make computer based operations difficult and unless proper measures are taken this problem will persist now and in the future.
References Gunn, J.B. (1984). Use of virus functions to provide a virtual APL interpreter under user control. ACM SIGAPL APL Quote Quad archive (ACM New York, NY, USA), 14(4), 163–168.
Hancock, B (1998). Steps to a Successful Creation of a Corporate Threat Management Plan. Computer Fraud
Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction There were some changes in Apple Incorporated workplaces with the aim of improving working conditions for its employees. These changes were implemented to ensure that there was maximum utilization of man power and other equipment towards achievements of organizational goals.
Changes in the workplace were triggered by the need for effective workmanship aimed at providing enough products for consumers in the market. This came up due to increasing demand of Apple computers in the world markets.
This demand was instigated by the need to have machines that can share and access digital videos. Technological advancement in the world today has caused many firms to develop strategies aimed at protecting their market (Schermerhorn, 2005).
For instance, people have been forced to adapt various methods of communication where they can have live chats and video calls. These needs have caused many companies to change their setups with the aim of reaching their customers effectively.
Apple Incorporated changed its workplace set up and rules with the aim of ensuring that customers are given first priority in everything the organization does. These changes included scheduling of employees to make sure that there is continuity in production.
This means that duties were arranged in a way such that work stations will be occupied at all times. Some employees were required to report to their duties at night with others manning them during daytime.
Work was arranged exceptionally well so that every expert was allocated a given work to ensure that time is not wasted. In many cases, employees end up being underutilized in situations where they overcrowd at work stations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some tasks can be attended to by one technician at a time hence in cases where employees gather around work stations, a lot of manpower is wasted (Dubrin, 2012).
Apple Incorporated, therefore, developed a strategy to ensure that all employees work from individual work stations hence utilizing time and manpower to the maximum. As a result, this enhances productivity in work places because all employees meet their set targets.
Literature Review Apple Incorporated works hard to ensure that employee rights are respected in order to enhance proper working relations among them. The management came up with an extremely vigorous program of addressing different needs of workers throughout their industries.
This was aimed at ensuring that employees received maximum attention from the management. This included problem solving hence makes them develop trust which promotes working relationships.
These changes were adapted following incidences where employees could complain that they are being victimized by their senior officers. This is particularly unfortunate for any organization because lack of respect leads to declining morale among employees (Dubrin, 2012).
In addition, these issues can cause workers to shift to other organizations where they feel respected and honored for the jobs that they do.
Furthermore, Apple Incorporated management came up with strategies of ensuring that employees are paid better wages that reflect the work they do for the organization.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that compensation schemes had to be revised to reflect individual performances and efforts in the organization.
The management advocated for improved standards of working environments. This means that all workshops and industries were adjusted to meet the requirements meant for factory setups (Daft and Marcic, 2012).
These adjustments targeted safety measures where escape routes were provided and alarm systems installed to alert employees in cases of dangers such as fire. Ventilation was considered to ensure that all employees are comfortable whenever working.
In fact, most work stations received air conditioning machines to ensure that employees adjust their surrounding temperatures whenever need arises. Supervisors were required to treat workers in a humane manner to ensure that their working environment is friendly.
This was important because, in some companies, senior officers harass their juniors making life unbearable in work places. Such situations affect productivity of employees as they work under pressure and this may increase chances of causing errors in their work pieces.
Work place code of conduct was set up to be observed by everyone in the organization. These are meant to guide operations of the organization in accordance with labor laws (Daft and Marcic, 2012).
These include antidiscrimination rules, which caution employees against discriminatory acts in the work place. For instance, recruitment of employees should follow an open and fair procedure that does not allow discrimination of qualified personnel.
Both male and female applicants are subjected to fair scrutiny to get the best candidate for the job. This discourages situations where qualified people are locked out of job position due to their gender.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, there are rules set to guide recruitment and employment of experts to work in supplier firms based in various countries. These make sure that no one is discriminated against because of their race or color of the skin.
Apple incorporated ensures that everyone has equal rights of getting jobs with their organization at all times. All they require is qualified personnel regardless of where they come from, and they use this strategy to capture markets for their products.
In fact, they depend on local people to market their products since locals understand consumer behaviors of people in places where they grew up more than any other place.
Furthermore, the company developed worker empowerment programs whereby employees are given powers to raise issues without fear. This is meant to improve the quality of products offered by the company to the market.
For example, employees may come up with ideas aimed at improving efficiency of Apple computers or related software.
Empowering employees enhance confidence in whatever they think hence they may convene a meeting comprising of their colleagues and bosses to express their ideas (Schermerhorn, 2005). The organization may decide to adapt those ideas hence improving their devices.
This translates to getting customers as competition in the market calls for best products in terms of affordability and efficiency. Empowering employees result to development of confidence among workers hence improving productivity.
Another change in Apple’s work place is the creation of supplier employee education and development program. This has enabled the company to train all employees involved in handling of Apple devices across the globe.
The program ensures that employees work with the aim of maximizing market share hence they are given proper education on customer service. This involves educating them on how to respond to customer questions positively hence using the information to improve products.
Employees are encouraged to involve consumers before and after they purchase Apple devices in order to build trust among them hence earning loyalty.
Apple Company ensures that they treat workers in a humane manner, and they involve them in dialogue whenever there are issues hence motivating them to work towards achieving organizational goals.
Managing these changes is hugely crucial to the organization as both the management and employees need to understand each other hence improving their working relationships.
Employees need to be protected and respected in their work places in order to deliver quality services to the employer. This is important because a stressful work place makes people to regret ever working for the organization, and they may fail to meet the set quality standards.
This failure may be deliberate or due to negligence as workers lose the will to work for the organization.
Analysis Currently the company is trying to adapt some changes aimed at improving work places for employees. For instance, the current situation where work stations are crowded makes working environment unfriendly for the employees.
The company is working hard to ensure that the situation is improved in order to achieve the set goals of creating standardized working environments. In addition, there was discrimination experienced in recruiting workers in some countries where they run supplier firms.
The situation affected the company immensely by tinting its image in the eyes of its customers (Daft, 2007). Managers decided to come up with a strategy of auditing all firms to find out how some operations are effected.
Auditors have uncovered a lot of dirty games played by firms’ managers and senior officers in those countries. T
he recommendations made by auditors are being taken seriously to ensure that organizations get back to the right track. For instance, employee recruitment process has been made to be open and fair to everyone to avoid incidences where people get discriminated.
It has been observed in the recent past that employees were forced to work for more hours. In addition, they were unfairly compensated hence calling for immediate actions to be taken. In response to this, the organization has ensured that proper scheduling is done to ensure equity.
This means that employees are supposed to work for given hours and allowed to go and rest. They have come up with shifts where some people work during the day while others work at night. Employees are entitled to some off days alongside the annual leave from work.
In fact, the company has opted to observe labor laws strictly to ensure that employees receive optimum care as outlined in labor acts (Daft and Marcic, 2012).
Finally, the Apple Company has decided to adapt employee education and development with the aim of team building. This helps employees to reach customers without problems as they are given appropriate skills on how to approach potential and existing customers.
Synthesis The company has decided to use several alternative means to implement changes in the work places. These include involving workers in improvement programs by emphasizing on dialogue with the leaders.
This means that organizations can set up forums with their employees where they learn about burning issues from workers. In fact, reasoning with employees is highly crucial because they are on the ground hence providing the best recommendation aimed at improving their work places.
The company has decided to use private auditors to find out what happens in their firms. These auditors make use of company employees and management to gather information that helps them in drawing their conclusions regarding the changes in work places.
Employees are expected to give information regarding their satisfaction in their work places in order to highlight any problems they experience.
Confidentiality is promised, and this encourages them to give all information to auditors since they are assured that the information cannot be used against them in future (Daft and Marcic, 2012).
The Apple Company has decided to contract other companies to help in supplying their devices to various parts of the world. This helps them to ease the burden of employing many employees leading to poor management in terms of compensation.
This happens where the company is torn between paying better salaries and minimizing cost. They opt to outsource so that they can share the responsibility of improving work places with other organizations.
In fact, they have been able to implement most of the recommendations highlighted by auditors hence improving working conditions for their workers.
Conclusion Apple incorporated decided to evaluate its organization management and operations in order to improve working conditions for their workers.
They came up with several steps aimed at finding out weaknesses in their systems in order to handle them hence improving conditions of their employees.
The company was determined to implement changes in order to make their work places better hence developing several strategies aimed at improving their work stations. These included ensuring employees are entitled to fair treatment by their leaders (Daft, 2007).
They provided safe and friendly working environment to ensure that employees get comfortable work places. Employees were involved in teambuilding activities to ensure that they develop a sense of brotherhood in the work places.
The company made critical decisions, which included hiring private auditors to find out all issues affecting their workers. They wanted to get the correct information regarding the situation at work places in order to set the way forward.
As a result, they came with code of conduct for workplaces which included antidiscrimination rules. This was meant to ensure equity in recruitment of officials and other workers.
References Daft, R. L. (2007). Management. New York: Cengage Learning.
Daft, R. L.