Introduction The genesis of English poetry can be traced back to the 7th century. From this period to the present day, English poets have managed to create one of the most lasting poems in the history of all Western countries. On top of this, the language that the poets have used in writing the poetry has spread around the world.
In the olden days, all poetry was passed down from one generation to another in an oral manner. With time, these versions have disappeared making it impossible to date ancient English poetry. However, this has changed over time and today all poetry is well documented.
Although most poets lived in the past, there has risen a new breed of poets whose contribution has influenced the literary world in a positive manner. One poet who has made a major contribution to the literary world in the 21st century is Jacob Polley.
Born in Carlisle in 1975, Jacob Polley is seen as one of the poets who have shaped the nature of English poetry in the 21st century. In 2003, Polley published his first poetry book titled The Brink. Immediately after it was published, the book was nominated for the T.S.Eliot award for its classy poems and their articulation of the world affairs.
In the same year it was published, the book also won Poetry Book Society Choice. The manner in which the poems were written could only be compared to the legend works of Auden. Polley followed the success of this book by publishing another book titled Little Gods in 2006.
Like his first book, Little Gods also become an instant success. However, unlike his first book that centered on the modern life, Little Gods was based more on traditional lyric inspiration. In 2009, Jacob Polley published his debut novel titled Talk of the Town. Just as his other two poetry books, Talk of the Town proved to be equally famous.
In all his poems, Jacob Polley uses the same style calculated, melodic and unfussy writing. In al his poems, the writer probes into the fundamental, the supernatural and unstable elements of life. Whether he is talking of a sad or a happy event, all his writing asserts a unique susceptibility at work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In proving his Northern upbringing, the poet presents a visible boundary in all his poems. These borderlines appear in the way in which he differentiates maritime and land, life and death, living and dying, home and journeying or even the way he depicts the urban and rural life. The author’s works follow the fascination with nature first witnessed in his predecessor Ted Hughes. An example of this is where Polley uses phrases like “old yellow eye/ lost in the fall, lost in the mind” to refer to a simple leaf.
Another example is where he describes snow as “surviving in quiet places / like a rare species”. Despite this apparent fascination with nature, the writer’s focus remains with the human race. Nearly all of Polley’s poems examine the borderlands and haziness between people and the innate world. This one thing has made Jacob Polley to be one of the most influential poets of this century.
One poem that catapulted Polley in to the international limelight was a poem titled The Owls, which was published in the 2006 edition of Little Gods. The poem talks about how children have grown apart from their children in the modern society. The poem relies heavily on metaphors to bring out the real meaning.
In the poem, Polley talks about “Owls calling in the dark yews / behind the house.” With metaphors, these owls are altered to represent missing children. Although the children in this poem are missing, it is not their voice that calls in the dark. This is derived from the point where Polley claims that the children in this case have lost their power to speak besides their “fingers and human faces.”
This means that the owls that Polley is talking about must be the children’s mothers calling their children. The poem continues to say that “No one calls into the trees” showing that parents sometimes come to a point where they give up on their children. However, the owl children are still hopeful that they will be “called again”. According to the poet, this transformation comes from the names that the children used to have when they were still human.
The children claim that the mothers have “forsaken us/ as we have them!” By the time the poem ends, the children are presented as “forsaken” and “glorified.” This clearly presents today’s nature of families where parents forsake their children only to begin yearning for them later on in life. This poem is therefore a clear representation of the metamorphosis of life. (Sampson)
Conclusion English poetry has gone through numerous transformations. The whole of England is filled with famous poets who made positive contributions toward poetry. Even today, there is a new breed of poets whose poetry is influencing the society in a positive way. A good example of a 21st century poet who has made a positive impact is Jacob Polley.
We will write a custom Essay on 21st Century Poetry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Within a span of less than ten years, Polley has managed to come up with quality poems addressing the woes bedeviling the society. This has earned him a special place in the hearts of poem lovers and the general population.
Work Cited Sampson, Fiona. Little Gods by Jacob Polly, 2007. Web. Nov 3. 2010.
Starbucks in Europe Report best essay help
Background Starbucks is world’s number one coffee and coffeehouse company. It is situated in 55 countries. The first branch was opened by Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, and Gordon Bowker on March 30, 1971 (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010). This paper takes a looks at Starbucks in Europe.
How many store? Starbucks Company has over 666 stores distributed across Europe. The branches have been developed through buyouts and franchising. Though the branches are operated and managed differently they have a similar code of conduct that they must uphold always (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010).
Which countries? In Europe, the company is not concentrated in one nation but has diversified its business to a number of nations; it ventured in individual countries at different times. It is operational in 25 countries and a pilot survey is ongoing to analyse the chances of expanding to Ukraine and Italy. It is available in the following nations; Portugal, Austria, Belgium, Germany Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Czech Republic, Hungary Ireland, United Kingdom Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus Hungary Ireland France , Jersey, Romania, Switzerland and Spain (Starbucks Corporate website, 2010).
Profits in Europe After some takeovers of businesses making losses, the company has reversed the trend in Europe and make profits. In 2007, the company made 1,986.9 millions, in 2008 2, 1856.0 millions and in 2009, 1732.6 million. This is a portion of approximately 6% of the company’s total profit; majority of the company’s profit come from United State. The drop in profits in 2009 is attributed to global financial crisis which started in 2007. The company external auditors are Deloitte and Touché; it is responsible for both local branches (United States Branches) and international branches (Starbucks Corporation Fiscal year 2009 Annual report, 2010). Profits for the past years have been attributed to sales of products in the following proportions;
Product Percentage Beverages 76 Food stuffs 18 Coffee making equipments 3 Whole bean coffee 3 There is a high competition in hospitality industry with a number of new entrants getting into the market every year.
When did Starbucks got into Europe? The group of company got into Europe in 1998 after it acquired sixty braches of Seattle Coffee Company (the company was UK based) for a total of $83 million; it immediately rebranded the outlets as Starbucks. Before opening an outlet, the company undertakes an intensive study to ensure that it makes a sound decision. Some branches are in airports and supermarket chains. To sell wide, the company has entered into a selling contract with Kraft Company which sells to grocery stores; at the same time it sells directly to large companies like Costo Wholesale Corporation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To ensure a constant supply of raw materials, the company uses fixed price and Price to be fixed purchasing strategy. There is fluctuation of prices according to demands and supply although the company aims to be fair at all time. To acquire assets in Europe, the company used leasing method where it has leased over 80% of all its outlets. After becoming certain that a certain area has a high potential and it has been attained a high brand, then it buys such a property.
What products do they sell? The company has a variety of products which it sells in Europe they are; coffee roasted beans, drip brewed coffee which include brand like cappuccino, latte, mocha; snacks, sandwiches, Panini, salads, pastries, coffee drinks, and tumblers. The company also is a books, films and music marketer in its stores (StarbucksCoffee.net, 2010).
What’s popular in what country? The company’s products have different been taken differently in different Europe countries. Some countries prefer a product A than another company. The trend is as follows;
Portugal, Bulgaria, Coffee hot drinks (espresso-based) Austria , Greece coffee hot drinks (espresso-based) Belgium , Turkey, Cyprus Hungary Ireland France , Jersey Instant coffee Germany hot and cold sandwiches Portugal, Romania, Switzerland and Spain pastries Russia snacks Sweden, Czech Republic, Hungary Ireland, United Kingdom Denmark, Coffee: cappuccino, latte, mocha Netherlands, Poland, Panini How does Starbucks pay producers in Europe? Coffee is the main product that the company buys from farmers. It ensures that it has bought quality coffee and embraces fair trading. Fair trading is ensuring that all parties to a production benefit from the act.
This is in terms of price that the company buys raw materials and corporate social responsibilities undertaken by the company. It buys coffee directly from small scale farmers as well as large scale farmers. In 2004, the company price of coffee beans way more than double the then prevailing rate at an average $2.64 kg for coffee beans; the market rate then was1.20–$1.60.
Is it fair? The prices that the company buys coffee beans from farmers are higher than the prevailing market rate. However it can only buy coffee which is produced in an ethical way and of high quality. In Europe the company in collaboration with Conservation international has embarked on training farmers on better ways of growing coffee.
Those who comply with the teaching sell their products to the company at a premium increasing the revenue to farmers. On the other hand the company being a leading consumer of coffee has “pulled” prices upwards.
We will write a custom Report on Starbucks in Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Charities they are involved in? As a matter of social corporate responsibilities, the company has a number of charity programs which it finances they are; Water conservation financing, this is done through Ethos® Water policy where when somebody purchases the brand then 5 cent goes to the project.
The company is engaged in youth programs aimed at training youth on entrepreneurial strategies. In 2009 a total of $2.1 million was used to finance 71 grants. The company has also entered into Bono’s (RED) For Charity where it donates money to assist those suffering from HIV.
Environmental protection The company has a system called Shared Plane, where it aims at doing business in a way that is friendly to the environment. The system involves the producers and local community to adopt ethical production method which does not pollute the environment. The company has embarked on recycling of its waste products up to 70%.
The move is to ensure that there are minimal disposal to the environment. The company uses large amounts of water in its productions, however in a move to conserve water; it recycles over 70% of its waste water. In the effort to reduce green house emission, the company has embarked on massive energy efficient methods. This involves the use of electricity to roast coffee beans in place of charcoal (Starbucks Corporation, 2010).
References Starbucks Corporation Fiscal year 2009 Annual report. (2010). Web.
Starbucks Corporation. (2010). “Starbucks and Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) Announce Next Step in Commitment to Small-Scale Farmers”. Web.
Starbucks Corporate website. (2010).
StarbucksCoffee.net. (2010). Starbucks is heading to Central Europe. Web.
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The statue of Augustus and Republican Busts of the Previous Generation Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
A Roman portraiture and sculpture are characterized by specific stylistics. Each stage of sculpture and, especially, portraiture, is marked with certain elements that were a characteristic of each dynasty.
One of the brightest representatives of such portraiture is a statue of Augustus of Prima Porta. It is not only a statue of a man, it is a symbol of new époque of Rome, new tendencies in sculpture and portrait. Thus, the sculpture of Augustus is symbol of a rupture with “the worst of times” and its traditions, and it is an important mean of propaganda.
As it has already been mentioned, the statue of Augustus marked a new period when Roman Republic became Roman Empire. Everything had changed. An old Iron Age passed and new Golden Age became the riches and the most glorious time in the history of the Roman Empire. The city was restored after the last political conflict (Civil War) in the Republic that exhausted the country.
Augustus called this time “the worst of time”. Constant wars did not let the country to develop its sciences and art. The brightest characteristic of the Roman Republic is the portraiture. A realistic “face” with all its lacks and imperfections is associated with “the worst of times”.
The old “face” of the Republic was very detailed and realistic. That is why it disclosed every wrinkle and every skin imperfection to show the wisdom and courage of the person. A military prowess and blind devotion to public service were the most important traits of every politician.
The sculptors tried to reflect these traits in busts and statues. According to the rules of Republican traditions, the form of the sculpture should preset the idea that the artistic model wanted to express (concern about the nation, wisdom that he acquired during his “cursus honorum”, etc).
The traditions of the Golden Age of the Rome Empire ruined old traditions and reconsidered the meaning of the sculpture and portraits. The image of the sculpture was completely different: not “wrinkles”, but “youth” of a face and the whole pose of a statue expressed the power and greatness of a person. Now, the sculpture was a means of ideology and propaganda.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A completely different scheme for portrait was adopted. New techniques were based on a traditional Roman art, however, it was original and innovative at the same time. These new statues emphasized the greatness of emperors, their divinity and heroism. The youth, beauty and majestic pose were the major treats of signs of power and braveness. And these are the traits that every portrait possessed.
“Augustus was portrayed in numerous statues and portraits” (Cunningham and Reich 111). The Augustus in Prima Porta was created during the emperor’s reign. It is the manifestation of his talents, authority and connection to Olympic gods.
Indeed, the statue is the best example of propaganda, as every detail, from head to toes on his barefoot legs, symbolizes his leadership abilities. The artist put into the sculpture the orator’s gesture and body proportions of a Greek Doryphoros. The impression as if Augustus speaks to his people and shows them his justice and wisdom.
He looks younger than he really was because youth and brave look of his eyes symbolize his greatness. These features make the statue completely different from the republic statues. In Republic architects considered that and faded and calm look symbolized the wisdom of a king. “New” statue used the pose and “activeness” to express this feature, moreover, it showed that the emperor was ready for radical actions for the sake of his people.
Another feature that distinguishes the statue of Augustus from works of the Republic period is the presence of additional attributes of power and “divinity” of the emperor. The first one is the statue of Cupid, which rides a dolphin. It shows the emperor’s consanguinity with the goddess Venus. It indicated that Augustus, as well as Aeneas, who was the founder of Rome, and Cupid himself, was the son of Aphrodite. Consequently, he was the only and competent ruler of the Empire.
The breastplate is the most significant detail of the statue. The reliefs show his great achievements, victories and people conquered. There, we can see the reliefs of the goddess Diana, Augustus’ patron, Apollo, two sphinx that signified the victory over Cleopatra and many other significant figures from life of Roman Empire. The breastplate is the most significant propagandistic detail of the sculpture.
The Augustus of Prima Porta is one of the brightest examples of early propaganda. In addition, it is not only a symbol of power and divinity of the emperor, it is a symbol of new era without old traditions of life, art and politics.
We will write a custom Report on The statue of Augustus and Republican Busts of the Previous Generation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Cunningham, Lawrence S. and John J. Reich. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. vol. 1. 7th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. 2009.
Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Types of UPS
Characteristics of a UPS system
Objectives of a UPS System for Emergency Medical Dispatcher
UPS System Management
Introduction Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) is a device that supports electronic equipments such as computers or other intelligent systems such as automated machines, when there are some power faults.
Uninterruptable Power Supply system forms an interface between the power utility and the equipment that requires protection from the energy uncertainties. The equipment running under the UPS gets supply of power for several minutes before switching the power to an alternative or emergency power options such as batteries in case of electric failures.
In line with Godse and Bakshi (2009), the main function of the UPS is to smooth out voltage and eliminate sever risks such as power disturbances or circuit damages. Good examples of these risks include the slit second power losses that can cause a computer to restart. Others include long power outages, under voltage, over voltage, lightening and short time spikes of the voltage, which can easily damage equipments (Godse and Bakshi, 2009).
This research paper forms an analysis of the Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) system used in emergency dispatch centres, and mainly forms a close reference to the hospital dispatch centres. The centres are Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
Types of UPS A UPS is able to stabilize voltage and maintain a certain level of energy flow for a short or a longer while depending on the size, whenever there are power attenuations or fluctuation. The emergency battery in the system helps to maintain supply until the system is switches either manually or automatically to a stable alternative source of energy.
In support of the medical automated systems, some of these UPS systems have a direct connection to the equipment and automatically enhances transfer of power source to an alternative, thus avoiding possible data losses due to shut downs (Schmidt, 2002).
In general, there are three types of UPS systems. To begin with is the offline UPS that have a connection through an electrical transition. The normal electrical voltage continuously recharges the system batteries and the system comes into action whenever there are fluctuations of the electric voltage.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The system fails to protect the system against the power failures due to slow response time. It consumes more time opening and closing the relay time. The second type is the online system that constantly regulates the amount of voltage coming in due to its series connection to the equipment.
Lastly is the line interactive UPS, which has a hybrid technological framework. The UPS connects in parallel with the electronic equipment and has a monitory system to detect high or low voltage supplies and consequently supply compensating voltage (Schmidt, 2002). In considering the automated Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS), the third type would be most viable to implement.
Characteristics of a UPS system The power protection support accorded by the UPS systems is in VA (Volt-Ampere) (Schmidt, 2002). An Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMS) is a critical application machine that relies heavily on the respondents. For such vital connections, it is advisable to consider a support system that has a 1.6 times more capacity of power supply than consumption by the equipments connected to it. It is also critical to choose a UPS that has enough sockets to support devices that ought to be connected. Different UPS systems have different connectors such as the network, USB or the parallel connectors. Some of these ties are smart ties to control or instruct devices to safely shutdown, especially when the there are prolonged interruptions. However, the UPS systems do not support the telephone connections. This means that lightning can still affect a computer system that has telephone connections for the modem (Schmidt, 2002). It is thus advisable to have lighting arrestors to safeguard the machines.
The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) is often important for accurate direction and transportation of ill patients or the injured. They also assist in dispatching of medical personnel/technicians through the paramedic programs to the needy emergency centres.
Due to this form of coordination, dispatch centres require constant power supply and in its support, a series of UPS systems can offer the required sufficiency until connection to a stable alternative source. UPS systems connected in series can supply electrical power for long periods before the generators can take over. In such cases, it is important to store the UPS in a different ‘self-sufficient’ room next to the generator especially when the system is manual.
Objectives of a UPS System for Emergency Medical Dispatcher Electric power supplies often suffer from network overloads, emergency interruptions and accidents that can cause blackouts, frequent drifts, sags, power swells, brownouts, surges and spikes (Gregory, 2009). Most electrical equipments can tolerate majority of this faults, while others delicate systems such as the Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are critical due to the dispatching functions.
Think of a situation where a person is in urgent need of medical assistance and therefore the dispatcher must provide planned or scripted pre-arrival instructions before the dispatched team arrives for the rescue services, then the power breaks before administration of assistance. Worse still would be the interferences of the medical self-help program and the assistant cannot give out the quality assurance procedures. Power interruptions can interfere with dispense recordings and telephone conversations.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) installations require stable continuity of power supply, since it cannot tolerate any form of faults due to compromise on health. Some of the emergency cases for the dispatch units cater for the emergency labour cases during pregnancy or childbirth, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or chocking.
There are some vital requirements for a UPS system in support of an Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) system/machine. To begin with is the need for the hold-up period. The time mainly depends on the conversion time.
The capacitive and inductive elements of a UPS can only store power for a certain limited time-frame for instance, an efficient switch-mode period for such an equipment ranges between ten and thirty minutes. Secondly, the time required for transfer from the main power switch to batteries or generator if it is not the automatic switching system. This time ought to be less than the period the application can hold-up, for provision of a safe margin.
The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) or the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is more sensitive compared to normal computerised system and therefore requires more time to allow for safe changeover margins. It is also crucial to consider the power handling abilities of the system. The UPS must supply normal power consumptions over the specified conversion interlude during emergency periods.
The UPS must equally cater for the inrush power. This is a common input power requirement since the new input supplier may fail to produce as per the expectations at the initial point. The effect occurs due to the charge uploads (Gregory, 2009).
Regulation of power occurs when there is a proper power stipulation thus the voltage supply is free from ripple, attenuation and electrical noise. Some of the conversion systems require total isolation between the UPS output and the input power suppliers. This also assists to maintain the right load sequencing to minimize chances for inrush currents that can be fatal to machines.
Before installing a UPS, it is furthermore very important to know the time taken for the system to recharge after current usage. This caters for cases when there are frequent interruptions. Lastly, one must consider the ability to perform a hot-swap. Hot-swap is a manual changeover done while the power is in use especially when there is need to change the battery packs.
UPS topologies The basic elements of a UPS system are chargers, batteries and an inverter. These elements apply for all the three topologies. The first topology is the stand-by or off-line UPS system. They are mainly for the basic power protections, where the UPS provides a direct connection of power to the load.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “A main direct current line maintains the charge of batteries during low voltage […], the inverter turns on, to have power loads directly from batteries” (Gregory, 2009). The topology is not suitable for the Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) because the conversion period might prolong and thus disrupt operations. The lack of fulltime conditioning of the power is also a loophole for simple filters, spikes and electric noises (Gregory, 2009).
The second topology is the online UPS system. The system has no power breakups and supports zero transfer periods. This means that the system has better frequency regulation mechanisms and voltage supports, compared to the offline or the interactive UPS systems. In this system, the main power has provisions with a double direct power lines, as a concurrent support to both the charger and inverter.
This means that the topology has a permanent power supply, which provides alternating current for the application (Gregory, 2009). This is the automatic switching required for medically approved dispatch protocols, such that when there is failure, the inverter gets power from the direct current supply of the batteries. The AC-DC conversion provides the fulltime conditioning where certification remains safe from all forms of disturbances.
The system is mainly an implementation in major emergency cases such as Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD), where any form of conversion delay is unacceptable. The systems are more costly to acquire, implement and maintain due to high rates of consumptions and heat generation.
Lastly are the interactive UPS systems, which have the offline inverters as well as transformers to provide output power during shortage. The transformer acts as a power conditioner but provides powers output just for a while, to increase the holdup time.
UPS System Management Business or organization pressure such as need to have a stable dispensing machine often requires introduction of alternative sources of sustainable energy. There are various benefits of adopting and complying with new incentives of UPS systems for alternative supports. It is imperative for an Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) to have stable power conversion system. Such a system suffers huge losses from short power cuts.
The system requires medically permitted dispatching protocols where there must be clarification procedures to qualify any form of dispatch. The trained professionals provide first-hand responses. It is vital to have the UPS systems that offers strong workbench with high power levels. The sensitivity of the system calls for high-level power controls because even the smallest amount of power change such as surge can cause a big difference due to emergency programs interruptions (Schmidt, 2002).
Conclusion Today it is easy and cheap to achieve the best technological changeover systems, since there are constant modernization and introduction of new elements of the UPS systems, thus making energy saving more easier to achieve. The current technological advancement presents the new modular UPS system, which enhance full cover up of the power load requirement for a long period.
The importance of load requirement depends on the quality of the UPS. Current technology provides modular systems that have ability to involve dynamic changes and cater for critical requirements of power load, thus allowing continual efficiency and stability.
The Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) also depends on various transactional systems such as the UPS. Alternating current failures automatically calls for direct conversions to alternative means. Today’s new modular designs provide a better level and approximately 94% of the medical dispatch units utilize UPS to support the pre-arrival programs or instructions and supports improved efficiency due to real-time dispatch of personnel.
The quantity of UPS has also reduced, thus making them more mobile and compatible to most environments. Emergency Medical Dispatchers (EMD) is today emergency medical care; it has caused evolution of the medical centres to become centres of EMS assistance. They explicitly assist both the public and dispatch personnel in their roles.
References Godse, A. Bakshi, U. (2009). Electronic Circuits and Applications. (Fourth Ed). New Zealand, Australia: Technical Publications. Print.
Gregory, P. (2009). CISSP Guide to Security Essentials. Canada: Cengage Learning Publishers. Print.
Schmidt, C. (2002). The Complete Computer Upgrade
Totalitarianism and Soviet Russia Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
A few years after cessation of the 1st world war, democracy was viewed as the best way of governing countries in Europe. During this time, tyrannical governments in “Russia, Germany and Austria” were brought down and substituted with republics (Shlapentokh 70). As such, all the 7 states formed in Europe were republics in nature and democracy seemed to take its toll.
However, a drastic turn of events occurred and many states which had embraced democracy fell under dictatorship. Only England and France retained democratic type of government (Paul 131). Italy and Germany were thereafter seen as Fascist countries while Russia (Soviet Union) was viewed as a Communist nation.
The official name of Soviet Union was “The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)” (Shlapentokh 70). Soviet Union extended from “the Baltic and Black Seas to the Pacific Ocean”. The first political party to reign in Russia was Bolshevik party which was led by Vladimir Lenin. Soon after seizing power, the party attuned its strategy in order to agree with citizens’ needs and remain in supremacy. On that note, it changed its name to “Russian Communist Party of the Bolsheviks” during the third month of the year 1918.
In addition, the party leader approved a number of rulings so as to gratify the pressing needs of Russian citizens. This involved donating pieces of land to the poor, allowing employees to take control of industries and permitting people to work for a maximum of eight hours per day (Paul 138). Further, Lenin disclaimed covert agreement and foreign debts although he sought peace with Germany. All these efforts got massive backing from the citizens as their wishes were being realized.
Later on, Vladimir Lenin acknowledged citizens will to hold an election for Constituent assembly. People voted in favor of Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks while Lenin’s party secured a quarter of all the votes cast (Curtis 197). Following the humiliating defeat, Lenin used the Red Guard to forcibly disband the Assembly thereby gaining temporally control over the situation although some resistance still persisted.
There was more trouble as Lenin signed “Brest-Litovsk peace treaty” with Germany in search of peace where Russia lost big chunks of land and iron deposits (Shlapentokh 79). This made Lenin’s opponents to feel disgruntled and civil war erupted and lasted until 1922. This war was mainly between the white and red Russians although foreign governments, backed by their own reasons, interfered with it in support of white Russians.
The fight was more serious in five locations which included “Caucasus and Southern Russia, in the Ukraine, in the Baltic, in Northern Russia (Murmansk and Archangel) and in Siberia” (Shlapentokh 85). Lenin won the battle due to factors like support from workers, better coordination by his soldiers, and use of psychological torture as well as reorganization of the economy among other reasons.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was followed by serious famine as farmers lost hope in agriculture. In addition, factory workers lost commitment due to lack of wages and this led to reduced output. Further, trade declined due to disintegration of communication and transport systems.
During this time, “Communist Party of Soviet Union” was the only legalized organization and it proposed the introduction of “local and regional” democratic administrations (Meissner 123). Precisely, party organs at those levels of governance were to be in control in such areas.
Supreme Soviet was the uppermost legislative organ while the senior most executive organ was the ‘Politburo’. The government controlled people through underground policing. The law enforcers in this case would locate political rebels and eject them from the party or charge them for ‘counter-revolutionary’ involvements.
Lenin succumbed to death in 1924 and Joseph Stalin acquired control which he exercised until 1953 when he died. Joseph Stalin acted as a supreme leader between 1929 and 1953. In his era, 3.7million citizens were accused and jailed due to perceived felonies of counter revolution (Meissner 110). This included 0.6 million people who received life jail terms, 0.8 million individuals who were jailed to extradition and 2.4million citizens who were jailed to detention centers and work facilities.
During Stalin’s era, the 2nd world war emerged and the Soviet Union army was found unprepared. To maintain control in the Eastern parts of Europe, the leader organized the “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany on August, 1939”.
A covert treaty handed “Eastern Poland, Finland, and Estonia” to Soviet Union while “Lithuania and Western Poland” were handed to Germany (Paul 150). In September, both the Soviet Union and Germany raided Poland. In the same month, Finland was attacked by the Soviet Union and this led to Emergence of Winter war.
In 1936, the president of Germany, Hitler, condemned “Jewish Communism in My Struggle” and expressed his intention to attack Soviet Union (Curtis 195). This prompted Stalin to seek support from Western democracies. He enticed those nations by giving the constitution to the Russian citizens as a sign of democracy.
We will write a custom Essay on Totalitarianism and Soviet Russia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hitler raided Russia in 1941and Stalin’s army put up a brave fight although the Nazi’s were highly advancing. Majority of Russian soldier were captured as war prisoners. Soon, the German army had surrounded Moscow but their surge was effectively checked by “winter and a Soviet counter-offensive” (Shlapentokh 91). Since then, Russian military rescued it land and even captured Berlin in 1945.
Leaders who came after Stalin acted more like socialists than dictators. In Leonid’s era, USSR assault to support Afghanistan was commenced in December of the year 1979. In 1985, the president, Mikhail Gorbachev, tried to resurrect the dying communist regime through minimizing rivalry with US and lowering the level of political hounding.
However, communist principle of centralized ritual management of the financial system was not abandoned. Mikhail’s main guiding principles “were Glasnost -openness, and Perestroika –restructuring” (Meissner 117). However, these policies were ineffective and the fall of USSR was witnessed in 1991. The Russian citizens favored capitalism instead communism.
Poor decisions involving various policies led to disintegration of USSR. These involved poor management of economy, labor force and foreign interactions among others. To date, the relationship between Russia and some western countries is strained. However, Moscow is still trying to recapture its lost glory.
Works Cited Curtis, M. Totalitarianism. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1987. Print.
Meissner, B. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union: party leadership, organization, and ideology. United States: University of Virginia, 2008. Print.
Paul, Ellen, F. Totalitarianism at the crossroads. United States: Social Philosophy and Policy Center and by Transaction Publisher, 1989. Print.
Shlapentokh, V. A normal totalitarian society: how the Soviet Union functioned and how it collapsed. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2001. Print.
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Notes for Dante’s Works Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Dante’s Moral Stand
Importance of the Church and State’s Co Existence
Dante’s Inferno follows the example of Homa’s Ilioad because it begins at the middle of Dante’s life, makes a quick flash forward of his life and then comes to a quick end. The middle of Dante’s life is characterized by the time he lost his way in life; at a presumable age of 35, which marked the middle of a hypothetical 70 years lifespan.
The setting was in the Easter of 1300 AD but Dante did not make it to his 70-year lifespan (because he died from Malaria at the age of fifty-four) (Gutchess 1). Dante’s literary piece (Inferno) is an unprecedented work because seldom did writers of his time start a literary work by narrating their own life experiences (Gutchess 1).
Nonetheless, since the Middle Ages, many writers have taken the cue and now follow Dante’s footsteps. Some of the medieval dream visions that exist today are diverse and may be sampled by Langlard’s Piers Ploughman, Wordsworth’s Prelude among other conventional literary writers.
The subject and inspiration of Inferno are all conceptualized in the first paragraph of the poem where the author lets the readers know he is about to narrate everything he saw in a vision (Alighieri 2). However, unique to Dante, the author does not talk about some superficial being, but himself. In other contexts, it can be analyzed that Dante speaks of his experiences in the vision as he personally witnessed it.
The subjectivity of this epic is unique when analyzed with other similar literary pieces of his time. For instance, classical poets normally talked about how certain beings sang to them or how certain supernatural forms of man or muses spoke to the authors; however, in Dante’s works, the muses are actually Beatrice Portinari and Virgil (Alighieri 3).
These two individuals guide Dante throughout the narration and unlike other literary pieces; they do not recite the poem. Some observers note that Beatrice and Virgil actually guide and teach Dante along the way but the author reports on the details of this encounter because he exposes what the two showed him during his trip through hell and the Garden of Eden.
However, Beatrice Portinari represents the author’s idea of a being with divine wisdom, but at the same time, she is the author’s partner in the sharing of courtly love. Dante first set eyes on Beatrice when he was still very young and when she died at the age of 25, Dante was inspired to write a novel about her in one of his works tiled: Vita Nuova (Gutchess 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, Inferno was written at a time when the author was working as a municipal officer in the city of Florence, and considering the poem has a lot of reference to religious principles, Christianity acted as the official background to the literary piece; a concept which other poets such as Plato have used in their works (Gutchess 3).
This is why Dante’s Inferno, ought to be openly understood that it was not written as a philosophical work but to enforce religious doctrines. In the same religious context, Dante introduces Inferno from the religious perception of Catholic’s Holy Thursday which is referred in other contexts as “the dark wood period” to signify a timeline just preceding Jesus’ crucifixion (Gutchess 3).
This background can also be equated to the spring equinox period where the sun shines from the constellation of Aries because in the same setting, Dante travels practically the whole Friday and throughout Saturday with Virgil. Nonetheless, from the religious context, Dante represents a framework of virtues, vices and morality from his personal view on morality and judgment.
Dante’s Moral Stand Dante’s stand on morality is represented from his perception of crimes done against God. Dante represents the contravention of God’s laws to persecution and agony which are characteristic of hell. He makes the readers understand that evil is a moral sin and it is regarded just like any type of sin because immorality is in contravention of the will of God; however, in the same regard, it is not possible to judge the will of God.
Conversely, Dante lets his readers know that an otherworldly hell would follow his representation of hell. His trip through hell, while in the company of Virgil, represents his allegorical representation of the hierarchy of pain and suffering associated with wrongful acts, and to a large extent, Dante represents the Old Testament teachings on morality and judgment which can be best represented through the “eye to eye” or “tooth to tooth” philosophy.
In this regard, Dante identifies certain moral offenders in Inferno who are depicted as serving punishments that befit the offences they committed, and in a way that reflects the nature of their sin. For example, Dante equates the moral sin of homosexuality to walking on hot sand. This is Dante’s way of pointing out that the moral sin of homosexuality directly befits the punishment of walking on hot sand.
Human suffering and subsequent judgment given to those who fail to observe God’s instructions is justifiable according to Dante. The type of punishment given for any moral sin does not therefore occur randomly because Dante observes that morality is judged from the most serious offences to the lightest. These variations are represented from Dante’s segmentation of hell to suit the different type of moral offenders.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Notes for Dante’s Works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, Trombley (cited in Gutchess 5) notes that: “In Dante’s view there are three major divisions of the circles of Hell, populated by those who give into their lesser instincts and desires, those that refuse God, and those that intentionally do harm to themselves or others by physical or deceptive means”.
In Dante’s perception of morality and punishment, it can be analyzed that under the issue of evil and God’s will, those who give in to their instincts and desires contravene God’s will and attract punishments that befit their moral sin while people who refuse the will of God and those who intentionally do harm to their neighbors, all manifest the levels of punishment and morality.
Virgil is seen as falling in the category of people who don’t have enough faith in God and this is why he was unable to guide Dante into the Garden of Eden. To a large extent, this can be seen as his punishment for not having enough belief in Christ.
In this regard, it is clearly evident that from Dante’s stratification of hell, he is able to show the level of misdeeds which warrants different levels of punishment. Through the same analysis, he is able to justify his perception of judgment. This explains why Dante comes out as a very perplexed individual; especially in the way he quantifies the degree of punishment.
For example, the stratification of hell explains why the moral sin of bribery was considered graver than the sin of murder as represented in the eight and sixth chronicles of hell. In the same manner, Dante considers acts of violence and murder as graver than acts of fraud.
In this example, the greatest moral sin that contravenes God’s will is fraud; which goes against God’s principles of mankind living in harmony. On the other hand, murder is in contravention of the love but fraud manifests as the biggest deprivation of love.
Moral Depictions In Inferno, Lucifer is often referred to as Satan and is depicted as the King of Inferno because his fall from heaven into earth created hell where he was imprisoned in. Lucifer’s multicolored face represents certain negative sentiments of hate, powerlessness, and deceit when contrasted to positive attributes advanced by the holy trinity. The triple aspect character of Satan is also representative of the three-faced aspect of paganism which was severally referred to in the novel.
When Lucifer flapped his wings, the tears of the sinners were frozen; meaning that they could not find any relief from their mourning and at the same time, greater populations of those who fell in this category (mourners) were treacherous people. This therefore means that treacherous people were associated with Satan because they deserved the same punishment because of the contravention of God’s will.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Notes for Dante’s Works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lucifer is also the representative being who exposes the importance of the state and the church to harmoniously coexist together because he is seen as the moral punisher of both church and political leaders. To illustrate this, Lucifer is quoted as chewing on Judas Iscariot (Jesus’ betrayer), Brutus and Cassius who committed atrocious acts of murder and betrayal; something which ironically Lucifer was supposed to reward them for (Gutchess 16).
In the poem, Lucifer is found on the roadway, but in heaven, he is seen as desiring what he cannot have, and in so doing, ignores the will of God. His contravention of the will of God is also the ticket that led to his casting from heaven into hell. Again, the will of God is hereby seen as the benchmark to morality because when Satan went against God’s will, when he desired that which he could not have, he was thrown down to hell.
In close resemblance to Lucifer is the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church who represented deceit and bribery. Boniface was the ruling pope at the time when Dante was writing his work.
He was the predecessor to Celestine V who abdicated in 1924; afterwards, the corruption and chaos Dante makes reference to, when referring to his town, Florence, began when the pope made a decree that his title as a pope was enough assurance that he had the authority to rule all of Italy. In this regard, he started committing moral sins which later saw his fall from his position as the pope.
One of his prominent moral sins was his backing of the Guelphs to take over Florence through the bribery of French military men to assist them. According to Dante’s perception of punishment for such atrocious acts committed by a servant of God, he makes reference to the pope as a de facto servant of God who was thrown into hell after he failed to heed to the rules guiding all servants of God. His destination in hell can be regarded as the punishment for his wrongful deeds on earth.
This fact is affirmed in the 8th circle where Dante points out that Boniface had a section in hell especially left for his occupation because if his poor moral example on earth (Gutchess 19). Boniface died in 1318 when Pope Benedict VI took the mantle as the pope of the Roman Church.
Importance of the Church and State’s Co Existence The leopard, lion, and she wolf represent three animals that were a hindrance to Dante’s chances of succeeding in Canto 1. These animals are representative of biblical animals like Daniel’s casting into the lion’s den and the she-wolf representation of the last days in the book of revelation.
Even though Dante avoids naming these animals in complete censorship, they can be analyzed in political terms as representing Florence, France and Papacy. Comprehensively, the leopard that was seen symbolizes Florence city, whereby back in 1300 AD it was deeply divided between the black and white Guelphs. This division is representative of the need of the state and church to coexist together.
The blacks can be perceived as proponents of the Pope’s quest to rule Italy (which is representative of the church’s will), while the White Guelphs were critics of such a move and represented the will of the state to control Florence. In this regard, they were supported by secular leaders. For the sake of their security from the pope; they had to go to extreme lengths to support secular leaders like Dante.
Nonetheless, Dante found it difficult to maintain peace between the two factions (in his capacity as a magistrate) and he therefore made enemies from both sides of the divide. As a resultant measure, he banned all Guelphs, who he thought were causing havoc, and in this process, he also banned his friend Guido Calavcanti too.
Unknown to Dante, the blacks came back with the backing of the pope while the novel’s narration during the spring of 1300 AD and its writing, three years down the line (when Dante was in exile) gives enough room for Dante to note that the prophecy of his exile was true.
The lion symbol represented France as an ally to the Pope; after they were bribed to support the blacks in the Florence conflict. The king of France thereafter reinstated the black Guelphs in the city of Florence and later tried Dante in his absence and vowed to kill him if he ever returned back into the city.
The she-wolf on the other hand represents Rome, which took control of the city of Florence in 1302 (Gutchess 18). During this period, Dante is exiled in an unknown foreign land because he feared for his life; considering he opposed the power of the pope while in Florence. Nonetheless, the symbol of the she-wolf can be best analyzed to represent Rome in its totality and also as the home of Virgil who happened to be one of the greatest poets of Rome.
In the analogy, the wolf is seen as preventing Dante from achieving the highest status of poetry in Rome. Lastly, the Greyhound symbol happens to represent Dante’s patron in Verona, through Can Grande Derlla Scalla, although ironically, Can Grande represents a gigantic dog; which may imply that Dante’s patron may probably be a domesticated wolf (Gutchess 19).
This use of biblical symbols can also be perceived as representative of the need to merge the state and the church since Dante uses them to explain political intrigues. Interestingly, these political intrigues also determine the biblical destination of some of the key players like the Pope who was sent to hell because of bribery and corruption.
Conclusion Dante uses many literary techniques such as symbolism, and character casting to best convey his perception of punishment and morality in Inferno. The 1300 AD setting of his literary piece and the religious connotation of his poems is a representation of the religious undertones related with morality and judgment.
The use of symbols is a more subtle manner of representing controversial opinions and Dante uses them tactfully to let his readers know his trail of thought. Nonetheless, Dante extensively uses religion (Christianity) to form his opinion on morality and punishment. Tactfully, he also uses his imagination about God’s opinion to advance his own opinion of morality and punishment.
In this manner, it is difficult for anyone to question his personal ethical system. Nonetheless, he bases his virtues and vices on religion and integrates it with his political experiences to present a belief system that also advances his personal thought. He also integrates the ancient virtues and vices associated with the Roman Empire to reflect on his political beliefs. These attributes therefore outline Dante’s framework of virtues, vices and morality in his work.
Works Cited Alighieri, Dante. The Inferno of Dante Alighieri. London: Forgotten Books, 1962. Print.
Gutchess. “Notes for Dante’s Inferno”. 2003. Web.
Russell and Lenore’s Essays Comparison argumentative essay help
Essays are a means by which many people have expressed their ideas on a host of issues. It is a means also that affords criticisms for leaderships and governments without necessarily engaging in unlawful acts. It is a means of communication that has been in existence ever since man had evolved to the capacity that he would communicate via writing (Greetham 67).
This paper considers different issues that are presented in two essays by different authors as a critique and a study of the central themes in them. For this paper, the essays that will be considered have been written by Russell Sanders and the other one has been written by Keeshig-Tobias where the humanistic perspective of manhood and womanhood and the relationships between and among them will be of interest in explaining how these genders interact as discussed by these authors in their respective essays.
The essence of manhood is treated differently by Russell Sanders and Lenore Keeshig-Tobias in their essays dubbed The Men we Carry in Our Minds and He was a Boxer respectively. The two writers examine the role of a man in different contexts. These include male to female relationships in a family perspective, the power dynamics between men and women in different social settings, societal expectations of a man and the challenges of living up to those expectations.
The role of man’s physical strength is contextually treated differently by Russell Sanders and Lenore Keeshig-Tobias. In Russell’s world, the man’s physical strength is used to advance the family’s economic security. However it is at the cost of his own physical health and emotional wellbeing.
He works long hours exposed to elements of weather by having to carry heavy loads and stand for long hours often sustaining physical injuries. In the evenings and weekends he toils on his land and mends broken roofs (Kay et al. 34). On the other hand, the women work at their own pace in a better environment. They cultivate their social lives around the different errands they have to run. Russell perceives the work dynamics to be in favor of the women. He says he would rather hold a baby that work at the machines.
On the other hand, in Lenore’s world, the man’s physical strength has being used to the detriment of the family’s emotional security. Lenore’s father a boxer uses his physical strength and boxing prowess to intimidate the women in his life. There is insecurity as both the mother and daughter as they cower at the sight of him (Kay et al. 335).
Russell wants to run from the roles and the expectations of manhood in his poor social setting. He finds the women’s world to be more comfortable and he dreads growing up to these manly roles in his society. He is caught between the two ideas of men in his social setups; the worriers and the toilers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The toilers work all the day long at the tiresome manual labor while the worriers work preparing them for war and eventual death. He doesn’t envy any on the roles. In contrast to Russell gender roles discordance, Lenore Keeshig-Tobias embraces the manly role and the societal expectations of the same.
This comes as surprising. Her drunkard father had often terrorized her and her mother (Kay et al. 390). Yet she makes excuses for him arguing that her mother must have had something to do with it. She hypothesizes that he is doing right.
She enrolls for boxing classes in a bid to understand his world. We see that Russell is running way from his duties as a man out of understanding of what awaits him. However Lenore is embracing the masculine world in order to understand her father and the world that he has forced her to live in.
The men in Russell’s and Lenore’s world confront manhood challenges in different ways. The failure to provide for one’s family is seen as a man’s failure in Russell’s world (Kay et al. 378). The men prevent this by working in deplorable conditions to earn a living. When they get home they work even more to mend broken roofs and till their own land.
They confront the challenges through physical work. In Lenore’s world the men run away from their challenges. Lenore’s father is driven into boxing and alcoholisms by the family strains. This explains his tantrums and physical abuse of his wife (Kay et al. 473).
Lenore Keeshi-Tobia’s father never graduated from college. This makes him ill prepared to confront the different family challenges that he is undergoing leading him to alcoholism. On the other hand education opens Russell’s eyes to the different dimensions of manhood. His perspectives had been limited to the manual laborers and their bosses.
Though television and encounter with male teachers he is exposed to men who work with their brains; the lawyers, the politicians etcetera. He has a change of heart from wanting to hold babies to become this kind of man. His female college-mates challenge him further on the gender roles (Kay et al. 287). He is exposed to the comfort and power of men in a higher social setting. The balance of power and comfort contrast to those of his social setup. In this set up the balance is titled in favor of men.
We will write a custom Essay on Russell and Lenore’s Essays Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Man to man relationship is treated differently in both works of Russell and Lenore. Lenore discusses his father taking his family problems to the boxing ring. This is often to the detriment of his male boxing opponents (Greetham 145). His driving force are personal and in contrast to the sportsmanship spirit.
On the other hand Russell examines the racial relationship between the black male convicts and the white male guards. The convicts are painted as miserable and working in deplorable condition. The guards are painted as being powerful. The bonnets of their guns are said to shine in the sun (Kay et al. 512). While the man in Lenore’s world is using his boxing prowess to dominate over his fellow man, in Russell’s world he is using the gun.
In both Russell and Lenore’s essays we find that man is often a victim of his social economic circumstances in his different social setting. The drive, attitude and perceptions of his acts can be digested form those perspectives. While the intensity of the man’s act may vary from man to man, they are often dictated by his environment (Greetham 145).
Works Cited Greetham, Bryan. How to Write Better Essays. 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Kay et al. Essay Writing for Canadian Students with Readings. 6th Ed. Toronto ON: Pearson Education Canada, 2007.
Temperament in Child Development Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The term temperament in psychology is used to refer to those facets of a person’s personality, for instance, extroversion and introversion, which are often deemed as intrinsic, rather than acquired from learning. There have been several classificatory schemes with regard to temperament but apparently, none has been approved in the field of academia. The historic perspective of temperament has it that, temperament was a section of the four humors’ theory, and it was believed that there were four temperaments.
The concept of temperament was very imperative in pre-modern psychology and was looked into by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, David W. Keirsey and Hermann Lotze (Klein 553). Temperament is assessed through certain unique behavioral profiles, with a focus on those that are easier to measure and test in early childhood.
Modern scientists have sought ways of establishing the relationship between temperament and character through the use of biological evidence. However, regardless of the fact that scientists have hypothesized that there is an association between temperament and biological factors, there have been difficulties in testing this association directly.
Discussion Parents will always observe that their children behave differently in similar situations. What may work out for one child may not work out for another. Temperament is this difference in behavior as well as in personality (Rothbart, Stephan and David 123).
Thomas and Chess have been two great researchers involved in the study of temperament through a description of nine characteristics of behavior in children. These characteristics are useful in describing children’s temperament or those stable, individual variations in activity level, self-regulation, attention and emotional reactivity (Rothbart, Stephan and David 123-125).
Personality is evaluated through an interaction of temperament traits with the surrounding environment. This interaction is very vital as it determines how a child values himself and others. Thomas, Cheese and others were the first to conduct the New York Longitudinal Study during the early 1950s in infant temperament (Rothbart 1-4). The study was on how temperamental qualities influence adjustment throughout one’s life cycle.
Thomas, Cheese and others made use of nine temperament characteristics to study how each of characteristic, by itself or in combination with another, affected child’s development in the context of school, home and friends. Behaviors for each trait are progressive, that is, each characteristic is on a scale that range from mild to intense.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It would be a cause of alarm if a child is inclined towards the high or low end of the scale. Redundancies were realized between the established categories leading to the development of a revised list that is frequently used by psychologists in today’s world (Rothbart 1-4).
Laboratory measures of fear, positive affect and anger have been used to predict temperament among the seven-year-olds but, attention has shown minimal stability since infancy. This can be associated with the relatively dwindled development of the executive attention system, whose development determines a child’s ability to control emotions, thoughts and behaviors.
The tendency of children to control activities governed by rewards leads to the prediction of greater success and emotional control in adolescence. Caspi and Silva (1995) implied that children, who portrayed a higher approach or confidence when they were only three to four years, indicated greater impulsive ability at age 18 and had a higher level of social potency.
Fearful children aged between 3 and 4 stayed away from harmful situations and possessed a lower score on social potency and aggression. Children between the ages of 3 to 4 with a higher tendency of distress proneness and who lacked attentional control were expected to manifest higher distress tendencies at age 18 (Sanson 142-150).
It is important to understand that most behavioral tendencies are innate and not a consequence of bad parenting as most people would presume. Examining of a child’s temperament is apparent in case the child shows bad behavior.
Interviews, observations and questionnaires are the tools used to measure the nine temperaments as suggested by Thomas, Cheese and others. These temperaments are measured while utilizing a spectrum that indicates mild to intense reactions in a continuous style. It is very important that parents understand their children’s temperaments and should work towards coping with these traits in their children instead of changing them (Kochanska 744-759).
The nine kinds of traits are compressed to form three basic kinds of temperaments. Around 65% of all children fall in one of three patterns; of these, 40% are deemed easy or flexible, 15% are within the range of slow to warm up (cautious) while the rest 10% are regarded to be difficult, feisty or active.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Temperament in Child Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other 35% of children indicate a combination of all these patterns. When parents understand these patterns, they will be able to tailor their parenting approach to suit the children’s needs with regard to expectation, discipline and encouragement (Center of Excellence 2-3).
Easy or flexible children are basically calm, sleep regularly, are happy, have regular eating habits, can adapt in a new environment with ease and are not easily upset (Oates, Andrew and Clare 172-173). Their easy traits create a need for parents to spare special periods to talk with the children about their hurts and frustrations because the child/ren will not instigate such a talk.
Children who are considered difficulty, feisty and active tend to be fussy during most times, will not sleep regularly and have very poor eating habits. They fear new people and situations, are easily upset by commotion and noise and respond to situations in an intense manner (Henig MM1). Children with such disorders ought to be provided with adequate room, where they can expend stored up frustrations and energy.
In addition, they require enough space so that they can exercise their freedom of choice. Cautious children are relatively fussy and inactive and are seen to react in a negative way, or withdraw from new situations.
However, their reactions become positive in a gradual process after continued exposure. Such a child should be placed on a routine program and should be given a lot of assurance as well. Adequate time is necessary for the child to adapt to new situations so that he or she can acquire independence that is necessary for him or her to unfold (Clakins, 1-6).
Temperaments are presumed to have relative stability since birth and are deemed as be enduring characteristics, which in reality can never be good or bad (Center of Excellence 2-3). The perception of these temperaments is what determines the perception by children of these temperaments as to whether they are bad or good.
Comprehending children’s temperaments is the most appropriate solution for parents rather than blaming themselves for their children’s normal temperaments. This understanding would enable parents to guide their children in the right way as they would learn to anticipate challenging situations that may present before their children (Oates, Andrew and Clare, 171-185).
When the environment, while taking into focus people’s expectations and demand, is compatible with a child’s temperament, then a goodness-of-fit is said to exist. Incompatibility exists when there is personality conflict. In early childhood, parents can cope with their children’s temperamental traits instead of opposing them. Later on when the children mature, parents can assist the children to adapt to the world by fitting in, in their temperamental traits (Howell 1-6).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Temperament in Child Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion A lot of children will possess some level of magnitude on various temperament traits. However, one trait will always be dominant. Negative labels such as lazy, cry baby or worrywart should not be used. The adult in a child’s life has a great influence on the development of the child’s temperaments. Therefore, adults should take up their parenting roles in an appropriate way that will positively guide the child’s natural style of reacting to the world.
Most scientists argue that temperament is associated with genetic and biological aspects despite the fact that environmental factors and maturations affect the way in which a child’s personality is expressed. The differences in child temperament are vital for family life as they govern the interactions that prevail in a family.
The goodness-of-fit is a critical determining factor of the relationship between a parent and his or her child. It determines the harmony between them. Temperament changes across the life cycle have been evident due to family environment and life experiences which influence one’s temperamental development process.
Early socialization of caregivers and their children and especially the use of the affective tone in these relationships have a very profound effect on the child’s developmental process. A caregiver influences a child’s developmental process by helping the child learn how to take charge of their behaviors and talk about their emotions. A child will develop more functional social and emotional interactions with his or her peers if a caregiver appropriately responds to a child’s emotional needs.
It is very important that a parent reacts to a child’s emotional upsets by acknowledging the child’s distress and comforting him or her rather than negating it. It is the interactions between caregivers and their children that affect how these children interact with others. A positive interaction with the caregiver will foster a positive interaction between the child and others, and the converse is also true.
The possession of temperaments by a child is a very normal process. However, the kind of temperament possessed is very important and a parent is the key determinant of this temperamental development process as he or she is the first person, who is in direct contact with the child.
Social and emotional readiness is equally important as it helps a child in making a successful transition through a kindergarten, early grades and later in life. Social competency and emotional readiness enable a child to achieve success in school as they are able to comprehend their own emotions and those of others. This way, they are able to relate well with others and understand what they want to achieve. Consequently, they are able to become successful in school and in later life years (Klein 552-556).
Concepts of the Role of Technology in Economic Development and the Process in Japan Term Paper writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Research and development
Legal frame work that support techno- economic environment
Introduction Perhaps the key prerequisite of economic development of a country is the hopefulness of a country to access to the technological advancement and innovations that seek to adapt this technological knowledge to the needs of marketplace for economic gains.
Most of the economically developed economies mostly are technology influenced; thus, the role of technology in economic development of a nation cannot be ignored. Technology is an intangible body of knowledge by which humans modify nature for the purpose of production process for an economic development. Technological advancement of a country minimizes cost, increases production efficiency, and creates the capacity for better living standards for its people (Technically Speaking, 2010, Para. 1).
Economic development can be defined as an increase in the per capita income of a country where the spending of its per capita income is on consumer durables and products related to leisure activities as opposed to much spending on basic needs such as food. Hence, a country with high per capita income and spends more on basic needs cannot be described as an economically developed county.
A major component of economic development is the citizen’s involvement in economic development process to revolutionize the basic structure of the economy of their country. However, foreign investment is in general unavoidable, for the increase in the real per capita income to be said as an economic development, the citizens of that country must play a part in the production process itself other than just enjoying the economic benefits because of increased per capita income.
Source: Ministry of internal Affairs and communications
Japan being one of the developed economies, with a per capita income of above $10,000 in the year 1985, it is important to discuss the role technology has played in its economic development.
Although other sectors have also such as Agriculture and other service activities have played a key role as it can be shown in the figure below which shows the economic contribution of each economic activity in the year 2008. Technology has enhanced more product production through increased technological efficiency, capital formation, research and development, intellectual property rights and good organizational techniques.
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Technological efficiency Technology has played a key role in revolutionalizing Japan’s production efficiency in both mining and manufacturing sectors. Japan Production process is carried out with the help of machines to produce more of it products, but with the advanced technological efficient production of more and more of its products for both domestic and export has been realised , resulting to the increase in its Gross Nominal Product.
It’s continuous increase in efficient methods of producing new products in the market, thus raising its national income , has resulted to its sustained economic development. The growth in productivity has come from changing methods of production and increase in efficient use of its resources.
This is one of distinguishing important factor for Japan economic turnround during the industrial revolution as more efficient organisational and production techniques were establishment and the take-off of new innovations (Sahu, 2006, Para .3-19).
Research and development Technological advancement of research and development has contributed to economic development of Japan. Since technology is a lifecycle which after a certain period of time it loses the economic value, Japan has been in the forefront to replace its technology with the newer ones to increase its product production frontiers through investment in research and development.
However, research and development has not been a smooth process, it has taken time before certain innovations diffuse in its economy where the most important technology had a modest impact at its initial stages. The full economic development potential of a new technology development can only be realized after the capability of the technology has been researched and developed.
Japan used their technology themselves and as the technology became cheaper and widely diffused which later translated to a reduced resources cost. In an estimate, research and development in automotive industry resulted to Japan economic growth of more than 10 percent in the year 1950 to 1960 as shown below on the graph (Ministry of internal Affairs and communications, 2008, Para. 1-4).
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The application of new technological ideas for example increased efficiency of Japan manufacturing industries, along with the cost accounting represents a rebirth of a new knowledge of scientific management, which has marked an increased rate of technological revolution to reorganize the industry based on improved efficiency for economic growth (Jurica,