A Comprehensive Code Of Ethics Plan Report Custom Essay Help

Introduction Code of Ethics is an important investment undertaking by any organization today as it helps to determine and define acceptable undertakings within these firms. A firm or an institution normally lays down this code to govern how it is supposed to conduct business in a manner that is acceptable both internally and externally according to the agreed regulations making it an all-encompassing document that covers employees as well as other stakeholders (Mc Namara, 2010).

Most importantly, the code should clearly cover the scope and duties for all the employees as it helps to tackle problems that occur within their operations.

For example, should the firm face any difficulty on how business runs, it management can rely on the code of ethics to determine whether the procedure adopted is appropriate or whether there is a better approach that can be used. This paper is a detailed write up of code of ethics documents for Steelox Manufacturing Company.

Necessities of A Code of Ethics Document One great necessity for a Steelox’s Code of Ethics document is that the document has to have constant review and updating just like any other document in a dynamic business environment (Payne, Raiborn

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“Virtual Students, Digital Classroom” by Neil Postman – Article Review Essay essay help

Neil Postman begins his article by highlighting the “god” status that people have given new technology and in particular computers. The article shows how this new technology gives access to so much information. For this reason, some proponents of technology suggest that in a few decades, classrooms may be rendered redundant. A world where children are motivated to learn by virtue of technology making information accessible to them is envisioned.

Postman goes on to decry this vision as being overly confident and unrealistic since it envisions model students who are inherently motivated to learn at all times and just need new technology to enable them satisfy this quest. The article also addresses the role that new technology plays and the changes that it will bring about.

Postman notes that instead of focusing on how to use new technology, we should focus on how computers use us and the effects (adverse and positive) that it will bring to society. The question of technology being seen as the solution to every problem that exists in school is also addressed with Postman illustrating that problems that cannot be solved without computers can neither be solved with them.

The article shows that Problems such as inequality, poverty and alienation which some claim will be addressed through technology can only be responded to through traditional classrooms and not new technology which may in fact only lead to their prevalence.

The article concludes by stating that educational institutes will only be rendered irrelevant when technology that can make civilized people is come up with. Until then, the traditional classroom with all its shortcomings remains the best place to teach students how to be civilized individuals who will be integrated into the society.

Postman makes a strong case for the role of community-building and social reform that schools play in our community. According to him, this are attributes that computers which lay emphasis on the individuals role cannot fulfill since machines lead to the creation of people who lack a sense of civility or community since this two attributes can only be learnt in the traditional class setting.

Postman’s critique of technology is mainly directed at its implementation to younger children. According to him, these children attend school for more than just the information on algebra and science that schools provide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children get to learn how to function in harmony with the society through the education process. This is something that cannot be learnt through any technological implementation as enthusiasts of technology seem to suggest. An interesting proposition by Postman is that the role of schools is to “help students learn how to ignore and discard information”.

This is a concept that I find particularly contentious since schools are essentially institutes for “gaining knowledge and information”. Postman’s statement assumes that people go to school with an information overflow and the major role of the school is therefore to help them shape this information.

I find this proposition by Postman at best contentious since most people go to school with limited information and it is only through the education process that they gain immense information and knowledge. While Postman does not negate the important role that technology will play in our education systems, he emphasizes that technology will not solve problems such as boredom in students or even psychological issues as some proponents of technology suggest.

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Idealism and Realism Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Basic principles of idealism

Basic principles of realism

Ministers’ proposals

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Plato, the philosopher, was the first to work on the subject of idealism. Idealism deals with what constitutes a perfect human being, viewing him as one who contains both spiritual and material characteristics. Of the two, spiritual is considered the most important human aspect because it focuses on the mind and character but not the physical human body.

On the other hand, realism is thought to have risen towards the end of 19th century. It is often applied in different areas such as arts, international relations, law, among others.

This paper views realism as used in the last two areas, international relations and law. It is more of a thinking that focuses on the security of a country. It is naturally imaginary implying that it is made by man, and thus contains errors because man is well known in creating mistakes.

Realism theories range from classical, liberal, legal, to mention a few. The two, idealism and realism operate under certain principles. The following paragraphs deal with the basic principles of each.

Basic principles of idealism A major principle in this philosophy holds that there is a mind powerful than that of human beings. It is often called the principle of universal mind. It is believed that there is a special man, greater than human beings, whose ability of thinking is better than that of all men.

The principle holds that this special person is invisible but has the power to influence the minds of human beings and that is why the principle views this special person as God, who creates people, gives them life and their present minds that help them think. The other principle views people as being holy. It says that the strength of the minds of people is greater by far compared to other animals. Basing on this, it constitutes the most important aspect of life, making people special than all other animals.

This philosophy is also built on the principle of the advantage of information and standards. It claims that people have more advantages compared to animals. They have a superior knowledge of things than animals. This is thought as a gift from God whom they believe exists and gives them the desires of their hearts including their desire of knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other idealism principle says that real things originate from the mind and not from the common senses of people. It holds that the ability of people to think is what enables them make real things. Real things do not come by seeing, hearing, feeling, but through thinking.

Basic principles of realism “Realism assumes that interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid but not with a meaning that is fixed once and for all. Power is the control of man over man “(Hans 7). One of these principles says that people are ruled by laws that are made by other people but not God.

This philosophy includes the principle that people should be respected in terms of their powers or academic knowledge. Therefore, the more educated or the more powerful a person is, in politics, the more respected he/she becomes.

Realism considers the lessons learned from politics enabling it to know what to and not to do in order for a nation to succeed politically. The principle of identity used in realism says that the laws governing a country cannot be separated from those governing the universe. The two are almost the same.

Realism depends purely on the nature of people and hence varies depending on the people. There are no realism principles which can be accepted by all people. They apply to some nations depending on their interests. According to Thompson, the common ways of thinking of people is subject to deviating from what is right to evil (Thompson 165).

This is what forms the basis of realism as determined by the people for the people. From the knowledge of the above principles and the provided hypothetical scenario, the following are the proposals of the two ministers.

Ministers’ proposals The major cause of the calamity that the prime minister wants to be solved by the two other ministers is the oil in the province of Hegemonia that has been occupied by a foreign nation.

We will write a custom Essay on Idealism and Realism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hegemonia oppresses the people of this province in order to move them away so that they can own the oil. Of the two ministers called to solve the problem, the defence minister applies the realism principles. This is because he believes that people have to follow laws made by other people and that is why he calling for a meeting of the U.N security council to create rules that will interfere with the trade of oil between the oppressed nation and other nations.

Because Hegemonia is powerful than the oppressed nation, it is respected more and this is why the laws made will be favouring them and not the other nation. This is a principle of realism that gives respect to powerful people.

On the other hand, the foreign minister applies the principles of idealism, based on godly reasons. She posits that friendship between the two nations can help solve the problem.

This is so because where there is friendship, there is no oppression and enmity. It will make the two, benefit by sharing the oil. It will also help stop the diseases and dangers brought to Xandu by the refugees because they will not be there because there will be no oppression to make them move to the place.

Conclusion Basing on the knowledge of idealism and realism, idealism seems to be the most efficient when applied to solve a crisis. It produces a permanent solution where all benefit by sharing the resources available in a country. Should it be applied everywhere, then all countries will be at peace.

Works Cited Thompson, Kenneth. “Politics among Nations.” 6th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, p. 165.

Hans, Morgenthau. ”Hans Morgenthau’s Principles of Political Realism.” New York: Word Press, 1999.

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TRUenergy and Its Steps in the Implementation of Green Power Report argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Introduction

Importance of taking the steps

New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme

Economic threat

Market definition

Competition analysis

Conclusion

References

Executive Summary TRUenergy is an energy company with its headquarters in Melbourne Australia. It was founded in the year 1995 where it was involved with the generation of electricity and the retailing of both natural gas and electricity. The company consists of both retail assets and generation assets which are purchased and owned by CLP which is Hong Kong based.

The company is also known to be a supplier of electricity to homesteads and many businesses estimated to be at around 1.2 million businesses in the entire Australia.

Above the retail major, the company also boasts of other portfolios like industrial customers, commercial customers, energy assets, storage of underground natural gas, an agreement with ecogen for gas fired electricity adding up to 966 megawatts and various power stations like Yallourn and Hallet.

The company is the sole one in Australia which has dedicated its commitment to both short and long term greenhouse reduction in the energy sector. The approach for the company on the greenhouse gasses effect is to cut down its entire greenhouse gaseous emissions by over 60 percent by the year 2050.

To add on, this particular company has embarked on spending millions of dollars on its clean energy portfolio and much more on its commitments and efforts towards the solar systems based on Melbourne. This is a progress that allowed the company to be able to construct a very efficient concentrated solar station in the world over.

Truenergy has also joined hands with Roaring 40s, a Tasmania based hydro company. It has 50% stakes in this company which is focused on the development of wind farms in India, china and also Australia (BloombergBusinessweek 2010). The company also has some other clean energy production departments and systems as follows:

A natural gas system in Wollongong which will be providing gas fired electricity to over 200,000 individuals.

A deal with Petratherm to steer geothermal power

Study of the reduction of greenhouse emissions from brown coal

Commissioning and construction of the 180MW Mallee solar park.

Finance and economy

The company has been able to have economic and financial support from various organizations which have boosted its production. The recent boost by the government of the state of Victoria enabled it to deal with the Mallee solar park.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This plant can be able to produce an additional 180 megawatts which is enough electricity for close to over 60,000 homes in the country. This move has helped the organization to avert the production of 11, 000, 000 tons of the emitted carbon to the atmosphere.

In another move against pollution through carbon emissions, the organization pushes for an increase in the price charged at carbon emissions.

If this move can be effected by the government duly, companies would dare to spend more on alternative means like the current $2.8 million TRUenergy is willing to spend on a new generation mode which is gas fired.

According to some sources, the issue on carbon is bound to assist transition. If the current government failed to protect the resources and have bans on carbon, then it means that there will be an impending power shortage in the near future in the company.

This has led the government to lead efforts on the imposition of the prices on carbon so as to cut down on the emissions of carbon in the country owing to the fact that Australia is one of the leading coal exporters in the world today.

This is bound to bring in controversies due to the fact that two sides are involved. There is an issue on the investors and the respective job security which will be threatened after some power stations are set to be closed down. At the same time, when the emissions scheme is imposed, there is bound to be an economy with lower carbon emissions.

Coal fired power

According to the TRUenergy website, it has invested over A $5 billion in terms of generation and retailing in the Yallourn station in Melbourne. This station is responsible for over 22% of electricity supply in Victoria State. The management of AGL has stated that TRUenergy is in discussions with the government to have the target for renewable energy amended.

We will write a custom Report on TRUenergy and Its Steps in the Implementation of Green Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This was met by an acceleration of plans for the development of the MacArthur wind farm in Victoria State. This looked to be a very difficult portfolio according to the government with a requirement of quite a lot of skills in negotiations. This is due to the difficulty involved in imposing a price on carbon emissions as much as it is very important

Investment risks

On the occasion that the law does not change on this issue, it will not be possible to have investments in large scale as it was anticipated. Some replacements of the power stations like from coal to gas will not be likely. The company is said to have risen by 1.8% to $15.82 by close of the market in Sydney Australia.

Within this only, according to S

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Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society Compare and Contrast Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Death According to the Hindu Society

Death According to the Chinese Society

Similarities in Their Views of Death

Differences in Their Views on Death

The Role of Culture in Shaping Society

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Humanity has made great strides in technological advancements, so great that extra caution is now being taken to ensure these advances do not turn out to be ticking time bombs that may go off sometime in the future. Unfortunately, none of these breakthroughs has managed to beat death.

It is inevitable. Having this in mind, different cultures have embraced it and tried to prepare themselves for whatever comes after death. This paper will analyse the cultural and social stances of the Chinese and Hindu from an anthropological standpoint.

Death According to the Hindu Society The Hindu believes in reincarnation. They believe that the soul (jiva) is immortal, and for this reason, they do not consider death a tragedy. They only acknowledge and appreciate the fact that the soul has moved on to another lifetime and arrange for a respectful send off.

Another key feature of the soul according to their culture is that it cannot be destroyed; they can only shift worlds in accordance to the characters they displayed while in the previous world, that if the dead was of good will and used to help the needy while alive, his/her soul proceeds to a world seen to be higher than its previous one.

This is to ensure that its faith keeps growing in intensity as it will be better nurtured in the watch of the Lord Krishna. The final stage for a soul is when it finally reaches the Lord Krishna. Here, it settles peacefully with him.

Death According to the Chinese Society Similar to the Hindu, the Chinese believe in the existence of souls in living human beings. These souls exist in form of a cosmos consisting of the Yin and Yang, a dark spirit and a light one.

They can be referred to using numerous terms depending on the context. “In the…bodily existence of the individual…are…two… polarities, a p’o soul (or anima) and a hun soul (animus). All during the life of the individual these two are in conflict, each striving for mastery. At death they separate and go different ways. The anima sinks to earth as kuei, a ghost-being.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The animus rises and becomes shen, a spirit or god.” (Baynes 64). The anima (yin) is the spirit the Chinese claim to be the driver of all evil in humanity. It is the dark spirit left behind with the body after death. The yang (animus) on the other hand, is the spirit credited with all the good in humanity. This includes humility within the being, self actualization, honor and respect of one’s life, culture and ancestry.

Similarities in Their Views of Death In their view of death, the Hindu and Chinese share a lot in the way they treat their dead and how the deceased is supposed to carry on. They both regard death not as a tragedy, but as a necessary rite of passage in a soul’s lifetime. This is guided by belief that souls of human beings are released from the body at death.

The Chinese believe that once they have been released, the yin and yang head in separate ways to their respective destinations, where they keep on maintaining humanity’s well being. On the same, the Hindu believe that once the souls have been released after cremation, they go to a world of corrective suffering if they did wrong while alive, or one of more pure souls as it continues the ascension towards Krishna, the final destination.

Though mortal, two philosophers in Chinese anthropology, Russian-born Peter Ouspensky and Armenian Sage G. I. Gurdjieff (1877-1949) once pointed out that human beings could acquire immortality. This was received as very good news by all society, though the process was almost unachievable. It instead created a controversy as he indicated that all humanity was asleep. If only they could reach to their self conscious and wake up, they would achieve immortality.

This results in different levels; physical, emotional, and the intellectual level (way of the fakir), the emotional level (way of the monk), and the intellectual level (way of the yogi), following Fakir, Monk, and yogi’s criteria respectively. In the same context, Hindus believe in reincarnation. At cremation, 5 elements of being are released i.e. fire, water, air, earth and the jiva are released. The fifth element is the most important due to its immortality.

One’s death does not does not translate to ceasing in existence, as many situations determine the destiny of his/her jiva (soul). One is the state of mind during death.” if a person is thinking of money matters at the time of his death, very likely he will travel to the world of Vishnu and will be born as a merchant or a trader in his next birth.” (Jayaram Para 9).

Differences in Their Views on Death Just as much as they are similar in a number of situations, they contradict in ways more than a few. The Hindu believe that cremation is a ritual…intended to release the soul from its earthly existence (Mailer India Para 3).

We will write a custom Essay on Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is to grant it the ability to move to another world as it is destined to. Contrary to that belief, the Chinese believe in preservation of the body as it is destined to remain with the yin upon death. This allows the yang to advance to the world of the pure spirits.

The Chinese believe that death means the end of the person’s soul as the yin and yang will under no condition ever come together again. They are totally opposite spirits with contradicting roles in the beings they occupy. “In life, as in death, these souls were most indefinite, vague, and feeble.

After death, when this small troop of colorless spirits was dispersed, how could they possibly be gathered together and reformed into a unity? … (The body is unique, and serves as the dwelling place of all these spirits….” (Maspero 177). The Hindu on the other hand believe in the possibility of the individual coming back in another form, and even better off joining his/her own family lineage.

Moreover, the Chinese believe in the fact that beings have only on lifetime. Upon death, this lifetime comes to an end and that will be it. The soul elements disperse never to meet again, hence making it impossible to have multiple lifetimes. The opposite of this belief is heavily emphasized by the Hindu.

The soul only goes through this lifetime as part of its stages on a long term quest to achieve ultimate holiness and take a place beside the Lord Krishna. This promotion and demotion to different worlds is inevitable until the soul reaches its expected purity level.

The Role of Culture in Shaping Society Such culture as that of the Hindu and Chinese shapes greatly the way society reacts to certain phenomenon. Children nurtured in them tend to grow up respectful to their ancestry and of good ethical morals. By naming after the dead, these cultures keep in mind that the new born children in Hindu societies are reincarnations of their fore parents; hence they are brought up in utter discipline.

The Chinese often train their young ones to overcome temptations originating from the yin and to pay attention to their yang (conscience) as they try to reach out and guide them. Finally, with the thought that there is some form of severe punishment with the wrong people do on earth, people tend to try as much as possible to do more good than possible evil.

People believe in such after reading them from aged articles about the consequences of behaving otherwise. Such include the Chinese Oracle, the I Ching (pronounced yee jing) (Life after Death), and through such realizations as the Fourth Way. To add onto that, in times of calamities, individuals resort to seeking hope from such beliefs, and increase their belief when the situation settles down after their soul searching.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Anthropological Comparison between the Chinese and Hindu Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Everyone in the world belongs to a certain culture. No matter where from, cultures often work to the advantage of society. This is specially noted when they result in the establishment of strict behavioral discipline with the belief that the almighty one is watching. This is then take more seriously with the ever looming thought on everyone’s mind that judgment day gets closer with everyday gone by.

Works Cited Baynes, Cary. Wilhelm, Richard. The Secret of the Golden Flower. 1962. 64.

Jayaram, Victor. “Death and Afterlife in Hinduism.” London: Word press, 2010.

“Life after Death.” The Chinese after-life: Taoist approaches to immortality. Spiritual Book Store. W.Va, 2010

Mailer India. “Hindu Way of Life.” Mailer India. 08 October 2010 http://www.mailerindia.com/hindu/veda/index.php?death

Maspero, Henri. “Le Taoism.” Smith, Howard. Chinese Concepts of the Soul. Paris, 1950. 177.

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At 18, Is It Time for a Drink? Argumentative Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

An American teenager who is eighteen years old is allowed to do several things, such as vote, join the military, and get married; however, drinking is not allowed until he or she is twenty-one years old.

The officially permitted drinking age in the U.S. was raised from eighteen to twenty-one in 1988 due to the National Minimum Age Drinking Act that had been signed into law four years earlier by President Ronald Reagan.

The main reason was maturity; that is, at eighteen one is not mature enough to drink responsibly (Kiesbye, 2). However, I agree with the verdict of the group of university and college presidents that the drinking age should be lowered from twenty-one to eighteen.

Opponents of lowering the legal drinking age usually refer to the dangers of binge drinking. They say that the practice is increasing and that any person who is below eighteen is simply not responsible enough to have an alcoholic beverage.

This type of drinking most of the time occurs in the underground and hidden places where the teenagers cannot be discovered. However, although binge drinking is a problem in America, the root cause is the high drinking age that our lawmakers have instituted ignoring certain realities.

Let us face the reality: if a person wants to drink, he or she will definitely find a way to do that. And since legal adults (those over eighteen) are unable to get hold of alcohol themselves, they will inevitably go to hidden places and drink excessively without any supervision or guidance.

When the drinking age is lowered, teenagers can drink responsibly without having to hide themselves. Therefore, “the current limit ignores the reality of drinking during college years and drives it underground, making binge drinking more dangerous and students less likely to seek help in an emergency” (Gordon and Holland, para. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I think it is of essence to question this law: why is it that the age of twenty-one is the “magical’ age that a person is considered as intelligent and mature enough to drink alcohol? Truly, some adults consume alcohol irresponsibly. On the other hand, some young people are able to drink responsibly.

At eighteen, Americans are regarded as adults. It may seem odd to allow those above eighteen years to marry, drive their own cars, and do other sorts of things, and yet to be prevented by the same law from taking a glass of wine in a café or even a glass of champagne at their own wedding party. I feel that it does not make sense to have a limit that is higher than the legally recognized age of maturity.

Young people look at alcoholic beverages as something exciting (Bishop, 19). They consider it an activity preserved for the adults; however, young people want to be adults As Soon As Possible. Therefore, as is the case in most institutions, they usually carry fake identity cards to drinking dens; thus, leading to more problems, or steal the drinks from their parents’ drink cupboard.

Maintaining the drinking age at twenty-one does not encourage responsible drinking. In addition, when the opportunity to take alcohol arises, “Let us compensate for the lost time” attitude crops in resulting in binge drinking, which leads to results that are even more disastrous.

By reducing the legal drinking age, it would inevitably water down some of the temptation to take alcohol since the young people often say that it is more fun when it is illegal.

And, more so, in most cases, young people tend to engage in illicit activities. Therefore, lowering the age will reduce this tendency. In reality, increasing the drinking age is even worse than not doing anything at all simply because most individuals would want to get drunk as a sign of rebellion to the authority. “Not much can be done to control student drinking.

Americans younger than 21 casually defy the law by secretly drinking. If the law was changed, the practice can take place in the open, where it could be better monitored and moderated” (Snelgrove, para. 22). I think that the obsession of wanting to consume alcohol would lose its appeal if drinking were not regarded as purely an adult thing.

We will write a custom Essay on At 18, Is It Time for a Drink? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As pointed out by the article, “At 18, is it time for a drink?” teen drinking is longstanding problem, which has affected the American society and the drinking age limit has not done enough to cut short.

The American society does not care to instruct the teenagers’ on limits or responsibilities; however, they apparently assume that the teenagers will know their limits and be responsible consumers of alcoholic beverages upon attaining the lawful “magical age” of twenty-one.

A number of developed countries in Europe, such as France, Belgium, and Italy, have established a legal minimum drinking age at sixteen years. It is interesting to note that in those countries one is allowed to drive at eighteen years of age.

If the American society can focus more on educating the youth on responsible drinking habits rather than restriction, then several problems can be prevented (Gordon and Holland, para.16). The youth in the U.S., unlike their counterparts in Europe, are not able to learn how to consume alcohol and other substances gradually, safely and with caution.

Even though the average daily consumption of alcohol in some European nations such as France and Spain is higher than in the United States, the percentage of alcoholism and irresponsible drinking is much lower due to education on safe drinking habits and enforcement of gradual drinking behavior.

Supporters of the legal drinking age often cite possible increase in car accidents as a reason to maintain the drinking age. However, they fail to realize that individuals of all ages get into car crashes, teenagers and adults, when they abuse alcohol.

Educating the public on the dangers of this vice can be more beneficial than simply giving restrictions. In most countries in Europe, teenagers are permitted to drive at eighteen years of age, and also to drink responsibly at the same age.

Therefore, they are able to learn early about the dangers of drinking alcohol and practice good drinking habits. I think that lowering the drinking age would be able to reduce the number of car crashes that are related to excessive consumption of alcohol.

Not sure if you can write a paper on At 18, Is It Time for a Drink? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Restrictions can be put to prevent the teenagers from drinking, but can they really be stopped? No one was there to stop the over ten million American teens aged twelve to twenty who have already drunk an alcoholic beverage at present. Out of this number, it is astonishing that about half of them are engaging in binge drinking.

To put more facts on the table, it is estimated that about eighty percent of students in grade nine through twelve will have tasted at least one drink of an alcoholic beverage in their lifetime and about fifty percent of these students have tasted at least one drink of alcohol in the last one month.

So, tell me, are restrictions stopping them from pursing their illicit courses? Abuse of alcohol among the teens is a real problem that we should not ignore the way we are doing now through unfair restrictions.

Since more and more teens are destroying their lives, I suggest that we try something different, something that can ultimately bear fruits since the high drinking age seems to be taking us nowhere. Therefore, I strongly believe that lowering the drinking age and then educating the teenagers on the dangers of alcohol consumption can reduce this problem.

We should all recognize that America has a huge problem with teen drinking. The only way to find a solution to this problem is by stopping to ignore it. “It’s time we look at the issue afresh and see whether there are better solutions than we currently have in place because, after all, we haven’t solved the problem” (Gordon and Holland, para. 8).

The American teenagers should get more education about the effects of alcohol, rather than giving them punishment. The legal drinking age should be restored to eighteen since the current age at twenty-one lacks any real basis. A lowered drinking age will bring us to reality and institute better ways of curbing the vice. Consequently, fewer problems would arise.

Works Cited Bishop, Bruce. Effects of lowering the drinking age. Salem, Or. : Legislative Research, 1979. Print.

Gordon, Larry, and Holland, Gale. “At 18, is it time for a drink?” Los Angels Times. 8 Aug. 2008. Web. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2008-aug-20-me-drinking20-story.html

Kiesbye, Stefan. Should the legal drinking age be lowered? Detroit : Greenhaven Press, 2008. Print.

Snelgrove, Erin. “18 or 21? Drinking age debate heats up.” Yakima-herald. 2 Sept. 2008. Web.

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Arguing against minimalism, and the notion that – less is more Argumentative Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Definition of Minimalism

Concept of Minimalism Artwork

Examples of Minimalism

Effects of Minimalism

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction I am a casual fine art enthusiast like majority of the people and I highly appreciate majority of the art movements such as the modernized impressionism, cubism or surrealism. There is a mystery behind minimalism, which I fail to understand. Minimalism is a unique type of art that one can easily fail to understand and be pleased.

It is a presentation made of simple arcs or shapes arranged in series to form a pattern may be overwhelming but an unbearable collection, if one is not able to find content that they can positively receive. This paper wills try to analyze minimalism in the aim of finding meaning and probable appreciation.

Definition of Minimalism From a personal point of view as an art professional learner, the definition of minimalism in art has basis on the “Less is more” concept. In most cases, this notion lacks applicability because unlike all the common art forms such as sculptures, paintings or drawings, an artist has the freedom to use only the basic shapes such as the geometric shapes or elements of art.

Common minimalism involves sculptural figures that have been reduced to structures made, drawn or painted from basic geometrical shapes (Obendorf, 2009, p.310).

Through my personal interest to learn more about minimalism, I found some sense in the work and appreciated common and favourite artists of the style such as Dan Flavin, Richard Serra and Donald Judd.

Concept of Minimalism Artwork According to Meyer (2010, p.18), In order to appreciate minimalists’ artwork such as Dan Flavin’s collection, there is need to remain open-minded and accept any new ideas which might meet the requirements as art. From a personal point of view, very few people are able to have such kind of reaction over fine artwork. Critical analysis of specific objects or shapes in a collection is also very important (Meyer, 2010, p.18).

Most up-coming art professionals, artwork admirers and those pleased about general art will often perceive the contents in a collection or as a complete form just like a painting, drawing or a sculpture. Minimalists on the other hand perceive objects as single entities detached from the main work (Meyer, 2010, p.18).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Examples of Minimalism A good example of minimalism is the “Tilted Arc” done by a renowned artist, Richard Serra. The artwork was a gigantic 12-foot high steel tilted to an angle as its reference phrase indicates (Kleiner, 2009, p.792). The sculpture was set up at New York’s Federal Plaza but was later brought down due to negative public debate.

Arguably, the public could not understand the artwork especially when they had various views from ether sides, thus the controversies. It was taken apart since people did not appreciate. The sculpture represented a different effect depending on the side of view. The confusion brought out by contractions and expansions depending on the position of the viewer changed the entire environment.

From an artistic point of view, the sculpture made the viewer to be aware of his/her movements. This is an indication that simple art objects are detachable from the entire form to interact with the viewer, and thus assist in defining their movements through the plaza.

This type of interaction is mainly found in minimalism especially in sculptural work. The simple shapes are the key pieces that enhance change and results to a form of interaction with the viewer. The pieces determine the feeling and perception of the viewer during interaction (Buskirk, 2005, p.22).

Placing basic shapes individually such as geometric shapes, lines or arcs, presents a collection of boring objects. When the same shapes are merged to form an art form, they interact with the viewer due to dynamism of shapes from various angles. They pieces therefore become more powerful and influences one’s movement around the artwork, thus altering perception or feeling.

Minimalism may not have similar effects as other common artworks, but the viewer is able to feel some effect from the collection. Another good example of minimalism belongs to Dan Flavin who had a strategic setup of coloured florescent tubes to form a collection (Marzona and Grosenick, 2004, p.48). Different colours of the fluorescents formed an interaction between the lighting.

The lighting interacted with the observer. Colourful lighting combined with simple but dynamic shapes presents a delightful effect that can easily alter moods. Common application of this artwork is in our home where we decorate our rooms with glowing glass light sheds. Spectacular effects are achievable from very simple by combined elements; therefore, ‘less is more’.

We will write a custom Essay on Arguing against minimalism, and the notion that – less is more specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effects of Minimalism Unlike other common artworks such as drawings or paintings, minimalism has more effects that are negative because it requires the observer to act or respond in order to understand and appreciate. One has to be part of the artwork to realize the artist’s message.

The drawings, paintings and defined sculptures are easy to appreciate without necessarily understanding the artist’s motive or theme, because the technicality is evident.

With minimalism, it is not easy to appreciate an oval, a cube or a splash of paint on the surface. It is intimidating to have a collection of basic shapes and convince people there is artwork when, characteristic theme is not visible.

Conclusion Regardless of the rejection, minimalism receives; it is possible to overcome the intimidation. The basic pieces used in this form of art have a close link to life than the typical or general paintings or drawings.

The only problem is that the link is more hidden and one must interact with the art to find meaning or inspiration.

With powerful interest and concentration on objects made from minimalism, one can understand or appreciate the exclusivity of the work. Te interaction means that minimalism is able to fulfil true success of an artwork, which is interaction with the viewer.

Works Cited Buskirk, Martha. The Contingent Object of Contemporary Art. Massachusetts MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Press, 2005. Print.

Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective. Massachusetts, MA: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Arguing against minimalism, and the notion that – less is more by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marzona, Daniel and Grosenick, Uta. Minimal art. New York, NY: Taschen, 2004. Meyer, James. Minimalism. New York, NY: Phaidon Press, Incorporated, 2010. Print.

Obendorf, Hartmut. Minimalism: Designing Simplicity. New York, NY: Springer Press. 2009. Print.

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Globalization and Globalization as an Economic Phenomenon Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Globalization is the integration of trade around the world to form an international marketplace where goods and services produced in one continent go to another. Advanced transport and communication technologies facilitate this integration. It has led to a drastic transformation in the way people live around the world, as more efficient processes result in higher quality products.

Labour exploitation With globalization came diversified labour. Corporations outsource production of certain goods and services to countries that specialize in their production.

Labour outsourcing saves immensely on production costs as corporations seek to utilize fully the cheap labour available in third world countries. Some even go to the extent of targeting countries that offer subsidies on their establishments.

Critics call this labour exploitation as these corporations take advantage of poor workers desperate enough to offer their services for income enough to provide food for their families for the day.

Moreover, diversion of these resources leads to the reduction in the purchasing power of the population in the home country. This then leads to an increase in unemployment rates in the same country the products will be up for sale.

Environmental degradation Globalization raised the volume of trading taking place as it gave rise to technology that increases the amount of goods produced per unit of input.

Advances in the financial sector then made this trading more efficient through possibility of making of product orders online and clearing the bills instantly.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Improved standards of living also result from “increased personal incomes brought about by growth-induced trade” (Panayotou) as an added advantage.

Consequently, increase in trade meant increase in pollution from industries and automobiles. Pressure to produce to meet the high demand then led to destruction of cultivating land and forests to avail space for industries.

Changes in climate then follow, condemning the surrounding areas to calamities that include famine and floods. No corporation ever offers to take responsibility for such reactions, as finger pointing ensues when such issues come into light.

Quality of life and economic measures for the family (Central Intelligence Agency) Life expectancy: 76.11 years

Infant mortality rate: 12.7 deaths/1,000 live births

Number of children per family: N/A

Household income: $9,925

We will write a custom Report on Globalization and Globalization as an Economic Phenomenon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Percentage of population below the poverty line: 19.5% (2003)

Literacy rate: 77.9% (age 15 and over can read and write)

Unemployment rate: 2.4% (2001)

Population with telephones: – 9.358 million (2008) (Mobile Cellular) (% N/A)

31.4% (2008) (Main line)

Population using the internet: 60.9% (2008) 4,798,491

Economic Measures for the Country (answer below) Total GDP: – $186.8 billion (2009 EST.)

GDP real growth rate: -2.7% (2009 EST.)

GDP by sector: – Agriculture: 1.1%

Not sure if you can write a paper on Globalization and Globalization as an Economic Phenomenon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Industry: 48.5%

Services: 50.4% (2009 EST.)

Labour force by occupation: – Agriculture: 7%

Industry: 15%

Services: 78% (2000 EST.)

Total exports: $174.7 billion (2009 EST.)

Exports as a percentage of GDP: 93.5%

Inflation rate: 1.5% (2009 EST.)

The UAE has proven to be an economic winner after its successful strategies saw it survive the economic recession. “Successful efforts at economic diversification have reduced the portion of GDP based on oil and gas output to 25%” (CIA).

They heavily depended on oil and real estate revenues, which were the hardest hit, but their wide investment portfolio that includes fishing and ship repair cushioned them. Reassurance is that “There are signs of recent increases in hydrocarbon revenues (and) merchandise exports.” (The World Bank Group).

Conclusion As much as globalization advances, people need to understand that it is both to the positive and negative. Currently, advances are in progress in a drive that intends to patch up the zones rendered useless as a result of activities enhanced by globalization. It is only right that corporations contribute all they can to such drives.

The phrase, “patch up the zones rendered useless as a result of activities enhanced by globalization” means,globalization has resulted in land degradation leading to once fertile land being turned into waste land by irresponsible developments. For example, when minerals are discovered in forests, the forests are cleared to give room for extraction.

After the minerals are exhausted, the land that remains cannot be used yield any vegetation, hence is useless. Therefore, globalization has now led to development of technology to return usefulness back into these pieces of land. The most popular method currently is refilling the pits with soil and replanting vegetation.

Works Cited Central Intelligence Agency. CIA – The World Factbook. 29 September 2010. Web. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.html

Panayotou, Theodore. Globalization and Environment. Cambridge: Centre for International Development at Havard University, 2000.

The World Bank Group. “The Middle East and North Africa region shows tentative signs of Recovery in 2010.” June 2010. Web. http://www.worldbank.org/

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Maternal Mortality: Situations, Policies and Programs Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Scenario Differences

Policies that could Hinder EmOC

Design of Effective Programs

Works Cited

Scenario Differences Maternal mortality is responsible for over 514,000 women’s lives every year. Almost all of these lives can be saved in case an affordable, high quality obstetrics care is made available 24 hours a day, every week.

Most of these deaths are as a result of hemorrhages, sepsis (infection), eclampsia, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion (Lobis, Fry

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Analysis of Businesses Effort to Become Carbon Neutral Report scholarship essay help

Introduction Background to t he study

Over the recent past, there has been an increment in the degree of sensitivity with regard to corporate social responsibility amongst the large and small enterprise operating in various economic sectors. According to Epstein (2008, p.288), management teams of firms in different economic sectors are becoming more concerned with the stakeholders and other social issues.

As a result, they are committed towards ensuring that they improve the publicity of their business enterprises thus becoming good corporate citizens. The shift has resulted from an increment in pressure by either the stakeholders or due to an increment in government regulation.

In addition, the shift has also been occasioned by the high rate of globalization. Fisher (2009, p. 1) is of the opinion that the high rate of globalization is culminating into an increment in the rate at which the world economy is becoming integrated. This presents numerous opportunities for firms to exploit. However, a new set of dynamics have also resulted. Some of these challenges are relate to climate change.

There has been increased criticism towards business as being one of the major contributors towards various environmental issues being experienced currently. One of these issues relate to global warming.

This is evident in that businesses have a significant contribution in the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted to the environment. These gases are a major factor in the rise rate of global warming which is a major reason for the current climate change.

In an effort to minimize environmental degradation, various governments have formulated climate change strategies and regulations aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to a particular baseline within a given period. In addition, other policy packages which firms are required to implement include adoption of cleaner technologies and emission trading.

Some countries such as the United Kingdom have established energy tax which is charged on firms depending on the amount of carbon they emit (OECD, 2002, p.81). The objective of these policies is to ensure that firms become carbon neutral in their operation. The major driving factor why firms are emphasizing on becoming carbon neutral is to be “clean” in their operation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The resultant effect is that firms will be able to attain their profit maximization objective via reduction in the cost operation and improvement in their publicity. As a result, firms in different economic sectors have adopted the concept of carbon neutrality in their operation via incorporation of various strategies.

Given the level of awareness with regard to the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, various firms have implemented strategies aimed at attaining carbon neutrality in an effort to comply with the environmental regulations. The strategies being implemented play a significant role in reducing the amount of carbon they emit into the environment.

Businesses are making adjustments either to the inputs used or their quantity so as to reduce the amount of waste generated. For example, firms are adopting cleaner technologies in their operation. Some of these technologies utilize green energy in their operation. The resultant effect is that there is significant reduction in the treatment of the resulting waste. In a quest to become carbon neutral, various firms are making changes to their corporate strategy.

The core objective of these changes is to minimize carbon emission. According to Howe and Gerrad (2010, p.306), increased incorporation of these strategies has led into firms claiming to be carbon neutral. Not only is the credibility of claims by firms being carbon neutral evident in their operational strategies but also in the product they supply to the consumers.

For example, Dell Company which deals with technology products supplies cost saving and environmental friendly products. In addition, the firm has also invested in renewable energy such as solar energy. These claims are credible considering the significance of the strategies in enabling a firm to attain carbon neutrality.

Aim

The report is aimed at analyzing businesses’ effort to become carbon neutral and whether the claims made by businesses indicating that they are carbon neutral are credible.

Scope

The report is organized into a number of sections. A discussion illustrating the importance of sustainability in business operation is outlined. The various ways through which the environmental regulations implemented are influencing business actions are discussed. In addition, the concept of carbon neutrality and its benefits to businesses is analyzed.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis of Businesses Effort to Become Carbon Neutral specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The role of intermediaries which can help organizations attain carbon neutrality is evaluated. The report also discusses the concept of offsetting. Finally, conclusion and a set of recommendations are outlined.

Sustainability In order to cope with changes in the environment, it has become necessary for firm’s management teams to formulate a new set of operational strategies which would enable the firms to survive in the long term. The resultant effect is that firms would be able to attain the concept of corporate sustainability.

The term sustainability is used differently according to the phenomenon being described. For example, environmentalists use term ecological sustainability while business individuals use the term economic sustainability. On the other hand, sociologists use the term social sustainability.

Considering the dynamic nature of business environment, it has become vital for management teams to consider integrating the concept of corporate sustainability planning. Fisher (2009, p.2) defines corporate sustainability planning as the process of ensuring that there is a balance between a firm’s economic growth, its commitment towards environmental protection and ensuring social equity.

Attaining carbon neutrality is one of the ways through which a firm can consider to be committed towards environmental sustainability.

Corporate sustainability is currently being considered as a new management philosophy. In the 21st century, the concept of corporate sustainability planning is being appreciated by businesses of all walks. According to Fisher, one of the reasons why the concept of sustainability is gaining so much attention is associated with firm’s effort to operate cost effectively (2009, p.1).

By being carbon neutral, a firm can be able to be cost effective in its operation. This arises from the various strategies being implemented such as utilization of renewable energy. In addition, via incorporation of corporate sustainability, it is possible for firms to address key aspects of its existence as outlined below.

Organizational growth

Profitability

Social justice

Environmental protection

Equality in terms of environmental, social and economic issues

Fisher asserts that by being conscious of the environment in which the firm is operating, every firm will be committed towards reducing their waste disposal. The resultant effect is that the firm is able to save money while at the same time protect the environment.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Businesses Effort to Become Carbon Neutral by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the concept of sustainability enables the firm’s management team to align its organizational goals such as its profit maximization objective with environmental principles.

This means that sustainability presents a classic opportunity for firms to maximize profit and minimize cost while at the same time improving the planet and the livelihood of its people (2009, p.2).

Increased attention on sustainability amongst business enterprises is highly warranted. This is mainly so with regard to the environment. Currently, the world is experiencing numerous challenges. A report by the World Bank (2008, p.11) asserts that environmental issues are one of the major concerns in the world.

All countries around the world have increased their environmental concern especially with regard to carbon emission. However, it is the less developed countries which are hardest hit by changes in the environment and climate change.

The World Bank has been a major advocate in ensuring that firms incorporate the concept of environmental sustainability. The current environmental damage is a cause for concern amongst business enterprises.

As result, it is right for environmental sustainability to be of priority amongst business enterprises. According to Wilhelm (2009, p.12), business leaders are considering for more comprehensive ways through which they can gain a better understanding on the impact of climate change on their businesses.

This would enable them to develop effective strategies to deal with environmental changes. This arises from the fact that environmental damages and challenges arising from climate change present a threat to a countries economic growth. Wilhelm (2009, p.3) is of the opinion that both businesses and individuals have started to feel the effects of climate change.

For example, the resultant effect of a decline in a countries economic growth is that the consumer’s disposable income would be significantly reduced.

As a result, individual’s consumption behavior would be negatively affected. The businesses economic sustainability would be hampered via a reduction in businesses profitability. Therefore, it is important for business enterprises to consider ways through which they can increases their profitability while at the same time address issues related to climate change.

According to Dunphy, Griffitths and Ben (2005, p. 3), some of the challenges being experienced due to climate change and environmental degradation are as a result of business enterprises. Dunphy et al (2005, p.3) asserts that business enterprises are an important part of the society.

The current success being witnessed in business enterprises over the past decade have had a phenomenon impact on the world through exploitation of resources. In their operation, businesses continue to impact the world. It is therefore imperative for businesses to be concerned with the environment.

According to a report by the World Bank on climate change, both firms operating in the private and public sector must collaborate to in order to ensure effective mitigation of various environmental issues. This would be of significant benefit to business enterprises. According to Willard (2005, p.10), sustainability presents numerous opportunities for businesses.

For example, via sustainability, business enterprises are presented with new avenues with regard to product innovation and development and maintenance of stakeholders’ relationship.

Ways in which environmental regulation is influencing the action being taken Various regulations aimed at controlling business operation with regard to the amount of carbon they emit into the environment have been formulated. This arises from the fact that there is a strong correlation between environmental sustainability and carbon neutrality. According to Jenkins, Barton and Hesselberg (2007, p.21), increased environmental regulation presents a challenge to businesses with regard to loss of competitiveness.

To cope with these challenges, businesses can implement various strategies in an effort to maintain their competitiveness. For example, businesses may exaggerate the impact of such regulations to prevent it from being implemented. For example, a study conducted by the Canadian government with regard to carbon emissions by firms in the pulp and paper industry indicated that the firm’s incurred a compliance cost of $4 to $5 for every ton.

However, firms in this industry were complaining that the cost was four times higher. In another case regarding regulation of sulphur-dioxide emission in the United States, the cost was found to be half what was estimated. The main reason for such overestimation with regard to compliance cost is to ensure that firms conduct their operations as usual.

Increased environmental regulation has stimulated firms to take various actions. Some of these strategies relate to their corporate strategy. For example, one of the strategies being integrated by firms in their operation entails inclusion of carbon foot-printing strategy in their operation. This refers to a form of control mechanism which helps business enterprises to baseline the amount of greenhouse gas that they emit. The framework below gives an illustration of carbon footprinting process.

Carbon foot-printing requirement have made firms to adjust their corporate strategies. Through carbon foot-printing, firms’ management teams are able to gain a comprehensive understanding of their operations which are considered to be carbon contributors. This strategy is an essential component in a company’s effort to reduce the amount of carbon emission.

As an environmental regulation strategy, carbon foot printing has a significant influence on the action being taken. Through carbon foot printing, it has become possible for management teams to identify other areas of inefficiency in their organizations systems. This means that this form of environmental regulation does not only enable a firm to reduce its carbon emission but also to operate cost effectively (Wilhelm, 2009, p. 12).

This means that businesses can be able to make the necessary changes to their systems thus attaining their environmental sustainability objective.

Ensuring effective implementation of carbon foot-printing as a form of environmental regulation is paramount. To achieve this, business organizations are required to formulate and implement a carbon foot-printing process. Implementation of this process is having significant influence on the actions being taken. Three main steps are involved. These include;

Planning,

Developing

Managing

A number of activities are undertaken with regard to planning. These include setting the boundary, determination of the operations to be measured and setting the baseline year. With regard to setting the boundary for the process, the firms’ management teams have to make a decision which aspects of its operations will be included.

For example, the firms’ management teams have to make a decision whether its leased assets will be included in the process. The firm is at discretion to include such assets even if it is the actual owner.

Decision to include these assets in the carbon foot-printing process lies in the fact that it is the firm’s which is responsible for the resulting carbon emissions as a result of its operation. In addition, the management team has to set a boundary whether to include other components of its supply chain such as the suppler and customers.

According to Wilhelm (2009, p.14), most business enterprises are starting small with regard to carbon foot-printing. However, it is important for firms to include as many aspects as possible in the initial phase. This will enable the firm to identify other areas of carbon emission resulting from its operation thus reducing the cost. Setting the boundary will also involve the firm determining the various sources of its carbon which result from its operation.

Some of the sources include from transportation and freight methods such as via air, train, ship and trucks, solid waste such as garbage, office disposals such as office papers. A baseline with which the firm will track its carbon emission has to be established. The baseline may be backdated to a particular event such as when the firm undertook a merger or setting in of the century.

According to Wilhelm (2009, p.17), this decision is left for the company to decide on itself. Collecting the required data is challenging since the firm may not have sufficient mechanism to track all carbon related information. After completing the carbon calculation, the firm has to set clear reduction goals and formulate a strategy to attain them.

In order to achieve this, the management team has to ensure that a timeframe is well established. In most cases, the reduction target selected is dependent on the firm’s goals, size and its maturity (Wilhelm, 2009, p.18).

Upon completion of the process, the management team has to communicate the results obtained to the employees. This has to be done in such a way that the employees and other stakeholders will understand.

Carbon neutrality Improving their publicity

In their operation, businesses are charged with the mandate of ensuring that they operation in responsible manner. In order to attain this, firms have integrated the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This means that firms’ operations should not have a negative impact on the environment. Effective implementation of the CSR results into a firm improving its publicity. This means that the probability of the firm surviving in the society as a going concern entity is improved. The need to improve their publicity is one of the reasons why firms are incorporating the concept of carbon neutrality. This arises from the fact that business enterprises are a major contributor towards the change environmental change which is currently being experienced. Via improving their publicity, businesses can be able to continue with their operation due to reduction in the intensity of criticism. The resultant effect is that the firms will be able to attain their profit maximization objective. As a result of the financial crisis which occurred in 2008, there has been a shift in individuals’ consumption behavior. Most of the consumers are developing preference of products which they consider to be more sustainable. In addition, consumers are becoming more conscious of their health. In order to attract and retain customers, it is paramount for firms to be conscious of their impact on the environment (Wilhelm, 2009, p.147).

In the 21st century, the concept of carbon neutrality has been integrated within the firm’s CSR profile. Carbon neutrality refers to the concept whereby the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere is equivalent to the amount removed from the atmosphere.

According to Tolhurst, Pohl, Matten and Visser (2010, p. 57), carbon neutrality is attained via offsetting the amount of emissions via a number of ways. Some of these include investing in technologies which have minimal carbon emissions such as renewable energy projects and planting trees. For example, HSBC which is a public limited company operating in the banking and financial services industry in United States invested $ 4 million towards implementation of a programme aimed at minimizing its energy consumption and also to reduce its carbon emission via utilization of green energy for all its energy needs. In addition, the programme would also enable the firm to plant trees. Despite the increased incorporation of the concept of carbon neutrality by financial institution, most individuals perceive this as a publicity stunt. This arises from the fact that activities of these institutions contribute significantly to environmental degradation. However, the effort of firms to adopt carbon neutrality in their operation should be applauded rather than be criticized.

Intermediaries which help firms to become carbon neutral Becoming carbon neutral may be a challenge to both large and small business enterprises. This arises from the fact that these firms may not have the sufficient mechanisms to become carbon neutral. In a quest to become carbon neutral, there are a number of intermediary organizations which assist firms to become carbon neutral as discussed below.

The CarbonNeutral Company

The firm was established in 1997 and has managed to become a global leader with regard to provision of services aimed at reducing carbon. Since its inception, the firm has helped approximately 300 large business enterprises and thousands of SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) (The CarbonNeutral Company, 2010).

In its operation, the firm is committed at ensuring that its customers attain value from its services. In order to attain this, the firm has formulated comprehensive carbon management strategies. The firm provides tools to enable firms’ management teams to develop an effective carbon reduction programme.

In addition, Carbon Neutral Company helps its clients to set their reduction targets. In pursuit of carbon neutrality goal, it is crucial for firms to communicate the results of the programme to all the relevant stakeholders.

In order to attain this, there has to be a well developed communication mechanism. The management team has to ensure that all the parties understand. As an intermediary, The Carbon Neutral Company provides management team with the most effective communication mechanism.

Beyond Neutral

This is a firm which was established in 2007 in Australia and operates on an international scale. The core objective of the firm’s establishment is to provide businesses with meaningful ways through which they can deal with the challenges of sustainability and climate change.

Beyond Neutral helps other organizations to improve their sustainability credentials while at the same time reduce its greenhouse emissions. With regard to carbon neutrality, the firm helps its clients in the identification, tracking, verifying, validating and auditing its carbon emissions.

As a result, businesses are able to take advantage of market opportunities and avoid the negative impacts of greenhouse emission. In an effort to ensure that firms attain carbon neutrality, the firm provides its clients with a carbon offset portfolio. The portfolio entails a variety of offsets which are obtained from different projects (Beyond Neutral, 2009).

Commitment to the environment in pursuit of carbon neutrality, necessary changes and investment To achieve the concept of carbon neutrality, businesses must be totally committed towards attaining environmental sustainability. In order to attain this, firms should analyze the impact of their operation on the environment with regard to carbon emission.

According to Kollmuss, Lazarus, Lee and Polycarp (2010, p.1), it is a must that emission of greenhouse gases be reduced by 80% by mid of the 21st century in order to abate the risks of climate change. This means that it is vital for firms to undertake drastic changes in some of their practices.

In addition, these changes will require a significant investment of resources for them to be effective. For example, some carbon emission resulting from the firms’ operation cannot be avoided. However, pursuing the concept of carbon neutrality requires that there should be zero carbon emission coming from the firm’s operation.

Carbon neutrality relies on ‘offsetting’ There is a strong correlation between carbon neutrality and offsetting. To attain carbon neutrality in their operation, firms will be required to purchase carbon offsets. These are financial tools specifically designed for projects aimed at preventing carbon being released from various activities from entering the earth’s atmosphere.

In their commitment to attain carbon neutrality, firms will be required to incorporate a portfolio of offsets. In addition, a considerable amount of investment will be required in the implementation of technologies which are carbon-saving in nature.

In addition, firms will be required to change some of their practices. For example, with regard to the firm’s energy needs, it is paramount for firms to incorporate green energy and other types of renewable energy. This will play a significant role in the firm’s effort to become carbon neutral and hence its commitment to the environment.

Kollmuss et al (2010, p.1) assert that carbon offsetting is gaining attention amongst individuals and organizational policy makers as one of the most effective ways through which firms can address the challenges associated with climate change. Incorporation of carbon offsets is paramount in a firms effort to attain carbon neutrality and hence its environmental targets.

This arises from the effectiveness with which carbon offsets avert carbon emission. According to Taiyab (2006, p.3), carbon offsets neutralizes the carbon dioxide equivalent (one ton) which is emitted at one place. This is achieved either by absorbing another tone of carbon dioxide equivalent released elsewhere or preventing its release. The offsets are developed via various projects. Some of these include;

Renewable energy

Destruction of industrial gases

Energy efficiency

For example, if a particular business enterprise emits approximately 20,000 tones of carbon dioxide every year, it can offset its emission by planting trees which will absorbs an equivalent amount within the same time period. Alternatively, the firm can invest in a renewable energy project or energy efficient stoves which would be supplied to the poor.

Through such projects, a firm is able to offset the amount of its carbon emissions thus becoming carbon neutral (Taiyab, 2006, p.4). In addition to that, carbon offset projects have the capacity of absorbing other greenhouse gases from the environment. This makes it to be an effective strategy for firms in their effort to achieve their environmental target.

Conclusion The concept of sustainability has proved to be very important amongst businesses in the 21st century. This is due to the fact that it is one of the ways thorough which businesses can maintain their competitive advantage amidst numerous challenges. There are various aspects of sustainability applicable to businesses.

One of them includes environmental sustainability. In their effort to achieve environmental sustainability, business enterprises are increasingly incorporating the concept of carbon neutrality.

This arises from the fact that businesses are a major contributor of the carbon emissions which is one of the key causes of climate change via global warming. Therefore, the priority being given to sustainability as an environmental issue is warranted.

Incorporation of carbon neutrality will play a significant role in businesses effort to attain sustainable development hence surviving into the future as going concern entity.

In addition, attainment of carbon neutrality will also enable businesses to attain their profit maximization objective. This arises from the fact that business organizations will be able to improve their publicity. This arises from the fact that the society will develop a positive attitude towards the firms hence considering the firm to be a part of the society.

As a result, there is a high probability of businesses attaining customer loyalty. As a result of being carbon neutral, firms will be able to operate cost efficiently.

In order to for firms to be regarded as being carbon neutral, there are a number of changes that the firms’ management team will be required to undertake. Despite the cost involved during the change process, the firm will benefit from being carbon neutral in the long run.

Recommendations In order to be carbon neutral in their operation, it is paramount for the firm’s management team to consider implementing the following recommendations.

Firms should ensure that they incorporate the concept of carbon footprinting in order to determine the amount of carbon they emit into the atmosphere as a result of their operation.

If the firms do not have all the necessary mechanisms to undertake carbon footprinting, they should outsource these services from other intermediary organizations. This will enable the firm to be effective in measuring the amount of carbon it emits into the environment.

In an effort to achieve carbon neutrality, it is paramount for firm’s management team to consider integrating the concept of carbon offsetting. This will enable the firms to prevent carbon emissions and at the same time operate social responsibility. The concept of carbon offsetting will require a substantial amount of investment. It is therefore important for the firm to rely on its own reserves other than sourcing the required finance externally.

Reference List Beyond Neutral. (2009). Company profile. Retrieved from http://beyondneutral.com/what-we-do/

Dunphy, D.C., Griffiths, A.

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Examples of Punctuality in the Workplace – 1000-Word Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The term punctual refers to appearing at the regular appointed place at the specific time while punctuality refers to the attribute of being able to finish a requisite duty prior to the allocated time.

According to Brooke and Price (140), some of the reasons as to why there is lack of punctuality among employees include; different work attitudes of job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment.

Webb (46) argues that a positive attitude towards ones work can help foresee if the employee will be punctual during their work term and also deadlines affect the completion of the tasks given to employees.

Wardy (105) study found out that the three main reasons as to why employees are not punctual at the workplace are; lack of respect, lack of accountability and lack of organization. Lack of respect is whereby the employees who running late do not inform or call prior to inform the respective people of their delay this results in time wastage for their fellow co-workers and loss of money for the company.

Lack of accountability is when employees arrive late at work, for a meeting or submitting work late. Employees should be held liable and they should be able to effectively give answers and explain their mishaps.

If the managers themselves are punctual and include punctuality as part and parcel of deadlines and yearly evaluations, the employees will in turn be punctual as they will be expected to do so. Lack of organization is when employees do not manage their time or they do not effectively plan their time and the tasks they are supposed to finish at an allocated time period. Therefore these employees end up with a lot of things to do and with no time to finish their tasks resulting in lateness.

Most employees are usually not punctual to the work place at the beginning of the week, because during the weekend most people tend to relax and enjoy the free days as much as possible. As the week progresses employees are more punctual to work as they have gotten used to the idea of waking up early heading to work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other days when employees are more frequently not to be punctual are the days when it rains, or snows heavily in the mornings these natural weather patterns seem to cause snarl ups of traffic jams therefore affecting the punctuality of employees and also employers.

At the time Wardy was conducting his research; he was an employee at different American organizations and observed his findings from a natural setting. In his findings, he made the conclusion that not even once did the employees or the supervisors apologize for being late.

On the other hand while he was an employee at Panasonic, a Japanese company, his superior profusely apologized for coming into a meeting late although he could not help it as an emergency had caused the delay. These two similar situations show how different people react to punctuality and how if they are running companies how the employees would react differently to their supervisors.

Promoting punctuality in the work place Webb and Chapman (78) suggested the following ways in which employees can improve their punctuality records at the workplace;

Ask the employees to envisage every appointment as an interview and make sure you arrive at the designated area earlier than the actual time stated. This will give one ample time to relax and compose one self for whatever is coming afterwards. Also budget in emergencies or unplanned mishaps like mechanical difficulties with the car or traffic delays so that you can arrive before the time agreed upon. If all employees would imagine that every day they are going to work, they are attending an important interview that they cannot afford to miss, they would always be punctual for work and lateness would be a thing of the past. Soon they would have formed the habit of getting to work early and starting their work on time hence maximizing profits for the company and minimizing on loses.

Request the employees to imagine that they own the company or they are shareholders in the company and how they would feel if they were always counting losses because of lack of punctuality from employees. This will give employees a feel of what the employers go through when they come into work late and may make them change their behavior of arriving late for work and wasting valuable company time while catching up with their colleagues.

With the employees empathizing with their colleagues who are punctual at the work place and getting their work done on time, may make the employees change their behavior for the better. Most employees get angry at their colleagues who constantly keep arriving at the workplace late as they feel their time is not being respected and constantly being wasted and therefore creating a hostile working environment whereby work can not be carried out effectively. A hostile working environment will make employees antagonistic affecting their productivity to the company.

An employer should expect each employee to make a verbal commitment to being punctual during the tenure employment and they should be held legally responsible to their word. This will make the employees feel as if they are going back on their word and cheating themselves hence prompting them to be punctual to their places of work and in doing their work.

Modesty should also be put in practice at the work place this will ensure respect of everyone in the work place whether junior or senior in position. Employees and employers should also get into the habit of apologizing when they arrive late for work or hand in late reports or delay in passing of some information. Employees should also take responsibility for their actions at the work place and not let their colleagues suffer unnecessarily because of their mistakes or short comings.

However, a study done by Buehler, Dale and Michael (128), reveals that when men and women are compared at the workplace in terms of their punctuality, no specific gender seemed to be more punctual than the other.

Although women seem to be more absent from work than men due to unavoidable circumstances like maternity leave, while men walk into work late and waste a lot of time reading the newspapers during company time.

In conclusion punctuality in the workplace depends on the company values, time allocated for the completion of each task as well as the individuals themselves. Employees with a longer deadline are most likely to finish their tasks later than those with a shorter deadline due to procrastination.

We will write a custom Essay on Examples of Punctuality in the Workplace – 1000-Word Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees should strive to be punctual at the work place and in their work so that they can not only improve the quality of their work and the image of the company. However, there are more ways of promoting employee punctuality in the workplace other than the ways suggested and discussed in this paper.

Depending on the nature of the work and the locality of the place of work, an employer should be able to identify and focus on how he or she can promote the virtue of punctuality among its/his employees.

In addition, the employers should give more incentives to encourage employees to be punctual and they should also take note of employees who alack in punctuality and act upon it, hence measures to promote and check on employee punctuality should be put in place.

Works Cited Brooke, Russell

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The Promotion of Justice Essay best essay help

Justice is a broad concept that basically refers to acts of fairness as a way of creating order of philosophies within a society. “It is basically a concept of moral rightness that is based on ethics, natural law, fairness or equity, religion and rationality along with the provision of punishment for the breach of such said ethics” (Rawls

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Ethics in Public Administration. Case 2 – Paul’s Scenario Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Outline Introduction.

Main Body

Principles defining each character.

Implementation of the traditional ethical thinking skills.

Utilization of the ethical triangle.

Conclusion.

The ethical approaches need to be combined for the purpose of more effective decision-making in public administration. The elements of the ethical triangle may be used as filters for ethical analysis of the situations and appropriate decision making. Kent Chartwell, Marion Meriwether and Winston Battle in case 2 Paul’s scenario are examples of Peter, Mary and Paul schemes of human behavior.

Only combining the three traditional ethical approaches (virtue, principle and consequences) and acting in accordance to the ethics triangle, the mayor could achieve the greatest good for the greater number.

Interacting with Marion Meriwether and Winston Battle, Mayor Chartwell had to deal with specialists possessing Mary and Paul charts of competence. Thus, being competent, enthusiastic and creative but not promoted, Marion is an example of Mary scheme of professional behavior.

Actually, she retrains, knows all the angles of the sphere, generates brilliant ideas, and does all the work, but her contribution seems to remain unnoticed because she is offered to be an assistant or co-director but not to take the lead.

Winston Battle is an example of Paul competence chart. On the one hand, this employee lacks creativity and enthusiasm. On the other hand, he is reluctant to work on the project and seems to be tired and over burnt. It is possible that he has performed well in the past but he is absolutely useless, running the summer recreational program.

The virtue, principles and consequences approaches have been implemented by the participants of the scenario. Mayor Chartwell decides on the principle approach, insisting on leaving Battle as the director of the program, supposing that if an individual has been appointed for the position, he must have deserved it and can do his best, contributing to the greatest good.

Marion Meriwether used the virtue approach, intuitively defining measures that can be beneficial for improving the project and enhancing its effectiveness. The consequences approach has been chosen by Battle as he was not interested in the process and its details.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He used the summer program for padding his personal payroll and being informed that he would have to make some efforts for making the program more effective, decided to leave the project. Thus, overutilizing a single model, each of the characters would have failed to reach the greatest good.

Only using the ethic triangle can help to balance virtue, balance and consequences approaches and to promote the public interest. Thompson

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The role of morphemes in the English language Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Every day we use the language in order to express our opinion and in order to understand what we hear from others. The conventional use of language involves the knowledge of grammar, spelling, language in use, etc. However, sometimes the general rules are violated with different purposes. One of the cases is a word play.

Word play can often be met in our daily life. For example, in the television show “A Charlie Brown Christmas”, the cartoonist Charlez Schulz presented a scenario, in which Linus tells Charlie Brown: “Of all the Charlie Browns in the world, you’re the Charlie Browniest.” This sentence is with no doubt an example of excellent sense of humor. However, what is more obvious, Charlez Schulz is a professional writer, who knows how to use all the tools offered by language to achieve the desired stylistic effects.

For instance, in this concrete example the writer used some morphemes in order to make the sentence sound funny. The first proof is the word “Browns”. The author used the morpheme “s”, which in English language is applied to denote the plurality.

Despite the fact that the sentence was addressed to a concrete person, and there is no other person similar to the addressee, the writer points to the plurality of the name. Such paradox emphasizes the uniqueness of the person, meaning that there is a little chance for existence of many Charlie Browns in the world.

Another unusual use of morphemes is observed in the second mentioning of the name. Charlez Schulz uses the phrase “the Charlie Browniest”. Here the morpheme “est” at the end of the surname is added by the author. This morpheme is traditionally used in the English language in order to show the highest level of comparison.

Thus, the message of this morpheme is that the addressee has the most characteristic features and qualities of Charlie Brown. Instead of writing a long explanation, the author preferred to use one morpheme to express this idea.

Interestingly, the use of the morpheme “est” plays one more role in this sentence. The personal noun, which denoted the name of a personal, changed its grammatical category into general. Indeed, while “Charlie Brown” is a personal noun, the word phrase “the Charlie Browniest” means that there are other Charlie Brown, or people having more or less qualities of Charlie Brown. This changed “Charlie Brown” into a general notion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another peculiar detail about using the morpheme “est” in this case is that it is used with a noun. In fact, such use of this morpheme is unacceptable, as far as this morpheme can only be used with adjectives. If so, than what does the word “Charlie Brown” mean? If the author wants us to treat this word combination as an adjective, than what qualities should it represent? In any case, the listeners are left to decide.

The author was directed not with the grammar rules but with his own vision of the words and their meaning. As a result, words changed their grammatical categories, subcategories, properties, and changed their lexical meaning. All these transformations helped the cartoonist to achieve the desired effect in the sentence.

As we can see, the role of morphemes in the English language cannot be underestimated. Being the smallest part of the spoken and written language, it can have a huge impact on the meaning of the words and sentences, make them either sophisticated or witty, formal or jargon, etc. The example of Charlez Schulz’s scenario proves the stated above information.

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C. P. Ellis, One Writer’s Beginnings, and The Story of my Body Essay best college essay help

C. P. Ellis, One Writer’s Beginnings, and The Story of my Body show a life story that describes some important events and people who changed their views on life. The first story is about the former Ku Klux Klan leader, C. P. Ellis, who had to overcome his prejudices. One Writer’s Beginnings by Eudora Welty tells about the writer’s experiences and the way they influenced her decision to become a writer.

Like the previous two stories, The Story of My Body is also based on personal experience where the author describes skin, color, and appearances as the parts of the body that influence social attitude. The stories show that people’s judgments are based on appearances rather than on people’s interactions.

All the stories are similar because they have the same narrative structure and character development. Considering the stories’ setup (place and character’s background), the works depict the past events that happened to the protagonists. The characters use their experience to change something in their lives.

In C. P. Ellis, the writer discusses the past events the moments that made a character become a separatist. In the second story, the writer depicts the feelings and senses that the character had when she wanted to become a writer. Finally, in The Story of My Body, the author pays attention to appearances that influenced a Puerto Rican girl.

When discussing the character development, all stories present the idea that all characters realize the changes that happened to their lives. The reasons of those changes were the need for self-realization and analysis of the past events.

Hence, the protagonists have to face their prejudices. However, One Writer’s Beginnings provides a different way to stress the climax of the story which is also similar to its resolution. While recollecting her knowledge, she explains how she becomes a fiction writer. However, the narration of the past belongs to non-linear type.

The other two stories belong to a linear structure because one event causes another. Nevertheless, one can observe that the narrative structures run logically because they are not interrupted by flashbacks from the past. Therefore, the climax appears at the end of the stories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite some differences in character development, the resolution of the plot line is almost the same in all the stories. In particular, the heroes realize problem, face it, and find a logical resolution to it. In addition, all stories show the way characters face racial and gender differences and break stereotypes and prejudices.

However, One Writer’s beginnings is focused on the analysis of recollections that are considered to be the greatest treasures. They helped to put all the moments form life together in one logical image.

In conclusion, in the end of the stories, the protagonists realize that the best way to change oneself is to face the problem and overcome it. All the stories are based on personal experience and the way it improves people’s life for the better.

Hence, the main protagonist of C. P. Ellis manages to put up with his racial stereotypes and start a new life that is free of hatred and aggression.

One Writer’s Beginnings proves that a person can reach the goal if he/she really wants to. Finally, The Story of My Body shows that personal interaction is possible only when a person can accept his/her originality.

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Drug Use by Employees Essay best essay help: best essay help

Drug testing coupled with reference checks among medical practices are some of the pre-employment tactics subjected to employees. Though some may consider them as a waste of time and resources, they are a priority to various job markets. Employers have sought to use these tests in getting quality workers and improving the productivity of their businesses.

They carry them out to all people seeking for jobs. They have put in place powerful gadgets that detect any signs of drug use by employees. Employers should know and monitor drug use amongst employees for the performance of any company depends on productivity of employees and inappropriate drug use may affect this.

Drug use carries with it consequences, some of which are positive and others negative. The healing brought about by use of drugs can be viewed as a positive consequence whereas drugs taken to arouse feelings may be viewed as bringing a negative impact. According to the National Drug Intelligence Centre (2006), the negative side effects of drugs affect the user, his/her family and friends, as well as his/her business.

Since business is among the affected areas, any employer willing to offer a job in his/her business has to know the drug status of his/her willing employees, if at all he/she is looking forward to maximising his/her profits. This on the other hand gives all employers a right to know the drug use of their employees.

In a discussion like this, one student argued that not all drug uses affect the employee’s performance and according to him, if this is the case, then employers ought to show no concern to the use of drugs by their employees.

This is true but to some extend. Box (2002) says, even if the employee’s drug use does not affect his/her performance, the fact that drugs affect their corresponding users is an implication that the business has to be affected at some point.

“Quality results in whichever field, are only achieved by drugs-free employees” (David, 2004). These observations make it clear that employers need to consider drug use as a barrier of the performance of their businesses because there exist an unarguable negative correlation between business performance and drugs oriented employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some drug use constitutes a serious health risk and ultimately death. Another student pointed that, health issues are private and if the affected can rise up and carry out his/her duties, it will be against his/her rights for any person to claim the status of his/her health.

Jeremy (1998) puts it clear by giving the illustration of pilots, drivers, as well as train managers. He emphasises much on consequences that arise untimely. For instance, blindness is an effect associated with the use of some drugs and shows up anytime the respective drug is used. For the aforementioned people, a case like this arising from one person can turn catastrophic.

“Prevention is better than cure” (Ferroglio, 2000). This is true and to the point and if a drug test can help prevent such a disaster, then, it becomes a right for employers to know the drug levels of their employees, failure to which their businesses can fall abruptly.

To sum up, as a manager, given the opportunity to address the issue of employee drug use, I would call upon all to join hands in the fight against drug use not only to employees, but to all in general. This is because it is only a few people, who are aware that, maintaining and developing ones life is the greatest business we have.

The fact that we are living is a sign that we have a business to manage and among the barriers of its growth, drug use is one and ought to be fought against. That is why I, in no doubt, encourage all employers to claim their right in knowing drug use by their employees.

Reference List Box, L. (2002). Drugs and Employment. New York: Heinemann Publishers.

David, L. (2004). Drugs: Effects and Treatment. West Virginia: W.Va Press.

We will write a custom Essay on Drug Use by Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ferroglio, P. (2000). Employers and Employees Rights. Morgantown: W.Va Press.

Jeremy, O. (1998). Employment: Quality Results. Martinsburg: Appalachian editions.

National Drug Intelligence Centre (2006). National Drug Threat Assessment. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/archives/doj/department-justice-archive

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Lobbying and Bribery: The Fine Line between Legal and Illegal Influence Critical Essay writing essay help

Many arguments have been made whether a difference exists between lobbying and bribery. There are those who feel that lobbying is a form of polished and sophisticated bribery, whereas others are of the view that a clear line of demarcation exists between the two. This essay is going to look at the differences between lobbying and bribery and what legislations in the United States of America treat the two.

The story carried by the Washington Post on January 15, 1999, brought to the fore the arguments supporting or refuting the differences between bribery and lobbying. The paper reported that lobbyists of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games have been accused of bribery in their efforts to influence the members of the International Olympics’ Committee (Washington Post, 1999).

The story reveals that a fine line which is sometimes blurred separates lobbying from bribery. Lobbying can be conceptualized as efforts to influence politicians and other key individuals to make decisions on ones favor (Atkinson, 2008). On the other hand, bribing is also described as efforts to influence politicians and other key individuals to make decisions on one’s favor. However, the difference between the two is the fact that lobbyists offer no money or gifts.

But the main motivator in bribery is the offer or promise of money and property by the individual (United States Department of Justice, 2008). This means that lobbying is legal and is carried out overtly. In contrast, legislations such as Foreign Corrupt Practices Act illegalize and criminalize bribery. Bribery is mainly carried out covertly (Rich

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